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					        Chapter 1
 Looking at Computers:
Understanding the Parts
Computer Defined
   Computer — a multipurpose (electronic)
    device that gathers input, processes data,
    stores data, and produces output.
Data vs. Information
   Data: Representation of a fact, figure, or idea
   Information: Representation of a fact, figure,
    or idea organized in a meaningful fashion
Bits
   Bits – binary digits – numbers using a base 2
    number system (binary number system)
       Building block for complex data representations
         By grouping bits together, computers create sequences that
          represent numbers, letters, pictures, music, and more
       Computers circuits can operate in two states (on and off)
         The on state is represented with a 1
         The off state is represented with a 0
             01110001   (8 bits = 1 Byte)
 Quantifying Bytes
Name              Abbreviation         Bytes                 Relative Size
Byte              B                    1 byte                1 character
Kilobyte          KB                   1,024 bytes           ½ double spaced
                                                             paper typed text
Megabyte          MB                   Approximately 1       768 pages typed
                                       million bytes         text
Gigabyte          GB                   Approximately 1       Stack of paper
                                       billion bytes         262 feet high
Terabyte          TB                   Approximately 1       Stack of paper 51
                                       trillion bytes        miles high
Petabyte          PB                   Approximately 1       Stack of paper
                                       quadrillion bytes     52,000 miles high
Exabyte           EB                   Approximately 1       Stack of paper 52
                                       quintillion bytes     millions miles high
Zettabyte         ZB                   Approximately         Stack of paper 52
                                       1sextillion bytes     billion miles high
            Kb (Kilobit), Mb (Megabit), Gb (Gigabit), Tb (Terabit)
Application vs. System
Software
   Application Software
       Is a set of program that helps a person carry out a
        task
           Word processor, games, video editing software
   System Software
       Primary purpose is to help the computer system
        monitor itself in order to function efficiently
           Controls and Coordinates Computer Operations
               Operating System
Computer Hardware
Personal Computer System
   Hardware – electric, electronic, and
    mechanical devices used for processing data
    (physical components of a computers).
       Accessory hardware items are often referred to as
        peripheral devices
           Technically, any device that is not housed within the
            CPU.
       Monitor? Keyboard? Mouse? Modem?
   Software
Basic Input Devices
   Keyboard
       Qwerty vs Dvorak
       Specialty keyboards
   Pointing Device
       (manipulate pointer)
       Mice (optical vs mechanical),
        trackballs, pointing sticks
        (laptop), track pads (laptops),
        and joysticks
   Touch screens
   Stylus
       Tablet PC
   Scanner
   Digital camera
   Microphone
   Digital Pens
        Display Devices
   Graphics card
       Controls resolution
           Pixels
               800 x 600
           Color depth
           Dot pitch (dp)
           Refresh rate
   CRT, LCD, Plasma
       vis (viewable image size)
           13” to 21”
       Viewing angle width


   Touch Screens and
    Projectors
        Printers
   Impact Printers
       Dot Matrix
   Non-impact Printers
       Ink jet
           Nozzle like print heads
           Good color images
       Laser
           Similar technology as a
            copier
               Toner
           Good for high volume
               Resolution for photos behind
                inkjet
   Specialty Printers
       Multi-function, plotters,
        thermal printers

       (Hard Copy)
Printers
   Printer features
       Resolution           Duplex capability
       Print speed          Memory
                                 Printer Control Language
       Duty cycle
                                 PostScript
       Operating costs
                             Networkability
Outputting Sound
   Speakers and headphones
System Unit
   Contains components of the computer
       Motherboard
       CPU
       RAM
       Expansion cards
       Power supply
       Storage devices
       Drive Bays
           Internal/External
       Ports
Power Button
   Hard Boot – Cold Boot
       Power Button
   Soft Boot – Warm Boot
       Reset Button
       Control-Alt-Delete for Task Manager
   Sleep/Hibernation
Hard Disk Drive
   Permanent (nonvolatile) storage
   Internal or external versions
Flash Drives/Flash Memory
   Flash drives (jump
    drives)
       Newer storage
        alternative
       Plug into USB ports
   Flash memory cards
       Slide into slots in the
        system
Storage Media Capabilities
Ports
   Ports for peripherals
   Types of ports:
       Serial and parallel
       Audio and video
           S-Video/DVI/HDMI
       USB
       FireWire
       Connectivity
           Ethernet
           Modem
The Motherboard
   CPU
       “Brains”
   RAM
       Stores program and
        data
       nanoseconds
   Expansion cards
    and slots
       Sound, video,
        network, modem
   Built-in components
Specialized Computers
   Mainframes
       most widely used by large businesses
       Multi-user System / centralized data storage,
        processing, and management
   Super Computers
       largest, fastest, most powerful & most
        expensive
       massively parallel processors /used for
        research
           Modeling weather, simulating nuclear explosions,
            breaking codes
   Microcontrollers
       special-purpose microprocessor that is
        built into the machine it controls
           Microwaves, Washer machines, Refrigerators,
            Vehicles
Ergonomics
   science of designing the job, equipment, and
    workplace to fit the worker
       Safety, prevent injuries (Repetitive Stresss
        Injuries--RSI)
       Proper posture
       Take breaks
       Adequate lighting
Ergonomics and Mobile
Devices
 Mobile devices present ergonomic challenges
 Ergonomic “Disease”                           Cause
Blackberry thumb       Thumb typing without breaks or stretching can cause
                       DeQuervains’ tendinitis in the thumbs.
iPod deafness          Listening through ear buds for prolonged periods at a
                       volume of 80 decibels or more can cause deafness.
Cellular blindness     Extended viewing on tiny screens can cause eye
                       strain and/or dry eyes.
Laptop thighs          Resting a laptop directly on your lap for extended
                       periods of time can result in 1st and 2nd degree burns.
Laptop shoulder        Large, heavy, one-strap laptop bags can result in
                       neck, shoulder, and back pain and/or strain.
Ethical Computing Guidelines
   Avoid causing harm to others when using computers.
   Do not interfere with other people’s efforts at accomplishing work with
    computers.
   Resist the temptation to snoop in other people’s computer files.
   Do not use computers to commit theft.
   Agree not to use computers to promote lies.
   Do not use software (or make illegal copies for others) without paying
    the creator for it.
   Avoid using other people’s computer resources without appropriate
    authorization or proper compensation.
   Do not claim other people’s intellectual output as your own.
   Consider the social consequences of the products of your computer
    labor.
   Only use computers in ways that show consideration and respect for
    others.
Emerging Technologies
   FOLED
   Wearable Screens

				
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