In Pursuit of Equity and Excellence in Education by pengxiuhui


									  Pursuing Equity and
Excellence Ten Principles and Practices to
      Promote Achievement for All Students

                   Pedro A. Noguera, Ph.D.
                 Graduate School of Education
                     New York University
    I. Equity vs. Excellence: Competing or
                Compatible Goals?
   Principle #1 - Challenge the normalization of failure.
      Race and class should not predict achievement.

 Equity Defined - Equality of opportunity with
   attention to equality in results for all students
 School vision must combine equity and
 Challenge low expectations and complacency

 Internal accountability
          Failure is not an option
 Principle #2 - Educational leaders must be the
   guardians of equity

 Schools must confront the ways in which some
   students are denied learning opportunities
    Tracking
    Teacher sorting
    Special education

 We must implement strategies to support the
   most vulnerable students
Embrace Immigrant Students and their Culture

     Principle #3 - The academic success of immigrant students
      is contingent upon how they and their families are treated
   Tend to be over-represented among successful and
    at-risk students
   The amount of education they received prior to
    arriving in the US is significant
       Are they literate in their native language?
   There must be cultural/language competence
    among staff
   Acculturation process may produce conflict
   Schools need relationships with social service
    agencies and CBOs
        Demystify school success

 Principle #4 - Students must be provided clear guidance
   on what it takes to succeed

 Teach study skills

 Show and explain what excellent work looks like

 Provide academic and post high school counseling

 Teach “code switching”

 Develop career academies

 Discuss future plans early and expose students to options
     Build partnerships with parents

 Principle #5 – Build partnerships with parents
   shared interests

 Key Ingredients
    Train staff on how to communicate with parents
    Organize a variety of events and activities
    Provide clear guidance to parents on what they can
      do to support their children
    Keep in mind: The most important form of
      parental involvement occurs at home
 II. Shift the Paradigm: Focusing on cultivating
   confidence and competence in all students
   Practice #1 – Align discipline practices to educational goals

 Get buy-in from all staff on expectations and norms

 Address underlying causes of behavior problems

 Address social and emotional needs of students
       Focus on ethics, values and character development and connect
        students to learning

 Employ adults with moral authority

 Utilize consequences that are meaningful and reconnect
    students to learning
     Restorative justice
    Re-think Remediation
   Practice #2 – Monitor learning and intervene early

   Use data to track performance and to identify areas where
    improvement is needed

   Provide extended learning opportunities after school, summer

  Evaluate remediation programs for quality and effectiveness
 Recognize: homework is an equity issue

   Move from remediation to acceleration by
 Diagnostic assessment of learning needs
 Personalization of interventions
 Providing access to an enriched, rigorous curriculum
Effective Teaching Strategies for Reducing
                        Academic Disparities
   Active learning, interactive classroom
        Moving away from the cemetery model

   Teaching within the zone of proximal development

   Constructivist, inquiry-based pedagogical strategies

   Simulations

   Socratic seminars

   Project based learning

   Experiential learning

   Student leadership in the classroom

   Public presentations of student work
  Interventions that work
 Practice #3 - Increase access to and support in
   rigorous courses
 Double period algebra

 AVID, Young Black Scholars

 Accelerated summer school
    Upward Bound, MESA

 Transition classes, Puente

 Access to rigorous courses: International
   Baccalaureate, Project SEED
 Additional Interventions
 Practice #4 - Build strong relationships between
   teachers and students to improve behavior and
 Engage students through extracurricular activities

 Coordinate services with community partners: nutrition,
   healthcare, counseling
 Consider: block scheduling, small learning communities,
   developing an advisory system
 Provide targeted mentoring for “at-risk” youth

 Create opportunities for youth leadership and civic
Teaching and Learning at Your School
Practice #5 We must teach the way students learn rather than
   expecting them to learn the way we teach

   Teachers must be encouraged to take responsibility for
   student learning and focus on mastery and performance

 Teachers must must constantly look for evidence of learning
   and reflect on their practice

 Teachers must view the work produced by students as a
   reflection of their teaching

 Teachers must limit the amount of time students are
   engaged in passive learning and increase opportunities for
   active learning

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