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					   Affordable SSL for the
     Developing World
      LS12 – WLED3 Conference
     Eindhoven, The Netherlands
             11 July 2010

        Dr. Dave Irvine-Halliday
Visionary Lighting & Energy India (VLE)
This presentation is dedicated to
the memory of Walt Ratterman,
who lost his life in the earthquake
on 12 Jan. 2010 in Haiti doing what he loved to do
- helping the Developing World help itself.
He was a true friend and colleague to all of us in
LUTW, and he is sorely missed.
                             Thank You

1.   SOLARCON 2010 organizers for allowing me to share our passion with you all
2.   U of Calgary for a wonderful retirement ‘package’ and working environment
3.   Philips Lighting – a great LUTW partner for many years
4.   Cree Inc. – VLE Support with WLEDs
5.   Blaze Automation – Design of Control Center Micro Controller Circuit
6.   Texas Instruments - Design of LED Driver Circuit
7.   Nishica – Design & Fabrication of Control Center & Lamp Enclosures
8.   Amara Raja – VLE Support with Sealed Lead Acid Batteries
9.   The generous villagers worldwide who answered my many ‘dumb’ questions
10. My wife & field partner, Jenny, for understanding why we have had to be
    apart so often and for so long – and for truly being the Light of my Life.
             Light is a Fundamental need of Humanity

   This talk is about giving HOPE, by creating an opportunity such that
people throughout the developing world are in a position to make a choice
 which will help to raise their quality of life and help them to escape the
                               Poverty Trap

Is SSL in the DW at a Tipping Point, and if not how can we help it get there?

  For SSL in the DW : “Trickle Up” is more important than “Trickle Down”!

The global reality – life in perspective and why we do what we do!
General Statistics on Global Lighting
SSL for the DW – a Vision & a Life Changing Gift
Creation of LUTW
Models for LUTW: Donation & Market
SSL Systems for the DW – Manufacturers Products
Creation of VLE
Level of Service for DW SSL systems
VLE’s “Freedom Light” – Technical Specs & Economics
CO2, Carbon Credits, MDGs
                                  Our World!

New York, Sept. 11, 2001 - 3,000 People Die (An Unpreventable Tragedy)
Two of the most obscene tragedies in ‘civilised’ history
World Wars (I & II) 1914-18 Total killed = 17 million 1939-45 Total killed = 60 million
Average annual kill over 10 years = 8 million

Africa, Every Single Day - 10,000 People Die (A Preventable Obscenity! )

                   Annual Deaths In the Developing World
10 million die of hunger & 6 million are children
Every 3.1 seconds someone dies of hunger (e.g. This entire audience in < 60 minutes!)
Respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Diarrhoea, Tuberculosis & Measles kill around
15 million
                   Average Annual Deaths = 25 million

                       A life is a life - all life is special!
                DW Access to Light & Energy

-   1.6 billion people do not have access to electricity.
-   Households typically pay $3 to $20/month for energy, in the form of
    candles, kerosene, battery charging and disposable batteries.
-   1/3 people obtain light with kerosene and other fuels = $38 billion/year
-   20% of global lighting costs = only 0.1% of the resulting lighting energy
    services (Mills, 2005)
-   80% without electrical light live in rural areas
-   $5-20/kWh energy compared to $0.15/kWh in developed countries.
-    Up to 30% of household income on fuel for light
-   In 2004 per capita electricity consumption for African countries was
    494.9kWh, in Canada it was 15,744 kWh
Estimated per-capita consumption
of electric light in 2005 (IEA 2006)
                    Energy Access for DW

Projected Electricity Access in 2030

                            Rural population w/o access to electricity (m)

                            Urban population w/o access to electricity (m)

                            Electrification Rate (%)
                          LUTW SSL Publications (1999 – 2008)
•   “Why the Developing World is the Perfect Market Place for Solid State Lighting”, Aug. 2008
•   “SSL - A Big Step out of the Poverty Trap for the BOP”, May 2008
•   “Renewable Energy based Solid State Lighting - a key to economic development for the Base of
    the Pyramid and a must for Millennium Development Goals!”, Nov. 2007
•   “Illuminating the Base of the Pyramid With Solid State Lighting”, Feb. 2007
•   “India Can Lead the Developing World into SSL – Does It have the Will?”, Sept 2005
•   “SSL for the Developing World – The Only Solution!”, July 2005.
•   “SSL for Developing Countries - A cost effective solution, facilitator of gender equity and
    encourager of peace”, Aug. 2004.
•   “Solid State Lighting for Human Development, Oct. 2002.
•   “Does the Overdeveloped World Appreciate the Win-Win-Win Opportunities for High
    Brightness LEDs in the Developing World?”, Oct. 2001.
•   “White LEDs for Lighting Remote Communities in Developing Countries”, July 2001.
•   “Demand Side Management for Rural Nepal”, Fall 2000.
•   “Light Up The World – Nepal Light Project and Everest”, Fall 2000.
•   “Field Study Regarding feasibility of WLED Home Lighting in Nepal”, Summer 1999.

          Engineering Institute of Canada, K.Y. Lo Medal (1Mar2008)‫‏‬
       Honorary Doctorate, Aberdeen University, Scotland (4July 2006)‫‏‬
         Centennial Medal Award, Alberta Government (23Dec2005)‫‏‬
                       TIME Canada Heroes (20June2005)‫‏‬
   Meritorious Service Medal (MSM), Canadian Government (30May2005)‫‏‬
                YMCA Calgary Peace Medal Award (26Nov2004)‫‏‬
               Alberta Science & Technology Award(15Oct2004)‫‏‬
       Reader’s Digest Canadian Hero of the Year Award (14June2004)‫‏‬
                      Alberta Emerald Award (9June2004)‫‏‬
                   Saatchi and Saatchi Award Laureate 2003
                      Tech Museum Award Laureate 2002
                          Rolex Award Laureate 2002
University of Calgary President’s Internationalization Achievement Award 2002
      IEEE Third Millennium Medal for Outstanding Contributions 2000
           APEGGA Summit Award for Contributions to Society 2000
                        Bulb & Can type
Fuel Based Lighting   Kerosene Wick Lamps
    Lapsi Danda
  Nepal June 2001       Knuckles Range
                       Sri Lanka June 2002
     Kerosene Lamp Lighting in DW

-Consumption rate of approximately 0.05 liters/hour
-Generates 4 - 40 lm (lumens)
-Operating luminous efficiency of:   0.02 lm/W
-Even‫‏‬in‫“‏‬optimal”‫‏‬conditions,‫‏‬provides‫‏‬only‫ 6‏~‏‬lux
(at one meter distance), which is far below
recommended levels (Mills, 2005)
 Solid State Lighting for the
 Developing World:
 The First Generation
                                      Family in Thulo Pokhara, Nepal – the first
                                village in the world to be lit permanently by SSL
Kathmandu, Nepal May 2000
                                       “A foreigner has come and made Thulo
                                         Pokhara heaven!” Nepal July 2000
         Woman and children reading by SSL Jumla, Nepal August 2000

“We used to be in darkness, now              “This is the first time in the
  we are in light!”                          lives of my children that they
                                             have been able to read at night!”
      Nepal August 2000
                                                  Sri Lanka 2001
LUTW provides the first solid state hospital
operating theatre lighting in the developing    Pico Power Nepal:
world                                            A Success Story

“I could do 95% of all my operations with      Kathmandu July 2001
your 6W Solid State Lamp” – it replaced
700W of incandescent

   Bagdogra, India July 2001
“In the 6 months that the children have
been studying with the LED lights the
Improvement in their academic             Philips LED Lamp
performance has been astonishing!”
                                            Sierra Leone
      Mubarak Village                       Jan 2009
      Pakistan, June 2004
                                Girl reading with 1 Watt WLED lamp
Tsunami ‘Refugee’ Village       Nepal 2006
3,000 SSL systems installed
                                  “Now we have LED lighting
Vaddawan, Sri Lanka July 2005     we eat when we want to,
                                  not when we have to!”
                                          India 2005
Two NGO’s Considering the use of LUTW’s
SSL home & medical lighting

Kandahar, Afghanistan                        Street Lighting in (Bhutanese)
17 January 2006                              Refugee Camp
“My women will think these LED lamps are a   Damak, Nepal Dec 2006
miracle!” Director of a Kandahar NGO
January 2006
      “The Magnificent Seven”

A very successful Micro Credit project

Tembisa (Shanty Town),
         South Africa 18Nov2007

 Sir Richard Branson (“Brilliant”)

 There are 6 million un-electrified
 homes in South Africa!

 Johannesburg, South Africa
Rio Tamaya - Improved land rights
when permanent lighting introduced

Amazon, Peru August 2006

   Tibetan Orphanage – Canadian
   volunteers were terrific!

   Xining, China Oct 2008
                       Data shows that the torch systems
                       using incandescent lamps cause
                       significantly more environmental
                       damage than do those using solid
                       state lighting.
                       This is mainly due to the larger
                       number of batteries required if using
                       incandescent lamps and is
                       approximately twice as bad if using
                       carbon zinc batteries compared to
                       using alkaline batteries.
                                            [Parsons, 2007]

      LUTW 3WLED Torch Bulb
Unbreakable & Extends Battery Life by
             10 times
   Kathmandu, Nepal July 1999
    Relative Performance: SSL vs Kerosene

• Damage to human health from respiratory organics: SSL is about 20 times
• Damage to human health from respiratory inorganics: SSL is about 5 times
• Damage to the environment from climate change: SSL is about 10 times
• Damage to the environment from ecotoxicity: SSL is about 20 times better
• Damage to the environment from acidification or eutrophication: SSL is
  about 8 times better
• Use of minerals: SSL is about 12 times worse
• Use of fossil fuels: SSL is about 20 times better
                                                         [Parsons, 2007]
Damage caused by lighting a dwelling for one year
using kerosene lamps and SSL on three criteria.
Data shows that SSL causes less environmental damage than kerosene
lamp lighting by factors of from 6 to 20 times. [Parsons, 2007]

               70                                    Kerosene Lamp

               40                                    Solid State
               30                                    Lamp



Effects of Lighting                   Kerosene                               SSL System

  Health & Safety          -   Creates in house toxins =               -   80-95% reduction in
                                 respiratory infections                   organic and in-organic
                           = 2 million child deaths/year                          toxins
                           - 300,000 fatal burns/90% in                 - Reduced risk of fire
                               developing countries                    - Reduced health care
   Environment         -       244 million tons of Co2/year        -     Mining & mineral use
                               = 130kg/household                       - Lead acid batteries
                       -       deforestation

Education & Equality   -       Diffuse, poor quality light             -     Better quality light
                                = fewer productive hours                   enhances opportunities
                                                                               for education

     Economic          -        Expensive consumable           -            One-time purchase
                               subject to price fluctuations       -        Minimal maintenance
                                                                             and upkeep costs
        Cost Comparison:
Fuel Based vs Solid State Lighting

           Range of annual family lighting costs for kerosene &
           candles world wide

                        = US $20 to $240 per year

           Present (Average) Installed Cost of LUTW SSL System
                               = US $170

           WLED lamp - life expectancy > 15 years
           Solar panel life expectancy   > 20 years
           Battery life expectancy       > 4 years
Stuart Hart (2005):
(Co-Author: “The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid “)
“Capitalism should address the needs of the Base of the Pyramid, not just its
elites, and the prime example of a win-win-win solution is the LUTW solar
powered SSL system. This is a perfect example of leapfrogging to next-
generation technology and these LEDs can indeed ease the four-way collision
 between Poverty, Population growth, Economic expansion and
Environmental limits.”
    Annual Average Kerosene Lighting Expenditures (US $)
                Afghanistan              $240
                Cambodia                 $100
                Costa Rica               $200
                Ecuador                  $200
                Ghana                    $120
                Guatemala                $100
                India                    $30 (50% subsidy)
                Malawi                   $120
                Nepal                    $70
                Pakistan                 $140
                South Africa             $130
                Tanzania                 $200

    Repayment time for SSL in the DW is approximately ONE year!
Rs 234 billion required to provide solar lanterns to 65 million rural
households in India
The amount is less than half of total implied subsidy on kerosene
consumption in the country.

Each Solar lantern saves:
40-60 liters of kerosene/year
100 Billion Rupees ($2B) burned each year in kerosene and wick lamps

76 million rural households in India have no access to electricity,
and 65 million use kerosene for lighting.

Remote Village Lighting
•‫ 000,08‏‬remote villages are not grid connected
•‫ 000,81‏‬villages are very remote/tribal which don't stand a chance of grid
  [500,000 households (3 million
Kerosene Cost per Household = [Rs 100B] /[65M] = Rs 1500/year ($30)
     SSL vs Kerosene (lm-hr/$)
      SSL                            Kerosene
 83,333 lm-hr/$ (Going Up)       396.82 lm-hr/$ (Going Down)‫‏‬
$0.012 / klm-hr (Going Down)       $ 2.52/klm-hr (Going Up)

                       200:1 Ratio
                                          Cumulative Expenditure / Savings





                                 Year 1   Year 2   Year 3   Year 4   Year 5   Year 6   Year 7   Year 8   Year 9 Year 10
        Existing energy system    174      351      528      708      890     1,073    1,258    1,445    1,634   1,825
        SSL system                169      194      187      194      187      179      189      182      175     186
        Savings                    5       156      342      514      703      892     1,081    1,270    1,459   1,638

         Cumulative Savings re: SSL Replacing Fuel Based Lighting
   South African Shanty Town, Tembisa, Using Micro Credit Aug 2007
    Families in SA could have around $1 Billion in increased disposable
income per year, as there are 6 Million families not connected to the grid
100%                                                          Exchange rate /
80%                                                           RAND                 7.8

60%                                                           Variables:
50%                                                           attery inflation
40%                                                           rate:                5%
                                                              Discount rate
30%                                                           (time value of
                                                              money):              4%
                                                              Inflation rate
10%                                                           (general):           5%
                                                              Interest rate for
       1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12             microcredit loans:   20%

  Cumulative % Savings per Year due to SSL & Micro Credit
  for South African Shanty Towns (Aug 2007)
            Unhappy Young Mum in her Shack
Philippi (Shanty Town) Cape Town, South Africa July 2007
Young Mum outside her Shack in Philippi (Shanty Town)
        Cape Town, South Africa July 2007
      Very happy Young Mum outside her new Home
Philippi (Shanty Town), Cape Town, South Africa July 2007
 New home cost = 3 or 4 years kerosene light payments
New home cost = 3 or 4 years kerosene light payments
  Philippi, Cape Town, South Africa July 2007
“They have given us eyes!”

Uri Village
Southern Annapurna
Nepal 16 April 2009
Uri Village
Southern Annapurna

“A big Bindi or Tika
thank you from Uri
Nepal 16 April 2009
“Light in a Box” (1 Watt WLEDs)
           LUTW 2005
  LUTW’s Basic Home Lighting System
Lamp Lumen O/P = 75 (Canada 2010)
  Microfinance for Renewable Energy Lighting

- Program approach involves an already established
  Microfinance institution (MFI) or trusted local NGO to manage
  collections in the long-term
- Households divert existing lighting expenditures to system
- Feasibility is based on a two-year repayment period to avoid
  threat of negative economic externalities
- Interest rate may differ as Microfinance for renewable energy
  and lighting involves an asset and thus is lower risk than
  traditional microfinance lending
LUTW’s initiatives in over 50 countries since 1999 have clearly
demonstrated that the Developing World has welcomed SSL as
an appropriate and important technology, and that they wish to
purchase it! Over 900,000 lives illuminated!

The Developing World SSL market is truly immense, and that is
only for basic home lighting!

Note: Small roadside vendors in Delhi spends US $ 4/week on
    Where is all this happening?
                                                     Chad   Afghanistan          Mongolia
                                                                          Pakistan          Nepal
Canada                          Haiti                                                                 Burma

                                Dominican                                                           Tibet
                                Republic                                                             Bhutan
Guatemala                                                                                            Cambodia
                                                                Yemen          India
 Honduras                               Ghana                                                         Philippines
   Nicaragua                               Cameroon              Kenya                               Malaysia

    Costa Rica                                  Cong
                                                                Uganda Sri Lanka
                                                Angola          Rwanda
                                                Namibia         Tanzania      Indonesia
                                           South Africa
               Bolivia                                       Zambia           Papua New Guinea



         Light Up The World Foundation                                          
   Summary of Proven Benefits of Solid State Lighting
Children and Adults can study in the evenings
Poverty and lack of education go hand in hand

It is Affordable – especially with access to Microcredit
Increases disposable income almost immediately – from kerosene savings
Allows for Micro Enterprise activities in the evenings
Governments will save Billions in kerosene subsidies
Climate Change Friendly reduces CO2; Income from Carbon Credits
Improved sense of Well-being; Increased Productivity
Significant decrease in financial losses due to fires and ill health

Health and Safety:
Lower birth Rate
Better Health due to cleaner environment – live longer
Safer environment due to dramatic decrease in house fires
Older people less likely to fall and hurt themselves in the dark

      “Renewable Energy based Solid State Lighting is arguably one of the most important
           Agent of Change available to the Developing World in the past 50 years!”
                                                                             (LUTW 2008)‫‏‬
There is probably a little bit of LUTW DNA in most of the companies
making SSL for the DW!

We did start in 1997!

Mention various manufacturers of SSL for the DW & discuss SSL’s
potential to ‘create’ a “Tipping Point”
         Cosmos Ignite
Lantern O/P = 80? lumen (India 2010)
                  3 W LED
                  6V, 4.5Ah Sealed Lead Acid
                  3Wp - 5Wp Solar Module (optional)
                  Battery Status Indicator;
                  Cell Phone Charging Facility
                  Light Dimming Facility

Light a Billion Lives (India 2010)
  d.light Nova S2001 ($45)
Lantern O/P = 100 lumen? (2010)
          Philips Lighting ($42?)
Lamp O/P = 75+? lumen (Netherlands 2010)
  Duron Energy SSL System ($130)
Lamp O/P = 85 lumen (India 2010)
Barefoot Power Powa Pack SSL System ($75)
      Lamp O/P = 80 lumen (Australia 2010)
              Visionary Lighting & Energy India (VLE)

“Darkness to Light - We are the change we wish to see in the world!”
       “Doing well by doing good, and doing good by doing well”

Goal: To raise the Quality of Living of those at the Base of the Economic
Pyramid, thus helping them escape the Poverty Trap.

VLE SSL systems were developed from scratch for the entire world – not just
for the developing world!

Any family who is paying anything for kerosene is a potential client for SSL
           Quality of Service from a SSL System
      Some of the points VLE considered re: Customer Quality of Service

Lumen output, Lm-hr/$; lux levels; No. of lamps; Dimming; Focusing; MTTF on
WLEDs, Electronics and Solar Panels
SLAB Battery: Manufacturers Warranty [3 years from Amara Raja?] + Actual life
In the field + Global availability + Eco Friendliness + Recycling probability
Total hours of light per 24 hour period;
Efficiency of: LED Driver Circuits, Low Voltage Cut-Offs, Number of Cell
Phone Charges per day; MPPT,
Overall Aesthetic Attractiveness of the System (poor people must not be offered
‘ugly’ products); Simplicity of home installation – must be plug & play;
Adaptability (e.g. rural, urban, small business & street vendors – i.e. Goose Neck
& a modular dimming lamp).
Consider the operating environment – e.g. a smokey room in Nepal, will lower
lamp lumen O/P and reduce overall illumination due to blackened walls
                        Level of Service of a SSL System
Luminaire: Number of lamps; Lens on lamp; Lumen per Lamp; LEDs (5mm, SM or
HP); LED MTTF; LED Beam Angle; Power Draw per Lamp; Dimming; Focusing;
Total hours of light per day; Total lamp energy draw per day; Beware Dark Walls &
Wide Beam Angles;
Battery : Voltage; Capacity; DoD; Total energy draw (to DoD); Warranty;
Solar Panel: Voltage; Current; Wattage ; Energy output WHr per day; Warranty;
Hours to Charge Battery;
Control Center: Charge Controller; LVCO; Battery State of Charge Indicators;
Solar input; AC input; Solar and AC active input LED indicator; Lamp
switches; Short Circuit protection (fuse or self resetting Polyfuse); Cell Phone
Charger; Cell phone Charging LED Indicator; Cell phone adaptors included;
Special Features: Emergency Lamp, Goose Neck Connector, Fail Safe Micro
Controller, Plug & Play, Digital Clock, Data Logger, Larger battery capability, ....
% of Capacity
Available [Ah]

                 Number of Charging Cycles
Light in a Box Prototype with Cell Phone Charger
             South Africa Mar 2007
                               Central Control unit with 4
                               Ambient and 2 Goose Neck
                               lamp outputs, 25 lamp-
                               hours on full brightness,
                               Emergency Lamp with
                               extended cut-off, Charge
                               Controller, Simultaneous
                               Solar and AC inputs, State
                               of Battery Charge LEDs,
                               True battery charging LED
                               for Solar and AC, Cell
                               Phone Charger, Fail Safe
                               Micro Controller,
                               Luminescent switches, ...

VLE “Freedom Light” Control Center (India 2010)
                              Central Control unit with 4
                              Ambient and 2 Goose Neck
                              lamp outputs, 25 lamp-
                              hours on full brightness,
                              Emergency Lamp with
                              extended cut-off, Charge
                              Controller, Solar and AC
                              inputs, State of Battery
                              Charge LEDs, True battery
                              charging LED for Solar and
                              AC, Cell Phone Charger, Fail
                              Safe Micro Controller,
                              Luminescent switches, ...

VLE “Freedom Light” System (India 2010)
                       Input Power (1.3W)
                       Lumen output (120+)
                       Driver Circuit efficiency (90+%)
                       Dimming (0-100%)
                       DC input (5 – 17V DC)

VLE “Freedom Light” Lamp (India 2010)
VLE SSL System with Goose Neck Lamps (India 2010)
            For Rural and Urban Clients
  UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)‫‏‬

By the year 2015, the United Nations Member states have
 pledged to:
 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
 2. Achieve universal primary education.
 3. Promote gender equality and empower women.
 4. Reduce child mortality.
 5. Improve maternal health.
 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
 7. Ensure environmental sustainability.
 8. Develop a global partnership for development.

       Affordable SSL Applies to all 8 MDG’s!
    Fuel Based Lighting and Carbon Credits
Global usage of kerosene for lighting = 100 B liters/year
[Cost (approx) = $40 B?]

Resulting CO2 produced from kerosene = 190-240 M? tonnes/year

Potential Carbon Credits from Kerosene CO2 = $4 B?/year
(at $20/Tonne)

Cost of SSL for 200 M homes = $20 B (One time)
(at $100 per system)

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) USA, predicts a carbon futures
market by 2013 = $2 Trillion/year
(From $60 B in 2008)
Case Proven: the Developing World has made it very clear – they
want good quality Solar PV based SSL at a price they can afford,
since SSL brings numerous benefits in addition to bright light!

The Question: How are the over-developed and developing
world’s going to respond to the extremely large demand for Solar PV
based SSL from the DW?

Fact: This is a wonderful win-win-win situation, with fair profits
to be made by the business community, and the market is half
of humanity!

“Solar PV based SSL is arguably one of the most important Change
 Agents available to the DW in the past 50 years!” (LUTW 2008)
“The light in me honors the light in you"

         Go Netherlands Go !!!!
          But I like Spain also !

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