Chapter 2_ part 2 by chenmeixiu


									  Chapter 2, part 2

From Radio to Television
2.8 Early Radio Programs
Situation comedies (“Amos n’ Andy”),
  comedy-variety (“Jack Benny”), soap
Live Performance vs. Recording
Musicians’ unions attempted to keep
  recorded music off the air.
ASCAP demanded high fees for
Broadcasters created BMI in response.
(2.8 cont.)
Recording’s Triumph
After WWII, Bing Crosby led move to
  recorded programs (click on photo).
Content Regulation
The “public interest” standard led FCC
  to regulate content.
Orson Welles’ “War of the Worlds”
  terrified millions, 1936.
2.9 The Development of FM Radio
Edwin Armstrong patented FM in
FM’s development hindered by TV,
  World War II.
2.10 The War Years
Edward R. Murrow
2.11 Radio Responds to Television
Television “took off” in 1948.
(2.11 cont.)
Radio Network Decline
Network radio began to decline after
Rock to the Rescue
WDIA, Memphis; WLAC, Nashville –
Radio reinvented itself with Top 40.
Gordon McLendon, KLIF, Dallas.
(2.11 continued)
FM’s rise to dominance
Early ’60s, FM stereo, non-duplication
By early ’80s, 75% of all listening on FM
2.12 Early TV Development
No single inventor
Philo Farnsworth – image dissector
Vladimir Zworykin – iconoscope
RCA “Camden team” – 1930
(2.12 cont.)
TV’s debut
1939 World’s Fair, NY
NTSC standards set, 1941
Development held up by WWII
2.13 TV Takes Off
1948 – TV audience grew by 4,000%
The Freeze/6th Report and Order
Original 13 VHF channels were not
(2.13 cont.)
The Freeze/6th Report and Order
1948, FCC freeze on new TV licenses
1952, 6th Report and Order created
  UHF band (14-83).
UHF problems
UHF signals inherently weaker.
Manufacturers not required to equip
  new TVs with UHF until 1962.
Compatible Color
Agreement on a color system, 1953
Ceiling on Networks
Economics seemed to favor no
  more than three major networks
DuMont lasted from ’46-’55

2.14 Television’s “Golden Age”
Programs as Motivators
TVs were expensive, and so
  programs aimed at well-educated
(2.14 cont.)
Before videotape, programs were
TV vs. Hollywood
“I Love Lucy” one of the few
   programs shot on film. Reruns.
Competitive Strategies
NBC’s Pat Weaver, “Today, “Tonight”
Still, CBS dominated ratings for 21
   years, 1955-76

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