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									            The Dark Ages
•The Period from 500 AD to 1000 AD has
traditionally been called the Dark Ages
•Recent scholarship indicates that the Dark Ages
in Germanic Europe had a period of cultural
revival called The Carolingian Renaissance
beginning in 800AD
•The only Roman institution that survived was
the Church and it survived in a weakened form
for centuries
    Life During the Dark Ages
•The decline of almost all major cities, e.g.
Vienna, Frankfort, Bath, and Lyons
•The decline in the craft areas and the resulting
reduction of middle class citizens
•The decline of central government and the
emergence of medieval feudal system
•decline of education throughout society. Most
nobles could not read; many priests could hardly
write their name. The vast majority were
illiterate. (est. of 98-99% of the population)
   Life During the High Middle Ages
         1000 AD to 1300 AD
90% of the people were Peasants
a) Freemen
2-3% of the people were Nobles
2) Count
3) Marquis
4) Baron
5) Knight
5% or so were Craftsmen or Shopkeepers
a) Guild members b) semiskilled workers
               The Economic Revival
                     The Cities
1) Increased Trade
a) Royal governments could enforce the peace
b) Rising Populations
c) Reappearance of clerical and professional people
d) stable coinage and adoption of Islamic banking
2) a more peaceful environment
a) Church enforced the peace; Peace of God and
Truce of God
b) The Crusades
c) The Return of Roman Law
         The First Universities in Europe

 First were in Italy: Bologna and Salerno
 First were devoted to Law and Medicine
 University of Paris in 1200. Students studied law,
philosophy, and theology
Students came mostly from the Middle Classes or
Poor. The usual time for a bachelor’s degree was five
years. Examinations were oral and given when the
student thought he was prepared for them.
                 Medieval Science

 Introduction of Arabic Numbers and Algebra
 The start of chemistry with alchemical interests
 Geography made progress because of commercial
interests and Muslim maps.
Medicine did not advance beyond the Muslims and
the Greeks. At the first medical school, Salerno, the
first teachers all came from Muslim countries.
 The academic emphasis was on the Arts and
Humanities not the Sciences. All the great teachers of
Middle Ages were professors of theology, e.g.
Abelard, Magnus, and Thomas Aquinas
      What was Reborn in The Renaissance?

 Art that dealt with the lives and acts of ordinary
people as well as the traditional religious topics.
Much art reveals a love of good looks, fine clothes,
beauty and worldly success
 The Revival of Classical Learning
 The Renaissance Man: the individual who is an
expert on everything, a man of universal education.
The Idea of a Liberal Education. The return of the
classical curriculum of grammar, rhetoric, logic,
arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music
  The Men Who Made The Scientific Revolution

A brilliant student, he mastered all the scientific
knowledge of his time: medicine, law, mathematics
and astronomy
Using Ockham’s Razor, Copernicus wanted a more
elegant explanation than the ptolemaic one.
Published after his death, he proposed his theory
as an hypothesis and not a reality.
One flaw in his “hypothesis” was his retention of
the idea of perfectly circular motion.
  The Men Who Made The Scientific Revolution

                     Tycho Brahe
Born into great wealth from the time of his
adulthood he was independently wealthy
Backed by the King of Denmark, Brahe
established an observatory on an island near
His discovery of a “New Star” caused a great
controversy since it challenged ancient thinking.
Brahe wanted a system that would combine
Copernicus and Ptolemy.
A new king cut Brahe’s funding and he moved
from Denmark to Prague where he met Kepler
  The Men Who Made The Scientific Revolution

                    Johannes Kepler
Born to poor, but noble parents, he wanted a
church career, but his atronomical work brought him
to the attention of Brahe.
Fortunately or unfortunately, Brahe died during the
second year of Kepler’s employment.
Kepler’s contribution is his three laws of planetary
motion. (The one you should be most aware of is his
first law that planets move in elliptical orbits.
 Kepler is an important precursor to Newton.
  The Men Who Made The Scientific Revolution

The leading physicist of his age
He understood that mathematics is the language of
nature, the language of science.
His astronomical observation overturned Aristotle
and Ptolemy. The heavens are not flawless.
 Galileo’s condemnation by the church had a
chilling affect on science in southern Europe.
Galileo’s experience with the Inquisition drove
him from astronomy to mechanics .
  The Men Who Made The Scientific Revolution

                    Galileo (part 2)
To a great extent invented the scientific method of
hypothesis, experiment, conclusion
His rejection of Kepler’s elliptical orbits is his
greatest intellectual error.
His Dialogue on the Two World Systems presented
a debate between supporters of Copernicus and
 Galileo was one of the giants that made the
Newtonian Scientific Revolution possible.
  The Men Who Made The Scientific Revolution

The Father of Modern Philosophy
After Descartes, theology is not the dominant
discipline of learning or even philosophy
He established rationalism as the main focus of
French philosophy and consequently European
 His mathematical discoveries made Newton’s
achievement possible. He is the second giant.
His philosophy, however, retarded the growth of
French Science.
History of Physical Science
        Physical Science 105
             Fall 1999

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