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          IADC PEACE SUPPORT
          OPERATIONS SEMINAR
             Washington, D.C.
            20-29 January 2010
CMP/CPM




          PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS –
             LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS
                FOR DEPLOYMENT




                Major C.E. Thomas, CD1, M.A., LL.M
                Canadian Forces Military Law Centre
                    Canadian Defence Academy
   Peace support ops – legal considerations



OUTLINE

  Theme 2-2: IHL and Peace Support Ops (PSO)

  Theme 2-3: Protection of peacekeepers

  Theme 2-4: Legal framework governing
    peacekeepers




                                                          CMP/CPM
            CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
       CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
      Peace support ops – legal considerations




Theme 2-2: IHL and Peace Support Ops (PSO)



•   What is IHL
•   Concepts & Principles of IHL
•   When the PSO force is a party to the conflict
•   When the PSO force is not a party to the conflict
•   The need to incorporate IHL in deployment
    planning


                                                             CMP/CPM
               CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
          CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




WHAT IS IHL?

  • Jus ad bellum

  • Jus in bello




                                                          CMP/CPM
            CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
       CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
   Peace support ops – legal considerations




COMPONENTS OF IHL

  “Law of the Hague” – conduct of operations

  “Law of Geneva” – protection of persons not
    involved in hostilities




                                                          CMP/CPM
            CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
       CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




SOURCES OF IHL

  • Treaties

  • Customary International Law

     • uniform and consistent practice
     • Recognition by states that the practice is binding




                                                            CMP/CPM
            CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
       CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
   Peace support ops – legal considerations




THE “MARTENS” CLAUSE

  • Adopted at the 1899 Hague Convention

  • “…in cases not included in the Regulations …
    the inhabitants and the belligerents remain
    under the protection and the rule of the
    principles of the law of nations, as they result
    from the usage established between civilized
    nations, from the laws of humanity, and
    dictates of the public conscience.”
                                                          CMP/CPM
            CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
       CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF IHL

Three primary concepts:

   • Military necessity
   • Humanity
   • Chivalry




                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF IHL

Three “fundamental” principles:

   • Humanitarian principle
   • Principle of the Law of Geneva
   • Principle of the Law of the Hague




                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
       Peace support ops – legal considerations




CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF IHL

Four “operational” principles:

   •   Distinction
   •   Non-discrimination
   •   Proportionality
   •   Reciprocity



                                                             CMP/CPM
               CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
          CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
     Peace support ops – legal considerations




WHEN THE PSO FORCE IS A PARTY TO THE
 CONFLICT

IHL applies in two circumstances:

   • Mandated to conduct hostilities with
     opposing forces
   • PSO becomes engaged in hostilities to such
     an extent that a state of armed conflict exists


                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




WHEN THE PSO FORCE IS NOT A PARTY TO THE
 CONFLICT

  • Not subject to IHL
  • Even if involved in fighting
  • IHL probably will not apply to your particular
    PSO




                                                          CMP/CPM
            CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
       CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




WHEN THE PSO FORCE IS NOT A PARTY TO THE
 CONFLICT



   DOES NOT MEAN THERE IS NO LAW




                                                          CMP/CPM
            CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
       CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
     Peace support ops – legal considerations




WHEN THE PSO FORCE IS NOT A PARTY TO THE
 CONFLICT

Legal constraints:

   • National law
   • ROE
   • Secretary-General’s bulletin 6 August 1999



                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




THE NEED TO INCORPORATE IHL IN
  DEPLOYMENT PLANNING

  • Aim of PSO: restore peace and stability
  • Credibility of the PSO force
  • When the bullets fly it is too late to teach IHL




                                                          CMP/CPM
            CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
       CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




Theme 2-3: Protection of peacekeepers

   • Convention on Privileges and Immunities of
     the U.N.
   • UN Safety Convention (1994) & Optional
     Protocol (2005)
   • Geneva Conventions for Ch. VII missions




                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




Convention on Privileges and Immunities of the
  U.N. (1946)

   • U.N. officials:

      •   Immunity from legal process
      •   Exemption from taxation
      •   Immunity from immigration restrictions
      •   Same exchange facilities as diplomats




                                                             CMP/CPM
               CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
          CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
      Peace support ops – legal considerations



Convention on Privileges and Immunities of the
  U.N. (1946)

   • Experts on missions

      • Including military liaison & staff officers
      • Privileges and immunities required for independent
        exercise of their functions
      • Immunity from personal arrest
      • Immunity from legal process for words or acts in
        performance of their mission
      • Secretary-General may waive immunity

                                                             CMP/CPM
              CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
         CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
       Peace support ops – legal considerations



UN Safety Convention (1994)

Key provisions

   •   Art. 1 – definitions: UN Operation
   •   Art. 7 – duty to ensure safety
   •   Art. 9 – crimes against U.N. personnel
   •   Art. 15 – extradition of alleged offenders




                                                              CMP/CPM
                CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
           CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
     Peace support ops – legal considerations




Optional Protocol (2005)

Key provision

   Art. II – Applies protections of the Convention
     to:

   • Assistance in peace building
   • Emergency humanitarian relief

Not in force: only 20 signatures
                                                            CMP/CPM
              CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
         CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




Chapter VII Operations

   • Party to an armed conflict

   • Normal rules of IHL apply – codified in
     Geneva Conventions




                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
      Peace support ops – legal considerations




Theme 2-4: Legal framework governing
  peacekeepers

•   The problem of peacekeeper misconduct
•   SOFA
•   The U.N. response
•   Impunity?




                                                            CMP/CPM
              CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
         CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




The problem of peacekeeper misconduct

   • Democratic Republic of Congo 2004 – not the
     first example of misconduct
   • Bosnia in early 1990’s
   • East Timor early and late 1990’s
   • etc




                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




The problem of peacekeeper misconduct



   • Incompatible with mission

   • CREDIBILITY




                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
     Peace support ops – legal considerations




Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA)

Paragraph 47(b) UN Model SOFA

“Military members of the military component of the
  United Nations peace-keeping operation shall be
  subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of their
  respective participating States in respect of any
  criminal offences which may be committed by
  them in [host country/territory]”

                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
     Peace support ops – legal considerations




The U.N. response

Prince Zeid’s report 2005

   • Countries should be obliged to commit to
     exercising criminal jurisdiction
   • U.N. should use modern investigative
     techniques to gather evidence
   • Courts martial in situ
   • Improved training for troops

                                                            CMP/CPM
              CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
         CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




The U.N. response

DPKO Policy Paper 2004

   • Good analysis
   • Expressions of intent
   • Action?




                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




UN Response:

  • Presentation by J.-M. Guéhenno 31 May 2005
     • Investigations
     • Training
     • Prevention – out of bounds areas; requirement to
       wear uniforms; accountability of regional heads of
       office


  • SC mandates, e.g. Resolution 1769 (2007)


                                                            CMP/CPM
            CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
       CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




The U.N. response

   • Training has improved

   • Greater awareness of the problem

   • Training and discipline still an area of
     weakness



                                                           CMP/CPM
             CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
        CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
      Peace support ops – legal considerations




Peacekeepers accused of abuse in Haiti
Fri Nov 2, 2007 6:40pm GMT


UNITED NATIONS (Reuters) - More than 100 Sri
  Lankan peacekeepers have been accused of
  sexual exploitation and abuse in Haiti and will be
  sent home on Saturday, the United Nations said,
  in the latest sexual abuse scandal involving U.N.
  peacekeeping missions



                                                              CMP/CPM
                CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
           CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
Peace support ops – legal considerations




             IMPUNITY?



                                                      CMP/CPM
        CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
   CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
     Peace support ops – legal considerations




Responsibility still lies with Troop Contributing
  Nations:

   • U.S. example
   • NATO Policy on Combating Trafficking in
     Human Beings (2004)




                                                            CMP/CPM
              CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
         CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
    Peace support ops – legal considerations




Solutions

   • Apply national law

   • Discipline
      •   Issue orders
      •   Train the force
      •   Be prepared to act
      •   Investigate and punish offenders




                                                             CMP/CPM
               CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
          CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
     Peace support ops – legal considerations




Solutions (continued)

   • In the field

      • Local intelligence
      • Out of bounds areas
      • Vigilance - patrolling




                                                            CMP/CPM
              CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
         CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
   Peace support ops – legal considerations




SUMMARY

  • International Humanitarian Law
  • Legal protection for peacekeepers
  • Legal framework – misconduct is a national
    responsibility




                                                          CMP/CPM
            CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
       CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES
Peace support ops – legal considerations




           QUESTIONS




                                                      CMP/CPM
        CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE
   CENTRE DE DROIT MILITAIRE DES FORCES CANADIENNES

				
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