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					 Dear readers,
welcome to the nippy winter issue of our magazine. Take a hot cup of your favorite tea and enjoy
the frosty pages of our publication. This time we invite you to warm up and reading the Adventure
section to try heli(copter) skiing or paragliding, to explore jumping stilts or even dive under the sea
to visit the past. «Off the beaten path» is exactly the direction we decided to take in the Heritage
part this time. Ever heard of a clay mosque or Dracula’s birthplace? Get familiar with the once
famous Hagi in Japan or the simple beauty of Papallacta in Ecuador and much more.
  Innovation is the big issue of both Marketing and Business section. Read about the many aspects
of introducing new services and products in tourism, about the difficulties, risks as well as great
achievements. Learn about the others’ mistakes and find out what are the best new marketing
strategies for the travel trade.

      Milada Sovadinova

H E r i tag E
  Destinations – out off beaten track
                                                  Heritage: Destinations – out off beaten track .................................. 4
   all around the world there are thousands
   and thousands of wonderful places worth

                                                         Hagi – tHe town of great LeaDers .............................................................................................................5
   visiting. some of them boast unique his-
   tory or natural treasures; some are beau-
   tiful in their simplicity. Let us get famil-
   iar with only a tiny bit of these hidden
   pearls. Welcome to leaders’ Hagi, chilly
   kristiansand, Dracula’s sighisoara, mud-
   dy Djenne, or misty Papallacta.

                                                         kristiansanD – a MoDern city witH a renaissance ProfiLe .........................................................7
                                                         sigHisoara – tHe birtHPLace of count DracuLa................................................................................9
                                                         PaPaLLacta – Hot sPrings in tHe Mist .....................................................................................................10
                                                         Djenne anD tHe great cLay Mosque ........................................................................................................12

advEnturE                                         aDventure: unusuaL sPorts ............................................................................. 14
                           unusuaL sPorts

                                                         outrageous aDventures: breatHtaking ways to PusH tHe enveLoPe ..................................15
                                                         PoweriZer juMPing stiLts: for your inner suPer-Hero .................................................................17
   always popular thrill seekers’ section is
   dedicated this time to adrenaline sports
                                                         wreck Diving: a gLiMPse of tHe Past .......................................................................................................19
   on land, under the water, as well as in the
   sky. ever heard of jumping stilts? ever

                                                         toP tiPs for cHoosing a HeLiski HoLiDay .............................................................................................21
   tried heli-skiing? thinking about explor-
   ing wrecks in the deep sea? come and
   read about these breathtaking fun activi-

                                                         ParagLiDing .........................................................................................................................................................23

 BusinEss                                         business: innovations anD risks ................................................................... 25
                   innovations anD risks
   innovation is a must in many industries,

                                                         stuDy: DistinguisHing successfuL new services in tHe HosPitaLity inDustry ................26
   including tourism. How to be innova-
   tive? What marketing strategies are best
   to follow? What about the others – how
   did they achieve success? are there any
   risks in implementing new products and

                                                         risk vs. success: ten ways to boost innovation ...............................................................................28
                                                         sPace tourisM: Marketing DifficuLties ................................................................................................30
                                                         aDworDs – tHe case of air new ZeaLanD ..............................................................................................31
                                                         tourisM: innovation, risk-taking anD Protection of core business ...................................33

MarkEting                                         Marketing: innovations in aDvertising ..................................................... 35
              innovations in aDvertising
   and innovation once more – this time in
   advertising. go through our few exam-

                                                         innovation strategy – battLefieLD Lessons for business LeaDers .........................................36
   ples of unique and successful ideas and
   learn about gPs sightseeing, tiny hotel
   rooms or several triumphant cases of in-
   troducing new marketing strategies.

                                                         tiMe of cHanges – new Marketing strategies...................................................................................38
                                                         unique Design – cHeaP cHic & no friLLs .................................................................................................40
                                                         1-to-1 Marketing of HoteLs, resorts anD Destinations...............................................................41
                                                         sigHtseeing guiDeD by gPs ...........................................................................................................................44

Fairs & ExHiBitions
traveL/tourism in January 2008 by regions
                                                  traveL/tourisM fairs & exHibitions
                                                      in january 2008 by regions ........................................................................ 45
                                                         western euroPe .................................................................................................................................................46
                                                         centraL & eastern euroPe ...........................................................................................................................51
                                                         nortH aMerica & caribbean .......................................................................................................................52
                                                         asia & Pacific .......................................................................................................................................................55
H E r i tag E
Destinations – out off beaten track
 all around the world there are thousands
 and thousands of wonderful places worth
 visiting. some of them boast unique his-
 tory or natural treasures; some are beau-
 tiful in their simplicity. Let us get famil-
 iar with only a tiny bit of these hidden
 pearls. Welcome to leaders’ Hagi, chilly
 kristiansand, Dracula’s sighisoara, mud-
 dy Djenne, or misty Papallacta.
                                                                                                                                                     Januar y, 2008
                                           H e r i tag e : D e stinati on s –out off beate n track

        Hagi – tHe town of great
                                                                                 and a number of other domains, this small city gained great
                                                                                 historical significance. It is no exaggeration to say that Hagi
                                                                                 made Japan a modern country. Many Japanese statesmen
                                                                                 and Prime Ministers were born and brought up in this city,
                                                                                 for example, Hirobumi Ito, the first Japanese Prime Minister.
                                                                                 Over the last fifty years however the Hagi population has
                                                                                 been continually decreasing. This trend seems to be the re-
                                                                                 flection of the town’s poor public transport. Industry did not
                                                                                 grow at all and the rapid economic growth of Japan only
                                                                                 caused the town to decline. However, it also left the tradi-
                                                                                 tional precious town as it is and Hagi becomes a treasure
                                                                                 destination for all heritage seekers.
                                                                                    Among the main highlights of the town are the ruins of Hagi
                                                                                 Castle where the ancient stone walls, moats and gardens are
                                                                                 awaiting the visitors. For two and a half centuries the Hagi
                                                                                 Castle served as the seat of the feudal lords in Japan after its
                                                                                 construction in 1604. In the wake of the termination of the feudal
                                                                                 era in Japan, the Meiji government ordered the destruction of
                                                                                 Hagi Castle and only its ruins remain now. In the nearby Castle
                                                                                 Town District, many old houses and residents connected to
                                                                                 those who leaded Meiji Restoration are well preserved. In Hi-
                                                                                 yako District there can be found the second residence of Giichi
                                                                                 Tanaka, a former Prime Minister of Japan. One of the historical
                                                                                 treasures is also the Shoin Shrine dedicated to Yoshida Shoin,
                                                                                 a young samurai who taught younger people about the world
                                                                                 and Japan. He was imprisoned and executed by the shogunate

H     agi, the small town in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, is a
      town where old Edo period maps can still be used and
is punctuated by castle ruins, beautiful samurai houses with
                                                                                 government, but later his students became famous statesmen
                                                                                 and accomplished Meiji Restoration. In the shrine, his private
                                                                                 school called «Shoka-sonjuku» is still preserved. Another tour-
white walls, and much more. It is considered to be one of the                    ist attraction is Mt. Kasayama, the smallest active volcano in
most beautiful castle towns in Japan since a lot of traditional old              East Asia. The place is famous for the Camellia flowers, the
streets, old gates, and tiled walls survive untouched here.                      symbol of Hagi, that can be seen all around the mountain in the
 The	castle	town	of	the	Mori	clan	still	retaining	its	historical	vestiges.

  History                                                                         Choshu Five
                                                                                  	     The	 Chōshū	 Five	 were	 members	 of	 the	 Chōshū-han	 of	 Hagi	 (currently	
  In the medieval period, Hagi was dominated by the Yo-                                 Yamaguchi	 prefecture)	 who	 studied	 in	 England	 from	 1863	 at	 University	
shimi clan, who built a branch castle in Hagi. The Mōri clan                            College	London	under	the	guidance	of	Professor	Alexander	William	Wil-
became daimyo of Chōshū Domain at the beginning of the                                  liamson.	It	was	still	illegal	to	leave	Japan	when	they	left,	as	the	policy	of	
                                                                                        sakoku	 was	 still	 practically	 in	 force	 until	 the	 Meiji	 Restoration	 (no	 for-
Edo period (ca. 1603–1868) and built the Hagi Castle at the                             eigner	or	Japanese	could	enter	or	leave	the	country	on	penalty	of	death):
foot of Mt. Shizuki in 1604. They transferred the capital of                      Ito	Hirobumi	–	later	the	first	Prime	Minister	of	Japan
the domain from Hiroshima to Hagi at the same time. Since                         Inoue	Kaoru	–	the	prominent	Minister	for	Foreign	Affairs
then, Hagi developed as the political center of Chōshū for                        Yamao	Yozo	–	contributed	to	the	engineering	of	Japan
                                                                                  Endo	Kinsuke	–	later	the	first	head	of	the	new	National	Mint
over 250 years. When the Meiji Restoration came about in
                                                                                  Inoue	Masaru	–	known	as	the	«Father	of	the	Japanese	Railways»
the 1860s, as the result of efforts by samurai from Chōshū

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                                                                         were also painted. Ukiyoe greatly influenced European art in
                                                                         the latter part of the 19th century. A considerable collection of
                                                                         Ukiyoe can be found in the Hagi Uragami Museum. This mu-
                                                                         seum houses about 5,000 Ukiyoe, about 300 pieces of Chinese
                                                                         ceramic ware and about 100 pieces of Korean ceramic ware.
                                                                         The museum is particularly proud of having, in terms of both
   Art                                                                   quality and quantity, the leading Ukiyoe collection in the world.
                                                                         Besides the 6 greatest wood-block print works of Harunobu and
   Hagi is especially renowned for hagi-yaki, a form of Japa-            Utamaro, furthermore, the works of the Utagawa school like
nese pottery dating from 1604 when two Korean potters were               Kunisada, Kuniyoshi, Hiroshige are complete. You can appreci-
brought to Hagi by Mori Terumoto. Hagi-yaki is very precious             ate the stream of that school starting with the famed series of
because of its nature to absorb water. As you use hagi-yaki as           the historic fifty-three stages on the Tokaido Highway and the
a tea cup for many years, its color will change delicately. The          well-known 100 Edo scenes and continuing on to the works of
city of Hagi is home to many pottery studios (kamamoto) and              the early Meiji period.
retail outlets and visitors can actually try their hand at making
hagi-yaki and take tours of hagi-yaki production facilities.
   Another artistic treasure is Ukiyoe which is a popular genre of
painting that bloomed during the Edo period. The multi-colored
wood-block printing style is especially famous. The main motifs
are scenes of theatrical performances or portraits of beauties,
actors, sumo wrestlers, etc. Many historical stories and scenes

                                                                                                                          Januar y, 2008
                                   H e r i tag e : D e stinati on s –out off beate n track

        kristiansanD – a MoDern
        city witH a renaissance

K     ristiansand, the biggest city on the South Coast (Sørland-
      et) and the southernmost city in Norway is a charming city,
retaining many of the 17th century buildings from its founding
                                                                           Kvadraturen («The Square»). Cobblestone streets give the old
                                                                           town the appearance of a living museum – just a few blocks
                                                                           from the busy commercial part of the city. At the southwestern
days by King Christian IV. Originally it was created as a market           part of the town centre there is the traditional Fish market.
town to encourage growth in this area of strategic significance,           Around the central waterfront there are several, mostly mari-
providing a local economic base for construction of fortifications         time, restaurants where the locals during summer arrive in their
and population for defense of the area.                                    boats and anchor up here.
  Landmarks                                                                   «Posebyen», the oldest section of the town, boasts tiny, but
  With its one-storey ancient wooden houses – all painted in a             charming houses in the traditional style of the area. The name
bright white color, Kristiansand is regarded as one of Europe’s            comes from the French word «reposer» meaning to sleep, from
best preserved Renaissance cities. The Renaissance style is                when soldiers were billeted in private homes. Posebyen still oc-
readily apparent in the strict street plan of the town center called       cupies several blocks on the eastern part of the town centre.

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                                  H e r i tag e : D e stinati on s –out off beate n track
                                                                          kind in Norway, and the International Church Music Festival as
                                                                          the most prominent annual events.
                                                                             Historically the regional trade and industry developed around
                                                                          the exportation of timber to the neighboring North Sea coun-
                                                                          tries. The wood resources also gave birth to fast growing ship
                                                                          building and shipping industries. Thus local culture has been
                                                                          heavily influenced by shipping and other activities related to the
                                                                          sea, including fishing. Presently the varied and green coastline,
                                                                          with its charming old out-ports is an important element in nu-
                                                                          merous recreational activities.
                                                                             The sheltered coastline with scenic fishing villages and vast
                                                                          uninhabited areas is one of the region’s most valuable assets
                                                                          and provides unforgettable experiences.
                                                                             The Norwegian concept of the southern idyll conjures up islets
                                                                          and skerries and small white houses with lush gardens nestled
                                                                          between rocky coastline knolls. The same building style charac-
                                                                          terizes the other southern towns as well. One of the region poets
   The downtown area of Kristiansand is also an interesting               claimed that people’s close contact with the sea has given them
place to spend an evening out. A number of art galleries and              webbed feet and hospitable, good-natured temperaments.
the impressive regional museum Sørlandets Kunstmuseum
present varied contemporary art. The Night Gallery presents     
experimental open-air video art. Students and intellectuals give
life to numerous cafés and pubs that cater to most international
tastes. Music plays a key role on the city’s cultural stage, with
the Quart Festival, a multi-day music festival – the largest of its

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sigHisoara – tHe birtHPLace
     of count DracuLa
                                                                                                and tradesmen ensured financial means for the construction of a
                                                                                                strong defense system provided with 14 towers and several bas-
                                                                                                tions provided with gunnery directed to all four cardinal points.
                                                                                                Each tower was built, maintained and defended by a craft guild.
                                                                                                Among the most striking is the 14th century Clock Tower with its
                                                                                                intricate two-plate clock working continuously since the Middle
                                                                                                Ages. This tower controlled the main gate of the half-mile-long
                                                                                                defensive wall and stored the city’s treasures.
                                                                                                   Next to the citadel and the Clock Tower, the town boasts of
                                                                                                other landmarks as well. Vlad Dracul’s House is located in the
                                                                                                Citadel Square, close to the Clock Tower. This ocher-colored
                                                                                                house is the place where Vlad Tepes was born in 1431 and
                                                                                                lived with his father, Vlad Dracul, until 1435 when they moved
                                                                                                to Targoviste. A wrought-iron dragon hangs above the entrance.
S      ighisoara in Romania is one of Europe’s best-preserved
       medieval towns. Founded by Transylvanian Saxons dur-
ing the 12th century, Sighisoara (Schassburg in German) still
                                                                                                The ground floor of the house serves as a restaurant, while the
                                                                                                first floor is home to the Museum of Weapons which features
                                                                                                an array of medieval weapons, showcasing the development of
stands as one of the most beautiful and best-preserved medi-                                    weapons used in and around the town throughout the ages.
eval towns in Europe. Designated as a World Heritage Site by
                                                                                                   The Stag House was built in the 17th century in Transylva-
UNESCO, this perfectly intact 16th century gem with nine tow-
                                                                                                nian renaissance style and it draws its name from the stag skull
ers, cobbled streets, burgher houses and ornate churches ri-
                                                                                                set on one of the corners of its façade. Recent restorations re-
vals the historic streets of Old Prague or Vienna for atmospheric
                                                                                                vealed an external mural depicting the stag’s body. Nowadays,
magic. It is also the birthplace of Vlad Dracula, also known as
                                                                                                the building houses a hotel, with a ground floor that doubles as
Vlad Tepes (Vlad the Impaler), ruler of the province of Walachia
                                                                                                a cellar bar.
from 1456 to 1462. It was he who inspired Bram Stoker’s fic-
tional creation, Count Dracula.                                                                    Lack of water and supplies made life in the Citadel quite dif-
                                                                                                ficult at times. By comparison, living conditions in the Lower
   His house is just one of the many attractions here. Others in-
                                                                                                Town, which had started to develop at the end of the 15th cen-
clude the Church on the Hill with its 500-year-old frescoes, the
                                                                                                tury, were much better. Today, the Lower Town, less picturesque
13th century Venetian House and the Church of the Dominican
                                                                                                than the Citadel area, centers around Hermann Oberth Square
Monastery, known for its Transylvanian renaissance carved altar-
                                                                                                named after Mr. Oberth (1894-1989), one of the forefathers of
piece, baroque pulpit, Oriental carpets and 17th century organ.
                                                                                                astronautics and rocketry. He was born in Sibiu and raised in
   Sighisoara’s citadel was built in the 12th century, when it was                              Sighisoara. The Torture Room is a small but interesting museum
known as Castrum Sex (Fort Six), and was further strengthened                                   housed at the foot of the Clock Tower in the same room where
and extended in the 15th century. The name of Sighisoara was                                    prisoners were tortured and confessions were extorted during
first noted in a written document issued by Vlad Dracul, Vlad                                   the Middle Ages. Some of the amazing torture instruments and
the Impaler’s father, in 1431. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the                              methods are on display.
economic growth recorded by Sighisoara’s industrious craftsmen
                                                                                                   Sighisoara was not the biggest or richest of the seven Saxon
                                                                                                walled citadels in Transylvania, but it has become one of the
 The Name oF DraCula
                                                                                                most popular. A walk through the town’s hilly streets with their
 	   Benefiting	 from	 the	 friendship	 of	 the	 Hungarian	 king,	 Sigismund	 I	of	
     Luxembourg,	Vlad	II	Dracul,	the	father	of	Vlad	Tepes,	spent	his	youth	                     original medieval architecture, magical mix of winding cobbled
     at	 the	 royal	 court	 and	 later	 distinguished	 himself	 as	 a	 brave	 knight	 in	       alleys, steep stairways, secluded squares, towers, turrets and
     the	 fight	 against	 the	 Ottoman	 Empire.	 For	 his	 deeds,	 the	 Order	 of	 the	
     Dragon	was	bestowed	upon	him,	hence	the	title	Dracul	(the	Latin	word	                      enchantingly preserved citadel, is like stepping back in time.
     for	dragon	is	draco).	While	in	medieval	lure	dragons	served	as	symbols	
     of	independence,	leadership,	strength	and	wisdom,	the	biblical	associa-          
     tion	 of	 the	 devil	 with	 the	 tempting	 serpent	 gave	 the	 snake-like	 dragon	
     connotations	of	evil.	Thus,	the	Romanian	word	Dracul	stands	in	English	
     for	both	dragon	and	devil.	Dracula,	the	title	of	Vlad	Tepes,	translates	as	
     Son	of	Dracul.

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                                  H e r i tag e : D e stinati on s –out off beate n track

PaPaLLacta – Hot sPrings
in tHe Mist

P    apallacta is a small village in Ecuador located at an altitude
     of 3,300m in the Andes just off of the Eastern Cordilleras
on the road from Quito which leads into the Amazon jungle. The
                                                                           from alpine to tropical jungle. The area characterized by thermal
                                                                           hot springs and wide moors and areas of Andean forest is the
                                                                           perfect site to trek in the nature.
scenic drive from Quito to Papallacta passes through several                  Papallacta, the sleepy little town is situated in a beautiful set-
towns and small villages before ascending to a peak of over                ting of steep hills covered with green cloud forest. The village
4,000m where you can enjoy the beautiful views of mountains                itself is not known as a tourist destination but houses several
and glaciers. Descending from the peak to Papallacta, one                  hot springs and spas. These are set up with various pools with
passes through the portal where the ecosystems transform                   hot volcanic water (of those only two or three are filled with wa-
                                                                           ter at the same time) and that makes it an ideal place to get a

                                                                            TraveliNg arouND eCuaDor
                                                                            To keep in mind:	As	 we	 are	 dealing	 with	 destinations	 that	 often	 lack	 infra-
                                                                                 structure	 in	 most	 cases	 the	 traveler	 should	 be	 equipped	 with	 drinking	
                                                                                 water	 and	 canned	 food.	 Flashlights	 and	 other	 camping	 equipment	 are	
                                                                            Guided tours:	Because	some	places	in	the	country	are	only	little	explored	or	
                                                                                 rather	unvisited	you	definitely	should	go	accompanied	by	a	professional.	
                                                                                 The	communities	in	the	region	usually	offer	this	kind	of	service.	In	case	
                                                                                 of	practicing	extreme	sports	it	is	of	vital	importance	to	have	a	guide.
                                                                            Counting sheep:	 Travelers	 looking	 for	 a	 very	 comfortable	 bed	 and	 five	 star	
                                                                                 services	should	not	travel	to	Ecuador.	One	thing	to	be	considered	before	
                                                                                 setting	out	is	that	in	a	lot	of	places	you	won’t	find	formal	accommoda-
                                                                                 tion:	the	community	hostels	or	pensions	are	the	most	common	option.	In	
                                                                                 a	place	without	accommodation	however	you	can	still	put	up	your	tent.

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H e r i tag e : D e stinati on s –out off beate n track
                               hot soak and relax enjoying the stunning countryside or watch-
                               ing the stars at night. Termas de Papallacta Spa and Resort
                               has good food and the very relaxing thermal pools. The resort
                               offers you spa, swimming pools, restaurant, hotel, and several
                               thermal pools located just next to the Papallacta River. For a
                               small fee, you can take a relaxing dip in the reserve or spend
                               some time there. The whole complex is pretty, new, very well
                               maintained and clean.
                                 Another leading reason to visit Papallacta is the Reserva
                               Ecologica Cayambe-Coca. The beautiful reserve presents
                               miles of lakes and trails in a preserved and secluded setting.
                               The natural surroundings full of paramo vegetation and Andean
                               forest are very good places for the observation of fauna, espe-
                               cially the birds. Typical vegetation decorating the hills is ferns,
                               pumamaquis, bromelias and epiphytes. The reserve receives
                               support from The Nature Conservancy, USAID, Parks in Peril
                               and Rumicocha Ecological Foundation. The reserve is located
                               high in the Andes so it receives quite a bit of rain. The access
                               points are located by the Termas de Papallacta as well as near
                               the summit on the Via Interoceanica (as you reach the summit,
                               look for a cement hut 1/4 mile off the road to the north). The
                               area is often covered in mist but on a clear day you can see
                               surrounding mountains like the Antisana.


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Djenne anD tHe great cLay
                                                                            provide insulation from the sun’s heat. During the day, the walls
                                                                            gradually warm up from the outside; at night, they cool down
                                                                            again. This helps the interior of the mosque to stay cool all day
                                                                            long. The Great Mosque also has roof vents with ceramic caps.
                                                                            These caps, made by the town’s women, can be removed at
                                                                            night to ventilate the interior spaces. However, due to an un-
                                                                            savoury incident with an Italian fashion photography shoot, the
                                                                            mosque is out of bounds for non-Muslim tourists.
                                                                               The annual maintenance of the mosque requires thousands
                                                                            of men climb the walls and replaster the cracks in the walls. Left
                                                                            unattended, the mosque would deteriorate rapidly. The repair or
                                                                            maintenance of the Great Mosque is carried out by the senior
                                                                            masons, who also coordinate the annual spring replastering.
                                                                            Many of the citizens of Djenne work to prepare banco (mud
                                                                            mixed with rice husks) for the event. It may be compared to a
                                                                            community fair with much festivity and laughter. Every spring
                                                                            Djenne’s mosque is replastered. This is a festival at once awe-

D       jenne, the oldest known city in sub-Saharan Africa is situ-         some, messy, meticulous, and fun. For weeks beforehand mud
        ated on an island in the Bani River, in central Mali. It was        is cured. Low vats of the sticky mixture are periodically churned
a prospering city from the 14th until the 16th century, when it             by barefoot boys. The night before the plastering, moonlit streets
acted as an important station on the Trans-Sahara route. Djen-              echo with chants, switch-pitch drums, and lilting flutes. A high
ne was also known as a center of Islamic                                    whistle blows three short beats. On the fourth, perfectly cued, a
learning and pilgrimage, attracting                                                    hundred voices roar, and the throng sets off on a
students and pilgrims from all over                                                      massive mud-fetch. By dawn the actual replastering
West Africa. Its Great Mosque                                                             has been underway for some time. Other teams,
dominates the large mar-                                                                    bringing mud, charge shouting through the huge
ket square of Djenne.                                                                         main square and swarm across the mosque’s
Tradition has it that the                                                                      terrace. Mixing work and play, young boys
first mosque was built in                                                                        dash everywhere, some caked with mud
1240 by the sultan Koi                                                                                 from head to toe.
Kunboro, who converted                                                                                           Other attractions of Djenne
to Islam and turned his                                                                                        include the Tomb of Tupama
palace into a mosque. Very                                                                                     Djenepo, who in legend was
little is known about the ap-                                                                                  sacrificed on the founding
pearance of the first mosque, but it was con-                                                               of the city, and the remains of
sidered too sumptuous by Sheikh Amadou, the ruler                                                       Djenne-Jeno, a major city from the
of Djenne in the early nineteenth century. The Sheikh                                               3rd century BC until the 13th century.
built a second mosque in the 1830’s and allowed the first                                          Three kilometers to the southeast, the
one to fall into disrepair. The present mosque completed                                                       large mound of Djenne-Jeno
in 1907, was designed by the architect Ismaila Traoré,                                                         (ancient Djenne) or Djoboro
the head of Djenne guild of masons.                                                                            is claimed by oral traditions
    The Great Mosque is built on a raised plinth platform                                                     as the original settlement of
of rectangular sun-dried mud bricks that are held togeth-                                                     Djenne. Barren and carpeted
er by mud mortar and plastered over with mud. The walls                                       b y          a thick layer of broken pottery,
vary in thickness between sixteen and twenty-four inches,                                   Djen-         ne-Jeno lays mute for decades, its
depending upon their height. These massive walls are neces-                                history and significance totally unknown. Scientif-
sary in order to bear the weight of the tall structure and also                        ic excavations in the 1970’s and 1980’s in addition to

                                                                                                                           Januar y, 2008
                                 H e r i tag e : D e stinati on s –out off beate n track

more than doubling the period of known history for this region,           quite a number of tourists each year, the visitors often com-
provided some surprises regarding the local development of so-            plain about the lack of hotel services of reasonable quality and
ciety. The results indicated that earlier assumptions about the           cleanliness. The very world heritage status of the town seems
emergence of complex social organization in urban settlements             to present another trouble because it is not allowed to con-
and the development of long-distance trade as innovations ap-             struct modern sewerage there. When the visitors roam around
pearing only after the arrival of the Arabs in North Africa in the        the streets, the first thing that strikes them is thus the stench.
seventh and eighth centuries were incorrect. The archaeology              These drawbacks however might be possibly appreciated by
of Djenne-Jeno and the surrounding area clearly showed an                 many ecotourists and tradition lovers.
early, indigenous growth of trade and social complexity. The im-
portance of this discovery has resulted in the entry of Djenne- 
Jeno, along with the old Town of Djenne and its Great Mosque
on the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites.
  Although not known worldwide, the town of Djenne is a unique
destination for heritage loving tourists. The weekly market, when
buyers and sellers converge in the town from the surrounding
regions, is also key tourist attraction. Although Djenne enjoys

                       unusuaL sPorts

always popular thrill seekers’ section is
dedicated this time to adrenaline sports
on land, under the water, as well as in the
sky. ever heard of jumping stilts? ever
tried heli-skiing? thinking about explor-
ing wrecks in the deep sea? come and
read about these breathtaking fun activi-
                                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                              a Dv e n t u r e : Unu su al spor ts

outrageous aDventures:
breatHtaking ways
to PusH tHe enveLoPe
                                                                          out of the plane,» he admits, recalling how he felt as he bal-
                                                                          anced in the doorway of the plane. «My biggest fear was being
                                                                          alone under the parachute and not being able to successfully
                                                                          land it.» He was surprised by how he felt as he tumbled toward
                                                                          earth. «It does not feel like falling, just like a fan set on high. You
                                                                          get a maximum adrenaline rush for that short period of time.
                                                                            Foust was ecstatic when his parachute opened 5,500 feet. «I
                                                                          am hooked,» he confesses. As of March, Foust had completed
                                                                          67 jumps, sometimes doing up to six jumps in one day. «Skydiv-
                                                                          ing is as dangerous as you make it. If you respect the sport and
                                                                          follow the instructions, you will be just fine,» explains Adventure
                                                                          Center Skydiving owner Tim Sayre. An air traffic controller for
                                                                          15 years, Sayre started skydiving in 1983 and now has 8,000
                                                                          jumps under his belt. He purchased the company in 2000. «Sky
                                                                          diving is a confidence-builder for sure,» Sayre notes. «And
                                                                          there is no age limit: we recently had a Bay Area woman who
                                                                          was celebrating her 96th birthday with a tandem skydive.»
                                                                            Land lover adventures: How fast can you go?
                                                                            Spend a long weekend in Napa in California and you might
                                                                          visit some wineries, relax at a spa and shop at some boutiques.
                                                                          Or, if that sounds a bit prosaic, why not learn to drive one of the
                                                                          fastest cars on earth? That’s what Cathy Sivori did to celebrate
                                                                          her 39th birthday. At the Jim Russell Racing School, which is
                                                                          located at the Infineon Raceway in Sonoma, Sivori signed up
                                                                          for the Half Day Jim Russell Test Drive and learned how to drive
  Adventures in the sky: How high can you go?                             a Formula Mitsubishi racecar, which can reach speeds of up to
  Shawn Foust never intended to get hooked on skydiving. It all           200 miles per hour.
started with an unusual present from his wife for his 32nd birth-           «I knew that these cars are set up to go really fast,» said
day: the chance to plunge from a plane flying at 15,000 feet. On          Sivori, who was nervous before the start of her test drive. A
a clear day last November, the Seaside couple took a leap of              fan of NASCAR racing and a frequent visitor to Sears Point,
faith together and they both signed up for training at Adventure          she had never sat in a racecar. After reviewing the basics, in-
Center Skydiving in Hollister. Foust, a federal agent with the            cluding shifting, braking, the clutch and the gas, the instructors
Department of Defense, and his wife, an Air Force captain at              explained the layout of the track and how to take corners. With
Monterey’s Naval Postgraduate School, had never embarked                  instructors on the track to monitor her Sivori climbed into the car
on anything like this, even during their military training.               to check out Infineon’s technical and challenging road course,
  «We took a day-long class and learned step-by-step on the               which includes 13 turns and 150 feet of elevation.
ground,» says Foust. «The instructors take you through drills in            «One of the hardest parts for me was not giving the car
the classroom, simulating what you will do later. We learned about        enough gas before cornering,» said Sivori. «I was afraid the
equipment and emergency procedures.» But nothing could have               car’s back end would slide out.» However, by the end of the
fully prepared Foust for the moment before his first skydive.             class, Sivori reached the maximum speed allowed for that
  «It was louder than I expected, with the 100-plus-miles-an-             test drive: 80 miles an hour in fourth gear. «The half-day pro-
hour winds roaring. I was nervous. It’s not a natural act to jump         gram is an opportunity for someone who’s always wanted to

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                                                  a Dv e n t u r e : Unu su al spor ts
                                                                                 During the Wild Cave Tour, which spans from four to six hours,
                                                                               a visitor will also see crystal clear lakes and may spot one of
                                                                               nine species of bat, as well as salamanders and spiders that
                                                                               dwell in the dark interior. The temperature remains a constant
                                                                               49 degrees F.«That trip changed my life,» says Roberts. Now a
                                                                               caving guide himself who goes on 15 caving trips a season, Big
                                                                               Bill assures his clients that if he can squeeze his 6-foot-2-inch,
                                                                               230-pound frame into a narrow underground passageway, they
                                                                               can too.
                                                                                   Wet & wild adventure: How raging can you go?
                                                                                   Before her first whitewater raft trip on the upper Cache Creek
                                                                               River in Northern California, Rachanee Sporl worried that her
                                                                               boat would flip and she would hit her head on a rock. «I was a
drive a race car to experience the Formula Mitsubishi,» said                   little nervous,» confesses Sporl, 40, a Santa Cruz County resi-
Del Leutbecher, director of sales and business development at                  dent who claims she is not the «adventurous type.» While her
the racing school. Leutbecher estimated that 80 percent of a                   worst fears did not materialize, her raft did indeed flip over–mul-
student’s time is spent in the car and on the track.                           tiple times. «The churning whitewater was totally out of control
   Opened 49 years ago in Britain by racer Jim Russell, the                    at times,» says her husband, Dan Sporl. «But the guides told
school, which has a second location in France, specializes in                  us what to do when your boat capsizes: keep your feet up.»
open wheel racing, which is even more popular in Europe than                   The Sporls had so much fun on that excursion with that for their
in the U. S.                                                                   second whitewater raft trip, the couple invited four other family
   «It felt like flying. It was a big thrill for me,» Sivori says, men-        members to join them on an overnight weekend excursion on
tioning that she plans to return to the school for more training.              the upper Cache, two hours north of San Francisco.
                                                                                   Their «Go Whitewater» adventure began on a Saturday morn-
   Underground adventures: How low can you go?                                 ing with an hour-long shuttle ride up the gorge, which provided
   «People come from all over the world to see this park,» says                gorgeous views of the Calusa Mountains and glimpses of the
Carey Goldstein, a naturalist who manages Crystal Cave in                      river. After they arrived at the Cache Creek River, the guides
Sequoia National Park, the U. S. Park System’s second oldest                   gave an onshore briefing on rafting, reviewing the different lev-
park. «For a cave of its size, the number of formations and the                els of rapids, which are grouped in classes one through six.
variety is pretty hard to beat. The colors are very vivid. It is a             They learned that Class 1 is flat water, 2 is beginner whitewater,
living cave–water flows through year-round, making the bands                   3 is much more intense with rocks and obstacles, 4 is advanced
of blue, white and gray marble shiny.»                                         whitewater and 5 is the expert level.
   To explore Crystal Cave, the park offers Visitors two types of                  «A Class 6 is unrunnable. It is one-way trip that you prob-
tours: the regular walking tour and the Wild Cave Tour. «What                  ably won’t come back from,» explains Miles Miltner, who runs
makes the Wild Cave Tour special is that you get to see parts                  whitewater raft trips on the Truckee River, out of Lake Tahoe,
of the cave that you would not see on a normal tour,» explains                 with his company, Tahoe Whitewater Tours. With many river
Goldstein, noting that the expedition size is limited to six people            outings focusing on Class 3 rapids, «the excitement of the trip
at a time. «There are no lights at all except the ones you wear–               comes from the boat being tossed by the water, maneuvering
we provide coveralls, plus a hard hat that looks like a miner hel-             around rocks and getting splashed. It is like a roller coaster ride
met with lights. You crawl on your stomach deep into the cave.»                at times,» says Miltner, whose trips range from a half-day to
If a guest becomes claustrophobic and needs to leave the tour,                 two-day excursions.
he says the cave exit is not far away.                                             «We jumped in and started paddling away,» recalls Racha-
   «Crystal Cave is absolutely wonderful,» says spelunker «Big                 nee Sporl. «We started in a calm spot, then turned a bend and
Bill» Roberts. A veteran of show caves on walking tours, he had                saw little ripples, then rocks, then all of a sudden it was the
never done off-trail caving until he went on the Crystal Cave                  whitewater rapids! I was a little scared, but the adrenaline just
Wild Cave Tour in the spring of 2000. «Everything is dripping,                 carries you through,» she says. «What made it fun for me is
sparkling and pristine,» he notes. «You can tour several large                 that the river changes, so it is always new and different. ” The
chambers, 30-to 40-foot rooms, and see every type of formation                 Sporls are planning another family whitewater raft trip for the
in caves–sculpted marble, beautiful stalactites and stalagmites.               next summer.
As you go deeper in the cave, you go through dry, sandy, twisty,
interconnecting passages before you work your way down to                        By Karen Kefauver
big boulders and finally water and mud. You also have to go          
through the ‘rat-hole’ – a passage through the rock that is about
a 6-foot tube that is just big enough to squiggle through.»

                                                                                                                           Januar y, 2008
                                              a Dv e n t u r e : Unu su al spor ts

PoweriZer juMPing stiLts:
for your inner suPer-Hero

J    umping Stilts are known by many names including: Pow-
     erizers, Powerisers, Powerskips, Velocity Stilts, Flyjump-
ers, 7 League Boots, SkyRunner, Pro-Jumps, and Powerbocks.
                                                                            After learning to stand, walk and run, jumping is the next chal-
                                                                          lenge to overcome. There are two styles of jumps. Jumping with
Poweriser is the latest in extreme sports! It enables the users to        one foot is just glorified running. The main difference is in aim-
run and jump with super human speed and strength! How’s that              ing your power upwards instead of forwards. Try to stand in one
possible? Powerisers possess a unique fiberglass spring which             place on the bouncing stilts and alternate jumping with your right
is loaded with your gravitational potential and kinetic energy!           and left leg. The trick is to step off as hard as you can when you
Simply push upon the spring using your weight and the spring              are at the lowest point in the momentum, bounce back, and then
pushes back! Poweriser running and jumping stilts will enable             change legs so you are touching the ground with the next one.
you to jump to heights of 5-7 feet and run at speeds of 17-21               Balancing yourself is more difficult with two footed jumps due
mph! A perfect leg training activity!                                     to the increased spring resistance of the jump stilts. This is the
  Before you start, it is recommended that you kit yourself out           strongest of all jumps and is the one which can shoot you 6 feet
with a helmet, wrist, elbow and knee pads. Never use pow-                 in the air. Start by standing still for a second and then press
erisers without this safety gear. Don’t use poweriSers on wet             downward as you bend your legs slightly. Do this once and stop
grass or slipper surfaces. Try not to step on leaves or pieces            to regain your balance. When you feel you can do it without los-
of paper as you don’t know what is under them. Watch out for              ing balance, do it several times in a row. Try to press harder on
puddles.                                                                  the jumping stilts for more altitude.

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 Will These give me superhumaN abiliTy? CaN i really
     ruN 20 mph?
 	   The	simple	answer	is	yes,	it	is	possible,	jumping	stilts	have	been	consid-
     ered	for	military	application.	One	particular	set	of	stilts	was	tested	by	the	
     US	Air	Force.	The	user	maintained	an	average	speed	of	23	MPH	while	
     chasing	a	military	quad.

  Cool tricks for the experts
  Giant Leaps
  Giant leaps are the natural graduation to being a quality jump-
er. To begin with, make a few small jumps with both legs and
every time you jump kick your legs out straight and press more
power downwards for higher and higher bouncing.
  Back Grab
  This is a cool trick if you manage to maintain good balance.
Jump up and down with both legs at the same time and try to                                fall! The only difference to a regular back flip is the unsteady
bend both of them together. It looks better if your legs don’t lose                        landing and your timing will have to be perfect. This is not a trick
contact with each other. As you get better at it, try to make the                          we recommend since it is so dangerous and the risk of injuries
bend deeper and deeper. When you can do this without falling,                              is high. But if you are a real powerizer expert, this is the ultimate
rotate your upper body to either right or left and grab your heels                         trick!
with one hand.
  Back Flips
  If you think you can pull off a back flip then you are already
very confident and we can’t give you much advice. If you fail a
back flip with powerizers then you have another half meter to

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                                                a Dv e n t u r e : Unu su al spor ts

wreck Diving:
a gLiMPse of tHe Past
                                                                             day, more and more divers are entering the water to seek out
                                                                                Although most wreck dive sites are at shipwrecks, there is an
                                                                             increasing trend to scuttle retired ships to create artificial dive
                                                                             sites. Shipwreck diving enables sport divers to visit the past.
                                                                             Each wreck is considered a time capsule into history waiting
                                                                             to be explored. Sport divers also make interesting artifact finds
                                                                             while exploring the remains of sunken ships. This enables the
                                                                             sport diving community to make its own contribution to histori-
                                                                             ans and archaeologists by giving them the information needed
                                                                             for wreck identification and further research.
                                                                                There are thousands of shipwrecks located throughout the
                                                                             waters of the world, as well as many ships that were sunk inten-
                                                                             tionally for divers. However, the enjoyment of wreck diving is not
                                                                             limited to those dives made on a ship. It may be just as exciting
                                                                             to dive on a sunken airplane or maybe even an automobile or
                                                                             a bus.
                                                                                Naturally, there are possible hazards associated with wreck
                                                                             diving that divers need to keep in mind. Wrecks are often
                                                                             snagged by fishing lines or nets and the structure may be fragile
                                                                             and break without notice. Considerations include sharp edges,
                                                                             entanglement, depth, currents, and penetration. You should not
                                                                             attempt to penetrate a wreck without proper equipment and
                                                                                Divers will inevitably want to delve into a wreck that appeals
                                                                             to them, the enticing gloom and lure of the unknown is ever
                                                                             present. It can be complex to put into words the magnetism that
                                                                             can take a hold on you for wanting to explore within a wreck, it
                                                                             goes to the core of what it is to be a diver and push back an-
                                                                             other frontier within oneself.

O       ver the centuries, maritime engineers made ships larger,
        faster, and more powerful. But all of these ships had one
thing in common with every other ship built in two millennia of
                                                                                Wrecks come in different shapes and sizes, some wrecks are
                                                                             so open and dispersed that a rookie diver would be safe drift-

seafaring: they can sink! Once a ship sinks, the underwater
world makes the ship its own. The wreck transforms into an
artificial reef that attracts fish and other aquatic life, along with
  The first wreck dives resulted from a profit motive. The Phoe-
nicians, Greeks, and Romans sent breath-hold divers down to
recover cargo from their ships when they sank in shallow water.
More recently, when seventeenth and eighteenth century Span-
ish galleons sank in the Caribbean, diving salvors attempted,
sometimes quite successfully, to recover lost treasure. These
days, we go wreck diving simply to capture a glimpse into the
past. This leads us to the depths to explore around, and per-
haps even enter into, these monuments of days gone by. To-

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ing around it, others are so enclosed, dark and dangerous that               that divers can only exit backwards and an almost sinister way
even professional wreck divers may perish exploring them. The                that loss of direction occurs can be many hazards and chal-
marine encrusted tight hatches and doorways tend to be de-                   lenges they entail.
signed for sealing compartments off and can be quite small, a                  The wreck-diving mavericks who learnt from experience may
challenging obstacle for a fully equipped diver.                             scoff at such things; after all they may often pioneer into the
   It is wise to try and remind the adventurous divers spirit to             unknown and self-rescue themselves sufficiently with no prob-
temper the need to go forth and roam freely with common sense                lems. It must be argued in their favour that a cool head and slick
and a realistic outlook when it comes to this aspect of wreck                dive skill is a key factor in escaping from underwater dangers.
diving. If the surface is not directly accessible from a penetra-            So be safe out there and be careful divers.
tion point on a wreck then the necessary precautions should be
taken and be aware that now you are entering a serious level       
of responsibility. It is a level of responsibility that can mean your
very life is at stake if you don’t proceed wisely. A diver roped
to a buddy on stand-by at the wreck entry point is a lifeline in
every sense of the word and should be considered a minimum.
Within some wrecks collapsing structures, dead-end corridors

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toP tiPs for cHoosing
a HeLiski HoLiDay
                                                                          than this you will be charged for it – usually about US $75 per
                                                                          1,000 metres. However, if bad weather prevents flying you’re
                                                                          refunded at the same rate for unskied vertical. The amount can
                                                                          vary from one operation to another though, so it’s important to
                                                                          know exactly what you’re committing yourself to before booking
                                                                          a trip. And watch out – some operations will include one amount
                                                                          of skiing in the price whilst only actually guaranteeing a lesser
                                                                            Wilderness lodge or hotel accommodation?
                                                                            In either case you’ll be spoiled rotten, but the wilderness lodge
                                                                          does give you more of a – well, a wilderness feel.
                                                                             What’s the terrain like?
                                                                             It’s vital you check this and ensure you’re going to ski with an
                                                                          operation that can provide the kind of terrain you like. Most op-

T      here are few opportunities in life to feel like a daredevil
       action man or woman, but here’s one suggestion – try he-
liskiing. Imagine the finest run you’ve ever done in a regular
                                                                          erations cover such big territories that there is plenty of variety.
                                                                          However, many will not take you on steeper terrain, some em-
                                                                          phasise tree skiing and some have no tree skiing at all (such as
ski resort and then imagine doing something at least that good            in Alaska). Look into this before you go and make sure you end
and probably a hundred times better – all day long. There are             up somewhere that definitely has what you want – something
no crowds, no lines, no ice, no lifts. Just you, your friends and         that can be hard to get from a company that does not want to
thousands of square miles of untracked powder. That’s why he-             lose your business to a competitor.
liskiers go back year after year! What’s more, the ski experience
of a lifetime is open to any decent intermediate skier or above.             When is the best time to go?
Heli skiing is no longer the preserve of the experts with modern             It really depends on where you go. As a general rule, the sea-
fat skis (which you’ll be provided with).                                 son in Canada is very reliable from January through until mid
   So how do you choose a fabulous heli skiing holiday? If you            April, often with some of the best conditions late in March and
are booking for the first time – or even if you’re a seasoned heli        early April. As you get closer to the equator, the window for opti-
skier or boarder – here are some insider questions to ask:                mal conditions tends to narrow somewhat. On certain weeks of
                                                                          the year demand is slightly less, so prices are lower, but condi-
  How many groups share a helicopter?                                     tions are still excellent. Choosing one of these – they’re usually
  This can make a big difference to how much skiing you get               outside the main school holiday periods and at the start and end
in, how ‘wild’ the mountains feel and how much potential other            of the season – can give you excellent value for money.
skiers/boarders have to disrupt what you want to do. You will
                                                                            But how do you get the best value for money?
get the best experience – and better value for money – by going
with an operator that has fewer groups using the helicopter.                With competition on the Internet becoming quite intense
                                                                          many companies are advertising deceptively low prices (this is
   How many skiers/boarders per group?                                    particularly true for Russian heli ski outfits) in order to attract
   This varies between three and eleven. Smaller groups prob-             business. Whilst these operations may appear less expensive
ably give you more flexibility, but if you have a large group of          than others you could find on closer inspection (or maybe only
friends it can be fun to ski or ride together. You will also want
to ensure the group you will be skiing with is at the same level           	   Hans	 Gmoser,	 a	 mountain	 guide	 and	 Austrian	 immigrant	 to	 Canada,	
as you.                                                                        is	generally	credited	with	starting	heli-skiing	in	1965	in	the	Bugaboos	
                                                                               Mountains	of	British	Columbia	(although	he	experimented	with	helicop-
  What is the refund policy when you can’t ski?                                ter	 accessed	 skiing	 in	 the	 years	 proceeding	 in	 the	 front	 ranges	 of	 the	
                                                                               Canadian	Rockies	west	of	Calgary).	Evidence	suggests	that	heli-skiing	
  Most operations guarantee 30,500 vertical metres of heli ski-                may	have	even	taken	place	earlier	in	the	late	50’s	or	early	60’s	in	Alaska,	
ing as part of a week-long package. If you choose to ski more                  Wyoming	or	Utah	based	on	old	photos	in	ski	books.

                                                                                                                           Januar y, 2008
                                               a Dv e n t u r e : Unu su al spor ts

once you arrive) that significantly less vertical is guaranteed as             In conclusion, you can see that when you go heliskiing there
part of the overall package, and you will actually end up paying           is range of factors to consider that don’t necessarily come into
more to ski once you go over that guaranteed amount. It can                play when you are booking a resort holiday. So it is worth doing
often be the case that the heli ski companies which initially ap-          it through a specialist heliski tour operator, who can show you a
pear most expensive work out to be the best value for money…               range of options and answer your questions.
so check them out carefully.
   On a pure cost basis, heliskiing is not cheap, but in return for          By Alf Anderson
your hard won cash, you get the ski experience of a lifetime.    
How else could you ever ski 15 runs (or more) in a day on pris-
tine powder with only a few friends for company? And when you
add it all up, a few days skiing costs the equivalent of a couple
of pints a night over the course of a year – so cut down on the
beer and go heliskiing instead!

                                                                                                                            Januar y, 2008
                                              a Dv e n t u r e : Unu su al spor ts


If   you hear people talking about «soaring along ridges» and
     «hunting for thermals,» don’t be confused. These folks are
most likely discussing paragliding, an increasingly popular air
                                                                          fly off a hill and the only noise is the wind in your ears. You are
                                                                          free, floating, and looking at the mountains, the coast and cruis-
                                                                          ing along slowly–at 15 to 20 miles an hour. To see the sunset
sport. Paragliding is huge in Europe,» says Jeff Greenbaum,               from the sky is totally phenomenal.»
a paragliding instructor and the owner of Air Time San Fran-                 Greenbaum agrees. «When you are flying, you feel like a
cisco. Now it is taking off here in the U. S. » Not to be confused        bird. You can feel the pressure of the wind on the wing and it
with parasailing or hang-gliding, paragliding uses a non-rigid,           feels like an extension of yourself. It is quite magical,» he says.
parachute-like canopy, under which the pilot is suspended from            For those who want to experience paragliding with minimal time
a harness in a seated position. The paraglider takes off from
hills or mountains and relies on air currents and winds to gain
   Last November, after waiting years to try it, Terry Lee finally
started taking paragliding lessons with Greenbaum. «At the first
launch, I felt a little bit of fear,» says Lee, 43, who works for
OSHA in Oakland. «I lost that fear real quick though, because
I was busy soaking in all the views. I was thinking, ‘Wow. It
doesn’t get any better than this. ’» It generally takes between
eight and 15 lessons for one of Greenbaum’s students to learn
to fly on his or her own. That time frame may vary due to weath-
er and by how well the student masters basic skills. «To me, it is
very relaxing,» explains Lee. «At the end of a stressful day, you

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 riDge soariNg
 	   In	ridge	soaring,	pilots	fly	along	the	length	of	a	ridge	feature	in	the	land-
     scape,	 relying	 on	 the	 lift	 provided	 by	 the	 air	 which	 is	 forced	 up	 as	 it	
     passes	 over	 the	 ridge.	 Ridge	 soaring	 is	 highly	 dependent	 on	 a	 steady	
     wind	within	a	defined	range	(the	suitable	range	depends	on	the	perfor-
     mance	of	the	wing	and	the	skill	of	the	pilot).
 Thermal FlyiNg
 	   When	the	sun	warms	the	ground,	it	will	warm	some	features	more	than	
     others	(such	as	rock-faces	or	large	buildings),	and	these	set	off	thermals	
     which	rise	through	the	air.	Sometimes	these	may	be	a	simple	rising	col-
     umn	 of	 air;	 more	 often,	 they	 are	 blown	 sideways	 in	 the	 wind,	 and	will	
     break	off	from	the	source,	with	a	new	thermal	forming	later.
 Cross-CouNTry FlyiNg
 	   Once	 the	 skills	 of	 using	 thermals	 to	 gain	 altitude	 have	 been	 mastered,	
     pilots	can	glide	from	one	thermal	to	the	next	to	go	‘cross-country’	(‘XC’).	
     Having	gained	altitude	in	a	thermal,	a	pilot	glides	down	to	the	next	avail-
     able	thermal.	Potential	thermals	can	be	identified	by	land	features	which	
     typically	 generate	 thermals,	 or	 by	 cumulus	 clouds	 which	 mark	 the	 top	
     of	a	rising	column	of	warm,	humid	air	as	it	reaches	the	dew	point	and	
     condenses	to	form	a	cloud.

investment, a tandem flight is the way to go. «Anyone can do
it,» according to Greenbaum. However, he strongly encourages
students to learn how to fly on their own. It took Lee about eight
lessons to master the skies. So far, the highlight of his paraglid-
ing adventures was a recent trip to Big Sur, where he had a
40-minute flight and plenty of time coasting about the ocean,
soaring to 3,200 feet.

               innovations anD risks
innovation is a must in many industries,
including tourism. How to be innova-
tive? What marketing strategies are best
to follow? What about the others – how
did they achieve success? are there any
risks in implementing new products and
                                                                                                                             Januar y, 2008
                                             bu si n e s s : Inov ati on s and r i sks

stuDy: DistinguisHing
successfuL new services
in tHe HosPitaLity inDustry
                                                                           is a lack of research in new service development (NSD) com-
                                                                           pared to new product development (NPD).
                                                                              Knowledge about how to achieve success is limited because
                                                                           the failure rate for NSD remains high. The success rate for new
                                                                           service projects are on average 58 percent; in other words, four
                                                                           out of ten new services fail in the market place. Thus, an un-
                                                                           derstanding of the factors that impact new service performance
                                                                           has to increase if organisations are to significantly improve their
                                                                           success rate. It is surprising that NSD in the hospitality industry,
                                                                           one of the largest industries worldwide has not been specifically
                                                                              Based on previous empirical studies of NSD, the following
                                                                           four groups of success determinants have been identified:
                                                                           • Product related: service advantage, tangible quality, func-
                                                                              tional quality and innovative technology
                                                                           • Market related: market synergy, market attractiveness and
                                                                           • Process related: NSD process pre-launch activities, em-
                                                                              ployee involvement in process, launch preparation, effective
                                                                              marketing communication and NSD process management
                                                                           • Organisation related: reputation and overall synergy
                                                                              Interviews with hospitality managers indicated that the most
                                                                           critical aspect of NSD in the hospitality sector are employees.
                                                                           Hotels often have the same hardware and they can only distin-
                                                                           guish their services through their employees. This means that
                                                                           it is very important to include issues relating to employee man-
                                                                           agement when assessing the performance of new services.
                                                                           Therefore, in addition to these existing determinants of NSD
  New service development                                                  success, this study has also developed new measures relat-
  At the start of the twenty-first century, the service industry is        ing to employee management within the NSD process. These
of fundamental relevance within our economic system, as the                are strategic human resource management, selective staffing,
service segment produces the highest growth in gross domestic              training of employees, behavior based evaluation, empower-
product of industrialized countries. On the other hand, service            ment and formalization.
organisations face an unstable and turbulent business envi-                   The evaluation of new services and products is most frequent-
ronment. The market place for services is dominated by rapid               ly based on financial measures of performance. Nevertheless,
changes in customer needs, fierce competition, globalization               using only financial measures is too limited, because it neglects
and technical innovations. These challenging market conditions             several aspects of benefits of the company. This study, there-
demand that service organisations constantly develop success-              fore, measured NSD performance along twelve dimensions: to-
ful new services, if they want to succeed and survive. Despite             tal sales, market share, profitability, improved loyalty, improved
the importance of successfully developing new services, there              image, enhanced profitability and sales of other hotel services,

                                                                                                                             Januar y, 2008
                                            bu si n e s s : Inov ati on s and r i sks
opened up new markets, attracted new customers, cost ef-                         cessful new hotel developments are more likely to train
ficiencies, customer satisfaction, positive employee feed-                          their employees in interpersonal and general skills.
back and competencies of employees. The data collection                              Furthermore, successful projects are more likely to
involved a mail survey of the hotel sector in Germany.                               view training as a high priority, systematically structure
                                                                                   the training and spend significant money on it.
                                                                                       Employee commitment: The successful new hotel
   Market attractiveness: Market attractiveness was the                                services have higher levels of employee involve-
number one factor that distinguished between suc-                                         ment, especially on the idea generation step and
cessful new hotel service developments from less                                              the planning and design stage.
successful ones. Successful projects target with
their new service developments high growth                                                       Marketing synergy: The level of synergies
markets, high dollar volume markets or fo-                                                     between the new hotel service project and
cused on markets, which offer high margins                                                   the existing range of services/products and the
for the new service projects.                                                           marketing expertise and resources effectively dis-
                                                                                       tinguishes between successful and less successful
   Strategic human resource management:                                                performance.
This was the second most important discriminator
between successful and less successful projects. Suc-                                     The findings indicate that of the four key groups
cessful new hotel developments have higher levels of                                     of determinants of new service performance, mar-
strategic human resource management in their firms in                                    ket and organisational dimensions are particularly
regard to their ability to attract excellent staff, unique-                              critical. Several success factors found in previous
ness and superiority to competition and linking them to                                  NSD studies have been confirmed, which are:
strategic business planning. Furthermore, human re-                                    market attractiveness, market responsiveness, em-
source management practices have a high importance                                     ployee involvement in the process, employee com-
in the development of the service project and employ-                                  mitment and marketing synergy. In addition, new
ees and human resource management practices are                                         measures in regard to employee management were
difficult to copy.                                                                      of fundamental importance. The new factors of em-
                                                                                        ployee management that have impact on NSD per-
   Market responsiveness: The third position was                                       formance were strategic human resource manage-
taken by market responsiveness thus the success-                                        ment, empowerment and training of employees. On
ful new hotel service developments were developed                                       the other hand, several success factors have not
as a response of understanding and implementing                                            been confirmed for the hospitality sector, such as
customer needs and wants and responding to chang-                                            service advantage, functional quality and NSD
es in consumer needs and wants.                                                               process management.
   Empowerment: Empowerment was also an important
factor that distinguished successful new hotel service de-
velopments from less successful ones. This suggests that suc-
cessful new hotel services are more likely to allow employees               By Michael Ottenbacher
to use their discretion and own judgment in solving problems.   
Furthermore, successful projects are more likely to transfer re-
sponsibilities, provide opportunities for personal initiatives and
trust their employees.
   Training of employees: The importance of training of em-
ployees has been shown in all NSD success studies. The suc-

                                                                                                                            Januar y, 2008
                                             bu si n e s s : Inov ati on s and r i sks

risk vs. success: ten ways
to boost innovation
                                                                             3. Think like a venture capitalist
                                                                             VCs use a portfolio approach and balance the risk of losing
                                                                           with the upside of winning. They like to consider lots of pro-
                                                                           posals. They are comfortable with the knowledge that many of
                                                                           the ideas they back will fail. These are all important lessons for
                                                                           corporate executives who typically consider only a handful of
                                                                           proposals and who abhor failure.
                                                                             4. Have a dynamic suggestion scheme
                                                                             Great suggestion schemes are focused, easy to use, well re-
                                                                           sourced, responsive and open to all. They do not need to offer
                                                                           huge rewards. Recognition and response are generally more
                                                                           important. Above all, they have to have the whole-hearted com-
                                                                           mitment of the senior team to keep them fresh, properly man-
                                                                           aged and successful.
                                                                             5. Break the rules
                                                                             To achieve radical innovation you have to challenge the as-
                                                                           sumptions that govern how things should look in your environ-
                                                                           ment. Business is not like sport, with its well defined rules and
                                                                           referees. It is more like art and is rife with opportunity for the
                                                                           lateral thinker who can create new ways to provide the goods
  1. Have a vision for change
                                                                           and services customers want.
  You cannot expect your team to be innovative if they do not
know the direction in which they are heading. Innovation has                 6. Give everyone two jobs
to have a purpose. It is up to the leader to set  the course                 Give all your people two key objectives. Ask them to run their
and give a bearing for the future. You need                                current jobs in the most effective way possible and at the same
one overarching statement that defines the                                 time to find completely new ways to do the job. Encourage your
direction for the business and that people                                 employees to ask themselves–what is the essential purpose of
will readily understand and remember.                                      my role? What is the outcome that I deliver that is of real value
Great leaders spend time illustrating the                                     to my clients (internal and external)? Is there a better way
vision, goals and challenges. They explain                                       to deliver that value or purpose? The answer is always
to people how their role is crucial in fulfilling                                                       «yes», but most people never ask
the vision and meeting the challenges. They                                                              the question.
inspire men and women to become passion-
ate entrepreneurs, finding innovative routes                                                              7. Collaborate
to success.                                                                                              Many CEOs see collaboration
                                                                                                       as key to their success with inno-
  2. Fight the fear of change                                                                        vation. They know they cannot do it
  Innovative leaders constantly evangelize the                                                      all using internal resources. So they
need for change. They replace the comfort of                                     look outside for other organisations to partner with. A
complacency with the hunger of ambition. They                                   good example is the Mercedes and Swatch collaboration,
will say, «We are doing well but we cannot rest on                           which produced the Smart car. Each brought different skills
our laurels, we need to do even better.» They explain t h a t              and experiences to the team.
while trying new ventures is risky, standing still is even riskier.
They must paint a picture that shows an appealing future that is              8. Welcome failure
worth taking risks to achieve. The prospect involves perils and op-           The innovative leader encourages a culture of experimenta-
portunities. The only way to get there is by embracing change.             tion. You must teach people that each failure is a step along

                                                                                          Januar y, 2008
                                              bu si n e s s : Inov ati on s and r i sks
the road to success. To be truly agile, you must give people the
freedom to innovate, experiment and to succeed. That means
you must give them the freedom to fail, too.
  9. Build prototypes
  People’s Bank has a refreshingly original attitude to new
ideas. «Don’t debate it, test it,» is the motto of this innovative
American financial services organisation. Try the new idea at
low cost in a section of the market and see what the customers’
reactions are. You will learn far more in the real world than you
will in the test laboratory or with focus groups.
  10. Be passionate
  Focus on the things that you want to change, the most impor-
tant challenges you face and be passionate about overcoming
them. Your energy and drive will translate itself into direction
and inspiration for your people. It is no good filling your bus with
contented, complacent passengers. You want evangelists, pas-
sionate supporters. You want people who believe that reaching
the destination is really worthwhile. If you want to inspire people
to innovate, to change the way they do things and to achieve
extraordinary results, then you have to be passionate about
what you believe in and you have to communicate that passion
every time you speak.

  by Paul Sloane

                                                                                                                               Januar y, 2008
                                              bu si n e s s : Inov ati on s and r i sks

sPace tourisM:
Marketing DifficuLties
                                                                            frontier. Private sector space technology research for commer-
                                                                            cial flight operations will improve spaceflight capabilities; de-
                                                                            velop spin off technologies which could benefit the government
                                                                            space endeavors as well as non-space activities. Reusable,
                                                                            reliable spacecraft can also reduce the current costs of satel-
                                                                            lites, on which we depend for communications, entertainment,
                                                                            weather forecasting, environmental management, search and
                                                                            rescue operations, and national security.
                                                                               New-to-world product
                                                                               Commuter space travel itself is also sure to roar to life as a big
                                                                            business, at least that is what space entrepreneurs are hoping
                                                                            for. But getting personal spaceflight solidly off the ground – and
                                                                            keeping it there – also takes marketing savvy. Knowing the needs,
                                                                            expectations, and fears of your space passenger is critical.

                                                                               Marketing research is vital if commercial space tourism expe-
           earth-based tourism industry is a trillion-dollar indus-
                                                                            riences are to be designed on the basis of a sound understand-
           try. The National Aerospace Laboratory in Japan sur-
                                                                            ing of consumer choice behavior, explained Geoffrey Crouch,
veyed citizens in Japan, Canada, the United States, and Europe
                                                                            Professor of Marketing at La Trobe University in Melbourne,
throughout the 1990s to gauge their interest in space tourism.
                                                                            Australia. «Particularly in this situation… you’re dealing with
These surveys confirmed wide personal interest in space tour-
                                                                            an entirely new industry. It has no sort of past history, no past
ism (60 to 80 %, depending on the country), and a willingness
                                                                            customer behavior to look back on and project into the future.»
to spend upwards of a month’s salary just to get into space
                                                                            Scoping out the future of space tourism is very difficult, Crouch
once. Clearly this is not a «far out» scheme without connection
                                                                            said, made all the more so because it’s a «new-to-world prod-
to earthly reality–space tourism will expand an already thriving
                                                                            uct.» While the signs are promising, commercial space tourism
industry into a new and potentially very lucrative arena.
                                                                            entrepreneurs have many marketing questions that remain un-
  Developing the New Transportation Frontier                                answered, Crouch reported. For example, what is the demand-
  The commercial space market has existed since 1970. Today                 price relationship? And what characteristics will make a ‘value
the world market for satellite-based services–including telecom-            for money’ experience for a space tourist? There are a host
munications, television, global positioning systems, and earth              of variables that consumers of space travel will reach to and
observation (weather, environmental, search and rescue) –is                 perceive differently. Among them: launch location, vehicle type,
valued at nearly $90 billion. The problem with the commercial               duration of weightlessness, and degree of training involved.
space market so far is that it hasn’t been large enough to at-                Long and arduous path
tract      private investment in the technologies needed to
                                                                              The path to commercial success for any product is «long and
             lower the cost of access to space. Space tourism
                                                                            arduous,» Crouch said. For every successful product, many
             holds great promise as an economic «driver» to
                                                                            others fail. Compared to other product categories, one must
             more frequent flights, leading to market competi-
                                                                            expect that the chance of failure in space tourism will likely
                  tion to lower launch costs, which will in turn at-
                                                                            be much higher. Of the numerous private sub-orbital ventures
                      tract other customers to the space market.
                                                                            just how many of these will succeed is uncertain. «Many ideas
                         Consumer demand for space launch                   never get off the drawing board,» Crouch noted. Thus, only fur-
               services would require aerospace companies to                ther development will show the marketing strategies best for the
               develop reusable, highly reliable spacecraft. This           promotion of the still young space tourism.
               demand for reusable spacecraft will push our de-
                sign and manufacturing technology to new lev-     
                els, and the best and brightest individuals will
                   be drawn to the challenge of building this new

                                                                                                                           Januar y, 2008
                                            bu si n e s s : Inov ati on s and r i sks

aDworDs – tHe case
of air new ZeaLanD

Air      New Zealand is New Zealand’s flagship carrier, serving
         passengers traveling throughout Australasia and the
South Pacific, as well as to Europe, North America and Asia.
                                                                         qualified traffic to the Air New Zealand website. «In 2004, we
                                                                         decided to try Google AdWords to take advantage of the ex-
                                                                         tensive reach of Google search,» says Giles. Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand is based at Auckland International Airport and           set up several trial AdWords campaigns focused on flights to
employs more than 10,000 people. As the country’s national air-          Sydney, Brisbane and within New Zealand. To gauge the suc-
line, Air New Zealand is a recognizable and successful brand.            cess of these campaigns, Giles and his team set up unique ad
   Facing increased costs due to rising fuel prices and increased        content promoting flights on Air New Zealand to each adver-
security measures, airlines today must operate under margins             tised destination.
tighter than ever, and Air New Zealand is no exception. The                 Giles remarks that the AdWords campaigns were easy to set
company offers customers a range of ways to book – online, via           up. «We loved the flexibility of creating AdWords campaigns
the phone or through travel partners, however the lowest cost            ourselves, not to mention the power of making changes at a
of sale is achieved by customers who serve themselves online,            moment’s notice,» he says. The immediate result of the trial
without the need for live customer service involvement. «Given           campaigns was phenomenal with revenues of $160 for every
the growth of the online savvy market, we looked at ways of in-          $1 spent. This was gauged each time a consumer clicked on
creasing the traffic purchasing flights on our website,» says Air        an AdWords ad and booked a flight on Air New Zealand within
New Zealand Online Performance Specialist Scott Giles.                   30 days.
   In search of new, cost-effective ways to reach travelers, Air            «Our ROI (return on investment) from AdWords was signifi-
New Zealand began experimenting with online marketing op-                cantly higher than all other forms of on-and off-line advertising,»
tions such as banner and display advertising. Giles also be-             says Giles. In addition to delivering a superior ROI, Giles re-
gan looking into search-based advertising as a way to increase           ports that Google AdWords has had a positive impact on brand

                                                                                                                       Januar y, 2008
                                            bu si n e s s : Inov ati on s and r i sks

awareness for the airline. «Google search reaches more than               and search advertising campaigns to maximize results. For ex-
70 percent of all Internet users ‘down under, ’ which makes it the        ample, when a TV campaign launches, Giles ensures that a
most efficient way to reach the largest volume of Internet users          complementary AdWords campaign is running simultaneously.
in Australia and New Zealand,» notes Giles.                               Information tracked using Google Trends points to a commen-
   Google search has now become the largest driver of all traffic         surate spike in online traffic during offline ad campaigns.
to the Air New Zealand website, accounting for more than 30                 «We started with small steps two years ago. We’ve been so
percent of its referring traffic. «There is no other vehicle that         pleased with the results from AdWords that we have expanded
gives us the same level of ROI or traffic volumes,» says Giles.           to multiple campaigns and markets. From a cost and overall
«Since our initial test campaigns, Google search has grown to             effectiveness standpoint, it has become a pivotal part of our
become an integral part of the marketing mix.                             marketing mix.»
   Air New Zealand has since expanded its AdWords campaigns
to focus on specific seasonal promotions such as flights to Fiji.
The company has also experimented successfully with adver-
tising various price points timed to take advantage of travel
seasonality. Air New Zealand has also integrated its TV, print

                                                                                                                                  Januar y, 2008
                                                bu si n e s s : Inov ati on s and r i sks

tourisM: innovation,
risk-taking anD Protection
of core business
                                                                               as an add-on at first, not as part of the core itinerary. If it is a
                                                                               new supplier, make sure you can cope with disrupted supply,
                                                                               or retain a parallel supplier, until quality is evident. For instance
                                                                               the Spier Estate in Stellenbosch, South Africa, started with one
                                                                               contract for Klein Begin Laundry to service one restaurant, and
                                                                               has added new contracts over time:
                                                                                  At Spier, the opening of a new restaurant – Moyo – presented
                                                                               a challenge. Serving over 500 guests per day, the restaurant
                                                                               had a laundry bill in excess of $7000 a month in high season.
                                                                               This expense provided the impetus for change. Partly in order
                                                                               to reduce costs, Spier decided to set up an on-site laundry
                                                                               service that could be tendered by an emerging entrepreneur.
                                                                               It thus met two of the newly set corporate objectives, namely
                                                                               enterprise support and use of small and emerging suppliers.
                                                                               The laundry, Klein Begin, became the first demonstration of
                                                                               new local supply in action. But in the first month of operation,
                                                                               one of the two machines broke. This could have meant not just
                                                                               the end of the Moyo contract, but may have confirmed precon-
                                                                               ceived assumptions of contractors, about how ‘they’ will cope
                                                                               (or not) when things go wrong. Instead, the problem was turned
                                                                               into a great success. The operator used his networks to get the
                                                                               washing done, and delivered on time until the machine could be

D       oing business differently requires innovation. Making links
        with local suppliers may mean walking new streets, and
using new networks. Negotiating a partnership with a commu-
                                                                               repaired. This demonstrated to all concerned that new suppli-
                                                                               ers can, indeed, have the entrepreneurial ability to be reliable.
                                                                               Since then the new enterprise has created ten new jobs.
nity trust may involve a new style and pace of negotiation that                   The costs of implementing local linkages need to be as-
is different to your existing business culture. Identifying cultural           sessed. These may be financial, but are just as likely to be
products that both build on local talents, and match the needs of
your company, may require lateral thinking. Don’t hold back.
   It is noticeable that many of the innovators in the travel trade
are from outside the tourism industry – the pharmaceutical in-
dustry, event management, property development or politics. It
may be that they are less constrained by assumptions that hold
within the tourism industry about what can and can’t be done.
   Risk-taking must be balanced by protection of core business,
as there is no point trying to implement linkages that undermine
long term viability. If they do, tensions between philanthropic
and commercial objectives will grow, until something gives. A
tourism company is no benefit to local partners if it does not
   When developing linkages it may be wise, at first, to keep new
products separate from the core product, and integrate them
once reliability is evident. If it is a new product, offer it to guests

                                                                                                      Januar y, 2008
                                                          bu si n e s s : Inov ati on s and r i sks

 ips For busiNesses
 •	   Assess	costs	of	implementing	linkages,	and	set	boundaries.
 •	   Invest	most	heavily	on	building	linkages	and	rolling	out	internal	change	in	
      the	slow	season.
 •	   Keep	core	business	and	new	linkages	separate	at	first,	until	quality	is	evi-
 •	   Be	ready	to	innovate	and	think	outside	the	box.
 •	   Think	laterally.	Tackle	an	existing	challenge	by	doing	business	differently	
      through	local	linkages.
 •	   When	 new	 linkages	 run	 into	 problems,	 seize	 the	 opportunity	 to	 improve	
      operations	and	turn	problems	into	a	demonstration	of	success.

management time, provision of logistical support, or facilities.
A relatively small input can often generate enormous returns to
local partners, e. g. tips on what tourists need, or a chance to
visit your operation.
   In other cases, such as negotiating a joint venture, consider-
able time of a senior person is needed. And in all cases, the
time spent with local partners is just a part of it – the time spent
on corporate change is the other. Ensuring this does not under-
mine core business means realistically assessing costs in rela-
tion to benefits, setting boundaries, and planning timing around
seasonality of occupancy and/or cash flow.

          innovations in aDvertising
and innovation once more – this time in
advertising. go through our few exam-
ples of unique and successful ideas and
learn about gPs sightseeing, tiny hotel
rooms or several triumphant cases of in-
troducing new marketing strategies.
                                                                                                                           Januar y, 2008
                                     M a r k e t i ng : Innov ati on s in adv e r ti sing

innovation strategy –
battLefieLD Lessons
for business LeaDers
                                                                             David vs. Goliath – 1000 BC
                                                                             Goliath was a giant and the Philistine’s champion at man-
                                                                          to-man combat. David was a young shepherd boy. Goliath ex-
                                                                          pected to overwhelm his opponent in a sword fight but David
                                                                          chose to fight on different terms. He defeated Goliath by using
                                                                          an unusual weapon, the sling, with pinpoint accuracy.
                                                                             Lessons: It is no use going up against someone who has an
                                                                          8-ft spear with a 4-ft spear. You need a different weapon. If you
                                                                          are smaller you have to be agile and different. If your competitor
                                                                          is the giant in the market, you need a radical approach so that
                                                                          you can strike rapidly and accurately. This is what Direct Line
                                                                          did when they used telephone technology to sell car insurance
                                                                          directly while the major players were using brokers.
                                                                            Battle of Crecy – 1346
                                                                            The English army of about 14,000 men under Edward III had
                                                                          ravaged northern France. They were finally confronted on Au-
                                                                          gust 26, 1346 by an army of some 40,000 Frenchmen under
                                                                          Philip VI. Battles were normally fought by knights on horseback

L    et’s be clear, business is not war. But if you are operat-
     ing in a fierce marketplace then it can feel like it. Many of
the methods we use in our sales campaigns, marketing strate-
                                                                          and the French, with such a numerical advantage, felt confident.
                                                                          But the English had a new and superior technology, the long-
                                                                          bow. Their archers were trained in rapid fire and could sustain a
gies and competitive tactics are based on military analogies. So          rate of over 10 arrows per minute. Each arrow could penetrate
what lessons can business leaders today learn from the history            armor. It was the first time that such a mass volley of arrows had
of warfare? Here are some that seem particularly relevant.                been used in warfare. The French attacked in waves and they

                                                                                                                               Januar y, 2008
                                       M a r k e t i ng : Innov ati on s in adv e r ti sing
were cut down relentlessly by the power, speed and range of                  with huge static armies facing each other. The French built a
their opponents’ archers.                                                    massive defensive line along the entire border between France
   Lessons: One of the best ways to beat an established competi-             and Germany, the Maginot line, consisting of enormous fortifi-
tor is with a new technology. Innovation can overcome a strong               cations. But when the Germans attacked in May 1940 they did
opponent. Focus your firepower on the target. Amazon used in-                some lateral thinking. They used fast-moving armored divisions
ternet technology to directly address the needs of book buyers               and paratroops. They swept through Holland and Belgium and
and to run rings around the established high street vendors.                 around the Maginot line. The British and French were outma-
   Battle of Trafalgar – 1805                                                neuvered and France fell in five weeks.
   Traditionally, naval battles were fought by lining up two fleets             Lessons: Assuming that new contests will be similar to previous
in parallel line so that they could deploy the maximum firepow-              ones is dangerous. The best way to combat an opponent who
er from their canons. At the battle of Trafalgar, Villeneuve, the            has a strong defensive position and barriers to entry in a market
French admiral, formed his fleet of 33 ships into a line. But Nelson         is to go around those barriers and find a new way to the market.
did not line up in parallel. He split his 27 ships into two squadrons        This is what Direct line, Amazon, Netscape and Easyjet did.
and attacked at right angles to the French line. In the hectic battle           Battle of Britain – 1940
that ensued Nelson died but the British were victorious and es-                 After the fall of France, the British retreated across the Chan-
tablished a naval supremacy that lasted over 100 years.                      nel, leaving most of their equipment behind. The German army,
   Lessons: If you do not have a superior force or superior tech-            having raced across Europe was rampant while the British army
nology, then try a different tactic. Surprise your opponent with a           was demoralized and under-equipped. The Germans planned
fresh approach. Virgin, Benetton and Body Shop are examples                  an aerial assault followed by an invasion, and many thought that
of businesses that used surprise tactics to disrupt incumbent                Britain would fall as quickly as France, Holland or Poland. But the
market leaders.                                                              British had some things that the others had not – the channel, the
   First World War – 1914 to 1918                                            Spitfire, radar and Winston Churchill. Churchill gave the people a
   The scale of the slaughter of soldiers in World War I was ap-             vision, purpose and belief that enabled them to sustain the blitz,
palling. Over 8 million military personnel died. The main tactic             oppose the might of Germany and eventually triumph.
on the western front was to repeatedly attack strong defensive                  Lessons: In tough environments, winning CEOs are those who
positions with waves of men. They were massacred. It was be-                 have a clear vision, can communicate it to their people and mo-
lieved that with sufficient artillery bombardment and pure weight            tivate them to achieve the goal. Sir Arnold Weinstock, Bill Gates
of numbers a breakthrough could be achieved. But the way to                  and Jack Welch are recognized as this type of visionary leader.
overcome barbed wire defenses and machine gun posts is not
with lines of infantrymen. What was needed was the rapid de-                    Defeat of Hitler – 1945
velopment and effective deployment of the tank.                                 After his great successes in the early part of the war Hitler was
   Lessons: Effort, courage and hard work are not enough. If                 convinced that he was a military genius and the German Weh-
you are competing with a well-entrenched opponent who has                    rmacht could overcome any obstacle. When he attacked Rus-
a strong defensive position then you need a new technology or                sia in the summer of 1941, he was so confident of victory that
approach to achieve a breakthrough. A long war of attrition de-              there were no plans for a winter campaign; no winter coats for
bilitates both sides. Retail banking was a stodgy business until             the soldiers and no winter oil for the tanks. He ignored the advice
Egg, First Direct and Cahoot came along to shake it up and take              of his generals and pushed his forces down towards Stalingrad
millions of accounts away from the big players.                              and then refused to allow them to withdraw or regroup when the
                                                                             communication lines became overextended. His arrogance and
   Maginot line – 1940                                                       overconfidence built a barrier to criticism and meant that he never
   The British and French high commands assumed that the                     used the full talents of his team. Eventually Germany was over-
new war with Germany would be similar to the First World War,                whelmed by the weight of Russian, American and British forces.
                                                                                Lessons: A narcissist CEO will lead the business to disaster.
                                                                             Plan a fallback scenario. Strong vision and belief are essential but
                                                                             a leader who blocks constructive criticism, ignores the input of his
                                                                             team and fails to build consensus is doomed. To mention them by
                                                                             name would be libelous but take your pick from the CEOs who
                                                                             have led mighty companies to disaster in recent times.

                                                                             By Paul Sloane

                                                                                                                            Januar y, 2008
                                     M a r k e t i ng : Innov ati on s in adv e r ti sing

tiMe of cHanges – new
Marketing strategies
                                                                             The most common «escape» from the demanding situation is
                                                                          considering some form of consolidation strategy. Merger or ac-
                                                                          quisition are definitely solutions that may lead to a very signifi-
                                                                          cant improvement especially in the company’s market position.
                                                                          However, the last decade hard data show that many consolida-
                                                                          tions with clear «value added consolidation strategy» did not
                                                                          actually meet the shareholders’ expectations. In some cases
                                                                          the companies’ situation even got worsen.
                                                                             One of the essentials in business planning is the consider-
                                                                          ation of the basic marketing mix of four «P»: Product, Place
                                                                          (the distribution channel), Price, and Promotion. It seems that
                                                                          only the strategies focusing at the first two «Ps» – Product and
                                                                          Place – can lead to some sustainable results. The shift in Price
                                                                          and Promotion then inevitably follows.

T      oday the tourism industry world-wide faces many chal-
       lenges. Only the players able to change their strategies so
that they meet the market conditions seem able to survive and
                                                                             An example of such a new «out of the box» product creation
                                                                          is the huge investment of a German giant TUI (
                                                                          The travel company invested about €250m to buy an entire
be successful for a longer time. More than anywhere else the              Tuscan village of Tenuta de Castelfalfi. In the next two years,
company size does not really matter here – both travel agency
as well as market leaders are forced to take into account the
dramatically changing market. Naturally, different players con-
template and choose different competitive strategies in order to
sustain and move their businesses forward.
   In today’s industry the consumers hold increasing power.
Why? The reason are the numerous changes of the business
environment. Three of them are the most important:
• The dramatic technology development – especially with
   respect to the internet that creates a «Travel Space» with dif-
   ferent rules. Price lowering and easy booking process drive
   consumer to the new or re-branded operators through new
   distribution channels.
• Extraordinary growth of low-cost services in many segments
   of the industry, such as transport services, accommodation,
   car rental and much more. This phenomenon together with
   the internet broadening encourages the individual to travel            the village is going to be turned into an integrated holiday play-
   more than ever before.                                                 ground for German tourists. The huge concept involves creating
• Globalization that makes the world smaller. Europe itself               a unique «holiday world» within the Castelfalfi’s historic walls
   went through several significant globalization stages, such            with complete infrastructure, including hotels, restaurants, bou-
   as enlargements of the EU or broadening of the Schengen                tiques, spas, and renovated 18-hole golf course. It is expected
   Agreement. These developments make traveling much easier               that Castelfalfi will be able to attract more than 3000 guests at
   than even a decade ago.                                                any time of the year.
   The influence of these factors is well known among the travel             However, not every company can afford to invest such
trade experts. However, it is also quite clear that such changes          amount of money and many businesses are thus quite inven-
will cause the market modification even further. What is the              tive in coming up with more affordable solutions. One of these
appropriate reaction to this quick shift in the market environ-           is the approach of a small Czech on-line operator Olomouc-
ment?                                                                     Guide ( The company instead of

                                                                              Januar y, 2008
M a r k e t i ng : Innov ati on s in adv e r ti sing
                             focusing on bigger product volume decided rather for the cus-
                             tomized travel solution. It specializes in small groups of travel-
                             ers desiring to discover the wider region of the Central Europe.
                             The operator’s DIY catalogue allows creating a highly custom-
                             ized travel package even for groups of specific interests. The
                             packages comprise of trips around the region and may include
                             traditional sightseeing, modern adventure, active nature site
                             visits, relaxing spa or even gastro and beer trails. Thus, all the
                             Olomouc-Guide partners create their own tours around the re-
                             gion, based on their desires and needs. As a result, there are
                             not only travel trade professionals among the partners but also
                             corporate clients and self-organized small groups of individuals
                             with specific requirements.
                                No matter the resources of travel trade companies, today the
                             businesses need to assess their marketing strategies and con-
                             sider the tools that fit the changing world. The possibilities are
                             numerous and it depends on the company leaders only if they
                             are open, inventive and courageous and are able to learn from
                             the successes of others. The times are changing. What about


                                                                                                                                Januar y, 2008
                                       M a r k e t i ng : Innov ati on s in adv e r ti sing

unique Design – cHeaP
cHic & no friLLs

Q      bic, a Dutch ‘no frills chic’ hotel chain that soft-launched
       recently, is using innovations in design and service to of-
fer guests a new hotel experience, and investors an efficient
                                                                            or cheap sub-par service, Qbic applies the self-service to every-
                                                                            thing from check-in to food and beverage. Guests check in at a
                                                                            self-service terminal, and can buy everything from wine and candy
approach to converting vacant real estate into hotels.                      to tampons and USB flash drives from vending machines. Room
  On the surface, the hotel’s most radical innovation is placing            service isn’t available. A simple yet satisfactory breakfast is served
everything a guest might need inside a 7 square meter cube – the            at a counter adjacent to the hotel’s only other public space, the lob-
cubi. A cubi holds a high-quality Swedish Hästens bed, desk, flat           by / living room. Limited F&B offerings mean that the 35-room hotel
screen television, DVD player, designer bathroom, wireless in-              can make do with a large pantry instead of the standard industrial-
ternet and customizable, colored mood lighting. Each room is                size hotel kitchen. From an operations point of view, the self-ser-
25-35m2 big and is empty save for the white and open cubi and               vice concept, reduced food service and limited public spaces keep
a designer chair, leaving Qbic’s rooms feeling surprisingly airy.           overhead low, which translates to budget prices for guests. Like an
Instead of standard and deluxe options, all rooms are created               increasing number of other hotels, Qbic uses the easyJet pricing
equal and all have windows with a view. Other design touches                model – early birds snag a low €39, with prices climbing to three or
include images of local attractions, attaching a sense of place to          four times as much depending on demand.
what would otherwise be pleasing but generically global design.                It’s not just operating costs that are kept low. While incorpo-
  Qbic’s other defining factor is its self-service philosophy. Con-         rating luxury elements like a hand-made Swedish mattress, the
vinced that low touch is a worthy alternative to expensive five-star        room’s essence, the cubi, is manufactured off-site in China. Af-
                                                                            ter rooms are prepared – walls painted, floors laid and a central
                                                                            plumbing and electricity point installed – the cubi can be placed
                                                                            and hooked up within a few hours. Which means Qbic is a near
                                                                            instant hotel, and a viable option for repurposing vacant office
                                                                            space for as little as 5 or 6 years. Qbic’s first hotel just opened
                                                                            in Amsterdam’s World Trade Center, with Antwerp (Belgium)
                                                                            and Maastricht (The Netherlands) to follow late 2008. Qbic’s
                                                                            founder, Paul Rinkens, aims to franchise the concept to rapidly
                                                                            expand to other European cities.

                                                                                                                        Januar y, 2008
                                     M a r k e t i ng : Innov ati on s in adv e r ti sing

1-to-1 Marketing of HoteLs,
resorts anD Destinations

Philadelphia – Five Year Tourism Development Plan                          The study reveals that leisure tourism grew 39.5 % between
   In 1997, Madigan Pratt & Associates developed the marketing           1997 and 2002 (compared to an 8.8 % growth in domestic lei-
analysis and recommendations for the City of Philadelphia Five           sure travel overall), and hotel room night revenue grew 55 %
Year Tourism Development Plan. The Plan called for innovative            between 1995 and 2003 – from $489 million to $775 million.
sources of funding and an unprecedented level of public-private          Visitor spending rose from $78 to $98 per day, a 26 % increase,
sector partnership.                                                      between 2001 and 2002. And, visitors were staying longer, from
                                                                         1.8 days in 1990 to 3.6 days in 2002.
   Results: In May 2004, the City of Philadelphia issued the fol-
lowing statistics concerning the growth in tourism for the five            Perhaps the most significant development in the report
years following the presentation and adoption of Philadelphia’s          is the analysis of the economic impact of investment in tour-
1997 Tourism Development Plan: Philadelphia Tourism Jumps                ism marketing. Each $1 spent on tourism marketing returned
39 % Compared to 8 % National Average!                                   $185 in direct, indirect and induced regional spending, of which
                                                                         $41 represented increased wages and salaries, according to
   The Philadelphia region has experienced steady growth in              an analysis by Econsult Corporation of three GPTMC tourism
leisure tourism, with leisure visitors staying longer and spend-         campaigns.
ing more in the five-county region, according to a new research
study. Compiled by the Greater Philadelphia Tourism Market-              Scottish Tourist Board – Market Segmentation &
ing Corporation (GPTMC) with data from seven independent                 Direct Marketing
organizations, the report entitled Greater Philadelphia Tourism             When the Scottish Tourist Board (STB) came to MP&A they
Monitor, documents, for the first time, the economic impact of           were concerned about costs associated with fulfilling informa-
leisure tourism marketing but warns that future market expan-            tion requests (sending out brochures) which had become their
sion will hinge on continued and increased investment.                   single biggest budget item. Fulfillment costs were higher than

                                                                                                                                                   Januar y, 2008
                                                   M a r k e t i ng : Innov ati on s in adv e r ti sing

 	 The	underlying	marketing	strategy	developed	to	drive	your	plan	is	the	most	
                                                                                                 stantially so this record revenue is being generated with fewer
   important	 factor	 in	 determining	 how	 successful	 you	 will	 be.	 Strategy	 drives	        occupancy points than at its previous high in mid-2001. As the
   your	 product	 development,	 your	 sales	 approach,	 your	 creative,	 your	 media	            resort’s marketing program continues to mature the resort will
   selection,	your	internet	marketing	and	ultimately	your	ability	to	achieve	a	sus-
   tainable	competitive	advantage.                                                               continue to realize substantially higher revenue and profits.
                                                                                                 Casa del Mar has been able to transform from a hotel tradition-
                                                                                                 ally sold on «price» to one that is now sold on «value».
their media budget thus seriously reducing STB’s ability to build                                   Awards: Casa del Mar was one of only four companies to
awareness for Scotland. Their marketing program was out of                                       receive the prestigious 2005 1to1 Marketing Impact Award pre-
balance.                                                                                         sented annually by the Peppers & Rogers Group. The hotel won
   The first step toward rectifying the situation was to profile the                             for Customer Strategy, presented for an initiative that effectively
STB inquiries to get a sense for the kinds of people who were                                    identifies customers, differentiates them by their needs or value,
requesting information. Since Scotland did not have a database                                   and reengineers interaction processes according to those val-
of visitors we matched the inquiry file against MP&A’s in-house                                  ues or needs. The Peppers & Rogers Group is the world’s lead-
profile of known international travelers. This match revealed the                                ing authority on customer based business strategy, customer
profile of individuals asking for information on Scotland tended                                 relationship management and 1-to-1 marketing. By winning the
to be more upscale than the general population, but not as up-                                   Impact Award, Casa del Mar shows that producing spectacular
scale as international travelers.                                                                results is more a function of having the correct strategy and
   A profile scoring program was developed for all new inqui-                                    implementation program than a function of size or budget.
ries. Those meeting certain socio-economic criteria were im-
mediately sent information on Scotland. Those not meeting the                                      The Reefs – Bermuda
criteria were asked to qualify themselves by stating when they                                     The Reefs has long been Bermuda’s most popular hotel. This
were considering a trip to Scotland. In effect we wanted to turn                                 award-winning hotel is unique for many reasons, but from a
a simple «inquiry» into a «qualified lead» prior to going through                                marketing perspective three aspects truly stand out:
the expense of sending information.                                                              • The Reefs, which consistently maintains the highest occu-
   Results: As a result of the lead qualification process and other                                  pancy levels of any hotel in Bermuda, is an anomaly on the
quality control measures put in place the Scottish Tourist Board                                     island and in the Caribbean in that it does not use wholesal-
was able to reduce its fulfillment costs by 47 %. These savings                                      ers.
were used to substantially increase the Board’s media and                                        • Management embraced the integrated 1-to-1 marketing ap-
awareness campaign while still delivering relevant travel infor-                                     proach a decade ago when it retained MP&A and has since
mation to individuals most likely to visit Scotland. One significant                                 incorporated it into all its marketing planning.
side benefit of the program was that Scotland could now measure                                  • The marketing budget allocates very little money to tradi-
different media based on the number of «qualified inquiries» each                                    tional advertising and instead concentrates on personalized
produced rather than the sheer volume of inquiries. This provided                                    communications with customers and prospects.
the Scottish Tourist Board with a unique tool to measure the effec-
                                                                                                   MP&A and The Reefs have collaborated since 1996. Together
tiveness of every dollar spent in each media vehicle. The media
                                                                                                 with management the firm instituted a strong integrated market-
budget was re-allocated to maximize advertising effectiveness.
                                                                                                 ing program focusing primarily on direct mail, email, database
Casa Del Mar Beach Golf & Spa Resort – Los Cabos                                                 segmentation and web optimization to help The Reefs build
   When Casa del Mar retained MP&A in June, 2003, the hotel                                      strong customer relationships and revenue.
was suffering through a steep slump in both occupancy and rev-
enue. With a concerted effort on the part of the General Man-
ager, Director of Sales and MP&A the hotel’s new marketing
program was launched several months later. Casa del Mar’s
new integrated 1-to-1 marketing program included a completely
revamped approach beginning with the very foundation – the
resort’s database. A customer focused strategy at the resort
and through every piece of communication was designed to
create an award-winning customer experience before, during
and after each guest’s stay. The program incorporated greater
focus on the customer at the resort including new positioning,
a new brochure, a new optimized web site, targeted direct mail
and email, a very limited amount of consumer and trade adver-
tising, some barter, and promotion.
   Results: Today, revenue for the resort is at its historical high.
More importantly, the resort has been able to raise rates sub-

                                                                                                                           Januar y, 2008
                                     M a r k e t i ng : Innov ati on s in adv e r ti sing
                                                                            Stonington Beach Hotel – Bermuda
                                                                            The Stonington Beach Hotel was built to be part of Bermuda
                                                                          College and serve not only as a hotel, but a training facility
                                                                          for students in the hospitality industry. Stonington provided an
                                                                          excellent vacation experience and was soon inducted into the
                                                                          elite Bermuda Collection of fine small hotels. As a result of it’s
                                                                          perception as a «training hotel» the resort found it difficult to
                                                                          charge room rates comparable to other Bermuda Collection
                                                                          properties. Occupancies and revenue were in a steep decline.
                                                                          The first recommendation was to reposition the resort from
                                                                          Bermuda College’s Training hotel to «The hotel for the Hospi-
                                                                          tality and Culinary Institute of Bermuda». Following the inte-
                                                                          grated 1-to-1 marketing approach MP&A immediately began
                                                                          building the resort’s database. Once completed, the resort
                                                                          launched a strong relationship building program inviting past
   Results: As a destination Bermuda has not been doing par-              guests and travel agents to become members of the resort’s
ticularly well and over the past decade has experienced a pre-            «Alumni Club», providing alumni cards and a long list of mem-
cipitous decline in air arrivals. This in turn has placed a tre-          ber benefits.
mendous amount of pressure on individual hotels with the vast               Results: The impact on reservations and revenue was almost
majority experiencing occupancy declines matching the desti-              immediate. Within a year average occupancy levels jumped 10
nations decline in arrivals. This has not been the case for The           points. During the same period the major hotels on the island
Reefs. Rather than declining, occupancy levels at The Reefs               also experienced some growth, but it paled in comparison to
have remained very steady over the past ten years. The one                the surge seen by Stonington. In addition to seeing occupan-
period where this was an exception is following the events of             cies increase Stonington was also able to increase rates to a
9/11. The Reefs, like all other hotels around the globe did see a         point where the price point was in the middle of the Bermuda
dip in occupancies. However, unlike the vast majority of hotels,          Collection.
The Reefs did not drop its rates and it recovered rather quickly.
This phenomenal recovery was a result of the strong relation-
ships the resort had established through its past integrated 1-to-
1 marketing program and targeted direct marketing programs,     
once again proving Relationships + Loyalty = Revenue + Prof-
its. The Reefs is taking its marketing to the next level to ensure
that it continues to prosper by garnering more than its fair share
of Bermuda arrivals. It is now using Occupancy Optimizer.

                                                                                                                            Januar y, 2008
                                       M a r k e t i ng : Innov ati on s in adv e r ti sing

by gPs
   So, you’re in San Francisco, and you want to do a little sight-          scheduled to open in Miami in April and several other locations
seeing. But the thought of wrestling with maps, getting herded              will open soon. GoCars also sells new and used GoCars–buy
about with dozens of tourists, or asking random passers-by for              one and launch your own brand of GPS tours. New vehicles run
directions just isn’t appealing. Luckily for tourists to the City by        about $6,000.
the Bay, there’s GoCar Rentals, home of the «first ever storytell-            Other business opportunities? Creating tours for regular rent-
ing car.» The GoCar looks like a tiny yellow two-seater car, but            al cars, aimed at tourists who would rather blend in with the
is actually a three wheeled moped. Two people can hop in, and               locals or want to go on longer expeditions. Or walking tours,
are required to wear helmets.                                               as provided by Digi-Guide in Paris. If you’d like to focus on the
   An on-board computer and GPS (global positioning system)                 tours and not the technology, Node offers content creators a
serve as a back seat driver, directing the humans in front to               complete platform to work with: server, software and rugged
places that few visitors get to see, along with the famous sites.           handheld GPS units. And what about soundtracks/audio-tours
The system provides running commentary in a choice of five                  for people to download to their own navigation device or GPS-
languages, allowing tourists to motor along at their own pace,              enabled PDA?
exploring places a tour bus can’t go, and stopping for lunch,                 Last but not least, there’s also plenty of room for location
photos, or shopping whenever they like. The GPS tour guide                  based media catering to niche audiences, and not just tourists.
will make suggestions for good stops and direct the driver if he            In Australia, HearHere offers GPS soundtracks for test driving
or she gets lost. As the company says, the GoCar is «a tour                 cars. The company’s Drivetracks guide the driver around a pre-
guide, a talking car, a trusty co-pilot and a local on wheels.»             determined route of any length and location, using challenging
   A GoCar rents for $44 for the first hour, $34 for the second             driving sections along the way to show off a car’s features right
and $24 for each additional hour, with no further charges over              when the driver is experiencing them. («Let’s move across to M
five hours. GoCar drivers must be 21 or older with a valid driv-            mode and give it some acceleration up these hills.») HearHere
er’s license. This fun concept offers entrepreneurs a great op-             is targeting automobile manufacturers, enabling them to com-
portunity in any tourist destination. Ready to get started? You             municate their key selling messages to journalists at a car’s
can license a GoCar Rentals franchise; the company’s first fran-            launch, consumers out for a test drive, or dealership teams on
chise has already opened in San Diego. A second franchise is                sales training.


Fairs & ExHiBitions
traveL/tourism in January 2008 by regions
                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                           fa i r s & e x H i b i t ion s

western euroPe

    reiseLiv 2008
Location         Lillestrom / norway
start / end      10 January 2008 / 13 January 2008
Provider         norges varemesse

    ProsPects for 2008
Location         London / uk
start / end      10 January 2008 / 10 January 2008
Provider         tourism society

    Monte carLo traveL Market
Location         Monaco / Monaco
start / end      11 January 2008 / 13 January 2008
Provider         Monte Carlo travel Market

    LonDon boat sHow
Location         London / uk
start / end      11 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         national Boat shows Ltd

    cMt internationaL exHibition for caravanning,
    Motoring anD tourisM
Location         stuttgart / germany
start / end      12 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         Messe stuttgart international

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                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                           fa i r s & e x H i b i t ion s

    faHrraD unD erLebnisreisen
Location         stuttgart / germany
start / end      12 January 2008 / 13 January 2008
Provider         Messe stuttgart international

    btL Lisboa traveL Market
Location         Lisbon / Portugal
start / end      16 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         Feira internacional de Lisboa

    traveL Distribution tecHnoLogy 2008
Location         London / uk
start / end      16 January 2008 / 17 January 2008
Provider         Eyefortravel

    caravan & MotorHoMe sHow-MancHester
Location         Manchester / uk
start / end      17 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         Clarion Events Ltd

    goLf unD weLLnessreisen
Location         stuttgart / germany
start / end      17 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         Messe stuttgart international

    ferienMesse bern
Location         bern / switzerland
start / end      17 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         Wigra Expo sa

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                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                           fa i r s & e x H i b i t ion s

    ferien-Messe: tHe internationaL fair for HoLiDays,
    traveL & Leisure
Location         vienna / austria
start / end      17 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         reed Exhibitions Messe Wien reed Exhibitions Companies

    goLf unD weLLnessreisen
Location         stuttgart / germany
start / end      17 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         Messe stuttgart international

    tHe HoLiDay worLD sHow-beLfast
Location         belfast / uk
start / end      18 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         Business Exhibitions Limited

    vive La france
Location         London / uk
start / end      18 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         archant Live

    caravan HeLsinki
Location         Helsinki / finland
start / end      18 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         suomen Messut

    Monaco sPa event
Location         Monte carlo / Monaco
start / end      18 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         sogespa Monaco

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                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                          fa i r s & e x H i b i t ion s

Location         birmingham / uk
start / end      22 January 2008 / 24 January 2008
Provider         Fresh r. M. Limited

    sett tourisM equiPMent anD tecHniques traDe sHow
Location         Montpellier / france
start / end      23 January 2008 / 25 January 2008
Provider         adhesion group

    tHe HoLiDay worLD sHow – DubLin
Location         Dublin / ireland
start / end      24 January 2008 / 27 January 2008
Provider         Business Exhibitions Limited

    vacanses, sPorts & Loisirs
Location         geneve / switzerland
start / end      25 January 2008 / 27 January 2008
Provider         Wigra Expo sa

Location         Hannover / germany
start / end      26 January 2008 / 03 February 2008
Provider         Fachausstellungen Heckmann

    caravan anD caMPing
Location         Hannover / germany
start / end      26 January 2008 / 03 February 2008
Provider         Fachausstellungen Heckmann

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                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                           fa i r s & e x H i b i t ion s

    fitur internationaL tourisM traDe fair
Location         Madrid / spain
start / end      30 January 2008 / 03 February 2008
Provider         ifema (Feria de Madrid)

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                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                          fa i r s & e x H i b i t ion s

centraL & eastern euroPe

    go internationaL traveL traDe fair
Location         brno / cZ
start / end      10 January 2008 / 13 January 2008
Provider         Bvv (Brno trade Fairs and Exhibition)

    efaPco congress 2008
Location         warsaw / Poland
start / end      10 January 2008 / 12 January 2008
Provider         EFaPCo

    itf sLovakia tour
Location         bratislava / slovakia
start / end      17 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         incheba Jsc

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                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                          fa i r s & e x H i b i t ion s

nortH aMerica & caribbean

    aLL-canaDa sHow - MinneaPoLis, Mn
Location         Minneapolis, Mn / united states of america
start / end      04 January 2008 / 06 January 2008
Provider         all-Canada show

    nasHviLLe boat & sPortsHow
Location         nashville, tn / united states of america
start / end      09 January 2008 / 13 January 2008
Provider         national Marine Manufacturers association inc. (nMMa)

    aLL-canaDa sHow - cHicago, iL
Location         chicago, iL / united states of america
start / end      10 January 2008 / 13 January 2008
Provider         all-Canada show

    aDventures in traveL exPo
Location         new york, ny / united states of america
start / end      12 January 2008 / 13 January 2008
Provider         unicomm

    aLL-canaDa sHow - inDianaPoLis, in
Location         indianopolis, in / united states of america
start / end      14 January 2008 / 16 January 2008
Provider         All-Canada Show

     more events related to travel/tourism can be found here
     if you are an event provider you may consider to place your event in the above category, please click here
     if your event already is in the list you may consider using the enhanced listing. for replacement just click here

                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                          fa i r s & e x H i b i t ion s

    wbay rv anD caMPing sHow
Location         green bay, wi / united states of america
start / end      17 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         WBaY-tv

    aLL-canaDa sHow – MiLwaukee, wi
Location         Milwaukee, wi / united states of america
start / end      18 January 2008 / 19 January 2008
Provider         all-Canada show

    new jersey traiLer & caMPing sHow
Location         new jersey, fL / united states of america
start / end      18 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         MaC Events

    aLL-canaDa sHow - MaDison, wi
Location         Madison, wi / united states of america
start / end      21 January 2008 / 23 January 2008
Provider         all-Canada show

    aLL-canaDa sHow - green bay, wi
Location         green bay, wi / united states of america
start / end      24 January 2008 / 27 January 2008
Provider         all-Canada show

    tourist resort & iMPrinteD ProDucts sHow
Location         toronto / canada
start / end      25 January 2008 / 28 January 2008
Provider         d. M. g. World Media

     more events related to travel/tourism can be found here
     if you are an event provider you may consider to place your event in the above category, please click here
     if your event already is in the list you may consider using the enhanced listing. for replacement just click here

                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                             fa i r s & e x H i b i t ion s

    aDventures in traveL exPo
Location         chicago, iL / united states of america
start / end      26 January 2008 / 27 January 2008
Provider         unicomm

    fLoriDa HuDDLe taMPa 2008
Location         tampa, fL / united states of america
start / end      27 January 2008 / 29 January 2008
Provider         Huddle international inc.

    aLis (aMericas LoDging investMent suMMit)
Location         Los angeles, ca / united states of america
start / end      28 January 2008 / 30 January 2008
Provider         american Hotel and Lodging association Burba Hotel network

    crM in traveL
Location         new orleans, La / united states of america
start / end      29 January 2008 / 30 January 2008
Provider         Eyefortravel

     more events related to travel/tourism can be found here
     if you are an event provider you may consider to place your event in the above category, please click here
     if your event already is in the list you may consider using the enhanced listing. for replacement just click here

                                                                                                              Januar y, 2008
                                          fa i r s & e x H i b i t ion s

asia & Pacific

    traveL & tourisM fair - bangaLore
Location         bangalore / india
start / end      12 January 2008 / 14 January 2008
Provider         Fairfest Media Limited

    traveL & tourisM fair - cHennai
Location         chennai / india
start / end      18 January 2008 / 20 January 2008
Provider         Fairfest Media Limited

    inDia internationaL traveL exHibition - nagPur
Location         nagpur / india
start / end      25 January 2008 / 27 January 2008
Provider         gtFC

     more events related to travel/tourism can be found here
     if you are an event provider you may consider to place your event in the above category, please click here
     if your event already is in the list you may consider using the enhanced listing. for replacement just click here

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