Career Deviant or Deviant Careers

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					Career Deviant or Deviant Careers?
What is the meaning of a Deviant Career?

All persons judged as deviant follow a career
process marked by several stages.

Among the stages are:
• Entry
• Mobility or maturity
  Comparison to other Careers
     Analogy to “Respectable” Careers
• 4 Stages to respectable Career:
  – Entry: busy work, low pay, low
    power/authority, long hours
  – Mobility: Career climb ; on the job experience,
    gratification; still career uncertainty
  – Zenith: Important assignments; increased
    authority; security and pay are at a peak
  – Coasting to Retirement: Prestige still high;
    work assignments decreasing

  Note: What are the typical ages for each stage?
  Comparison to other Careers
• Deviant Career:
  – Rapid Upward Mobility: No Credentials required
    to start young with little educ.; Most deviant
    careers favor youth b/c of willingness to take on
    risk among youth.
  – More Frequent Shifts: Most jump from “job” to
    “job” – shifts vary.
    •   Lateral Shift: Same scene new job
    •   Vertical Shift: Move up or down in status
    •   Context Shift: New scene, same activity
    •   Additional Activities
    •   Short to Long term Commitment varies
  Comparison to other Careers
• Deviant Career:
  – Earlier Decline:
    Police record acquired early in life creates
    Loss of networking connections /decreasing
    physical capacity discourages deviant lifestyle
  – Wanting Out: 2 Factors
    • Push Out: Aging, Medical, Burn-out, Criminal
    • Pull Out: Family, Links to respectable circles, Legit.
      Work opportunities
            Careers in Deviance
• Reserve 9. Careers in Deviance (Best & Luckenbill)
  – Career Concept
• ENTERING the Career:
  – 40. Gay Male Christian Couples and Sexual
    Exclusivity:     ***DROP***

  – Reserve 10. Marks of Mischief : Becoming and
    Being Tattooed (Sanders)
     • DISCUSS

  – 39. Joining a Gang: Being Deviant. (Jankowski)
     • DISCUSS
Social Organization of Deviance: Street Gangs

  • Social Disorganization Theory
  • Chicago School of Sociology (early 1900s)
  • Emphasizes Ecological Elements in the
    Urban Environment
  • Immigrant Questions:
    – Allow immigrants into US or not?
    – Genetic differences in immigrants versus
      “native born” Americans ?
    – Scapegoating social problems (see Ch. 16)
 Sociology Organization of Deviance:
            Street Gangs
• Model of the ecological process (Park and
  – Concentric Zone Model of urban development
    • Zone of Transition

  – Metro Reef Pattern
Sociology Organization of Deviance:
           Street Gangs
• Mapping incidents of Delinquency
  (55,000 over 30 years)

• Shaw & McKay observe spatial patterns in
  places where delinquency is clustered

• Spatial pattern of crime is stable
Sociology Organization of Deviance:
           Street Gangs
• Ecological features of Zone of Transition:
  – Crime rate
  – Economic depression
  – Physical deterioration (housing)
  – Single parent households
  – High % of renters (vs. owners)
  – Heterogeneity (a.k.a ethnic diversity)
  – Spatial Mobility
   Sociology Organization of
    Deviance: Street Gangs
• Ethnic Succession
  – Poor are powerless to resist “invasion” of those prone to
    illegal behavior
  – Poor can not resist those who are culturally different
     • New immigrant waves
     • Gentrification

• Cultural Transmission
  – Criminogenic social disorganization takes root
  – “Traditions of Crime” are developed & passed on
    (Subcultural Theories – Sutherland, W. Miller, etc.)
  – Structures of Criminal Opportunity: Access to Illegitimate
    Means focused on street (Drug & Property) crime and
    violent crime
    Sociology Organization of Deviance:
               Street Gangs
•    (Sub)Culture Conflict (Miller 1958)
•    Working class values: “Focal Concerns”
      –   Trouble
      –   Toughness
      –   Smartness
      –   Excitement
      –   Fate
      –   Autonomy

•    Have other values developed since the 1950s?

•    What values are evident in the reading by Jody Miller on Gender, Victimization &
     Gangs (Ch. 31)?
      –   How is masculinity and gender related to gang membership and member values?

•    How about Jankowski in Ch. 37 “Join a Gang”?

•    How about in Godson & Olson’s “International Organized Crime” (Ch. 31)?
     Exiting A Deviant Career
• 41. Shifts & Oscillations in Deviant
  Careers: Upper Level Drug Dealers &
  Smugglers (Adler & Adler)

• 42. Exiting Child Molesting (Pryor)

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