Here are the keys for most of the tasks in the book. The numbers indicate:
6/2 (6 = page, 2 = exercise)
On page 21 the keys for Appendix 1 – Test your grammar start.
On page 24 the keys for Appendix 2 – Vocabulary exercises start.
3. Truck (lorry)
1. gravel road
16. main road
17. paved road
P1: Motorway driving
P2: Motorways are safer
P3: Joining a motorway
P4: Getting off the motorway
P5: Breaking down on a motorway
P6: Lane discipline
13/3 & 4
1. Slip road - for approaching
2. Acceleration lane - for speeding up/accelerating/increasing the speed
3. Inside lane - for driving at a steady speed
4. Overtaking lane - for overtaking
5. Central reservation - divides the two carriageways
6. Hard shoulder - for emergencies
7. Deceleration lane - for decreasing the speed/slowing down/decelerating
8. Exit - for leaving the motorway
9. Carriageway – each of the two halves of the motorway
Motorways are safer because:
•… travelling in the same direction
•… restricted to certain users
•… pedestrians, cyclists and other users
•… oncoming traffic
•… wide, straight and well-marked
On a motorway you:
•… cross the central reservation
•… drive in the wrong direction
•… for drivers on the acceleration lane
•… mirrors alone
•… you are overtaking
•… in the deceleration lane
1. Wild animals.
2. Quayside or river bank
3. Road narrows on both sides
15/2 & 3
1. Harsh acceleration.
2. Human error.
3. Turned to the left (into the kerb).
5. You must stop.
6. Leave the crossing clear.
•white with black lettering, blue
•inform roadway users of traffic laws or regulations
•(prohibitive or compulsory)
•speed limit, turn right
•white with black lettering
•warn motorists of existing or potentially dangerous conditions
•direction and information signs
•square or rectangular
•yellow, blue or green
You should … give way to traffic on the major road.
2. This road marking indicates … the centre line.
3. You must … … not cross double white lines.
4. You must … … not cross the solid line if it is on your side.
1. It is prohibited … for pedestrians.
2. You must … turn left ahead.
3. You must … give way to traffic on the major road.
4. You must … stop and give way.
5. It is prohibited … for motor vehicles.
6. It is prohibited … for vehicles.
7. You must enter … the mini roundabout.
8. It is prohibited … to cycle.
9. You must … go ahead only.
10. You must not … turn right.
11. You must … keep left.
You should drive carefully because…
1. … there are road works.
2. … the road is slippery.
3. … children are going to or from school.
4. … there is a steep hill.
You should pay attention because …
5. … there is a crossroads.
6. … there is a roundabout.
7. … the road is uneven.
8. … there is a cycle route.
Because … you ought to slow down.
9. … the road narrows on both sides …
10. … there are traffic lights ahead …
Because … you ought to reduce your speed.
11. … there is a pedestrian crossing ahead …
12. … two way traffic is ahead …
Van: engine-powered, 4 wheeled, for people, steered, public transport, personal vehicle.
Taxi: engine-powered, 4 wheeled, for people, steered, public transport.
Truck: engine-powered, for heavy goods, steered.
Bicycle: for people, steered, personal vehicle.
Trailer: for heavy goods.
Motorcycle: engine-powered, for people, steered, personal vehicle.
Semi-trailer: engine-powered, for heavy goods.
Double-decker: engine-powered, 4 wheeled, for people, steered, public transport.
registration plate, exhaust pipe
1. Because energy conversion is totally clean.
2. Because friction losses are reduced and efficiency is improved.
3. The problem will be to find a cheap, practical and of course clean source of energy.
4. Battery vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and solar powered vehicles.
5. Initial cost is very high and batteries are big and heavy.
6. In 1932.
7. Hydrogen and oxygen.
9. Conversion efficiency of only 20%, they are so expensive, there is a need for a direct
Convert electricity to mechanical energy
Improve the efficiency
Recycle some of the kinetic energy
Plug your car into an electrical socket
Produce the electricity in batteries
Introduce an idea
Charge electric cars' batteries
Some other options are possible
In 1712 the first steam engine was built by Thomas Newcomen.
In 1755 the first steam engine was installed to pump water in the US.
In 1763 the Newcomen engine was made more efficient by James Watt.
In 1804 the first steam locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick.
In 1825 the first public railroad was opened in England.
In 1831 the first railroad explosion was caused by a fireman.
In 1857 the Slovene territory was crossed by a train for the first time.
In 1870 the first major tunnel was completed through the Alps.
In 1879 the electric engine was invented in Germany.
In 1881 the public electric railroad was opened near Berlin.
In 1885 the first transcontinental railway link was completed across the US.
In 1890 the first electric subway was opened in London.
In 1913 the diesel engine was constructed in Germany.
In 1940 the steam engine was replaced by the diesel engine.
In 1964 209 kph were reached by Japanese passenger trains.
In 1981 260 kph were achieved by TGV between Paris/Lyon.
In 1994 the Channel Tunnel was opened between France/England.
In 1996 248 km/h were reached by Maglev in Florida.
In 2000 the Pendolino, a tilting train, was introduced between Ljubljana/Maribor.
In 2001 a direct railway link was established between Slovenia/Hungary.
In 2003 the speed record of 581 kmph was broken in Japan
•a wide range OF car types
•designed specifically FOR the handling
•transport OF individual goods
•Some OF these cars
•FOR the carriage of
•railway carriage WITH a sliding door
•heavily insulated FOR the carriage OF perishable goods
•carriage WITH a roof or sides used FOR the carriage OF huge cargoes
•FOR oil and other liquids
•used FOR the carriage OF ore
•IN the early 1960s
•AT the same time
•the beginning OF intermodal transport
•the carriage OF goods
•a combination OF AT least two modes OF transport IN the same transport chain
•part OF the journey
•made BY road
•made BY rail or sea
•picked up AT a warehouse
•loaded IN a container
•taken BY road
•is loaded ON a wagon
•closest TO the final destination
•AT this terminal
•is transferred FROM the wagon TO a road trailer
•delivered directly BY road
•is notified IN advance ABOUT the time OF arrival
•IN the future
•carriage OF freight
•IN several ways
•The most significant OF these
•moving large volumes OF bulk
•the handling OF large volumes
•large volumes OF containers
•BY “piggyback” trains
•according TO the “just-in-time principle”
•AT the defined hour
1 and 2
•open-top car (minerals or ore), boxcar and its derivative the refrigerator car (perishable
frozen and chilled goods), flatcar (huge cargoes), tank car (oil and other liquids), hopper car
(ore, coal, and other bulky material), and the container car (containers).
•the carriage of goods through a combination of at least two modes of transport in the same
•move large volumes of bulk commodities, handle large volumes of containers by
“piggyback” trains, and deliver according to the “just-in-time principle”.
•catch up with
•fed up with
•look forward to
•ran out of
Can you tell me where the information office is?
Are there any group discounts?
Can I ask you where I can leave my baggage?
Can you also tell me where the toilets are?
TOC: Hello. What can I do for you.
T: I’d like to purchase a return ticket to Madrid.
TOC: When would you like to leave?
T: On 25 June. In the morning.
TOC: Which class, Sir?
T: Second class, please. Can you tell me the fare?
TOC: Certainly, it would be 100 Euro.
T: Do you have any student discounts?
TOC: Yes, we do, but you must show me your student card.
T: Here you are. What about group discounts?
TOC: And how many people are travelling together?
T: There are four of us.
TOC: Yes, the discount would be 10% in that case.
T: Can you also tell me the departure platform and time, please?
TOC: Your train leaves on 25th June at 8 a.m. from platform 9b.
T: Thank you, good-bye.
Is it possible to leave our baggage here? How much would it cost?
What are your opening hours?
Can you tell me where the luggage lockers are.
And how much do they cost?
Can I also ask where I can find a luggage trolley.
I’d like to exchange Euro into zloty. Can you tell me the exchange rate, please?
Do you charge any commission?
Can I have smaller banknotes, please?
•Many bananas (C)
•Much bulk cargo (UC)
•Many cars (C)
•Much cattle (UC)
•Many chemicals (C)
•Many chilled goods (C)
•Much coal (UC)
•Much coffee (UC)
•Much corn (UC)
•Much cotton (UC)
•Much dry bulk cargo (UC)
•Many frozen goods (C)
•Much fruit (UC)
•Much grain (UC)
•Much iron ore (UC)
•Many juices (C)
•Many oil derivatives (C)
•Much paper (UC)
•Many perishable goods (C)
•Many refrigerated containers (C)
•Much rice (UC)
•Much salt (UC)
•Much soya (UC)
•Many standard containers (C)
•Much sugar (UC)
•Much timber (UC)
•Many vegetables (C)
•Much wine (UC)
•Bulk cargo terminal
•Dry bulk cargo terminal
•General cargo terminal
•Liquid cargo terminal
36/6 & 7
Clean, Conserve, Deconserve, Dismantle
BULK CARGO TERMINAL
Handle, Load, Mix, Separate
Strip, Stuff, Repair, Reload
GENERAL CARGO TERMINAL
Bag, Discharge, Palletise, Pack
DRY BULK CARGO TERMINAL
•Dry bulk cargo
Fumigate, Distribute, Discharge
Label, Manipulate, Handle, Store
Dry, Manipulate, Load
LIQUID CARGO TERMINAL
Reload, Mix, Handle
Feed, Lodge, Inspect
•Mobile container cranes
•Handle heavy cargoes
•Covered storage area
barge-carrying ship - barges
container ship - containers
cruise ship - passengers
bulker - bulk cargo
ferry - passengers and their cars
general cargo ship - general cargo
ro-ro ship - wheeled cargo
tanker - oil and other liquids
LPG carrier - liquefied petroleum gas
Paragraph 1: Introduction
Paragraph 2: General cargo ships
Paragraph 3: Bulk carriers
Paragraph 4: Container ships
Paragraph 5: Auto carriers
Paragraph 6: Tankers
Paragraph 7: Fishing vessels
Paragraph 8: Oil industry vessels
Paragraph 9: Passenger ships
Paragraph 10: Ferry boats
Paragraph 11: Tow and tug boats
Paragraph 12: Barges
Paragraph 13: Specialised ships
The Bill of Lading is a document giving details of goods shipped, the vessel on which the
goods are consigned and the name of the consignor and the consignee. Bills of Lading are
normally sent ahead of the ship and give proof of the title to the consignor.
1994 Airbus A300-A600ST first flight
1945 Atomic bombs
1927 Charles Lindbergh
2000 Concorde crash near Paris
1935 Douglas DC-3
1909 Edvard Rusjan – Eda I
1969 First supersonic passenger flight
1919 First transatlantic flight
1783 Hot-air balloon
1937 Jet engine
1947 Sound barrier
1903 Wright brothers
1991 “Stealth” aircraft
A, the, a, the, the, the, the, the, the.
A, the, /, /, the.
The, the, the, the, the.
A, the, the.
International airports HANDLE flights between countries.
Domestic airports HANDLE commuter and regional flights.
General aviation airports HANDLE propeller-driven business, charter and private planes.
Military airfields HANDLE military planes and helicopters.
The airport identification of JKIA is HKNA, NBO.
The airport identification of LJ airport is ICAO-LJLJ, IATA-LJU.
The JKIA is located 18 km to the East of Nairobi City.
LJ airport is located 26km to the North-West of Ljubljana.
The runway designation at JK is 06/24.
The runway designation at LJLJ is 31/13.
Runway length and width
JK has a 4,117 metre long by 45 metre wide runway.
JK has a 3,300 metre long by 45 metre wide runway.
The taxiway system at JK includes a parallel taxiway, link taxiways, connecting taxiways, and
The taxiway system at LJLJ includes 5 taxiways.
Stands at the passenger apron
The capacity offered by the current apron at JKIA configuration is a total of 22 stands.
The capacity offered by the current apron configuration at LJLJ is a total of 13 stands.
Freight terminal facilities
The facility has an export and import area measuring 85,720 sq.ft.
The facility has an export and import area measuring 4000 m2.
JKIA is served by over 32 scheduled passenger airlines and 10 scheduled all freighter airlines.
LJLJ is served by 10 scheduled airlines.
In 2002 aircraft movements at JKIA amounted to a total of 52,241.
In 2002 aircraft movements at LJLJ amounted to a total of 28,571.
In 2002 passenger movements at JKIA amounted to a total of 3,291,000.
In 2002 passenger movements at LJLJ amounted to a total of 873,000.
In 2002 cargo movements at JKIA amounted to a total of 112,066.
In 2002 cargo movements at LJLJ amounted to a total of 12,021.
•present your flight ticket, passport and baggage.
•put your luggage on a conveyor belt
•you are given a boarding pass
•proceed to the ‘airside’
•you are asked for your ticket and passport
•put all metallic and portable items in the basket
•place your hand-baggage on the conveyor belt
•go through the metal detector
•go to a duty-free goods shop
•you are asked for your passport and boarding pass
•you are allowed to board the plane
ATM (where money can be withdrawn).
Bank (where money can be exchanged).
Bar/cocktails (where passengers can have a drink).
Bookstore (where books can be bought).
Car rental (where cars can be rented).
Chapel (where passengers can pray).
Coffee shop (where passengers can have coffee).
Directory (where information can e found).
Elevators (where passengers can ascend or descend a floor).
Escalators (where passengers can ascend or descend a floor).
Food (where passengers can have lunch or buy a snack).
Ground transportation (where trains and busses can be found).
Ice cream store (where ice cream can be bought).
Information booth (where information is given).
Lost and found (where lost items can be reported).
Police (where police can be found).
Post office (where mail can be sent).
Restrooms (where passengers can get refreshed).
Retail shop (where retail items can be bought).
Shoeshine (where shoes can be polished).
Smoking booths (where passengers can have a cigarette).
Where can I find a trolley?
Can you tell me where I can find a trolley?
•When does my plane take off?
Can you tell me when my plane takes off?
•When do I have to check in?
I would also like to know when I have to check in?
•When will my flight be boarding?
I would also like to know when my flight will be boarding?
•When is my plane landing at destination?
Can you tell me when my plane is landing at destination?
•Why isn’t my plane taking off at the scheduled time?
I am interested in why my plane isn’t taking off at the scheduled time?
•Which gate will my flight depart from?
Next, can you tell me which gate my flight will depart from?
•Where is gate 123 located?
And finally, I would like to know where gate 123 is located.
PASSPORT CONTROL/IMMIGRATION OFFICE
Here you are.
Yes, I am.
For two weeks.
No, with my friend.
At a bed and breakfast downtown.
It’s Pot pomorščakov 4, Portorož.
I’m flying with Alitalia.
For two weeks, as I’ve already said.
No, of course not.
Yes, here it is.
C: You’re inside the free allowance.
C: We'll have to charge you an additional $30.
C: There will be an excess luggage charge.
C: Put your suitcases on the scales.
C: I need to weigh in your luggage.
P: I hope everything is all right.
P: How much is it?
P: Here you are.
C: Good morning. Your ticket, please.
SECURITY CHECK: 2, 1, 3, 5, 7, 6, 4.
LOST LUGGAGE OFFICE
1. My suitcase is not on the carousel.
2. Yes, it’s BA7658.
3. It landed two hours ago.
4. We came from Heathrow.
5. It’s just an ordinary black suitcase.
6. Just personal items, clothing and cosmetics.
7. Certainly, my phone number is …
The Littoral covered by ice and snow – below zero, snow, snowy, to freeze, to melt
Tropical weather already in April – above zero, dry, lovely, marvellous, sunny, sunshine
High winds and heavy rain predicted – awful, blowing, cloudy, rainy, shower, storm, stormy,
to pour, to rain, wet, windy
Road accident due to poor visibility – fog, foggy, misty
•the sun is shining … sunny … sun
•it’s raining … rainy … rain
•the wind is blowing … windy … wind
•it’s snowing … snow … snow
•misty … mist
•foggy … fog
•stormy … storm
•cloudy … clouds
1. commercial transport
2. light planes
3. special-purpose planes
5. military planes
•military transport planes
•Rudder - a piece of wood or metal at the back of a boat or an aircraft that is used
for controlling its direction
•Fuselage - the main part of an aircraft in which passengers and goods are carried
•Cockpit - an enclosed area in a plane, boat or racing car where the pilot or driver
•Engine - the part of a vehicle that produces power to make the vehicle move
•Wing - one of the large flat parts that stick out from the side of a plane and help to
keep it in the air when it is flying
•Landing gear - the part of an aircraft, including the wheels, that supports it when it
is landing and taking off
LIFT - the upward pressure of air on an aircraft when flying
GRAVITY - the downward pressure on an aircraft when flying
THRUST - the force that is produced by an engine to push a plane forward
DRAG - the force of the air that acts against the movement of an aircraft or other vehicle
TEST YOUR … KEYS
1.: 1. prep, conj, conj, n, v. 2. v, n, n, adj, adv. 3. conj, prep, v, prep, adv. 4. v, adj, adv, n, n/v. 5.
adv, n, n, n, conj.
2.: Do, isn’t working, leaves/takes, am thinking, don’t, is not working, doesn’t, doing, do,
3.: have lost, left, have forgotten, have forgotten, forgot, has doubled, didn’t stop, had, did you meet.
4. 1.: Had, ended, didn’t manage, was, started, decided, could, didn't have, didn’t want, opened, let,
didn't realize, was doing, didn’t see, was, were merging, hit, flew, had, wasn't, went, was
approaching, had, didn’t have, slid, skidded, stopped, left, called, gave, was, wanted, arrived, found
Decided, was driving, was, was driving, was, tried, had, reached, slowed down, started, swerved,
turned, happened, flew off, slid, saw, did not stop, considered, had.
4.2.: What happened on Monday night? When did the accident happen? At what time exactly did the
accident happen? Where did the accident happen? Which vehicles did the accident involve?
5.: She told the customs officer she had not bought anything. By the time he arrived to the airport, all
flights had already been booked up. We found out that somebody had forged the signature. When we
arrived to the meeting, everybody had already left. When I walked into the station, the train had
6.: I’m playing, leaves/arrives, are you going to do, will pass, will be having, will have increased.
7. 1.: who, why, where, when, whose, which, whom, that.
7.2.: who that, which who, no commas should be used, of the company that, who whom.
8.: I was able to do everything I planned. You must have seen who was responsible for the accident.
He might not have received my message. You didn’t have to call me back. It’s forbidden to get on the
bus without a ticket. We can take a break whenever we want. He can’t have stolen the money. Shall
we take a plane? Can I call a taxi for you? You ought to spend more time at home.
9.1.: is usually referred, is delayed, is unloaded, are asked, is normally delivered, is delivered, are
9.2.: The sound barrier was broken in 1947 for the first time. In Germany, the first railway line was
opened in 1835. The diesel engine was invented by Rudolph Diesel in 1892. The accident was caused
by poor signalisation. Five bags were stolen during transit. An experiment was carried out in order to
determine the level of air pollution in the region. The shipper was contacted and delivery was
confirmed. The old railway building was demolished in a single day. Plans to build a second railway
line between the port and its hinterland were made in the 1970s. These plans were implemented only
25 years later.
9.3.: A warehouse is a place where cargo can be stored. The plane ticket should be bought much
before your departure. The plan will be reviewed once all necessary data has been obtained.
Something must be done before it’s too late. Second hand books can be bought at very convenient
9.4.: It might have been sent to the wrong address. The fine should have been paid in 8 days. The
goods could have been stolen. Had they been properly packed, the goods would not have been
9.5.: was built, had been built, was invented, was produced, was never marketed, were produced,
were being built, were made, to be charged, were not equipped, not be charged, were only being
made, was renewed, were designed, are still used, has been kept, have been converted, will be
Was used, were replaced, are now used, were built, is, weighing, was given, was out, began, sprang,
is burnt, passes, is surrounded, is converted, collects, passes, is transmitted, are forced, was
10.: Besides, in, at, in, through, at, on, at, at, with, during, in, at, between, on, on/at, by, by, at, by.
11.: Of, of, with, with, with, of, in, of, on, of, for, in, of, of, to.
12.: For, for, on, with, with, with/to, of, with, on, of, to, on, in, of, in.
13.: up, down, out, up, over, forward to, up with, off, across, up with.
14.: 1. UC, UC, UC, C. 2. C, UC, UC, UC. 3. C, UC, UC, C. 4. UC, UC, C.
15.: much, many, much, many, much, much, many, much, many, many, much, many, much, much,
16.1.: an information, an advice, a rules, a money, a drums, A/THE shore crane, THE consignment,
THE suitcase/THE conveyor belt, THE crates, THE city centre.
16.2. /, the, /, /, the, a, a, a, a, /, the, /, /, /, a, a, /, /, the, the, a, a, a, a, an, the, the, a, a, a, the,
a, the, a, /, /.
17.: bored, interested, satisfying, rewarding, satisfied, rewarded, surprising, disappointed, confusing.
18.: more higher, then than, the most cheapest, fewer less, Yes, the cheaper they are, it is the better
= the cheaper they are, the better it is, as expensive than as, the worse worst accident, more far
farther, heavyer heavier, least less products than.
19. 1.: … where I was working then, what my qualifications were, why I had left my old job, what
mistakes I had made during my professional career, what I looked for in a job, if I can/could work
under pressure, what had attracted me to apply for that position, why they should hire me for that
position, what I like/liked doing in my free time, how long I thought I would stay with their firm.
19.2.: … I was currently unemployed, … that I have/had a degree in traffic technology, … that I had
left my previous job because there weren’t/hadn’t been any chances of promotion, … that I hadn’t
made any serious mistake, … that I was looking for a position offering chances for promotion and
further education, … that I can/could work under pressure, … that I was interested in the position
offered because they were looking for young and motivated people with a good knowledge of foreign
languages, … that they should hire me because I was the right person for that job, … that in my free
time I practise/practised sports and spend/spent time with my friends, … that I thought I would stay
long with their firm if both me and them were satisfied with my performance.
20.: If I hadn’t spent all the money on other things, I could’ve bought a car. Unless you study hard,
you‘ll not manage to finish your studies. If he slept enough, he wouldn’t feel tired. If we don’t hurry
up, we’ll miss the plane. If he had known the address of the shipper, he would’ve found him. If he
attended the classes regularly, he would have all the necessary information. If he hadn’t slept all
afternoon, he could fall asleep now. Providing he has his visa confirmed, he can enter the country. If
you had come to the party last night, you would’ve had a great time. If the traffic hadn’t been so
heavy, we could’ve come to the appointment on time.
21.: 1. Buy-bought-bought, build-built-built, choose-chose-chosen, give-gave-given, write-wrote-
written, drive-drove-driven, think-thought-thought, rise-rose-risen, fall-fell-fallen, feel-felt-felt, begin-
began-begun, deal-dealt-dealt, forget-forgot-forgotten, fight-fought-fought, lie-lay-lain.
2. Bought, built, chose, given, written, drove, thought, risen, fell, felt, began, dealt, forgotten, fought,
22.: These/those, this/that, these/those, these/those, these/those, this/that, this/that, this/that,
23.: breaks (brakes), its (it’s), piece (peace), personnel (personal), plain (plane), quite (quiet), then
(than), they’re (their; check also: there), through (thorough; check also: threw), too (to; check also:
two), waist (waste), weak (week), whether (weather), were (where; check also: wear), witch (which),
whose (who’s), you’re (your).
24.1.: I’ll phone you when I come home from work. As soon as the goods leave our shop, the risk
passes to the buyer. I came across these data while (I was) reading a scientific article. The seamen
were not allowed to leave until the vessel was declared seaworthy. It’s been four years since we met.
24.2.: We must be close to the station because I can hear the train. Because of the fog the plane
couldn’t land. He could not finish his article due to a bad headache. I couldn’t work for the noise. The
construction was never completed owing to a reduction of financial means.
24.3.: He studied hard in order to graduate as soon as possible. The suitcase was so heavy that I
couldn’t carry it.
24.4.: We bought the DVD player although it was expensive. She went to work even though she felt
sick. We didn’t complain in spite of late delivery. Despite driving to fast he wasn’t given a fine. We
decided to go on holidays even if we didn’t have much money to spend.
25.: Our, their, ours, our, mine, their, yours, your, her, my.