Bergman by qingyunliuliu


									                         European comission

 Hirschman Mobility Among
Academics of Highly Ranked
  EU Research Universities

  Regional innovation and growth:
Theory, empirics and policy analysis
Pécs, Hungary, March 31-April 1, 2011

      Edward M. Bergman
          AND REGIONAL


SPATIAL: Uni-to-Uni   SECTORAL: Uni-to-Market
(academic mobility)      (commercialization)

                      Academics„      University
                      Attempts        Mandates

•   Knowledge Flows, ERA and Mobility
•   Hirschman„s Unis
•   Mobility and Knowledge Flows
•   Mobility Factors
•   ERA-only Mobility
•   Conclusions
    European Research Area and Mobility
•   The EC Communication of January 2000 'Towards a European Research
    Area' identified increasing the number of mobile researchers in Europe

                                                                                     European Research Area (EC, 2008)
                                                                                     A more research-intensive and integrated
    as a central objective of constructing the ERA. The Communication also
    advocated the introduction of a European dimension to scientific
•   In April 2007, the European Commission Green Paper on the European
    Research Area reconfirmed these two areas of action as important for the
    realisation of a European Research Area: a high level of mobility of
    researchers between countries and institutions and a full opening of
    academic research positions across Europe.
•   In 2008, the EC Communication on mobility and careers [182] proposed the
    development of a partnership with Member States to ensure that
    researchers across Europe could benefit from attractive careers and
    from the removal of barriers to their mobility (including the introduction of
    systematic open recruitment of European researchers). p. 119.
•   The report also stressed the need for a free circulation of knowledge
    across Europe and beyond, a circulation of knowledge without barriers. In
    2007, the Green Paper on ERA and public consultation reconfirmed the
    importance of free circulation of knowledge across Europe, in the
    sense of collaboration in the production of science and technology and
    open access to scientific products, effective knowledge transfer between
    public research and industry as well as with the public at large and, finally,
    exploiting knowledge produced outside Europe. p. 126
members of an organization, whether a
business, a nation or any other form of
human grouping, have essentially two
possible responses when they perceive
that the organization is demonstrating a
decrease in quality or benefit to the
member: they can exit (withdraw from the

or, they can voice (attempt to repair or
improve the relationship through
communication of the complaint,
grievance or proposal for change)

where there is loyalty to the organization,
exit may be reduced, especially where
options to exit are not so appealing (small
job market, political or financial hurdles to
emigration or moving)
                                                           Hirschman, Albert O. (1970): Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States.
     A.O. Hirschman„s Unis & Mobility
          Exit (Mobility), Voice and Loyalty
• Institutions in transition (e.g., EU Unis) can retain
  Loyally-satisfied or otherwise immobile staff; the
  signals necessary for improvement of unsatisfactory
  conditions come from Voice or Exit activists.
• Voice arises from academics who elect to stay and
  attempt to reform the institution from within, perhaps
  leading to eventual improvement. So long as Voice
  is seen as effective, exit is deferred. ProvostVoice,
  however, could provoke exit when it obstructs Voice.
• Exit is the last choice made by those who see the
  likelihood or pace of improvements will not benefit
  them. For academics, this requires mobility to
  another university and—often in Europe—to another
  country or to other continents as well.
         Evidence of Academic Mobility
        and Knowledge Flows in Europe
Austria          7 (plus 7)   IAREG Web-surveys of University Academics
Belgium          7
Czech            1
Denmark          4              Shanghai Top 500 European Universities
Finland          6                   (215 total: DE, EN, ES, FR, IT)
France*          23
Germany          40                           x6 disciplines/uni
Greece           2
                                 Biological sciences   BOHR                 Physics
Hungary          2               Chemical engineering PASTEUR      Computer Science
Ireland          3               Economics            NORTH                  History
Italy            22
Netherlands      12                x3 faculty members/dept.   (including dept. director)
Poland           2
                                           1798 respondents (20.1%)
Portugal         2
Slovenia         1
Spain            9
Sweden           11
Switzerland      8 (plus 4)                                                IAREG 7
United Kingdom   42
        Exit and Destination Models
• Examine key mobility (exit) questions: „Assuming certain
  improvements in important career or living conditions were
  met, I would consider a different university post...“ any of 5 continental regions, or combinations thereof
       ....where important career or living improvements would support
  the favorable consideration of a post in a new region (14 conditions)

• Explanatory variables

     ....Hirschman Voice and Loyalty

     ....Academic activity

     ....Academic controls
Independent Variables, definitions and hypothesized signs
               Hirschman Variables                             Control Variables
-Tenure:       Number of years at present post                           Physics
-Vintage:      Number of years since terminal degree                      History
-Voice:        Influence of academics on uni-governance              Economics
+ProvostVoice: Influence of administrators on uni-governance            CompSci
                Academic/Demographic Variables                              Spain
 +PostDegMob: 6+ months in different post after graduation              Portugal
 +ClassLoad:    Teaching load in last 2 years                             Poland
 +PeerRevPubs: Peer-reviewed publications last 2 years              Netherlands
 +Gender:       Male                                                         Italy
 ?CollabProj:   Research project w/Industry-funded collaborators          Ireland
 -Commerce:     Attempted commercialization of findings/skills          Hungary
 ?PubSvs:       Non-compensated public service                           Greece
 +SciPubs:      Peer-reviewed scientific publications from research    Germany
 -PolPubs:      Client-sponsored reports, policy memoranda, etc.          France
      (Yes/No logistic regression: n=1606)

                                             Hirschman confirmed…
• Years post held (-)
• Vintage of degree/year graduated (-)
VOICE (in commercialization governance):
• Own voice influential (-)
• ProvostVoice influential (+)

DEMOGRAPHIC: PostDegMob (+), Gender (+)

  UK (+) / I (-)
Disciplines: Economics (-)
  “Would you accept                                   No
  a university post in
   a different region,                  N=1708
  assuming improved
      conditions?”                                               Under which Condition(s)?
                                                                „Important career or living improvements that
     “Assuming certain                                        would support the favorable consideration of a
improvements in important
                                                           post in a new region are“ (select 3 most important)
 career or living conditions
                                                                                                   Significant increase in salary
were met, I would consider a
    university post in”:                                                 Promotion to a higher or permanent university position

                         Austral                                                                      Better working conditions
                                   Where To?                                                Ability to work in language(s) I know

                                                                                         More prestigious university or institute

                                                                                   Fewer teaching and instructional obligations
  Europe                                      Asia
                                                                                     Less pressure for research and publication
  only                                                                Stronger faculty colleagues and networks in my discipline
                                                                        More intellectually engaged/ better trained student body
                                               (54)                 Equivalent or better pension and/or health benefits available

                                                                                Greater opportunities for pursuing my research
                                                                                        Better living situation for me/ my familiy
Focus       North                    South
           America                  America
                     Mixed                                 Improves opportunities to work with firms or research organizations
                     (714)          Base case (multinomial logit)             Fewer obligations in administration or committees
 Graphic 1. Is the number of potential exit destinations
           related to destination conditions?



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Destinations 1 2 3 4 5
 Percent 40.00%
 Specific 30.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       552                            (all but 40 EU-only)
          10.00%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       381
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  62   62
                   Research Opportunities
                                            Higher Salary
                                                                        Family/Self QOL
                                                                                          Less Admin.

                                                                                                        Better Work Conditions
                                                                                                                                 Stronger Colleagues
                                                                                                                                                       High Prestige Uni
                                                                                                                                                                           Stronger Students

                                                                                                                                                                                               Less Teaching
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Language Pref.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Firm Contacts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Soc. Benefits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Less PubPress

        More interesting, which of these conditions are likely to
        affect the possible destinations of mobile academics?
  resources are
   important to                            “…in research universities, quality of colleagues
                                           and of students is even more critical to attract
 qualified mobile                          new excellent people. In research universities,
    academics                              teaching load is also important. It's quasi-
                                           impossible to both do cutting-edge research and
                                           be an excellent teacher when the teaching load
                                           of a professor is close to 200 hours per year.
                                           The quality of the infrastructure is also very

                                           In the end, however, salaries still play a big role.
                                           They reflect the value that is given to a
  Jean-Claude Latombe,                     professor's work. Over time, low salaries are
   professor at Stanford                   demoralising, because they send a signal to the
    University's Artificial                professors (even if they love their work) that they
  Intelligence Laboratory.                 are not highly valued. Higher salaries encourage    people to challenge themselves, precisely to
       researchers/article-181199          justify their salaries.”
                                         • Does the university set its own curriculum?
    autonomy, and                        • Does the university select its own students
                                         or is there centralized allocation?
competitive conditions
 are also important to                   • To what extent does the university select its
                                         own professors?
 qualified academics
                                         • How much does the state intervene in
                                         setting wages?

                                         • Are all professors with the same seniority
                                         and rank paid the same wage?

                                         • Does the university's budget need to be
                                         approved by the government?

                                         • What share of the university's budget
                                         comes from core government
    Phillipe Aghion, professor of        funding?
  economics at Harvard University
       Aghion, Dewatripont, Hoxby,       • What share comes from research grants for
       Mas-Colell and Sapir (2009).
                                         which the university must compete?
                Multinomial Logit
               Outcome Variables

      Europe                                                         Asia


                                                                   Total Exit

               North America                       South America
 Principal                     Mixed
Comparison                     (714)

            Exclusive Loyalty to ERA?
           A Global Mobility Comparison
           multinomial logistic regression/rrr: n=1204
    relative risk ratio (rrr): <1 favors „Mixed“ base; >1 favors ERA-Only; >1 favors no-ERA)

           • Improved research opportunities (ERA-only 0.7x)
                 • Reduce teaching burdens (ERA-only 0.7x)
                 • Improved salary objective (ERA-only 0.6x)
     • Stronger, more challenging colleagues (ERA-only 0.6x)
        • Stronger, better prepared students (ERA-only 0.6x)
                      • Prestige of new post (ERA-only 0.5x)
                                       • National Uni Systems (UK: ERA-only 0.4x
                         •   Disciplines (History, CompSci, Biology: ERA-only 0.4x)

•     Tenure: ( NO-ERA 1.03)
•     Greece: ( NO-ERA 16.7)                                       Improved benefits and reduced
                                                                   teaching load also favored base
                                                                   case, but each lacked definitive
• Hirschman„s Loyalty and Voice variables are shown to
  significantly reduce Exit mobility, while ProvostVoice
  provokes exit, as hypothesized. Important university
  governance policy issues do affect academic mobility.
• Two significant academic variables--male or
  previously mobile respondents—are likelier to Exit .
  (Several national university and three discipline controls also
  proved significant.)

• Mobility within ERA (European Loyalty) is conditional:
  mobile respondents seek key conditions that could
  result in exit from ERA. May provide a focus for more
  effective ERA policies.

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