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chapter_13

VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 35

									A Turbulent Decade
US Policy: 1920-1932
    DMA: Do you agree or disagree? Support your point of
    view
2


       The fear of radicalism in the United States causes many
        Americans to sacrifice personal liberties for a sense of
        security.

       Government policies that encourage economic growth can
        also lead to social instability

       Restrictions on immigration hurt a country more than they
        help in the long run.
    Objectives:
Section 1: Postwar Troubles
3




       What were some of the economic outcomes of
        demobilization?
       What were the main causes of the strikes of 1919,
        and how did most Americans react to the strikes?
       What caused the public hysteria of the Red Scare?
       Why did the Sacco and Vanzetti trial arouse public
        interest?
Demobilization Leads to
Unemployment
• World War I had created great
  economic prosperity in the US
• The government, however, was not
  prepared to convert to a postwar
  economy
   o   100s of factories that had produced war
       materials closed
   o   Crop prices fell as overseas demand
       dropped
   o   By 1920, 5 million Americans were out of
       work
Businesses Return to Prewar Labor Practices
 • During World War I, the government encouraged
   businesses & labor to cooperate
• When the war ended, workers struggled to keep the gains
  they had made in the war years
• Businesses, however, reduced wages & paid less
  attention to employee safety
   o   Some even tried to increase the average workday from 8 hours to
       12 hours
Workers Respond by Organizing
• Many Americans responded to
  businesses by joining a union for
  the first time
   o   American Federation of Labor –
       Concentrated on improving wages &
       working conditions
   o   Industrial Workers of the World – Saw
       socialism as the solution to workers’
       problems
Workers Respond by Striking
• In 1919, unions staged more than 3,600 strikes across the
  country
   o   1 out of every 10 workers walked off the job at some point that year

• The most controversial strike involved the Boston police
  force
   o   City officials had cut their wages & refused to negotiate
   o   At first, the people of Boston sympathized with the police
   o   The city, however, lapsed into anarchy
   o   Governor Calvin Coolidge called in the National Guard to keep order
Unions Lose Public Support
• Overall union membership
  declined in the 1920s
   o   People began to see them as a
       threat
   o   Strikes failed to achieve many of
       the workers’ goals
   o   Many unions excluded women,
       blacks, & most immigrants
• Supreme Court decisions
  further weakened unions
   o   The Court rejected child labor laws,
       minimum wage for women, etc.
A Bomb Scare Fuels Fear
• In April 1919, 2 government officials received packages
   containing bombs
   o   34 more bombs were eventually discovered

• Many Americans saw the bomb scare as a sign that
  radicalism was on the rise
   o   Socialists – Called for public ownership of land & factories
   o   Communists – Wanted a classless society brought about through a
       working class revolution
   o   Anarchists – Opposed all systems of government
Red Scare Leads to Raids
• The postwar fear of radicals
  became known as the Red Scare
• The Red Scare intensified when in
  June 1919, 8 bombs exploded in 8
  cities at the same time
   o   One target was Attorney General
       Mitchell Palmer’s house
   o   As a result, Palmer conducted searched
       places he thought might house radicals
   o   These Palmer Raids were conducted
       without warrants
Civil Liberties Suffer
 • The fear of radicalism led people
   to react
    o   30 states passed sedition laws
    o   Books considered to be offensive
        were removed from libraries
• Palmer hoped to use his notoriety
  to help him win the presidency
    o   He announced that a plot to
        overthrow the government would
        begin in NYC on May 1, 1920
    o   When nothing happened, his
        ambitions were ruined
     Reasons for public interest in the Sacco and
                      Vanzetti trial
Section 1: Postwar Troubles
   • Americans were deeply divided over the trial.
   • Some believed that Sacco and Vanzetti deserved
     punishment.
   • Others thought that they were convicted only
     because they were immigrants and radicals.




                                                      12
DMA:

•If you had been running for
 president in 1920, what platform
 would you have adopted to win?
    Objectives:
Section 2: The Republicans in Power
    • How did Republican policies encourage economic growth
      in the 1920s?
    • How did the Harding administration’s pro-business
      policies affect the U.S. economy?
    • Why did the movement to pass the Equal Rights
      Amendment fail?
    • How did the Republican Party overcome the political
      scandals of the Harding administration?
    • What issues affect the outcome of the 1928 election?

                                                          14
   Harding’s Fiscal Policy
• Harding was committed to the
  free enterprise system
  o   Characterized by private ownership
      of property, including land &
      resources
  o   Relies on competition for profits &
      the forces of supply & demand to
      determine what goods & services
      should be produced & at what price
                The Postwar Recession Ends
• Harding worked with Congress to cut taxes and control
  spending
  o   Repealed taxes meant to fund WWI
  o   Reduced spending by $1 billion
  o   Used the surplus to pay down the national debt

• Harding’s policies brought renewed prosperity to the US
  o   Prices plunged, allowing people to afford more
  o   Unemployment dropped from 12% (1920) to 2% (1923)
The Teapot Dome Scandal
• Harding’s cabinet, the “Ohio
  Gang,” brought scandal to
  the White House
   o   Harding gave Albert Fall
       control over national oil
       reserves
   o   Fall leased those reserves to
       2 companies that had paid
       him $360,000 in bribes
   o   Fall resigned when the
       scandal went public
   o   Harding stood by Fall until
       own death in 1923
 Coolidge Promotes Business
• As president, Coolidge
  worked to cut taxes &
  control spending
  o   Pushed for reductions in
      corporate, income, & inheritance
      taxes
  o   Cut the White House budget

• Under Coolidge, the nation
  continued to prosper
 Hoover Promises to End Poverty
• Like Harding & Coolidge,
  Hoover believed in promoting
  business
  o   Wanted industry leaders to work to
      together to improve economic
      efficiency
  o   Hoped that as businesses
      flourished, poverty would
      disappear
  The US Economy Booms
• Under the economic
  policies of Republican
  presidents, the postwar
  recession faded away
  o   Productivity increased
      dramatically
  o   Unemployment dropped
  o   Wages rose to double what they
      had been before the war
The Age of Mass Production
• The automobile industry
  led this new age of
  productivity
  o   By 1929, at least half of all
      American families owned a car
  o   Made possible by Henry Ford’s
      moving assembly line which
      allowed him to increase wages
      & cut prices
  New Industries Arise
• The growth of the
  automobile industry
  fueled new industries as
  well
  o   The steel, rubber, & oil
      industries expanded
  o   Highway construction
      boomed
  o   Restaurants & hotels sprang
      up along roads
  o   Service industries, such as
      gas stations & repair shops,
      were created
Businesses Get Bigger
• During the 1920s,
  businesses grew due to
  a wave of consolidation
  o   Harding, Coolidge, &
      Hoover ignored anti-trust
      laws
  o   Allowed businesses to
      merge
  o   Led to the rise of the Big 3
      automakers in the US
  o   Created chain stores in the
      grocery industry, etc.
   Stock Investment Grows
• During the 1920s, stock
  ownership spread to the
  middle class
  o   The Dow Jones Industrial Average
      doubled between May 1928 &
      September 1929
DMA:

•Cite historical reasons for
 hostility toward migrants
 and immigrants.
    Objectives:
Section 3: A Nation Divided
    • Why did many Americans support the Ku Klux Klan, and
      why did that support decline?
    • How did African Americans combat discrimination and
      violence?
    • Why did many Americans demand restrictions on
      immigration?
    • Why did Mexican immigration increase during the 1920s?
    • What actions did American Indians take to protect their
      land?

                                                            26
The Revival of Nativism
 • After World War I,
   immigration into the US
   increased
   o   Many feared that these
       immigrants would never
       become 100% American
   o   This triggered a resurgence
       of nativism & calls for
       restrictions on immigration
New Laws Restrict Immigration
• 1921 – Emergency Immigration Act
   o   Set the maximum number of immigrants allowed in the US each year
       at 375,000 people
   o   Introduced a quota system limiting the number of immigrants from
       each country to 3% of its residents in the US in 1910
• 1924 – Immigration Act of 1924
   o   Reduced the number of immigrants allowed in to the US each year to
       164,000
   o   Cut quotas to 2% of a country’s residents in the US in 1890
   o   Banned all immigration from Asia
The KKK Targets “Alien” Influences
 • The Ku Klux Klan was reborn in
   Atlanta, GA in 1915
   o   Restricted its membership to native-
       born white Protestants
   o   Targeted Africans Americans,
       immigrants, Catholics, & Jews
   o   William Joseph Simmons, the founder
• By the early 1920s, the Klan had 3-
  4 million members
   o   Lawmakers supported by the Klan won
       control of state legislatures in Oregon,
       Oklahoma, Texas, & Indiana
   o   Klan members held marches in
       Washington, DC & other major cities
                  Fall of the Klan
Section 3: A Nation Divided

    • decrease in Red
      Scare tension
    • publicity about
      the Klan’s
      terrorism
    • corruption and
      scandal within the
      Klan                           30
Americans Face Discrimination
 • Asian immigrants faced severe
   legal discrimination
   o   Barred from becoming citizens
   o   Could not own land or marry a white
       person in many states
• African Americans faced
  continuing discrimination as well
   o   In some places, lynching made a
       comeback
   o   During the Red Summer of 1919,
       tensions erupted in race riots
   o   Led to support for Marcus Garvey’s
       Back-to-Africa movement
           African American response to
            discrimination and violence
Section 3: A Nation Divided
    • The National Association for the Advancement of
      Colored People (NAACP) organized an
      antilynching campaign.
    • A. Philip Randolph established the Brotherhood of
      Sleeping Car Porters in 1925 to improve working
      conditions.
    • Marcus Garvey supported black nationalism and
      founded the Universal Negro Improvement
      Association (UNIA.)
                                                     32
Catholics & Jews Fight Prejudice
• The increase in Jewish immigrants
  stirred up anti-Semitism
   o   Gave birth to the Anti-Defamation
       League to protect the rights of Jews
• Catholics were also targets of
  religious prejudice
   o   1928 – Democratic Party nominated NY
       Governor Al Smith, a Catholic for
       president
   o   Soon there were rumors that if Smith
       was elected, the pope would run the
       US
     Actions by American Indian
• organized to stop
  Harding
  administration from
  buying back all tribal
  lands
• organized to fight the
  Barsum Bill
• built inter-tribal
  support under
  leadership of the
  Pueblo tribes
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