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					STD’s and STI’s

National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention
  Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
          STI’s and STD’s
   Sexually Transmitted Infection:
    the invasion of and multiplication of a
    microorganism that results in the
    development of a sexually transmitted
   Sexually Transmitted Disease:
    an infectious condition that is usually
    caused by an infectious organism that
    is passed from person to person during
    intimate sexual contact and the exchange
    of body fluids
STD’s (Sexually Transmitted Diseases)
STI’s (Sexually Transmitted Infections)

   Contagious conditions caused by infectious
    organisms which are passed from person to
    person through direct contact with infected
    body fluids; semen, vaginal secretions,
    blood, mucous, and saliva
     Oral, Vaginal, Anal Intercourse
     Contaminated syringes, and medical equipment
     Contaminated blood, and blood products
     Direct contact with infected body fluid
     Prenatal transmission; mother to fetus
        History of STD’s
   Pre 1960:   Syphilis and Gonorrhea
                were the only major
                STD’s in the U.S.
   1976:       Chlamydia identified as
                a cause of a genital
 1981:         AIDS pandemic begins
 1982:         Genital Herpes occurs
                in epidemic numbers
               STD Facts
   Over 25 Significant STD’s in the U.S.
   Over 15 Million Americans are infected with
    a STD each year
   5 of the Top 10 Infectious Diseases in the
    U.S. are STD’s
   2/3 of ALL STD infections occur with people
    under the age of 25
   90% of ALL reported infectious diseases in
    the U.S. are STD’s
   Less than half of the sexually active adults;
    ages 18-45 have ever been tested for a STD
    Common STD’s Today

   Chlamydia               HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

   Gonorrhea               HSV (Herpes Simplex Virus)

   Syphilis                HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

   Candidiasis             CMV (Cytomegalovirus)

   Trichomoniasis          Hepatitis

   Bacterial Vaginosis
   NGU (Non-Gonnococcal Urethritis)       Pubic Lice
Causes of STD Epidemics
   STD’s are non-symptomatic during the
    incubation period
   Many people are very promiscuous
    and they have sex with multiple sex
    partners or share drug paraphernalia
   Many people do not get tested for
    STD’s, and are unknowingly infected
   Some people continue to have sex
    when they know that they are infected
        General Warning Signs
       of Sexually Transmitted
   Burning sensation when urinating
   Unusual discharge from urethra
   Unusual growth on genitals or rectum
   Appearance of blisters or sores
   Appearance of body rash
Effects of Untreated STD’s

   Impotency: unable to perform sexually or
    to experience sexual pleasure
   Infertility: unable to reproduce children
   Chronic Health Problems associated with
    the std infection
   Reproductive System Cancer
   Pre-mature Death
Responsible Actions if
Infected with ANY STD
   Stop any behavior that could transmit
    the infectious organism to anyone.
   Seek out medical treatment from a
    doctor or clinic.
   Notify anybody that you could have
    infected, so they can get proper
    medical treatment as well.
     STD Transmission
 Direct Transmission: contact with the
  infectious organism through the person to
  person exchange of body fluids during
  sexual activity, or the sharing of drug
 Indirect Transmission: contact with
  the infectious organism from external
  contact; LEAST LIKELY transmission.
  – Fomite Transmission: transmission from
    contaminated public toilets, showers, etc..
  – Digital Transmission: infected person touches
    the infected area with their hands, and then
    transmits the organism to other body parts.
         STD’s, Teens,
       and Young Adults
   Most Likely to   have Multiple Sex
   Most Likely to   experiment sexually
   Most Likely to   not get tested for STD’s
   Most Likely to   have unprotected sex
   Most Likely to   experiment with drugs
   Most Likely to   abuse alcohol
 Bacterial Infection
   – Primary: chancre develops at the site of infection
      Chancre Sores:
         –   Progresses to ulcer
         –   Typically painless
         –   Highly infectious
         –   Heals spontaneously within 1 to 6 weeks
         –   25% of infected people have multiple lesions
   – Secondary: body rash occurs 3 to 6 weeks after
     the primary chancre appears; may persist for
     weeks to months
   – Tertiary/Latent: occurs years after initial
     infection, causing neurosyphilis, and the
     development of cardiovascular problems
Penile Chancre
Labial Chancre
 Syphilis Lesion on
Tongue from Oral Sex
Syphilis Chancre from Oral Sex
Syphilis Chancre from Oral Sex
Syphilis Chancre – Withdrawal
*Ejaculation into open sore
Secondary Syphilis - Rash
 Secondary Syphilis:
Generalized Body Rash
                                                       Clinical Manifestations

Source: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention
Training Center

                                   Source: CDC/NCHSTP/Division of STD Prevention, STD
                                   Clinical Slides
   Latent Syphilis -
Ulcerating Skin Lesions
  Congenital Syphilis:
Infant Mucous Patches

 Source: CDC/ NCHSTP/ Division of STD Prevention, STD Clinical Slides

   Bacterial Infection
    – 85% of infected woman and 40% of
      infected men are non-symptomatic
    – Major cause of Ectopic pregnancy, and
      pelvic inflammatory disease
          Symptoms of Infection:
            – Painful burning urination
            – Abnormal discharge from urethra

Source: California STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
Chlamydia Discharge

Source: Seattle STD/HIV Prevention Training Center at the University of
Washington/UW HSCER Slide Bank
                                                       Clinical Manifestations

Chlamydial Cervicitis

Source: STD/HIV Prevention Training Center at the University of
Washington/Connie Celum and Walter Stamm
    HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)
           Genital Warts

   Viral Infection
    – No current cure, ONLY treatments
          Surgical Removal
            – Burning or Freezing
          Medical Ointments and Creams
            – Symptoms:
                 Appearance of Warts on the genitals

                 Occasional itching

                 Occasional discharge and bleeding
Penile Warts
Penile Warts
Vaginal-Vulva Warts
Vaginal-Vulva Warts
HPV; Rectal Warts
    HPV Infection;
Warts in Mouth-Oral Sex
  HPV Infection; Warts
on Tongue from Oral Sex
    HSV (Herpes Simplex Virus)

   Genital herpes is a recurrent, lifelong
    infection caused by a Virus.
   Two HSV Serotypes – HSV-1 & HSV-2
     HSV-1: causes the sores in the mouth, or
      on the lips
     HSV-2: causes the sores to develop in the
      genitals; cervix, vagina, or penis
     Approximately 1 million new cases occur
      each year
Herpes Sores on the Lips and
 the Tongue from Oral Sex
Herpes Sores on Penis
Herpes Sores on Vagina

            Herpes Sore
Baby w/ herpes spread
     from mother

   Bacterial Infection
    – Symptoms:
        Burning Sensation during urination
        Milky, cloudy discharge from urethra

        Inflammation of the urethra

        Inflammation of the cervix in woman
     Gonorrhea Infection in Eye

   Bacterial Infections
    can spread to the
    eye when the eye is
    touched after fingers
    have come in contact
    with genital fluids
Gonorrhea-Penile Discharge
Gonorrhea-Cervical Infection
     Bacterial Vaginitis

 Trichomoniasis
 Vulva-vaginal Candidiasis (VC)
   Yeast Infection

 Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)
  – Symptoms Include:
      Unusual infectious-like discharge from vagina which
       often has a foul odor
 Yeast Infection in
Mouth from Oral Sex
Vaginal Candidiasis
 (Yeast Infection)
Scabies & Pubic Lice

   Tiny Parasites that attach themselves to
    the skin and they feed off of the blood
    vessels at the surface of the skin.
    – Life span of only 30-40 days, but lay eggs
      and produce multiple generations for
      ongoing infection
          Medicated creams, ointments, soaps, and
           shampoos are the cure.
Scabies (Parasitic Mites)
Scabies Life Cycle:
Pubic Lice in Genital Area
Pubic Lice Life Cycle:
PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)

   Painful re-occurring infection of the
    fallopian tubes, ovaries, and uterus
    – Untreated PID can cause scar tissue to
      develop in the fallopian tubes and result
      in permanent sterility
   HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • Virus that causes the progressive breakdown of the
      immune system, resulting in the development of
      AIDS, and causing fatal disease conditions to occur.
   AIDS:      Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    • Immune suppression; T-cell count of <200
    • Immune suppression; Lymphocyte count of <14
    • Fatal Opportunistic Infections develop:
       •   Pneumocystisis Pneumonia
       •   Kaposi’s Sarcoma
       •   Brain Dementia Complex
        STD Treatment
 Antibiotics will cure any disease that is
  caused by a Bacteria, and they are
  also used for Parasites and Fungi.
 NO CURE for any disease that is
  caused by a Virus.
    – There are treatments available, but you
      are infected for life with any STD caused
      by a virus.
    – Untreated Hepatitis and AIDS are FATAL!
STD Prevention
         STD Prevention
   Abstinence and Secondary Abstinence are the
    ONLY choices that will provide 100%
    protection from any STD infection.
   IF You Decide to Become Sexually Active:
    – Delay becoming sexually active as far into
      adulthood as possible
    – Maintain mutually monogamous relationships
    – Screen all sexual partners, use STD testing
    – Correctly and consistently use condoms
    – Avoid sharing drug paraphernalia or having sex
      with people who use injectible drugs
    – Get regular medical check ups for STD’s
  Sexually Transmitted
Disease Treatment Clinic
    North Clinic
    Rolling Meadows Courthouse
    Room 059
    2121 Euclid Road
    Rolling Meadows, IL 60008
   Call for Appointment Times
   FREE, Confidential Testing & Treatment
           HIV/AIDS Services
ILL Department of Public Health

   HIV/AIDS Services:
    Case Management
    Medical Referrals
       *   708/492-2090
   HIV/AIDS Clinic:
    FREE, Anonymous, Confidential HIV
     testing and counseling
       *   708/492-2190
STD Prevention