Defending the Faith Mary

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					        How to Explain and Defend Mary
 Many non-catholics believe that honoring Mary
       takes away from the honor due Jesus
“This most blessed of women, the mother of Jesus, is
   thus made His chief rival and competitor for the
      loyalty and devotion of the human heart.”
       (Lorraine Boettner, Presbyterian author of Roman Catholicism)
• Mary and Jesus are not in competition, but are different
  members of the same team.
• Mary is the first and best Christian, who only leads us
  closer to her Son, Jesus.
• Mary‘s privileges come exclusively from God and reflect
  His love and mercy.
• Mary‘s role in salvation is taught from Genesis to
  Revelation and she is by God‘s design, the spiritual mother
  of all Christians.
    How to Explain and Defend Mary
Show the biblical basis for Catholic Marian
                   beliefs.
Explain and defend the four defined Marian
                  doctrines
 Answer the common objections Catholics
            receive about Mary.
      How to Explain and Defend Mary
The biblical basis for Catholic Marian beliefs.
    The OT prepared the way for the NT.
 Persons in the OT prefigured, foreshadowed,
    anticipated, and symbolized persons and
                events in the NT.
―the New testament lies hidden in the Old and
   the Old testament is unveiled in the New‖
                   (ccc 129)
     How to Explain and Defend Mary
To fully understand the OT it must be read
             in terms of “types”
          (this is referred to as Typology)
A “type” is an OT prophetic foreshadowing of
               its NT counterpart
 OT persons and events are called ―types‖ of
   the NT persons and events they prefigure.
 Reading OT scripture in a typological sense
          reveals many NT doctrines,
    including Mary‘s privileges, in the OT
         How to Explain and Defend Mary
               The typological sense
•    Mt 12:40:       Jonah is Christ in the tomb
•    Jn 3:14:        Bronze serpent is Christ crucified
•    1 Pt 3:19-21:   Flood is Baptism
•    1 Cor 10:4:     The rock is Christ
•    Rm 5:14:        Adam is a type of Christ
            In OT persons and events,
    we come to see doctrines that are made more
              explicit in the NT gospel
    How to Explain and Defend Mary
There are three major OT types of Mary
                Eve
        Ark of the Covenant
          Queen Mother
These three “types” of Mary support all
           our Marian Beliefs.
           How to Explain and Defend Mary
                Mary as Second Eve
The early Church Fathers realized that individual players in the Fall
                   of man had NT counterparts
   • The devil a fallen           • The angel Gabriel
   angel brought the words        brought the words of life to
   of death to Eve                Mary
    • Eve our mother in the        • Mary was Jesus mother
    flesh, disobeyed God and       and perfect disciple, who
    cooperated greatly in          obeyed God and contributed
    Adam‘s sin, which caused       greatly to Christ‘s
    the fall of the human race     redemptive mission.
            The Fathers made the obvious connection:
 as Christ is the new Adam (1 Cor 15:45), Mary is the new Eve.
      How to Explain and Defend Mary
After the fall Genesis 3:15 prophecies a woman and
     her son who will be at total enmity with the
              serpent and his descendents.
 The woman‘s son will crush the serpent‘s head.
  Since the man who crushes the serpents head is
      obviously Jesus, the woman must be Mary
                   Genesis 3:15-17
                 Describes two teams
           The fall team – Adam and Eve
       The redemption team – Jesus and Mary
      How to Explain and Defend Mary
 The early Church Fathers including St Justin
   and St. Irenaeus were quick to realize this:
• The human race fell through Adam but
  Eve‘s role was crucial
• Jesus redeemed the human race but Mary‘s
  role was likewise crucial.
 Sacred Scripture continually shows Jesus and
      Mary together in the pivotal events of
                    salvation
          How to Explain and Defend Mary
     Jesus and Mary Together Crush Satan‘s head
     The OT describes women (types of Mary) who crush Israel‘s
                       enemies (types of Satan)
 •Jdg 4:17-22 Jael drives a tent peg           •Jdg 5:24 Sisera celebrates her:
 through the skull of the Canaanite            ―Most blessed of women be
 general                                       Jael‖
 •Jdg 9:50-55 describes a woman who            •Judith 13:18 Judith‘s heroism is
 drops a millstone on the head of              celebrated with the words: ―you
 tyrannical King Abimelech, fracturing         areblessed by the Most High
 his skull                                     God above all women on earth;
 •Judith 12-13 delivers the Jewish             and blesswed be the Lord
 people from the Assyrian army by              God…who had guided you to
 beheading its commander, Holofernes,          strile the head of the leader of
 with his own sword as he slept.               our enemies.
  The praises of Jael and Judith anticipate Elizabeth‘s praise of Mary
                                    Lk 1:42.
Blessed are you among women and blessed is the fruit of your womb
      How to Explain and Defend Mary
Jesus definitively crushed Satan‘s head on Calvary.
      Calvary (Golgotha) means skull-place.
  Satan intends to strike a lethal blow through the
            cross (―you strike at his heel‖).
     Instead Satan suffered the mortal wound
           (―he will strike at your head‖)
    Jesus destroyed the power of sin and death.
         “Dying you destroyed our death
           rising you restored our life,
            Lord Jesus come in glory.”
        How to Explain and Defend Mary
         Mary was at Christ‘s side on Calvary
            Jesus refers to her not as mother
              but as woman the new Eve.
•   Mary is the woman of Gn 3:15
•   The woman of Jn 2 who launched Jesus‘ ministry
    at Cana
•   The woman at the foot of the cross in Jn 19
•   And the woman of Rev 12 who fights against
    Satan with Jesus until the end.
    The new Adam an the New Eve are on the same
                      victorious team.
        How to Explain and Defend Mary
        Mary as the New Ark of the Covenant
       The Ark was the holiest object in the OT
 It was sacred because it carried the stone tablets of
     the Law that God gave Moses on Mount Sinai
 God gave meticulous instructions for constructing
                        the Ark
• Made of indestructible acacia wood
• Plated inside and outside with pure gold
• Kept free from impurity and profanation
                           (Ex 25)
  God struck Uzzah dead because he dared to touch
                      the Ark
                         (2 Sam 6:6-7)
           How to Explain and Defend Mary
          Mary as the New Ark of the Covenant
   St. Ambrose details several ways in which the Ark is
                      a type of Mary.
                               (Ex 26:33, 40:20)
•The Ark contained the Tables of      •Mary‘s womb contained the author of
the Law                               the Law
•The Ark bore the Law                 •Mary bore the Gospel
•The Ark carried the written
   T                                  •Mary gave us the living Word of God
Word of God
   h                                  Jesus
•The Ark shown forth with the         •Mary shown forth inward and outward
   e
purest gold                           with the purity of virginity
•The gold which adorned the Ark       •The gold which Mary shone forth was
   A
was mined on earth                    mined in heaven
  r
  This typology forms the basis for doctrines like the Assumption
  k which are not taught explicitly in scripture but are taught
                   implicitly through typology.
  c
     How to Explain and Defend Mary
          Mary as the NT Queen Mother
     The OT Kings clearly prefigured Christ,
        The NT King of kings (Rev 19:16)
Jesus in his humanity descended from King David
  The Kings of Judah of David‘s line especially
              prefigured Jesus‘ kingship
―the Lord God will give him [Jesus] the throne of
                  His father David.‖
                     (Lk 1:32)
The wife of the king of Judah was not the queen.
The queen was the king‘s mother (Queen Mother)
She had great honor and authority in the kingdom
                  (1 Kings 2:19-20)
       How to Explain and Defend Mary
           Mary as the NT Queen Mother
  Solomon by honoring his mother established an
    institution that lasted 400 years, as long as the
                     kings of Judah.
The Queen mother served as the kings confidant and
                         advisor.
She had an official position; she had to be deposed in
                  order to be removed.
                   (1 Kings 15:13)
 The Jewish concept of a Davidic king would have
   naturally included the king on his throne with the
             queen mother at his right hand.
       How to Explain and Defend Mary
          Mary as the NT Queen Mother
 The Holy Spirit was preparing the way for Mary
Jesus, the NT Davidic King, does not have a wife.
        His mother would be the NT queen
              Rev 11-12 describes:
A woman gives birth to a son who will ―rule all the nations‖
                              (12:5)
                  Jesus is a new Solomon
          just as Solomon ruled over other kings
                     (2 Chronicles 9:23-26)
       Jesus is the ―King of kings and Lord of lords‖
                          (Rev 19:16)
Any king of the house of David would be expected
              to have a queen mother.
     How to Explain and Defend Mary
          Mary as the NT Queen Mother
     The OT Kings clearly prefigured Christ,
        The NT King of kings (Rev 19:16)
Jesus in his humanity descended from King David
  The Kings of Judah of David‘s line especially
              prefigured Jesus‘ kingship
―the Lord God will give him [Jesus] the throne of
                  His father David.‖
                     (Lk 1:32)
 The wife of the king of Judah was not the queen.
The queen was the king‘s mother (Queen Mother)
         How to Explain and Defend Mary
         Non-Catholic Stumbling Blocks
1. Restricting God‘s Word to Sola Scriptura
   This doctrine is found nowhere scripture on the other hand try these:
   (Mt 16:13-20; 2 Thes 2:15, 3:6; Jn 21:25; 1 Cor 11:2; 1 Tim 3:15)
2. Thinking in ―either/or‖ rather than ―both/and‖
   categories
   The Catholic approach sees God‘s gifts as complements not
       competitors. Faith complements works, Tradition complements
       Bible. Protestants tend to divide Catholics unite.
3. Misunderstanding doctrinal development
   The church is a living growing organism that learns from experience and
        reflection, it must continually grow in understanding.
4. Confusing doctrinal development with doctrinal
   invention
   Doctrinal definition is the expression of new understanding of the original
        deposit of faith not of new doctrine.
5. Failing to appreciate typology
        How to Explain and Defend Mary
         Why we give honor to Mary?
    God honored Mary above all creatures by
         making her the mother of his Son.
    In honoring Mary the Catholic Church is
           following the example of God
                 Luke 1:26-56
•    The Archangel Gabriel shows Mary great honor
•    Elizabeth ―filled with the Holy Spirit‖ calls
     Mary blessed.
•    Mary herself prophesies that all ages will call
     her blessed.
     How to Explain and Defend Mary
             Mother of God
 All Christians believe that Jesus was born of the
                  Blessed Virgin Mary.
    Jesus has two natures, divine and human,
             yet he is one divine Person
Since this one divine person was born of Mary she
     really is the Mother of the one divine person,
                 The Mother of God.
   To deny this is to deny the Incarnation
      How to Explain and Defend Mary
                   Mother of God
                  Scripture Teaches
    Elizabeth calls Mary ―mother of my Lord.‖
                      (Lk 1:43)
―Behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and
    his name shall be called Emanuel, which means
                      God with us.‖
                      (Mt 1:23)
―the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of
                          God.‖
                      (Lk 1:35)
 ―when the time had fully come, God sent forth his
                  Son, born of woman.‖
                      (Gal 4:4)
       How to Explain and Defend Mary
               Mother of God
           Early Fathers Confirm
               Ignatius of Antioch (110)
―For our god, Jesus Christ, was coceived by Mary in accord
                       with God‘s plan‖
             Irenaeus of Lyons (180-190)
 ―The Virgin Mary, being obedient to His Word, received
   from an angel the glad tidings that she would bear God.‖
               Council of Ephesus (431)
This council condemned as heresy the teaching of Nestorius
      that Jesus is two distinct persons, and that Mary is the
                 mother of the human person only.
Correct belief about Mary preserves correct belief
                     about Jesus.
        How to Explain and Defend Mary
                Mother of God
          Protestant Reformers Insist
                           Martin Luther
―Not only was Mary the mother of Him who is born in Bethlehem but of
     Him who, before the world , was eternally born of the father, from a
            Mother in time and at the same time man and God.‖
                             John Calvin
―It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the
      Mother of His Son, granted her the highest honor. Elizabeth calls
     Mary Mother of the Lord, because the unity of the person in the two
      natures of Christ was such that she could have said that the mortal
       man engendered in the womb of Mary was at the same time the
                                eternal God‖
                           Ulrich Zwingli
 ―It was given to her what belongs to no creature, that in the flesh she
                     should bring forth the Son of God.‖
     How to Explain and Defend Mary
             Perpetual Virginity
The catholic Church teaches that Mary was a
   virgin before, during and after the birth of
                      Jesus.
 All Christian‘s believe Mary was a virgin
              before Jesus‘ birth.
 Many accept the Mary remained a virgin
              during Jesus‘ birth.
    Few believe Mary was ever-virgin.
           How to Explain and Defend Mary
 Mother of God, Spouse of the Holy Spirit, Mother of the Church,
                    Leader in the battle against evil.
God preserved Mary from all sin to enable her to fulfill these roles
        perfectly and to give her maximum power against Satan.
             Thus she was immaculately conceived.
           Mary was to have perfect spiritual intactness.
       God wanted Mary’s body to reflect this intactness.
That is why God chose to miraculously preserve her virginity when
                          she gave birth to Jesus.
         He also kept her body from corruption after death
                         (the Assumption).
          Mary’s body mirrored her spiritual condition.
   Mary was fully graced and not subject to death and decay
             How to Explain and Defend Mary
      Scripture Used to Disprove Mary’s Perpetual
                         Virginity
                                Matthew 13:55
   The word brother is used in many different ways.
               It can indicate sibling, relative, friend, or associate
                                     Acts 21:7
                       Fellow Christians are called brothers
                                     Acts 22:1
                        Jewish leaders are called brothers.
                                     Gn 14:14
                Lot the nephew of Abraham is called his brother
   To determine the exact relationship of Jesus‘ brothers
          other scripture passages must be examined.
                           Matthew 27:56 & Mark 15:40
Tell us that two of these brothers James and Joseph are sons of another Mary, not
                                     the mother of Jesus
                                       Jn 19:25
                     Identifies this Mary as the wife of Clopas.
           How to Explain and Defend Mary
   Scripture Used to Disprove Mary’s Perpetual
                           Virginity
                     Matthew 1:24-25
Does not ‗til imply that after Jesus‘ birth they had normal
                       sexual relations.
     The word ‗til does not imply a later change of condition.
                            1 Cor 15:25
Christ must reign ‗til he has put all his enemies under his feet does
                not imply Christ will not reign forever.
     Does not firstborn imply their were others born?
  Firstborn is a legal term indicating a special privilege or rank
  Ps 89:27 calls David his firstborn even though David was his
                               eighth son.
         Col 1:15 calls Jesus the firstborn of all creation
Firstborn child and only son are not mutually exclusive Ex 34:20
         How to Explain and Defend Mary
 Scripture Used to Prove Mary’s Perpetual Virginity
          The ―brothers‖ of Jesus are never called
                     the ―sons of Mary‖
     Some of these brothers advise and reprimand Jesus
                    (Jn 7:3-4, Mk 3:21)
   In Jewish culture younger brothers never admonish an
                          elder brother.
                     Mth 15 & Jn 19:27
Jesus vehemently condemns the Korban rule, that allowed
         children to avoid taking care of their parents.
 By Hebrew law children had a solemn obligation to take
                       care of their parents.
  In Jn 19:26-27 Jesus presents his mother to his disciple
                John. Where were his brothers?
         How to Explain and Defend Mary
                The Fathers of the Church
   St Athanasius in his Discourses Against the Arians
               explicitly calls Mary Ever-Virgin.
 He mentions this title as something Christians take for
                             granted.
In the 4th century Helvidius questioned Mary‘s perpetual
       virginity in outrage St. Jerome wrote a sctahing
    defense entitle The Perpetual Virginity of the Blessed
      Virgin Mary Against Helvidius, it condemned his
                teaching has novel and heretical.
  Augustine calls Mary, ―a Virgin conceiving, a Virgin
      bearing, a Virgin pregnant, a virgin bring forth, a
                        virgin perpetual‖
           How to Explain and Defend Mary
                     Protestant Reformers
Luther: ―It is an article of faith that Mary is Mother of the Lord and
    still a virgin…Christ we believe came forth from a womb
    perfectly intact.‖
Zwingli: ―I firmly believe that Mary, according to the words of the
    gospel, as a pure Virgin brought forth for us the Son of God
    and in childbirth and after childbirth forever remained a pure,
    intact Virgin.‖
Calvin: ―There have been certain folk who have wished to suggest
    from this passage (Mt 1:25) that the Virgin Mary had other
    children than the Son of God, and that Joseph had then dwelt
    with her later; but what folly this!‖
    All agreed that the typology of Mary as Ark of the
        Covenant and God‘s insistence that the Ark be
      without stain or defect would apply even more to
          Mary who carried the Living Word of God
        How to Explain and Defend Mary
                 Immaculate Conception
                Pope Pius IX Dec 8, 1854
  “The Most Holy Virgin Mary was, in the first moment of her
        conception, by a unique gift of grace and privilege of
       Almighty God and in view of the merits of Jesus Christ
      the Redeemer of mankind, preserved free from all stain
                           of original sin.”
•    Mary was preserved from original sin and any stain of
     original sin from the first moment of her existence.
•    This privilege was given to Mary in view of Christ‘s
     merits. Jesus was Mary‘s savior and redeemer just as he
     is ours. In Mary Christ‘s redemption preserves her from
     sin whereas in us it removes sin contracted.
•    This doctrine only deals with original sin. However the
     Church also teaches that Mary was never touched by
     personal sin.
     How to Explain and Defend Mary
           Immaculate Conception
            Protestant Objections
1. Not supported by scripture and contradicts
   Rom 3:23
2. The doctrine means Mary did no need
   redemption through Jesus
3. They maintain the early church Fathers
   did not teach this doctrine.
        How to Explain and Defend Mary
                    Romans 3:23
 Paul is speaking of personal sins people commit, as
            opposed to original sin we inherit.
  Obvious exceptions are children below the age of reason,
            Jesus and Adam and Eve before the fall
        We consider Mary to be another exception.
Paul does not mean ‖all‖ in an absolute sense, which
           would include every single person.
                   Rom 3:9-10
Paul quotes David who is using all in the collective , (a whole
       group gathered together), sense not in the distributive,
                 (each and every individual) sense
Paul is saying there is no distinction between circumcised and
                       uncircumcised gentiles:
   Both groups commit personal sins and both need to be
                          justified by faith.
       How to Explain and Defend Mary
           Evidence of Mary‘s Sinlessness
                        Gen 3:15
Jesus is acknowledged by all Christians to be he who
                crushed the serpents head.
  The enmity, or opposition, that exists between the
     woman and the serpent is the same which exists
              between Jesus and the serpent
                  This enmity is total:
Jesus never fell to sin therefore the woman never fell
                            to sin
   The woman must be Mary Jesus is her offspring
     How to Explain and Defend Mary
      Evidence of Mary‘s Sinlessness
                  Luke 1:28
The angel Gabriel calls Mary ―full of grace‖
      to indicate she has fullness of grace.
Mary can not be full of grace if she is touched
        by sin since sin diminishes grace.
             How to Explain and Defend Mary
                       Typology
A cloud of glory covered the    ―And the angel said to her; ‗The holy
tabernacle and Ark              spirit will come upon you, and the power
(Ex 40:34-35; Num 9:15)         of the most high will overshadow you‘‖
                                (Lk 1:35)
Ark spent three months in the   Mary spent three months in the house of
house of Obededom the Gittite   Zechariah and Elizabeth (Lk 1:26, 40)
(2 Sam 6:11)
King David asked: ―How can      Elizabeth asked Mary, ―why is this
the ark of the Lord come to     granted to me, that the mother of my Lord
me?                             should come to me‖ (Lk 1:43)

David leaped and danced         John the Baptist leaped for joy in
before the Lord when the Ark    Elizabeth‘s womb when Mary arrived
arrived in Jerusalem            (Lk 1:44)
(2 Sam 6:14-16
      How to Explain and Defend Mary
      Church Fathers Teach Sinlessness
          St. Justin Martyr and St. Irenaeus:
 Implicitly teach Mary‘s freedom from all sin when
     they show her as the new Eve who reversed the
                  first Eve‘s disobedience.
• When Eve disobeyed she was free from all sin
    and concupiscence (the inclination to sin)
• Her no was a perfect choice of the will
• For Mary‘s obedience to undo Eve‘s
    disobedience, Mary‘s yes to god must be as
    perfect as Eve‘s no
  This can only be true if Mary were free from both
                 sin and inclination to sin.
       How to Explain and Defend Mary
     Later Father‘s explicitly teach Mary‘s sinlessness
            St. Ephraim (The Nisibene Hymns)
―You Christ alone and your Mother are more beautiful than
     any other; for there is no blemish in you, nor any stains
     upon your Mother, who of my children can compare in
                          beauty to these.‖
         St. Ambrose (Commentary on Psalm 18)
―Lift me not up from Sara but from Mary, a Virgin not only
     undefiled but a Virgin whom grace has made inviolate,
                   free from every stain of sin.‖
             St. Augustine (Nature and Grace)
―Having excepted the Holy virgin Mary, concerning whom,
        on account of the honor of the Lord, I wish to have
      absolutely no question when treating of sins—for how
        do we know what abundance of grace for the total
    overcoming of sin was conferred upon her, who merited
      to conceive and bear Him in whom there was no sin?‖
     How to Explain and Defend Mary
The Immaculate Conception seems to imply that
              Mary didn‘t need a savior.
Sts. Bernard, Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventure and
     others felt this issued needed to be resolved
     before the Church could dogmatically define
   what Scripture and tradition seemed to already
            teach: Mary‘s total sinlessness.
                    Duns Scotus:
Proved that Mary‘s preservation from original sin
       did not remove her need for a redeemer.
     Mary‘s preservation required a more perfect
       redemption: a preservative redemption.
      How to Explain and Defend Mary
  If a man pulled you out of quicksand he would be
                  said to have saved you.
If the same man stopped you from falling in at all he
            simply saved you more perfectly.
   Christ‘s merits keep Mary from falling in at all.
 On his merit the original sin of OT saints as well as
                any other sin was forgiven.
   With this insight all debate over the Immaculate
      Conception and Christ‘s universal Redemption
                           ceased.
  Mary said yes to god with a perfect human nature
        which excludes all sin and concupiscence.
       How to Explain and Defend Mary
                Bodily Assumption
          Pope Pius XII, November 1, 1950
―Mary, the immaculate perpetual Virgin Mother of God, after
   the completion of her earthly life, was assumed body and
                soul into the glory of heaven.‖
        This doctrine does not say Mary died.
The overwhelming tradition of the Church including
           the Church Fathers , is that she did.
After Mary completed her earthly life, she was taken
      up into heaven, where both her body and soul
                      were glorified.
      Mary‘s body did not undergo corruption.
Christ ascended on his own power, Mary was drawn
                 up into heaven by God.
       How to Explain and Defend Mary
  St. Paul teaches that the bodies of the just will be
                glorified at the end of time.
Paul also says our bodies cannot enter heaven as they
            are but must first become glorified.
                       2 Kings 2:11
 Elijah was assumed into heaven with his body and
                      didn‘t die.
                    Gen 5:24; Heb 11:5
  Enoch was also taken into heaven without dying.
                        Mt 27:53
    After Jesus died and the gates of heaven were
       opened, the bodies of many OT saints were
                       resurrected.
If God allowed this privilege to these why not Mary?
     How to Explain and Defend Mary
         Argument from Intactness
                  Typology
      Mary as the Ark of the Covenant
God took care to keep the Ark of the covenant
      free from all defect, corruption, and
    profanation because it carried his written
                      word.
 Even more would God want Mary free from
    defect, corruption, and defilement since
       she carried the living word of God.
    How to Explain and Defend Mary
           St. John Damascene
―Throughout Church history, no one has
 claimed to have relics of Mary. Although
 several cities have competed for the honor
 of being Mary‘s place of death, no city has
   ever claimed to have her body. No one
  has ever made pilgrimages to her tomb or
   venerated her bones, as they did for the
        Apostles and early martyrs.‖

				
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