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College of Veterinary Medicine The Ohio State University

VIEWS: 212 PAGES: 32

									THE SPECULUM

                          WINTER 1973





College of Veterinary Medicine
The Ohio State University
                 THE                                            Vol. XXV, No. 2
                                                                  Winter 1973
            SPECULUM
                                                                IN THIS ISSUE
                                                  fflllnr
                                    DAVID WRII !H1

                                                                 1   The Dean Comments

                              BECKY GOMPK                        4   Thermal Burns in Cattle
                             BETTY HARPER
                          WAYNE KAUFMAN                          6   First Days at Vet School
                             DAVID SNYDER
                        SHARON STEVENSON
                               ROBERT WIRT                       6   Hog Cholera Strikes
                                                                 7   Office of State Veterinarian Moved
                                       fihnfn'jroph v
                               [ ) A \ R PA 111 IN
                           DAVID E MARTEI.LE                     8   Dual Study for Vet Students
                             |OHN SCHWARTZ
                                                                 8   Morris Foundation Elects Board Members
                          U\< u!tv rriifnrinl                    9   PFM—Interdisciplinary Study at OSU
                           ndvisory bnnrH
                VERNON I. THARP, nri\ isnr
                       PIETER D DeWET                           10   Continuing Education in 1973
                                WILLIAM MUIR
                               MILTON WYMAN
                                                                11   Vets Oppose "Ohio Plan"

                                      msir/frn'J ' i M nr       13   Night Out Has New Format for 1973
                                       ANN MYERS
                                                                14   Surgical Management of Hip Luxation

                                WAYNE C. KING                   17   Pre-Vet Association Plans Eastern Trip
                                                                17   "Phantom Finn" Wins Again
                                         cover photo
                                     by ANN MYERS
                                                                17   Women's Auxiliary Reports Busy Year
                                                                18   A Nose Job on a Two-Ton Patient
                                                                22   Veterinary Crossword Puzzle
                                                                23   Monkeying Around in Space
                                         ^ a "••«»;

                                                                24   The Biggest Career Day Ever
                                                                24   News from Pathobiology
                                                                25   Diagnosis—Acute Pancreatitis
                                                                26   Call Me Madame?
                     By Executive       Action,
                     th i-- )"ir'i became t he
                                                                27   O. R. Adams Lectures at OSU
                     official     Ohio   State
                     Universil y College of
                                                                28   Crossword Puzzle Solution
                     Veterinary       Medicine
                     ]i>iru   i in     January        ] '•'>.
                     ] H72-    It     should      retain
                     the      original          design
                     when be i n p re) 1 rod ucetl.             ADVERTISING INDEX

                                                                 3    Pfizer, Inc., New York, New York

T H E SPECULUM is published three                                7    Beecham-Massengill Pharmaceuticals, Bristol, Tennessee
time-; a year by The Oh in State Uni­
versity College of Veterinary Medicine.                         16   Fort Dodge Labs
It is published for the dissemination of
news to the alumni, faculty, students
and other interested persons. Contri­                           21   Vitamineral Products Co., Peoria, Illinois
butions are welcomed but we reserve
the ripht to edit the material. Sub­
scription rates are: 1 year, $3. or                             26   Beecham-Massengill Pharmaceuticals, Bristol, Tennessee
3 years, (8 in U.S.; $4 a year in all
other countries, Please a d d r e s s all cor­                  27   W. A. Butler Co., Columbus, Ohio
respondence     to       THE          SPECULUM,
College of Veterinary Medicine, 1900
Coffey Road. Columbus. Ohio 4321 (i—                            C3   The Columbus Serum Co., Columbus, Ohio
Phone (614) 422-1171- When you move,
please send both old and new address.                           C4   Allen Products Co., Allentown, Pennsylvania
    THE DEAN
         COMMENTS


   Most students currently enrolled in the College of
 Veterinary Medicine will acknowledge the diffi­
 culty, hard work and frustrations involved in ob­
 taining the degree Doctor of Veterinary Medicine;
 but they also will be quick to substantiate that those                    DEAN C. ROGER SMITH
 tasks wax pale compared to the ones encountered
 in gaining admission in the first place. Eight hund­     fectly encompass every desirable characteristic for a
 red and sixty-five completed and bonafide applica­       career in one of the learned professions. In biology
 tions were processed for the class that started in       we learn about individual variation and know that
 September 1972. From these 130 candidates were           no winner of a beauty contest possesses the aver­
 selected (15%). Eighteen young ladies and 112 young      age characteristic of all the contestants.
 gentlemen with an average of 3.7 years of college           The admission of students is probably the single
 or university preprofessional preparation, and an        most important thing which takes place in the col­
 average cumulative point hour ratio of 3.14 com­         lege. The characteristics of the young people enter­
 prise the class. Their average age was 22.6 years        ing the profession will determine the quality and to
 and 53 of the group had either a B.S. or B.A. de­        some extent the distribution and quantity of the
 gree and six had an M.S. degree.                         veterinary services made available to the public in
   Competition for admission is keen. Students real­      the future. In addition to past academic perform­
 ize that the absolute values of point hour ratios and    ance, the importance of the applicants' sense and
 other pertinent data are less important than how         attitude toward a career in a profession merits seri­
 such individual data compares with that of each          ous consideration.
 member of the applicant group. The competition for          It is impossible to measure in an arithmetic fash­
 admission to the class beginning in September 1973       ion those traits of personality and character which
will be even more intense. Personally, I feel fortu­      make a significant contribution to the success of
 nate to be on the faculty as I am certain that today     any person whose function is to serve the public.
 I would not qualify for admission as a student.          There are indicators which do help if used
   Certain untoward effects are a possible accompa­       wisely. We at the college believe, however, veter­
 niment of the prevailing highly competitive admis­       inary practitioners can be a great help in recruiting
 sions circumstances. It can lead to an imprudent         and advising us concerning the admission of stu­
prolongation of preprofessional university study.         dents. When a real opportunity has existed for in­
Such prolongation may dull the motive to learn            timate association in a real working situation, eval­
following admission. It is expensive in time, energy      uation is most likely to have substantial founda­
and money for both the student and the university         tion.
at a time when better use of personal and public             Recruiting the best students, and advising them con­
resources is everyone's goal. It may tend to promote      cerning admission are among the most important
more homogenity among those entering the profes­          contributions an alumnus can make to the college.
sion than the diversity of veterinary services calls      It is a serious matter. Is the applicant the kind of
for. In fact, modern curricular design addresses it­      person you would welcome as a colleague in your
self to a heterogenity in skills, interest and intel­     practice, in your city or in your neighborhood? Is
lect. In the idealistic situation one person would per-   the applicant reliable? Can you depend upon him?

WINTER, 1973
What are his work habits? Is there evidence of in­
terest and ability to work both independently (a
self starter) and under supervision? How dominant
                                                         Smith Named Dean

is the materialistic viewpoint about life? How much        C. Roger Smith, D.V.M., Ph.D., has been named
respect for truth and humility is demonstrated?          dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine. The
Does he try and succeed in understanding the view­       Ohio State University Board of Trustees officially
point and situation of others? How seriously does        appointed Dean Smith at their meeting April 6.
he take himself as compared to others? How does            Dr. Smith has served as acting dean of the Col­
he affect people?                                        lege since Dr. Leslie E. McDonald resigned last
                                                         spring.
   Does he or she persist in the face of difficulties?     A native of Hartville, Ohio, Dr. Smith received his
Is there an expression of optimism and good hu­          DVM from Ohio State in 1944, his master of science
mor? What basis do you have for answering these          degree in 1946, and his Ph.D. in 1953, also from Ohio
or similar questions? Can you cite specific events       State. He joined the College as an instructor in 1944.
or occasions which helped to provide answers? How        He became chairman of the Department of Physi­
many preveterinary students have you known well,         ology and Pharmacology in 1955.
provided recommendations for, and followed up              Dr. Smith served as director of the office of Veter­
after graduation? You are often more qualified to        inary Medical Education from 1970 to 1972, man­
provide information about values, feelings and at­       aging the implementation of the new curriculum.
titudes than are preprofessional teachers who may        He also recently served as research professor and
only know persons as students in classes ranging in      as a member of the Council on Academic Affairs,
size from 100 to 600 or more.                            Office of the Provost.
                                                           A member of the research committee for the Ohio
  We should never be complacent about recruiting         affiliate of the American Heart Association, Dr.
and evaluating young persons who aspire to become        Smith is also currently serving on the Veterinary
veterinarians. Promotion into our profession implies     Medicine Review Committee, Bureau of Health Pro­
in a sense that the profession should be vitally in­     fession, Education and Manpower Training, Na­
volved and that such promotion rightfully could oc­
cur from those who have experience within our own
ranks. A deliberate, serious attempt represents quite
a switch from the all too common procedure in
which the request for a recommendation is followed
by the comments "sure, be glad to, what's your
name and what does your father do?"

  The admission of students is accomplished by a
committee mechanism. Many man hours of intense
effort are devoted to the procedure. Frustration is
frequent. The process is a human one and subject
to human error. All involved persons do try to do
their work honestly. They know that decisions must
be made with whatever information is available and
to try to put it to the best use possible.

   The college is currently planning to initiate a       tional Institutes of Health. He is a member of the
study of admission practices in cooperation with         National Advisory Council, Bureau of Veterinary
other Big Ten Colleges (Illinois, Purdue, Michigan       Medicine, of the Food and Drug Administration of
State and Minnesota) in an attempt to determine          the Federal Department of Health, Education, and
what characteristics, courses, work experiences and      Welfare. He is a reviewer for the American Journal
other background are most important in an appli­         of Veterinary Research and a consultant to the
cant who will contribute significantly to the work of    Morris Animal Foundation.
our profession. We need to know more than what              Dr. Smith served as president of the Academy of
is required to do well in the veterinary college. We     Veterinary Cardiology from 1968 to 1970 and as a
must try to determine what it means to be a good         member of the advisory board of the Morris Animal
veterinarian and then what applicants are most           Foundation from 1964 to 1967. He has been listed
likely to develop in that direction. We will need        in World Who's Who in Science, Marquis Who's
your assistance with this project and will be grate­     Who, and Outstanding Educators in America. Dr.
ful for your responses to questions you might re­        Smith has contributed over 80 articles to scholarly
ceive from time to time.                                 journals.
                                                                                                 THE SPECULUM
               Quick! Try to think of an antibiotic

               that works more effectively against

               more organisms than Liquamycin.





                                      Erysipelothrix insidiosa
                           Pasteurella multocida     Salmonella
                       Pasteurella hemolytica           choleraesuis
                 Mycoplasma gallisepticum                    Leptospira pomona
                     Mycoplasma synoviae                     Escherichia coli
                                                            Sphaerophorus
                  Anaplasma marginale                          necrophorus

                             Brucella                            Bacillus

                    bronchiseptica                                anthrasis

                    Pseudomonas

                       aeruginosa

                          Proteus

                   Streptococcus

                      hemolyticus

                   Miyagawanella                                Liquamycin . . . the
                               felis                            broad - spectrum
                                                                 antibiotic from Plizer.
                                                                  WARNING:       Discontinue
                                                                 treatment at least five days
                                                                prior to slaughter for poultry
                                                                and at least 18 days prior to
                                                               slaughter for other species.
                                                               Federal law restricts this drug
                                                              to use by or on the order ol a
                                                             licensed veterinarian.




                                          Department of Veterinary Medicine,
                                          Pfizer inc., New York, N.Y. 10017




                                   MORE FOR GROWTH AND HEALTH




WINTER, 1973
The Treatment and Clinical Course of Thermal Burns in Cattle

                                            By Daniel A. Gingerich, D.V.M.

   (On October 10, 1972, fire broke out in the cattle
barns at the Ohio state fairground in Columbus
where the North American Dairy Show was in pro­
gress. Most of the 1,400 head of cattle were unin­
jured, but cattle that were burned were taken to the
OSU veterinary teaching hospital. Dr. Dan Ginge­
rich directed the care of the animals.]

CASE REPORT:
  On October 10, 1972, 13 mature dairy cattle were
admitted to The Ohio State University Veterinary
Clinic for treatment of thermal burns sustained in
a fire at the Ohio State Fairgrounds. The animals
were examined upon admission to determine the ex­
tent of the injury in each case as well as the gen­
eral body condition.
   The percentage of the body surface affected by
the burns was estimated by the method adapted                Exhibitors at the North American Dairy Show effected a calm
                                                             and orderly evacuation of cattle from the burning barns in October,
from the human literature by Pierson et al. (1969)6                        saving most of the animals from injury.
by the following formula:

    Head
                                7%

    Back
                                7%
                   Estimation of the extent and depth of burns,
    Sides
                              24% each
            however, was found to be extremely difficult to
    Udder
                               4%
                 accomplish with accuracy in cattle. Notwithstand­
    Belly
                               7%
                 ing the best efforts of everyone involved to arrive
                                                             at a good estimate, some cases which appeared
    Forelegs
                            4% each

                                                             to be severely burned upon entrance proved to be
    Hindlegs
                            6% each

                                                             only slightly singed, while others which appeared to
    Perineal area
                       6%

                                                             have discrete lesions on small areas later sloughed
    Tail
                                1%
                 wide areas of skin. A much more accurate assess­
  Attention has recently been called to a more re­           ment of the degree of injury and of the prognosis
cent paper by Hornberger (1972)3 in which the                can be made several days after the burn.
above figures have been revised as follows:
                                                               The method of classifying burns in the human is
    Head                          4% on each side            not entirely satisfactory for large animal burns. 1
    Neck                        6.5% on each side            In this report, for the sake of convenience, the
    Sides                      31.5% each                    term 2nd degree burns is used to denote partial
    Lower fore                  2.5% each                    thickness burns, and the term 3rd degree burns is
      limbs                                                  used to denote full thickness burns in which both
    Lower hind-                   5% each                    the epidermis and the dermis have been completely
      limbs                                                  destroyed. The burns affecting these cattle were
    Tail                          1%                         judged to be mostly 2nd degree or partial thickness
                                                             burns although several cases had small 3rd degree
   The depth of the burns was estimated by examina­          burn areas and 2 of the cases were extensively af­
tion of the skin as well as by noting signs of sys­          fected by 3rd degree, full thickness burns.
temic effects. A simple method of determining the
depth of the burn is to pull a tuft of hair;
if it pulls out easily, the burn must be considered          EMERGENCY CARE:
deep; if it offers normal resistance, the burn must             Upon entrance to the OSU Veterinary Clinic, the
be superifical.5 Hemaglobinuria, as denoted by cof­           13 animals were washed with soap and water and
fee colored urine which shows up as blood on the              mefenide hydrochloride (Sulfamylon ®) cream was
urine labstix test, is also a sign of more extensive          applied topically to the burned areas. The latter
involvement. Hemoglobinuria was observed in 4 of              was used, based upon recommendations from the
the 13 cases.                                                 Shriners Burns Institute, Cincinnati, which handles

                                                                                                               THE SPECULUM
human burn patients. The pulse rate and character,       osmotic pressure of plasma, further increasing the
respiratory rate and character, lung and tracheal        tendency for fluid to leave the capillary and enter
sounds, and membrane color and warmth were eval­         the tissue space. In experimental burns in dogs and
uated for signs of shock. Eleven of the animals          cats, however, Arturson (1966) has shown that plas­
were given intravenous infusions of 2V2% dextrose        ma osmotic pressure actually increases and that the
in ringers solution or a similar product, the dosage     osmolality of the tissue fluid is considerably higher
ranging from 4 to 16 liters, depending upon the          in burned tissue than in normal tissue.8 The main
severity of the case and the response of the animal.     reason for the rapid fluid loss, then, is thought to
All of the cattle were given injections of antihis­      be an increased osmotic pressure of tissue fluid in
taminics and those animals that were not pregnant        burned areas superimposed upon increased capil­
were given dexamethasone. A course of penicillin         lary permeability.
and dihydrostreptomycin therapy was instituted in          Severe pain can be an additional aggravating
each case.                                               factor in thermal burn cases. Pain strongly inhibits
                                                         the vasomotor center thereby increasing vascular
                                                         capacitance and reducing the tendency for venous
                                                         return. This also contributes to the general shock
DISCUSSION:                                              syndrome.
   In cases of severe burns in large animals, the
problem of most immediate concern is the likeli­
hood of going into shock. Shock, by definition, is
a condition characterized by a disparity between the
circulating blood volume and the capacity of the         TREATMENT DURING THE ACUTE PHASE:
vascular system. In thermal burn cases, a number of        The use of intravenous fluids is strongly indicated
factors may act in concert to produce shock.             in the prevention and treatment of shock due to
   Fluid loss is probably the principal reason for the   thermal burns in cattle as an aid to the restoration
 shock in burn cases. During the first few minutes       of the normal balance between blood volume and
immediately following a burn, a very rapid transfer      the vascular capacity. An isotonic solution such as
 of fluid from the intravascular to the extravascular    ringers solution or another balanced electrolyte so­
 space of the burned tissue occurs. The peripheral       lution may be used to augment the total circulating
resistance to flow decreases to very low values as       blood volume. The cases in this report were treated
resistance vessels dilate virtually maximally. At        with ringers solution to which dextrose was added
 approximately 1 hour following a thermal burn, the      to bring the dextrose concentration to 2.5%, thus
wound edema is maximal in extent and by 2-3              resulting in a slightly hypertonic solution. Neither
hours, leakage into tissues has slowed down.8            whole blood nor plasma were given. The dosage re­
   Toxic factors from damaged tissues, including         quirement varied from patient to patient as judged
considerable amounts of histamine or histamine-          from the monitoring of the packed cell volume and
like substances arethoughtto play a role in the path­    total solids of the plasma. It was impossible to pre­
ogenesis. These substances have a very strong vaso­      dict the amount of fluids needed by estimating the
dilator effect and also cause increased capillary        extent and depth of burns. Fluids were administered
permeability leading to loss of fluids and plasma        in 4 liter increments by continuous IV drip at a rate
constituents from the vascular bed to the intersti­      of approximately 4 liters per hour.
tial fluid space.2                                          The use of corticosteroids is indicated to aid in the
   Attempts have been made to implicate specific         attenuation of the toxic reaction. The finer points
toxic factors released in burns, but cross-transfu­      of corticosteroid activity remains subject to some
sion studies fail to demonstrate this. However,          controversy, but it is suggested that they do reduce
serum enzyme levels are frequently altered after         histamine release by enhancing the stability of the
cases of burning (Laing & Barton, 1966) and this         lysosomal membrane and that they oppose capil­
is thought to be caused by the degree of general         lary permeability.7 At the rather low levels adminis­
toxicity.8 Liver damage, renal damage, and ulcera­       tered in the cases under discussion, 20 to 30 mg.
tion of the duodenum (called Curling's ulcer in the      of dexamethasone, the main benefit is likely to be
human) are associated with severe thermal trauma.        the general anti-inflammatory activity of corticost­
Clinically, hemoglobinuria is a readily visible sign     eroids rather than the treatment of shock per se.
of generalized toxicity and severe systemic in­             Antihistamines are indicated to reduce the effect
volvement.                                               of those histamines and histamine-like products
   One major effect of the above sequence of events      which are released. Both steroids and antihista­
may be a drastic reduction in the quantity of plas­      mines may be of great value early in the course
ma proteins if the burns are extensive. Conse­           of the injury to help minimize the extent of the
quently, the mean hydrostatic pressure of the ves­       damage.
sels is thought to overbalance the reduced colloid                         (Continued on page 12)

WINTER, 1973
                                                                    quarter and plans are in the making tor taking our
First Days at Vet School—                                           beer blast party and a chartered bus for a day at
A Freshman's Impressions                                            the Kentucky Derby this spring.
                                                                      A great deal of emphasis has been placed on try­
                                                                    ing to determine the best possible system of grades,
                        By Kathy Haigh                              and to implement that system successfully. Unfor­
                                                                    tunately for me, grades up until this point, meant
  As a freshman, I've seen, heard, and learned a                    everything to me for without good marks I'd "never
great deal, not only about biochemistry, anatomy,                   make it into vet school!" Now I'm trying to revamp
biostatistics, immunology, etc., but also about all                 my outlook and to say the least it is difficult.
the people and faces I've met and am still meeting                  I give my best of luck to those actively involved
since the first day of class last fall. My intent                   in this movement, and offer myself as a guinea
here is to make no value judgments, but I want to                   pig for the immune serum which will combat this
express my feelings which have developed through                    "Grade Disease" which has grown in me since ele­
my educational and personal experiences as a                        mentary school. I hope I don't have anaphalactic
Freshman in Vet School at O.S.U.                                    shock.
  In a word, I'm impressed with the organization of
the school curriculum and educational facilities at
our finger tips, such as the autotutorial lab and the
library. I am equally impressed with most of the
teaching staff and faculty. The professors convey
a sincere interest in the students and are willing to               Hog Cholera Strikes Eight States in 72
help in any way possible to present their subject
meaningfully to the class. Any student will admit                     A hog cholera emergency on a national scale
that no matter what the subject is, a stimulating,                  struck the livestock industry in 1972, and Ohio was
interesting, and well organized professor who com­                  one of the states hit the hardest. Hog cholera re­
municates with the student at the student's level,                  sulted in the destruction of more than 94,000 hogs
holds the greatest capacity for teaching and is                     in the United States in 1972, 6,000 of them in Ohio.
deeply appreciated by the class.                                      The disease was found on August 26, 1972, in
  The freshmen have made a grand effort to stimu­                   Darke County, and Ohio lost its "hog cholera free"
late their social lives. It originated as a beer blast              designation. Outbreaks of the disease also occurred
at the "Oar House," with a special invitation from                  in Georgia, Kentucky, Nebraska, Tennessee, and In­
the bartender to celebrate finishing our first anato­               diana. Indiana experienced one of the most wide­
my mid-term last fall. By the end of that quarter we                spread infections. Hog cholera was found there on
were finding good reasons to celebrate something                    September 1, and when the final quarantine was
just about every week. We got an early start winter                 raised on December 8, 19,665 hogs had been found
                                                                    to be either infected or exposed to infected ani­
                                                                    mals and were destroyed. Approximately 17,120
                                                                    hogs were condemned in Carroll County, Indiana,
                                                                    alone. Late in 1972, New Jersey and Pennsylvania
                                                                    were placed under statewide quarantine.
                                                                       Surveillance programs in Indiana and Ohio will
                                                                    continue. Such programs are designed to intensify
                                                                    routine on-farm and market inspection until all
                                                                    threat of the disease has passed. When the surveil­
                                                                    lance programs are over without discovery of new
                                                                    hog cholera infection, the states qualify to regain
                                                                    their hog-cholera -free status.
                                                                       Secretary of Agriculture Earl L. Butz declared a
                                                                    national emergency October 11, after hog cholera
                                                                    outbreaks in several states. The National Hog Chol­
                                                                    era Eradication Advisory Committee met in Decem­
                                                                    ber and made several recommendations concerning
                                                                    the crisis.
                                                                       To combat future outbreaks, the committee
                                                                    recommended that federal quarantines and state­
                                                                    wide "hold" orders be imposed on the movement of
Lynn Schutt has a question for Dr. Diesem in the freshman anatomy
                                                                    all swine whenever an outbreak occurs involving
                               lab.                                 hogs which have been moved through a market.

                                                                                                          THE SPECULUM
The committee said that this combination of state              In conclusion, the committee urged that the pres­
hold orders and federal quarantines should include           ent national emergency on hog cholera be con­
all states from which hogs were shipped to the "ex­          tinued for at least three years after the last state has
posed" markets, and to hogs which were shipped               been declared free of the disease.
from that market, as well as the state in which
the hog cholera outbreak occurred.
   The statewide hold orders would be imposed
temporarily, until all hogs which had passed
through exposed markets could be tracked down
                                                             Office of State Veterinarian
and the extent of infection determined. Such action
would greatly reduce the possibility of further
                                                             Moved to Reynoldsburg
spread of the disease.                                          The office of Dr. Harry E. Goldstein, the state vet­
   Other recommendations included identification             erinarian for Ohio, has been moved from the Col­
of swine so they can be traced to the farm of ori­           umbus location to the Ohio Department of Ag­
gin; more thorough inspection at all swine market­           riculture Laboratories in Reynoldsburg. The move
ing points; tighter controls over the movement of            was made late in December, 1972.
"cull" pigs, and intensified enforcement by state               Dr. Goldstein serves as Chief of the Division of
agencies of regulations requiring the cooking of             Animal Industry and the Division of Meat Inspec­
food waste (garbage) before feeding to swine.                tion, was well as Deputy Director of the Ohio De­
   The committee also recommended revitalization             partment of Agriculture Laboratories.
of state hog cholera advisory committees and revi­              Requests for supplies furnished veterinarians by
 sion of the present classification of states based on       the Ohio Department of Agriculture, Division of
progress made in eradication of hog cholera. States          Animal Industry, should now be directed to: Ohio
hereafter should be considered as either "infected"          Department of Agriculture Laboratories, Division
or "noninfected," the committee said. The existing           of Animal Industry, Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068.
 four-phase classification has provided for orderly             Requests for Federal forms and supplies should be
progress toward eradication during earlier years             directed to the U.S.D.A., APHIS, Vet Services, Ani­
when the disease situation varied much more be­              mal Health, 121 East State Street, Room 448,
 tween states than at present.                               Columbus, Ohio 43215.




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WINTER, 1973
                                                         because of a desire to become involved in active
Dual Study Program Open to                               research, particularly in the area of neonatal renal
Veterinary Students                                      function. From his experience in the program, he
                                                         cautions others contemplating the same course that
                                                         it requires a considerable commitment of time and
                 By David Wright                         effort. He confided that, "although I learned
                                                         much, I feel I neglected some clinical responsi­
  In 1965 the College of Veterinary Medicine insti­      bilities and even domestic responsibilities in order
tuted a program which allows students who have           to be active in research and graduate education."
demonstrated proficiency in the professional curri­      He advises others interested in the program to pur­
culum to register in the graduate school also. Through   sue only a few graduate courses, not at the ex­
this system, the student receives both professional      pense of clinical electives, and except in the case of
and graduate credit for certain approved courses.        the exceptional scholar, not to take on a re­
In this way, students can start early on a graduate      search problem until finished with the profes­
degree and obtain up to 15 hours toward a mas­           sional curriculum.
ters or Ph.D. degree instead of starting at the same                                       (Continued on page 18)
level as a B.S.
  To become dually enrolled, the student first con­
sults with the chairman of the department in which
he wishes to do graduate work. If the department         Morris Animal Foundation Elects Two
chairman decides the student has the necessary           Board Members
qualifications for graduate study, the student is
given a letter to that effect and is assigned an           Two veterinarians have been elected to the Advis­
advisor. The letter is then given to the Secretary of    ory Board of the Morris Animal Foundation, Denver.
the College of Veterinary Medicine. The College          They will give scientific guidance to the public
Secretary will recommend the dual enrollment to          foundation which sponsors research into diseases
the Director of Admissions if the College require­       of companion animals.
ments have been met.                                       James H. Gillespie, V.M.D., professor and chair­
   Dr. Thomas E. Powers, who was recently named          man, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, New
as head of the program, reported that normally           York State Veterinary College, Cornell University,
a minimum accumulative average of 3.0 in the pro­        and Donald L. Piermattei, D.V.M., medical director,
fessional curriculum is required. He said that de­       North Metro Animal Hospital, Denver, will serve
pending on the particular individual and qualifica­      three-year terms on the board as volunteers.
tions involved, the requirement is occasionally            Members of the Advisory Board review, then
lowered to the 2.7 required by the graduate school,      accept or reject proposals for research grants sub­
but in all cases the student must maintain a 3.0         mitted to the Morris Animal Foundation by veterin­
accumulative average in his graduate work once ad­       ary schools and other qualified institutions. Each
mitted. To receive a Master's Degree requires a          year about half the proposals fail to meet the
minimum of 45 hours of graduate work and usually         board's high standards for objectives, scientific de­
takes two or three additional quarters after receiv­     sign, importance and qualifications of researchers.
ing the D.V.M. to complete the research, thesis,           The foundation was established in 1948 by Mark
and coursework. Dr. Powers feels that a more             L. Morris, D.V.M., Topeka, Kansas, who perceived a
realistic figure is about 60 hours based on the work     need for research into diseases of the companion
completed by students who have already received          animals—dogs, cats, horses, zoo and wild animals.
degrees through this program. The minimum num­           Since then over 200 studies have been funded by
ber of credit hours for a Ph.D. is 135.                  the foundation.
   There are presently thirteen students registered in     Other members of the advisory board are: Ben­
the dual program with four or five applicants            jamin Brackett, D.V.M., Ph.D., Department of Ob­
anticipated next quarter. It might be expected that      stetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive
these students are pursuing graduate work in prep­       Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medi­
aration for solely academic or research oriented ca­     cine, Philadelphia; Jiro J. Kaneko, D.V.M., Ph.D.,
reers. Although this is true for many, an increasing     chairman, Department of Clinical Pathology,
number are planning to enter private practices and       School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cali­
are seeking their advanced degrees as a means of         fornia, Davis; Robert W. Leader, D.V.M., Depart­
providing more specialized service to their clients.     ment of Animal Diseases, University of Connecti­
  Dr. Larry Rowe, a member of the Department of          cut, Storrs; and Robert A. Squire, D.V.M., Ph.D.,
Veterinary Physiology/Pharmacology now com­              associate professor, Department of Pathology and
pleting his Ph.D., got his M.S. in the dual profes­      Animal Medicine, the Johns Hopkins University
sional/graduate program. He started graduate work        School of Medicine, Baltimore.

                                                                                                 THE SPECULUM
          PFM—Interdisciplinary Study at OSU

                                           By Robert Hamlin, D.V.M., Ph.D.

   Five years ago, under the leadership of Professor         search problems, but also to development of a cur­
Herman Weed in the Department of Electrical En­              riculum of instruction for biologists interested in
gineering, the Ohio State Center for Biomedical En­          this specialty of biomedical engineering.
gineering was conceived. The Center was formed to               Previously, at this and at other institutions
develop a curriculum and student body, and to nur­           throughout the country, individuals have made such
ture research projects in the rather new field of            a paper and pencil commitment to one another,
biomedical engineering.                                      or have visited each other's laboratories and casu­
   Biomedical engineering is that discipline common          ally talked over data from biologic experiments.
 to both engineering and medicine which uses en­             At our institution, however, many members are
gineering technology and theory for the solution of          housed in the basement of Sisson Hall, sharing of­
biological or medical problems. One can imagine              fices, technicians, graduate student assistants, and
 the many interfaces between engineering and medi­           secretaries, thinking and working together for mu­
 cine, e.g. data processing and information retrieval,       tual enrichment as well as for instructional and
 electronics, biological control and systems analy­          research programs. Graduate students from the de­
 sis, and operations research.                               partments of engineering work in Sisson Hall and
   Numerous subgroups evolved from meetings                  one member from each college serves as the stu­
 among personnel of the biomedical engineering               dent's advisor—although the major advisor remains
 center. One such group, devoted to the study of             in the college from which the graduate degree will
physiological fluid mechanics formed quite natural­          come.
ly, brought together by previous and ongoing re­
search activities of various members.
   These members came from the departments of
 aeronautical and astronautical engineering (AAE),
 electrical engineering (EE), engineering mechanics
 (EM), veterinary physiology and pharmacology, vet­
 erinary pathology, pediatrics, and medicine. The
 group was formed with the approval of the various
 deans and department chairmen. Thus, three col­
 leges pooled personnel to form what is now the
 Physiological Fluid Mechanics group (PFM), most of
 whose offices and laboratories are located in the
 basement of Sisson Hall.
   Members are as follows: Robert Nerem, Ph.D.,
AAE; Rus Pimmel, Ph.D., EE; Michael Wells, Ph.D.,
EM; Robert Hamlin, D.V.M., Ph.D., Vet. Med;
Pramode Bhagat, Ph.D., EE and Vet. Med.; David               Dr. Hamlin checks the direct writing oscillograph. This apparatus
                                                             records blood velocities measured by the hot-film anomometer
Gross, D.V.M., M. Sc, Vet. Med.; Robert Farrell,                           and the pulsed doppler apparatus.
D.V.M., Ph.D., Vet. Med., Paul Ertel, M.D., pediat­
rics; Roy Donnerberg, M.D., medicine; and Phil
Bromberg, M.D., medicine.
   Dr. Robert Nerem serves as the director of PFM,              A certain degree of misunderstanding among
and although an aeronautical and astronautical en­           the associates was quickly resolved. Some of the en­
gineer by training and profession, his experience            gineers thought that the biologists should merely
in physiological fluid mechanics has been formid­            give them data, and they would scribble a few dif­
able. He spent nearly 12 months at the Imperial Col­         ferential equations on the blackboard and arrive at
lege in England working with physicians on topics of         a quick and easy solution.
physiological fluid mechanics. The group at Imper­             On the other hand, some biologists thought of
ial College was unique. Physicians and engineers             the engineers as merely tool and die makers whose
worked together on research projects, shared offices         primary goal was to make the biologists more so­
and seminars, and—most importantly—shared ideas              phisticated equipment.
and concepts ostensibly peculiar to each member's              In fact, however, the biologists' problems are ex­
discipline.                                                  tremely complex because of the non-linearity of the
   Now, at Ohio State University, we have such               systems that they use, the inability to adequately
PFM group, devoted not only to the attack on re­                                                       (Continued on page 19)

WINTER, 1973
                   Continuing Education in 1973

  In this issue of the Speculum, we are featuring two
excellent Continuing Education courses which will
be offered April 24-25 and May 9, 1973.
  Dr. Charles Diesem has planned a course on
Equine Surgical Anatomy which I recommend very
highly to both equine specialists and others doing
limited equine practice.
  Dr. Ronald Chatfield and Dr. William Muir have
put together an intensive course on Canine Heart­
worm Disease which will cover the basic as well as
the most advance approach to diagnosing, treating,
and preventing this prevalent disease.
            Vernon L. Tharp, D.V.M.
            Chairman, Continuing Education
            Committee



                                                                    Associate Dean Vernon L. Tharp

                                                                EQUINE SURGICAL ANATOMY
                                                                        PROGRAM
                                                        Tuesday
                                                         8:00	  Registration
                                                         8:30	  Opening of the Course
   In the equine surgical anatomy course, the                     Vernon	 L. Tharp, D.V.M., Associate
anatomy of the equine head, limbs and genitalia                     Dean
will be stressed. Live or unembalmed specimens will
                                                                  C. Roger Smith, D.V.M., Dean
be used to make the surgical areas as realistic as
possible. Equine osteology, arthology, and surgical      8:45	  Organizing of the Course
areas of the head will be studied with preserved                  Charles Diesem, D.V.M.
specimens.                                               9:00	  Surface Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  All lectures will use the topographic anatomical              and Structures of the Oral Cavity
approach. The use of anatomical landmarks seen in                 Aaron Horowitz, D.V.M.
the living animal and their relationship to surgical     9:45	  Endoscopic Exam of Nasal Cavity, Phar­
areas will be described. The anatomy of the head                ynx, Esophagus and Stomach and the In­
as viewed with the endoscope will be presented in               ternal Anatomy of the Larynx
several lectures.                                                 Aaron Horowitz, D.V.M.
  In laboratory sessions, participants will dissect     10:30	   Break—Coffee
areas of particular interest to them. A discussion      10:45	  Surface Anatomy of the Thoracic Limb
period will be scheduled during each laboratory                   Maureen Hunter, D.V.M.
to allow participants to discuss anatomical prob­
lems that they feel may be of interest to the group.    11:30	  Topographic Anatomy of the Eye
  All registration must be completed by April 10,                 Charles Diesem, D.V.M.
in order to procure animals for the course. If the      12:15   Lunch—Catered Lunch at Sisson Hall
minimum has not been reached by the deadline,            1:15   Laboratory—Surgical Anatomy of the
registration fees will be refunded. The registrations           Head and Neck
will be limited to 30.                                            Charles Diesem, D.V.M.
  The $100 registration fee, payable in advance,                  Aaron Horowitz, D.V.M.
includes noon lunches, surgical gowns, gloves, and       3:00    Break—Coffee
dissection instruments. Registrants who want to          3:30	  Surgical Anatomy of the Equine Thoracic
wear coveralls or use their own instruments are                 Limb
encouraged to do so. Lockers will be provided for                 Charles Diesem, D.V.M.
storage. Parking is available in student areas ad­                Dennis Milne, D.V.M.
jacent to Sisson Hall.                                   4:45	  Critique of Technics
10                                                                                                   THE SPECULUM
Wednesday
                                                             Ohio Veterinarians Oppose
 8:30	    Topographic Anatomy of the Thoracic
          Limb
                                                             "Ohio Plan" At Meeting
            Maureen Hunter, D.V.M.                              Four major resolutions were adopted by members
 9:15	    Genitalia of the Mare and Stallion
                of the Ohio Veterinary Medical Association during
            Charles Diesem, D.V.M.
                          their 89th annual meeting. Veterinarians proposed
                                                             action that would:
10:00	    Break—Coffee
                                                                1. Require a statewide program for inoculation of
10:15	    Surface Anatomy of the Proximal Pelvic
                                                             dogs against rabies.
          Limb
                                                                2. Require one member of the State Racing Com­
            Aaron Horowitz, D.V.M.
                                                             mission to be a veterinarian.
11:00	    Topographic Anatomy of the Distal Pelvic              3. Allow the controlled medication of race horses
          Limb                                               up until midnight prior to a race.
            Maureen Hunter, D.V.M.                              4. Do away with the so-called "Ohio Plan" requir­
11:45	    Lunch—at a suburban restaurant                     ing professional students ii] state schools to repay
 1:00	    Laboratory—Surgical Anatomy of the                 the amount their educations are subsidized by the
          Pelvic Limb                                        state.
            Charles Diesem, D.V.M.                             Veterinarians pointed out that rabies continues
            Maureen Hunter, D.V.M.                           to be a health hazard to animals and humans in the
 3:00	    Break—Coffee                                       state and that there is a reservoir of the disease
                                                             in wildlife that cannot be effectively treated or pre­
 3:15	    Laboratory—Surgical Anatomy of the
                                                             vented.
          Genitalia and Abdomen
                                                                The resolution said experience in other states has
            Charles Diesem, D.V.M.
                                                             shown the effectiveness of reducing rabies and the
            Maureen Hunter, D.V.M.
                                                             exposure of humans to the disease through man­
4:30-5:00 Discussion	 of the Anatomy Involved with           datory inoculation of dogs.
          Various Surgical Sites                                Rabies is still a highly fatal disease even though
                                                             there is one documented case of a human recovering
  The second continuing education course is de­              after contracting rabies. Rabies is a cyclic disease
signed for the practitioner interested in learning           and the number of cases in the state in recent years
more about heartworm disease. After a description            has varied from a high of 395 in 1962 to a low of
of the parasite and its life cycle, clinical cases pre­      62 in 1970. There were 101 reported cases in 1972.
sented to the OSU Veterinary Hospital will be dis­              While there have been only six human deaths
cussed, with emphasis on clinical signs, laboratory          due to rabies in Ohio during the past 20 years, the
findings, radiographic interpretations, and treat­           number of dogs and the number of dog bites of
ment. A laboratory is planned, where participants            humans has been increasing. Physicians are often
will perform various diagnostic methods involved in          unable to tell if rabies is involved when a person
heartworm disease.                                           is bitten by a dog that has not been inoculated.
                                                                An estimated 2000 persons in Ohio every year
                                                             undergo antirabies inoculations of from 14 to 23
                                                             rabies vaccine injections plus antiserum in many
               HEARTWORM DISEASE                             cases because of the possibility they have been ex­
                                                             posed to rabies.
Wednesday                                                       Members of OVMA said this number could be re­
                                                             duced if there was a statewide law requiring inocu­
 8:00	    Registration                                       lation of dogs. They pointed out that there are vary­
 9:00	    Discussion of Parasite and Life Cycle
             ing requirements in different health jurisdictions
            Ronald Chatfield, D.V.M.
                        and that many have no requirements at all.
                                                                The veterinarians asked the 100th Ohio General
 9:30	    Clinical Signs, Case Histories, Lab Find­
                                                             Assembly to amend the law establishing a State
          ings                                               Racing Commission to require that at least one of
            William Muir, D.V.M.                             the five members be a licensed veterinarian.
            Ronald Chatfield, D.V.M.                            They pointed out that a veterinarian has expert
11:00	     Break—Coffee                                      knowledge of the problems and needs in providing
11:15	    Pathogenesis                                       sound horses for the state's race tracks.
            William Duir, D.V.M.                               Members of the commission are appointed by the
12:00	    Lunch                                              governor with the advice and consent of the senate.
                                   (Continued	 on page 15)                                     (Continued	 on page 20)

WINTER, 1973                                                                                                        11
(Burns cont. from page 5)                                 the touch by the 10th day, accumulated serum
   The use of pain-relieving drugs has been found         underneath, but did not actually begin to slough
in other species to reduce the severity of shock          until the 20th day following the burn. In 2 such
due to thermal trauma by alleviating the neurogenic       cases of 3rd degree burns, large areas of skin
factor. In these bovine cases, it was extremely diffi­    sloughed revealing necrotic fat and exposed muscle
cult to evaluate pain. Analgesics were not, there­        tissue, no healing at all having taken place.
fore, administered to any of the animals.                    Most of the 2nd degree burn cases were relatively
   In human burn patients, controlling infections is a    uncomplicated and healing was progressing satis­
grave problem. Infections, most commonly caused           factorily at the end of 2 weeks. However, burns
by Pseudomonns oeruRino.so, contribute signifi­           involving vital body structures complicated certain
cantly to the mobidity and mortality of man.8 Clini­      cases considerably. In 4 cases, edema of the eyelids
cal observations of burned cattle suggest that cattle     during the first 24 hours caused some discomfort.
are more resistant to wound sepsis than are hu­           Severe burns of the eyelids and subsequent slough­
mans.4 However, respiratory infections secondary to       ing in 1 case caused tissue contracture which led
smoke inhalation or due to generalized stress may         to exposure keratitis. In 2 cases, swelling of the
be expected. Antibiotics should be administered as        coronary bands and severe lameness occurred 2-3
a prophylactic measure, especially if there is a possi­   weeks following the burn, seemingly in the absence
bility of extensive smoke inhalation or heat damage       of direct thermal trauma to the area. In 2 cases,
to the respiratory tract. The cattle in this report       atrial fibrillation was detected on the 8th and 9th
were given a course of penicillin and dihydrostrep­       days following the fire. No clinical signs of cardio­
tomycin therapy for 7-10 days. None developed seri­       vascular problems occurred but it is assumed that
ous respiratory complications though 4 cases suf­         the atrial fibrillation was related in some way to the
 fered mild bronchitis 5-9 days following the fire.       fire, perhaps by causing certain electrolyte imbal­
                                                          ances. Evidence of bronchitis was of some concern
LONG-TERM COURSE;
   Very few case reports of bovine burns have ap­
peared in the veterinary literature, so it is difficult
to make general statements about the overall clini­
cal course in the bovine. Kingman (1944) described
cases of 3rd degree or full thickness burns in
heifers.4 Necrosis and sloughing of the skin occurred
in these patients between 3 and 6 weeks following
the burn. At 8 weeks, following a period of lique­
faction necrosis of the subcutaneous fat, granulation
tissue was extensive. By 10 weeks granulation was
complete and dry scabs covered parts of the burned
areas. At 16 weeks, the areas were still red and
covered with crust but epithelialization was occur­
ring in some areas.
   Pierson et al. (1969) described the course of cases
of 2nd degree or partial thickness burns in cattle
in three stages: (1) shock and pain for 1 week, (2)
eschar separation for 2-6 weeks, and (3) epithel­
ialization and healing of the wound for 2 weeks to
4 months.
   Observations on the 13 cases in the present re­
port agree, for the most part, with the earlier reports
mentioned above. However, it was found that the
period of shock which was characterized by edema
formation, hemoconcentration, pain, and bewilder­
ment lasted no more than 24 hours. Tissue edema,
oozing of serum from lesions, hemoglobinuria, and
other signs had all subsided within 24 hours. Es­
char separation in cases of 2nd degree burns be­
gan as early as the 2nd week and was maximal
by the 4th week. Most of the superficial skin which
sloughed revealed healed new skin underneath,
                                                          Seniors Doug Cunningham, holding the bottle, and Bob Kahan
much of it complete with hair follicles. The third        were some of the students who helped care for the burned cattle
degree burn areas became leathery and lifeless to                         after the fire at the fairgrounds.

12                                                                                                      THE SPECULUM
between the 4th and 11th days following the burn.        4.	 Kingman, H. E.: Extensive Third-degree Burns
One case of abortion of a 7 month old fetus occur­           in Heifers. North Amer. Vet., 25, (1944) :730.
red on the 12th day. Burns on the teats of 1 cow         5.	 Kirk, R. W.: Current Veterinary Therapy III. W. B.
caused so much pain that she had to be prematurely           Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1968.
dried off. Loss of tissue from the tips of the ears      6.	 Pierson, R. E.; Larson, K. A.; Horton, D.; Turbes,
resulted in unsightly appearance of several animals          C; Polen, J. S.: Treatment of Second-Degree
but other than that, 2nd degree burn cases healed            Thermal Burns in Cattle.
well both functionally and cosmetically.                 7. Tepperman, J.: Metabolic and Endocrine Phyi­
   Except for very early in the clinical course of the       ology. Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., Chi­
burns, laboratory findings were unspectacular.               cago, 1968, 2nd ed.
During the first few hours, packed cell volumes          8. Wallace,	 A. B., Wilkinson, A. W.: Research in
were found to be elevated, in one case up to 57%.            Burns. E. & S. Livingtone Ltd., Edinburgh, 1966.
Hemoglobinuria was detected in 4 cases; in each
case it had disappeared within 24 hours. White cell
counts taken the following day showed moderate
leukocytosis with an increase in the proportion of       Night Out Has New Format for 1973
neutrophils. Almost all of the cases showed some
                                                                             By Dave Farst
proteinuria. SGOT's, measured 1 week after the
fire, were all within normal limits.                        Night Out will have a new format this year. In
                                                         years past, the highly successful student production
SUMMARY AND RESULTS:                                     has used solos and chorus numbers as their entire
   Thirteen cases of 2nd and 3rd degree burns in cat­    performance. This year, due to changing trends and
                                                         the abundance of talent, the Night Out Planning
tle were treated at The Ohio State University Vet­
                                                         Committee has revised the show. A battlefield scene
erinary Clinic. Intravenous fluids, corticosteroids,
                                                         will highlight the musical comedy, with segments
antihistaminics, and antibiotics were administered
                                                         from professionals' home lives and their work.
within 2 hours following the thermal trauma, and
the skin was treated with mefenide hydrochloride            Many students from the College of Veterinary
cream. All of the animals survived the acute epi­        Medicine have major roles in this year's perform­
sode. Two of the animals with extensive 3rd degree       ance and have taken a more active part than in
                                                         previous years.
burns had to be euthanatized approximately 1
month after the injury due to the complete loss of          Night Out will be April 27-28 at Mershon Audi­
up to 50% of the skin. Mefenide hydrochloride cream      torium and tickets will be on sale during this
                                                         quarter. All profits from the show go to a scholar­
was found to be a satisfactory topical treatment both
                                                         ship fund for any student in a medically-related
for its effect of softening the eschar and as judged
                                                         field.
from the fact that wound infection did not become
a problem.
   Follow-up contacts with many of the cases indi­
cates that at the time of writing, 5 months after           The American Association of Equine Practitioners
the burn, 2nd degree burns have healed well with         will hold their annual meeting December 10-12,
satisfactory hair growth while healing of some 3rd       1973 at the Regency Hyatt House, in Atlanta, Geor­
degree burns is still not complete.                      gia. For further information, contact Dr. Wayne O.
   The clinical course of thermal burns in cattle was    Kester, Executive Director, 14 Hillcrest Circle, Route
found to be as follows:                                  5, Golden, Colorado 80401.
     1. Period of fluid loss, shock, and pain: 1st 24
           hours.
     2.	 Period of eschar separation: 2-6 weeks.               The College of Veterinary Medicine, in support of
     3.	 Period of healing and epithelialization: 2       The Ohio State University Affirmative Action Pro­
           weeks to 6 months.                             gram, encourages all minority individuals to investi­
                                                          gate the possibilities that exist within the Veterinary
                                                          Medical Profession.
REFERENCES:                                                    Alumni are encouraged to help interested minori­
1.	 Davis, L. E.: Thermal Burns in the Dog. Vet.          ties with their investigations. For additional informa­
    Scope, 8, (1963) :2.                                  tion or free recruiting brochures, write in care of:
2.	 Guyton, A. C: Textbook of Medical Physiology.                Assistant Dean of Student Affairs
    W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1961, 2nd ed.              College of Veterinary Medicine
3.	 Hornberger, M.: Computations on the Surface of               1900 Coffey Road
    the Skin. Berliner and Munchener Tierarztliche               Columbus, Ohio 43210
    Wochenshrift, November (1972) :347.

WINTER, 1973                                                                                                        13
 A Technique For The Surgical Management of Hip Luxation

                    By David Wright                      of its origin at the lower margin of the greater tro­
   In October, 1965, while working at the Animal         chanter the vastus latevalis is cut as an osteotone
Medical Center, New York City, as a Staff Surgeon,       is driven through the epiphyseal line to separate the
Dr. R. Bruce Hohn, Associate Professor of Veterinary     greater trochanter from the femoral shaft. By re­
Clinical Sciences developed a technique for the          flecting the greater trochanter and the attached
surgical repair of hip luxation in the canine. The       gluteals dorsally the joint is exposed. The joint cap­
surgery uses trochanteric osteotomy (Gorman Ap­          sule is incised in a curvilinear position and the
proach) combined with capsulorrhaphy and re­             acetabulum may be cleared of blood and debris,
placement of the greater trochanter distal and           and any osteocaudral chips may be removed. Once
slightly caudal to its original position. In this way    the joint is reduced a capsulorrhaphy is done using
femoral head is rotated deeper into the acetabulum       non-absorbable suture except when damage has
and the limb is abducted due to the normal pull          been so great as to prevent suturing the capsule.
of the gluteus muscles. This rotation and abduction      Using the osteotone, a new bed is created for the
firmly seat the joint which facilitates healing of       greater trochanter just distal and slightly caudal to
damaged tissues and creates a more stable joint.         its normal site. The trochanter is fixed in its new
                                                         site by three stille nails or three Kirschner wires
   Surgery is indicated for the repair of hip luxation
                                                         or by the tension band wire technique depending on
in cases that cannot be reduced by closed tech­
                                                         the size of the animal. The vastus latevalis is su­
niques, where some structure becomes interposed
                                                         tured to the insertion of the superficial gluteal and
between the head of the femor and the acetabulum,
                                                         the incision is closed routinely. Following surgery
or in cases which will not remain reduced in spite
                                                         the limb should be placed in an Ehmer sling for
of immobilization. With old luxations where the
                                                         10 days and normal postoperative care provided.
femoral head has been displaced for a significant
                                                         With short-limbed breeds of dogs the leg will re­
length of time it may become physically impossible
                                                         main in abudction post-operatively due to the pull
 to reduce the luxation using closed manipulation
                                                         of the gluteal muscles but will correct itself in
and therefore require reduction by surgical inva­
                                                         several days, as the muscles stretch.
 sion. In cases where a flap of ruptured joint cap­
 sule and/or a blood clot interpose between the
femoral head and the acetabulum, correct healing
and seating of the joint cannot occur. Correct seat­
                                                                                                      Gr trochonler
ing of the joint can also be prevented when an                      Gluieus medius m
osteochondral fracture is present. These usually are                                                        Gluteus superficiahs m
chip fractures associated with the round ligaments               Gluteus profundus m .

of the head of the femor. Surgery is also indicated      Tensor fasciae lotae m..
with chronic or recurring luxation where the ana­                                                                         Sciatic n
tomic support of the hip is severely disrupted. Ex­
amples of this are the absence of the cartilagin­
ous labrum, severe tearing of the surrounding cap­
                                                                                                                      J   Biceps
sule and/or muscular support, fracture of the dorsal                                                                      femoris rri
acetabular rim, and a shallow acetabulum.
   Dr. Hohn's technique uses the Gorman approach                                    Gr trochant'er
to the hip which provides the greatest exposure of                                  {os'eotomize d)

the joint and allows the relocation of the greater
trochanter. A crescent-shaped skin incision is
made beginning midway between the wing and
body of the ilium extending caudoventrally below            In cases with severe acetabular dysplasia where a
the greater trochanter, and then curves dorsally to      joint no longer has structural integirty this opera­
the ischiatic tuberosity. The underlying musculature     tion may not be adequate. In these cases other
is exposed by developing a dorsal flap of the skin       methods such as pelvic osteotomy or excision orth­
and subcutaneous tissue. The muscles exposed are         roplastry must be considered. However, in surgery
the superficial gluteal, medial gluteal, tensor fascia   cases with the anatomical integrity of the acetabu­
latae, and the biceps femoris. The biceps femoris        lum and femoral head intact Dr. Hohn's technique
is retracted caudally after being separated from the     preserves the normal function of the joint and
tensor fascia latae which is retracted crainally. This   avoids the use of foreign material implants. The pro­
exposes the sciatic nerve and the greater trochanter     cedure is mechanically relatively easy and has been
on which the three gluteal muscles insert and the        proven clinically to be a valuable surgical tool for
vastus latevalis muscles takes its origin. Because       the management of hip luxation in the dog.
14                                                                                                                    THE SPECULUM
(Education cont. from page 11)

 1:00      Wet Lab Radiograph Interpretation
             Ronald Chatfield, D.V.M.
             William Muir, D.V.M.
 3:00      Treatment and Prophylaxis
             Ronald Chatfield, D.V.M.
 4:00      Course ends


  Both courses will be held at Sission Hall, 1900
Coffey Road. For further information about either
course, contact Associate Dean Vernon L. Tharp,
1900 Coffey Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210. Make all
checks payable to OSU Veterinary Continuing Edu­
cation. If necessary, you can call 614/422-1171.

In case your office wishes to contact you, a message
will reach you by calling 614/422-1171. The mes­
sage will be transmitted to you as soon as possible.

For room accommodations you may contact one of                       The Class of 1947 held their 25th anniversary re­
the following conveniently located motels:                         union last May. Pictured here at the Orleton Farms
Stouffer's University Inn                                          in London, Ohio, left to right, are Drs. James Baily,
3025 Olentangy Road                                                Vernon Tharp, Edward Hannon, Warren Amley, and
Phone: 614/267-9291                                                William Hackett. Dr. George Neikirk took the pic­
                                                                   ture.
Olentangy Inn
1299 Olentangy Road                                                 Alumni and other veterinarians who contribute to
Phone: 614/294-5211                                                 the Ohio State University Development Fund and
Royal Inn of Columbus                                               would like to earmark their contribution to the Col­
3232 Olentangy Road                                                 lege of Veterinary Medicine may do so by designat­
Phone: 614/261-7141                                                 ing this on their check or contribution card during
                                                                    the forthcoming fund drive. We thank you for your
                                                                    continuing support.



                                      ADVANCE REGISTRATION-APPLICATION FORM                         D Equine Surgical Anatomy
                                                                                                    D Canine Heartworm Disease
 1. Name of Applicant (please print)

                        (Last)                   (First)           (Middle)



 2. Address of Applicant:

                       (Street)




                       (City)                  (State)            (Zip)



 3. Signature of Applicant:



4. Indicate amount enclosed
                                  (Make Check Payable to: O.S.U. VETERINARY CONTINUING EDUCATION)




WINTER, 1973                                                                                                                15
     The top wormer, in a
     survey of horsemen,will be
     no surprise to you.
     It shouldn't be. Because every dose came from you        Dosage: Dyrex Tube Formula, Granules, and Cap-Tabs
     or other veterinarians. And every year, horse-own­       are packaged in individual dosages conforming to body-
                                                              weights of 200 lb., 500 lb., and 1000 lb. Combine sizes for
     ers have been coming back to you for more. When          other bodyweights.
     an anthelmintic keeps growing more popular for           Cautions and side effects: Symptoms of over-dosage are
     8 years—you know it performs and performs well           colic, diarrhea, and incoordination, appearing in 1 to 3
     —with high safety and efficacy. Horse-owners know        hours. Usually pass quickly. If antidote needed,
                                                              use atropine (10 mg./50 lb. to 100 lb. body-
     it, too. As the national survey by a leading horse       weight). Worming mares in late pregnancy not
     registry shows.                                          recommended. Avoid surgery, severe stress, use
        There's plenty of evidence that horsemen are on       of succinylcholine or spraying horses with
                                                              organophosphorus or carbamate insecticides
     sound ground, in choosing Dyrex (trichlorfon). It        within 1 week before or after treatment. Do not
     controls a high percentage of all 5 major internal       administer to sick horses. Not to be consumed by
     parasites. Not just this parasite or that one. All 5.    other species. Federal law restricts this drug to MUD
     Its record of safety is an 8-year record. Not just a     use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.
     year or so. And on millions of horses. Not a
     sprinkling few.
        Three forms of Dyrex—Tube Formula, Cap-
                                                                             Dyrex
     Tabs*, and Granules—meet every need, for single                            (TRICHLORFON)
     treatment or an efficient year-round program. All
     with utmost convenience—no fasting, no withhold­
     ing water, no intricate measuring, no "extras" to add.
     You can rely on Dyrex. And it's exclusively yours.           Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa




16                                                                                                                          THE SPECULUM
Pre-Vet Association Plans                                  The "Phantom Finn," as Andberg is also known,
                                                         runs five to ten miles a day through a local cemetery,
Eastern Trip                                             "the quietest place I can find. Some of my friends
                                                         see my gold medals and say, 'Now you can quit',"
                    By Ron Huitger
                                                         Andberg said. "Quit? Why should I quit when I'm
                                                         on top? I'm going to run as long as I can stand up.
  The Ohio State University Pre-Veterinary Medical       And if I ever slow down—well, they have walking
Association had a very exciting winter quarter. At       races, too, you know."
the first meeting the club had the pleasure of seeing
a pilot and guard dog demonstration given by Stan­
ley and Walter Doran of Doran Inc. The second
meeting took the club's members to several small         Women's Auxiliary Reports
animal hospitals in the Columbus area. A tour of the
new Veterinary Hospital facilities and a small ani­      A Busy and Profitable Year
mal surgery demonstration were the activities of the                        By Cheryl Sheard
later meetings.                                            The members of the Women's Auxiliary spend
  At the present time the club is planning its annual    much of their time planning and working on spe­
spring weekend trip. This year the club hopes to         cial projects. The following items are just two of
visit standardbred and thoroughbred farms in the         many activities which our group has undertaken
Pennsylvania and Virginia area, with a side trip to      this year.
Washington, D.C. The club is also working hard on          Our Chirstmas Auction was a great success again
plans for the lunch it serves to visitors on the Pre-    thanks to the wives who donated the 259 items sold
Veterinary Career Day, which is April 14, sponsored      by our auctioneers, Paul Shockey and John Spiker.
by the College of Veterinary Medicine. Money             The money collected for these items, $581.35, is
earned from lunch will be used to help finance next      indicative of the quality of the articles. The auction
year's spring weekend.                                   committee was headed by Sandy Payne and Nancy
                                                         Smith who really did an excellent job of organizing
                                                         the event. The Beef Raffle, held in conjunction with
"Phantom Finn" Wins Again                                the auction again this year, was also a success.
                                                         Ella Mae Iman handled the arrangements and ticket
   "At 61 I'm good for three or four years—then some     sales for the raffle which was won by Ron Turrell,
 young 60-year-old will come along and push me           a teacher in the Columbus Public School system.
 out." In the Spring 1971 issue of the Speculum, we      We cleared $260.95 on this event which made De­
 reported on Dr. William Andberg, the "Gray Ghost"       cember 1, 1972 a very profitable evening for the
 of Anoka, Minnesota. He was then in training for        Women's Auxiliary! It climaxed many hours of work
 the International Veterans Track and Field Meet in      and a special thanks to all of you who supported
Cologne, West Germany, a meet for athletes forty         this project.
 and over.                                                 We are sponsoring our second Pet Care Clinic of
   "Bullet Bill," who got his DVM from Ohio State in     the year on March 3 for area Girl Scouts working
 1939, won ten of eleven races, captured the world       on their Pet Care Badges. This idea for a service
 championship in the 5,000 meter run for his age         project of this type was taken to the National Con­
 group and set a new world record in the 1,500 meter     vention this summer and we have heard that sever­
run for those over 60 at the games in Cologne.           al of the other Veterinary schools represented have
   After he returned to his veterinary practice in       instituted clinics for their service projects this
Anoka, Andberg said, "I ran three races on three         year. The Girl Scouts participate in a question/
consecutive days and on the last day won the world       answer period under the capable guidance of mem­
title. I didn't believe I could run so many good races   bers from the Student Chapter A.V.M.A. The girls
at my age, with no practice in between."                 generally are most concerned about their own pets
   Although Andberg is a winner, that's not why he       and come up with some very provocative questions
runs. "The trouble in America is that we think we        for the future veterinarians, such as: "How do I
must win. I'm in running for physical fitness; win­      keep my parakeet from having diarrhea all of the
ning is just a fringe benefit. Those I admire are the    time?" or "Is there any way I can break my dog
runners who never get up front but stay in the race      of chasing his shadow—he's ruining our carpet and
anyway."                                                 my mom is really getting mad!". The members of
   Dr. Andberg started jogging for physical fitness      our group give lecture/demonstrations on various
after his 55th birthday. "I was overweight," he said.    responsibilities of owning a pet, grooming tech­
"I tried golf and bowling, but it didn't satisfy me.     niques, and a film is shown. The Girl Scouts are
There's no' exercise in golf anymore—too much wait­      always very attentive which makes this one of our
ing."                                                    most gratifying projects.

WINTER, 1973                                                                                                 17
                                                                        As Dr. White anticipated, the nose flap sloughed
Florida Vet Does A Nose                                              off in a week, and the stitches were removed, re­
Job on A 2-Ton Patient                                               vealing that healing had started from the inside.
                                                                     A bacterial agent, a mixture of lanolin and gentian
  Dr. Jesse White, resident veterinarian for the                     violet was applied to the nose several times a day
Miami Seaquarium, made veterinary history when                       with a long brush.
he performed a nose job on Hugo, the Seaquarium's                       Dr. White expected Hugo's nose to heal, leaving
4,200 pound killer whale.                                            a gray-white scar. But six months after the accident,
  Dr. White was summoned when Hugo battered a                        Hugo's nose had regenerated glossy black, in the
bubble window in his tank with his nose. After Hugo                  streamlined hydrodynamic nose shape. The only
broke a nine-inch hole in the quarter-inch-thick                     indications of the disaster were tiny markings from
plastic, he lifted his head, and the sharp plastic                   the stitches and a slight dimple at the very tip of the
sheared off about an inch and a half of his nose,                    nose.
leaving a flap of skin about 3V2 inches in diameter                    Dr. White broke important ground in marine
hanging from the base of the nose by a tag of skin                   mammal veterinary medicine with his treatment of
three-fourths of an inch wide.                                       Hugo. Only 19 killer whates are in captivity today,
  The water level in the tank was dropped immedi­                    and total of 26 have been captured and observed
ately to immobilize the whale, and an hour and a                     since 1964.
half after the accident, Dr. White began surgery.                    (The full story of Hugo's treatment appeared in the
  The flap of nose skin was put back in place                        Spring, 1971 issue of the Norden News.)
and held there with 40 stitches. Dr. White used the
skin as "a big band-aid" to prevent infection and                    (Dual Study cont. from page 8)
stimulate healing from the inside.                                      Betty Jean Harper, a senior Veterinary student en­
                                                                     rolled in the program plans to enter a practice after
                                                                     graduation. Her graduate training will benefit cli­
                                                                     ents and she plans to continue her research in­
                                                                     terests in reproductive physiology on a limited scale
                                                                     as time and conditions permit. As her husband is a
                                                                     graduate student in Zoology and Animal Behavior
                                                                     at the University of Michigan, she hopes that they
                                                                     will be able to work together on research projects.
                                                                     Betty does not feel that the dual program is too
                                                                     much harder, but admits she loses some lunch hours
                                                                     and evenings to extra classes and a lot of free time
                                                                     to studying. Since she has been separated from her
                                                                     husband by their respective schooling, the addi­
                                                                     tional work is less of a burden. For her senior elec­
                                                                     tives she has decided not to repeat the clinical
                                                                     sections and is taking a series of courses and semi­
                                                                     nars toward her graduate degree. Her schedule in­
                                                                     cludes a special studies course in radio-immune
                                                                     assay techniques under Dr. Richard Ray in the Vet­
                                                                     erinary Clinical Sciences Department and Dr. W. R.
                                                                     Gomes of Dairy Sciences; Veterinary Endocrinology;
                                                                     Laboratory Animal Medicine; a zoology project
Hugo is a performing killer whale, like Shamu, above, the pride of
Sea World in Aurora, Ohio. Hugo and Shamu are two of 19              under Dr. Peterle of the Department of Zoology;
                  killer whales in captivity now.                    Pharmacology seminar; and a course on technical
                                                                     papers and thesis writings which she is auditing.
                                                                        The dual professional/graduate program can
   No sedation was used. The nose of a killer whale                  provide a valuable opportunity for the student
has few nerves, and Dr. White explained that it is                   desiring advanced degree training to gain a head
connective tissue so tough that it could not be in­                  start while completing the professional curriculum,
filtrated with pain killer to deaden any possible                    but he or she must be willing to accept the hard­
sensitivity.                                                         ships and sacrifices of the increased workload. The
   After surgery, the whale was given a massive dose                 value of this type of program to the Veterinary pro­
of 24 million units of penicillin and an equal dose of               fession will be determined by the growing demand
streptomycin. Hugo also got an injection of Buta­                    for specialized services. If present trends toward
zolidin to reduce inflammation and swelling. The                     longer and more specialized practices continue, pro­
shots were continued every day for five days.                        grams like this one will also grow.
18                                                                                                            THE SPECULUM
(PFM cont. from page 9)
control numerous variables and the difficulty in ob­
taining undistorted signals for study. But what the
engineer has to offer is not purely better instru­
ments or computers to accumulate and permutate
data. The engineer offers a philosophy of thinking
about biological systems as well-defined and con­
trolled systems, and of thinking of diseased states
as biological control systems that have lost satis­
factory feedback to maintain homeostasis. Follow­
ing long periods of contact with exchange of ideas
and knowledge, each member of PFM gained re­
spect for each others' knowledge and ideology.
   Specific research projects undertaken by PFM
define and emphasize the value and necessity of the
program.
                                                          Gary Geiger holds a constant temperature hot-film     anomometer,
I. Studies of arterial blood flow in horses.                           which measures velocities in arteries.
    The horse is a unique animal suitable for investi­
gating blood flow through the arterial system. It         II. Studies on genesis of breath sounds.
is large enough, and probably similar enough to              Characterization and genesis of breath sound are
 man, that detailed measurements of arterial blood        poorly understood. Many feel that rales are pro­
 flow may be made with existing instrumentation           duced by water bubles breaking within fluid-filled
 and the measurement extrapolated safely from             airways. Others feel that the sounds result from
 horse to man.                                            disturbed flow through airways, and that this dis­
    We are using an instrument called a hot-film          turbance is great enough to produce sound akin
 anemometer which may be placed within various            to murmurs in blood vessels. Still others
lamina of an artery and moved from layer to layer         feel that it is airways opening and closing during
 to determine velocity of blood flow across the entire    ventilation that produce certain abnormal breath
 cross-section of the artery. From such velocity mea­     sounds.
 surement, the velocity profile can be established           Our PFM group is currently studying three as­
 during all periods of blood flow. This is important      pects of breath sounds. Using hot film anemome­
 for a number of reasons. If certain critical velo­       ters, we are studying velocity profiles in airways
 cities are reached and persist for a certain duration,   to establish whether or not disturbed flow occurs,
 turbulent or disturbed flow will develop and gen­        and to quantify the degree of disturbance and the
erate murmurs or thrills, which may be of diagnostic      frequency components of the changes in velocity.
significance. Wall shear stresses may adversely af­       Using digital computer techniques, we are record­
 fect the arterial wall and possibly result in ar­        ing sounds from many points on the thoracic wall
 terial disease.                                          and analyzing these sounds by Fourier analysis-
    At still other velocities, the vessel wall may vi­    breaking them into sine waves of varying ampli­
 brate because of the disturbed blood flow. The ves­      tudes and frequency. Lastly, we are developing
 sel wall weakens, and the vessel dilates, or may even    and testing new equipment for recording breath
 rupture. These relationships between blood flow          sound. These studies are being performed on man,
 and arterial wall stress may be of particular value      dogs, and horses in good health and with spon­
with respect to coronary circulation, in which disease    taneous diseases, and on dogs and horses with vari­
strikes most often. The types of measurements re­         ous iatrogenic diseases.
quired to calculate wall shear stress cannot be made         III. Studies on the effects of vibration on arterial
in smaller mammals because of the size of ex­             blood flow.
isting instrumentation. The horse serves as an               Workers who are subjected to long periods of
ideal model.                                              high intensity vibrations—jackhammer operators,
    The PFM group is investigating the use of an          heliocopter pilots—have a predisposition to develop
instrument called the pulsed doppler flow meter.          peripheral arterial diseases. Astronauts during
At present our PFM group is one of three in this          re-entry into the earth's atmosphere develop periods
country to have such instrumentation. This instru­        of arrhythmia and alterations in systemic arterial
ment can measure velocity profiles without invad­         blood pressure that are potentially harmful. An­
ing the animal. By merely placing a sonic emittor         other PFM project is devoted to studying the sig­
and receiver on the skin and focusing to various          nificance of fluid mechanical changes in producing
depths until the artery is identified, the velocity       these effects. Extremely high wall shear stresses
of red blood cells can be measured.                       are produced, and these stresses may be respon­

WINTER, 1973                                                                                                              19
sible for changes in the arterial wall and in re­                 (OVMA cont. from page 11)
sponses of arterioles to vibration.                               A veterinarian has traditionally served on the com­
  Support to sustain the research program of PFM                  mission although this had not been a requirement of
comes from the National Aeronautics and Space                     the law.
Administration, The National Institutes of Health,                   In a separate resolution, the veterinarians asked
The Department of Defense and the National Sci­                   that the racing commission adopt a regulation
ence Foundation.                                                  allowing for controlled medication of race horses.
  An entirely different, but complementary function                  Under the present regulations, a horse may not be
of PFM is instruction. Two parallel programs exist.               given any medication—even aspirin—during the 48­
In one, a formal group of courses is offered to                   hour period before a race.
biology graduate sutdents, to familiarize them                       The veterinarians asked for a regulation that
with PFM. These include courses in linear systems,                would allow horses to receive a restorative, curative
systems analysis, electronics, fluid mechanics of                 or therapeutic medicine providing there is no use of
blood and respiratory flow, biomechanics, and                     stimulants or depressants that would affect the rac­
physiological control systems. The PFM group also                 ing performance of the horse.
offers, for engineers, courses in physiological instru­              The veterinarians also asked the commission to
mentation, preparation of animals for experimenta­                implement and expand pre-race blood testing
tion and advanced mammalian physiology of the                     programs at all parimutuel tracks in the state.
cardiovascular and pulmonary systems.                                The OVMA opposed the "Ohio Plan" as dis­
  In parallel is an informal series of discussions to             criminatory and unfair. Gov. John J. Gilligan pro­
keep the members of PFM in touch with each                        posed in his state budget for the next two years that
other's work, to permit exchange of ideas, to invite              students of medicine, dentistry, optometry, vet­
interested guests to participate in the program,                  erinary medicine, and law pay back to the state the
and to formulate and discuss policies of instruction              subsidies spent on their education.
or future research activities.                                       The association charged this would hinder the
                                                                  Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medi­
                                                                  cine, the only veterinary school in the state, in its
                                                                  efforts to encourage idealistic and talented young
                                                                  people to enter the field of veterinary medicine.
                                                                     The resolution also pointed out that 20 per cent of
                                                                  the veterinary graduates enter government public
                                                                  service jobs that are not particularly high paying
                                                                  positions.
                                                                     OVMA said the average veterinary student incurs
                                                                  up to $15,000 indebtedness in obtaining an edu­
                                                                  cation and additional expenses of between $60,000
                                                                  and $200,000 in setting up a practice.
                                                                     The resolution pointed out that there are in­
                                                                  creasing numbers of livestock and companion ani­
                                                                  mals in the country and only 25,125 veterinary prac­
                                                                  titioners in the Unived States to care for them.
                                                                     Veterinarians called on the state to encourage
                                                                  qualified people to become veterinarians rather
                                                                  than adopting measures that would reduce the num­
                                                                  ber of students.
                                                                     The resolution said the "Ohio Plan" is unfair in
The pulsed doppler crystal measures velocities in arteries from   that it does not make charges against non-profes­
      the surface of the skin, without invading the animal.
                                                                  sional graduates who may go into high paying jobs.
   Because of the government support of large inter­              It also said that professional school graduates repay
disciplinary programs of research, and because of                 their "debts" to the state through lifetimes of public
the exciting interchange and research productivity                service and of paying higher taxes to all levels of
to date, we have great hopes for continued ex­                    government.
pansion of the physiological fluid mechanics group
in the College of Veterinary Medicine. In summary,                  The Animal Technician Training Programs'
this group is a heterogenous conglomerate of indi­                Third Symposium will be held August 27-28, 1973
viduals representing engineering, medicine and vet­               at Michigan State University. For further details
erinary    medicine devoted to the teaching                       contact Dr. Warren G. Hoag, Center for Laboratory
and research of problems related to the flow of                   Animal Resources, 127-D Giltner Hall, Michigan
fluids and gasses in biological systems.                          State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823.
20                                                                                                        THE SPECULUM
  Here is the first Veterinary College bnsebnll                   will gather at the Center for Tomorrow on Friday
team that won the championship in the first intra-                evening for a dinner. On Saturday there will be
mural games at Ohio State University in 1922. Dean                campus tours, lunch at the Faculty Club, afternoon
David S. White is at the top of the picture. E. H.                activities, and the Sunset Supper in the ballroom.
Patchen, (DVM '23). the dapper team manager at                      The College of Veterinary Medicine hopes to see
the left end of the second row. sent us the photo.                many of its alumni at this year's reunion. Dr.
  The University's Class of 1923 will have its 50th               Patchen, who now lives in Milford, Connecticut,
anniversary May 18-19. The classes of 1913 and 1948               says he plans to be here.
will be gathering for reunions, too. Class members


               What's in a name ? That which we call a rose

               By any other name would smell as sweet.

                                                   Romeo and Juliet, Act II, Scene ii, Line 43.

                    WHAT'S IN A NAME?                                   EVERYTHING!

                                           *Via PHos

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               THE GREATEST EQUALIZER                   TO HIT THE WEST SINCE JUDGE COLT.
               Yes, everything can be in a name: via^ control of the pH, better blood chemistry is obtained and
               we thus through healthier bone ("Os^1) structure, set the stage for rapid growth, earlier, more
               profitable marketing, higher performance and production, plus that ineffable      je-ne-sais-quoi
               improvement loosely referred to as "tone".
               Calcium                                2.4%          Vitamin A                  140,000 USP/Lb.
               Phosphorus                            22.0%          Vitamin D3                   190,000 IC/Lb.
                         When Calcium is high, balance with Via Phos!
                        OVER 40 YEARS EXCLUSIVELY TO THE VETERINARY PROFESSION.
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                             152O N.E. ADAMS STREET                  PEORIA, ILLINOIS       616O3



WINTER, 1973                                                                                                       21
               Veterinary Crossword Puzzle

                                       By Becky Gompf

      '-abbreviation
                Across                                   66   noise
                                                         67   iron
       1 animal with four cham­                          68   blood platelet
         bered stomach                                   70   file teeth (horse's)
       9 to join together                                71   reproduce asexually
      19 circle                                          73   thrice
      21 devil                                           74   we
      22 animals     never    having                     75   flee
         borne a living young                            76   small room
      23 female parent                                   78   inflammation of shoulder
      24 input                                          *79   renal plasma flow
      27 colorless gas used to                           80   period after estrus
         induce general anesthesia                       84   throw
      28 difficulty                                      86   insomnia
      32 Greek letter                                    91   perform
      33 girl's name                                     92   to kill by servering spinal
      34 three                                                cord
      35 sun god                                        *93   toxic unit
      36 through                                         94   musical note
      37 to teach                                        95    self-originated
      29 lineage                                         96   testis
     *41 Alcholics Anonymous                             97   passage to stomach
      42 one who subsists on all                         98   joke
         types of food
      44 fatal disease of blood
         forming organs                                               Down
     *45 Internal Revenue Service
      46 anger                                            2 mammary gland of a cow
      48 green pigment in dog's                           3 flesh
         placentae
                                       4 young
      54 dog
                                             5 not
      59 acute infectious disease
                        6 mammal
      61 prolapse of rectum
                              7  lockjaw
     *62 recordings    of electrical                      8 phalange
         brain waves                                      9 reduced number of ery­
      64 love                                               throcytes

     *65 retrolental fibroplasia                         10 hard shelled fruit





22                                                                                          THE SPECULUM
               *11 combined sex hormones
                    of anterior lobe of hypo­          After leaving the Air Force in 1966, he served as
                    physis                           an associate professor of laboratory animal medi­
                12 shrewd                            cine at the Ohio State University College of Veterin­
                13 incline
                14 to perform surgery                ary Medicine. In 1971, he joined Dr. Gilbert J.
                15 insanity                          Papay, (DVM '55) in private practice in Toledo,
                16 mineral                           Ohio, where they own the Country Side Animal
               *17 according to the art
                 18 estrus-producing com­
                                                     Hospital. "After 12 years in research and space
                    pound                            work, I decided it was time to settle down with
                19 5th sign of the Zodiac            the family," Dr. Gisler said. Dr. Gisler and his wife
                 20 friend
                 25 article
                                                     and two children live in Sylvania Township near
                 26 ajoint                           Toledo.
                 29 male ovine
                 30 ox                                 He was an active research veterinarian in the Air
                 31 organs of sound                  Force from 1955 to 1966. Captain Gisler was direct­
                 32 wager
               *38 for example
                                                     ing research on the effects of radiation on monkeys
                 39 secundiparous                    at the University of Texas when he was assigned to
                 40 sacculations in wall of          the space project. As the veterinarian in charge of
                    large intestine
                 43 either
                                                     the "Little Joe" project, he was responsible for the
                 46 inward                           care, research, surgery, and recovery of the animal
                 47 cleft                            space pioneer.
                 49 correction of a fracture
                 40 binary compound of                 "It didn't take long to get emotionally attached to
                    oxygen
                 51 trunk
                                                     the animal as we trained and worked with it," Dr.
                 52 tear                             Gisler said. "Watching that son of a gun take off on
                 53 tunica dartos                    the flight was just unbelievable. Getting the monkey
                 54 neuter                           back was the most rewarding thing of the project."
                 55 shapeless fetal monster
                 56 inform
                 57 wrath                              Before the flight, Dr. Gisler planted sensing de­
                 58 scout                            vices in Miss Sam so veterinarians could check her
                 60 shoot                            respiration, blood pressure and general reactions
                 63 producing estrus
                 69 tree                             to the flight. He also trained the monkey to pull a
                 72 unit of measure of insula­       lever at the signal of a red light so researchers
                                           «
                     tion provided by V " of         could see if the monkey's mental state was altered
                     wool
                 75 chemical symbol for ru­          by space flight.
                     thenium
                *77 luteotropic hormone                Animals led the way into space because "we
                 81 delete                           didn't really know what was up there then," Dr. Gis­
                 82 also                             ler said. Riding in a capsule identical to Alan Shep­
                 83 cheer
                 85 retard                           ard's Mercury I, the monkey experienced elements
                 87 dad                              of space flight such as weightlessness, radiation and
                *88 left occipto-anterior posi­      acceleration.
                     tion of fetus
                 89 droop                              Dr. Gisler is now in the Air Force reserve and
                *90 sister
                                                     spends two days a month at various air bases and
               (The solution is found on page 28)    institutes doing research on space flight. He was
                                                     part of a team that made toxicology tests on Apollo
                                                     space craft interiors and worked with germ-free ani­
                                                     mals in testing the moon rocks for bacteria.
                                                       A native of Florida, Ohio, in the northwest part of
Alumnus Returns                                      the state, Dr. Gisler intended to become a farm vet­
                                                     erinarian, "but one thing led to another, and there
To Earth After Monkeying                             I was in space research," he said.
Around In Space                                        After years in research, Dr. Gisler enjoys his work
                                                     in private practice. "People's pets are very import­
   Donald B. Gisler, (DVM '55) liked monkeying       ant to them," he said. "With a lot of people, it's
around, but he thought it was time to settle down.   the only companionship they have." Dr. Gisler has
During the United States' push toward the moon,      kept his hand in the monkey business, though. He
Dr. Gisler was the personal doctor for Miss Sam,     keeps Garth, his pet monkey, at the animal hospital.
the monkey that paved the way for manned space       He has to keep it caged—"If I let him out," he said,
flight.                                              "he would let all the dogs out of the cages."

WINTER, 1973                                                                                            23
                                                                       News From Pathobiology
                                                                                    By Sharon Stevenson
                                                                       Dr. A. Koestner, Chairman of the Department,
                                                                    has been invited to speak at a symposium sponsored
                                                                    by The American Association of Neuro-pathologists
                                                                    and The American Association of Pathologists and
                                                                    Bacteriologists. The subject of the symposium is
                                                                    slow virus diseases and Dr. Koestner will speak
                                                                    on "Canine Distemper—A Virus Associated With
                                                                    Demyelinating Encephalomyelitis." One of the pro­
                                                                    grams submitted by the department to be con­
                                                                    sidered for the cancer center is "Pathobiology and
                                                                    Therapy of Nervous System Tumors." Dr. Koestner
                                                                    would be the principal investigator.
                                                                      Dr. D. S. Yohn has been appointed by the National
                                                                    Cancer Institute to a National Review Board con­
                                                                    sidering sites for prospective cancer centers.
                                                                      Dr. C. C. Capen spoke at a Food and Drug Ad­
                                                                    ministration seminar in Washington, D.C. on Janu­
A student demonstrates treatment techniques at a past Veterinary
   ary 26. His topic was the endocrine regulation of
Career Day. This year over 1,000 guests are expected to tour

          College facilities, including the new hospital.

                                                                    calcium metabolism. He also spoke at The Ameri­
                                                                    can Association of Clinical Chemists in Cincinnati
                                                                    on the "Role of Calcitonin in Calcium Metabolism."
                                                                       Papers published recently include:
Vet School Preparing For                                            Oncogenic Viruses: Expectations nnrl Applications
Biggest Career Day Ever                                             in Neuropothology. D. S. Yohn. Recent Advances
                                                                    in Brain Tumor Research, Progress in Experimental
  Planners are preparing for a record number of
                                                                    Tumor Research, Vol. 17 pp. 74-92, 1972.
visitors at the fourteenth annual Veterinary Career
Day April 14. Last year about 850 attended Career
Day, and this year over 1,000 are expected.                         Histochemicnl Studies on Selected Enzymes of Ex­
                                                                    perimenfol Neuroectodermal Tumors, J. A. Swen­
  The new veterinary hospital, scheduled to open
                                                                    berg, and A. Koestner, Recent Advances in Brain
later this year, will be included on the tour of the
                                                                    Tumor Research, Progress in Experimental Tumor
College facilities.
                                                                    Research, Vol. 17, pp. 329-345, 1972
  The annual career day program gives high
school students and college undergraduates a                        A Diagnostic Skin Test for Enoephnlitozoonosis (No­
chance to look into a career in veterinary medi­                    semnfosis) in Rabbits. S. P. Pakes, J. A. Shadduck
cine. Before touring the school's facilities, visitors              and R. G. Olsen. Laboratory Animal Science, 22:6,
hear faculty and administration members discuss                     pp. 870-877, 1972.
College entrance requirements and the kinds of ca­
reers open to veterinarians.                                        Disseminated Intrnvasnulor Coagulation Induced
   Veterinary students take groups of visitors                      with Leukocyte Procongulant, G. J. Kociba and R. A.
through Sisson Hall, Goss Laboratory of Pathology                   Griesemer. American Journal of Pathology, 69:3,
and the Veterinary Hospital. Veterinary Career Day                  pp. 407-420, 1972.
is organized and sponsored by the OSU Student
Chapter of the American Veterinary Medical Asso­                    Quantitative Aspects of Transp/arentol Tumor In­
ciation. Chapter members arrange displays and act                   duction with Efhylnitrosoureo in Rats. J. A. Swen­
as guides. Senior Bill Iman is chairman of the event                berg, A. Koestner, W. Wechsler, and R. H. Den-
this year.                                                          linger. Cancer Res., 32:2656-2660, 1972.
   Lunch will be served at the College by the Pre-Vet­
erinary Medical Association, whose members are
undergraduate students planning to enter the Col­
lege of Veterinary Medicine.                                          The Northcentral Conference of Veterinary Lab­
  Practicing veterinarians and families of interested               oratory Diagnosticians will meet June 12-14, 1973
students are invited to attend Career Day, too.                     at Michigan State University. For further details
Veterinarians can catch up on news of colleagues                    contact Dr. K. K. Keahey, Veterinary Clinic, Michi­
and changes at the College, and parents can learn                   gan State University, East Lansing, Michigan
about the field that their child hopes to enter.                    48823.
24                                                                                                        THE SPECULUM
Diagnosis—Acute Pancreatitis
                                          Sample #1     Sample #2
                                                          Color        Clear, yellow Clear, yellow-orange
                  by David Wright                         PH           6             6
                                                          Specific     1.035          1.025
  Of the many cases which pass through an active            gravity
veterinary hospital, there are always a few which are     Bilirubin     3+             4+
particularly remembered. These usually involve            Acetone       Negative       2+
some unique experience, an exotic disease, or a           Blood         Trace           1+
colorful owner. Some, however, are remembered not            A phosphate enema was also given the second day
because of anything spectacular about the case, but       to obtain a fecal sample. The feces were clay-colored
because they were an interesting diagnostic chal­         and foul smelling. The flolation was negative for
lenge.                                                    parasites.
  Such a case was Samantha, a three-year-old fe­             With the combination of clinical and laboratory
male mixed breed collie presented for anorexia and        data the evidence for liver involvement was sub­
vomiting of four days' duration. The dog was grossly      stantial. The high levels of SGOT, SGPT, cholesterol,
overweight, but appeared completely normal on             and uric acid implicate liver cell damage whereas
examination, so was given Derbazine to control            the increased serum alkaline phosphate and the
the vomiting and sent home with instructions to           acholic feces were indicative of a concurrent ob­
bring her back if the problem persisted. The vomit­       struction. Icterow, vomiting and bilirubinuria sup­
ing and anorexia did continue and she was brought         port either liver disease or obstruction. The increase
in again three days later. Although the animal was        in total protein was contradictory in that it was ex­
still active and alert, she was now noticeably icteric.   pected to be lower rather than higher with liver
Her temperature was 102° and her pulse and                disease, but as with the increased hematocrit, this
respiration were normal. Abdominal palpation was          may have been due to dehydration.
attempted but was inconclusive because of her                Differential being considered in addition to pri­
weight. There was no evidence of pain or palpation.       mary liver disease with bile obstruction or an ob­
                                                          struction with secondary necrosis included liver
  Samantha was hospitalized at this point for tests       neoplasia or a tumor secondarily involving the liver.
and observation. She remained in the hospital for         Also being considered were ascarids, an intestinal
three and a half days during which time she did not       obstruction, and acute pancreatitis. The possibility
vomit. She refused any food the first day, but began      of ascarids was pretty well discounted by the nega­
eating R/D prescription diet on the second day and        tive fecal and the dog's age. An intestinal obstruc­
she remained alert and lively the entire time. Her        tion was ruled out since some acolic feces was ob­
temperature did go up to 103° but otherwise no ad­        tained with an enema. The possibility of acute
ditional outward signs of disease.                        pancreatitis was considered more likely, except that
  The first blood work obtained showed a WBC              more severe physical signs are usually related with
count of 13,800/ww3 which increased to 19,000/ww3         this disease and liver involvement is not normally
-plus by the third day. This suggested a possible in­     seen.
fective process but the nature of the leukocytois was        Further tests could have been run for serum ana­
unknown since differential percentages of the cell        lysis and serum lipase to check out the possibility
types was not obtained. The PCV was 55% which is          of pancreatitis, but on the basis of the liver involve­
slightly elevated but is compatable with the history      ment already evident it was decided to do an ex­
of vomiting and the dehydration which resulted.           ploratory laparotomy. Examination of the visera
Other results from blood drawn the first day were:        revealed a large mass originating from the pan­
                                                          creas and incorporating a section of the duodenum
     BUN—20 mg%                                           at the opening of the bile duct and involvement of a
     Serum bilirubin—1.75 mg%                             large portion of the surrounding mesentary. After
     Total Protein—8.4 gm/100 ml                          consulting with the owner, the animal was eutha­
     Alkaline Phosphatase—175 I.U.                        natized and a post-mortum performed during which
     SGOT—300 plus Sigma Frankel Units                    the duo denum involved was found to be almost
     SGPT—375 Sigma Frankel Units                         completely occluded.
     Uric Acid—9 mg%                                         On the basis of the clinical appearance and ap­
     Serum Cholesterol—500 mg%                            parent invasive nature of the mass, it was con­
                                                          sidered to be a neoplastic lesion arising from the
   Blood sugar values were obtained on the first and      pancreas. A portion of the mass was preserved in
third days and were 130 mg% and 80 mg% respec­            formalin and later submitted to the Veterinary
tively.                                                   Pathobiology department at Ohio State University.
   Urine samples were collected for urinalysis on the     The histologic examination revealed it to be inflam­
second and-third days. The results were:                  matory, apparently the result of acute pancreatitis.

WINTER, 1973                                                                                                   25
                                                            Mr. or Ms., George is the property of the Federal
                                                         government. An Act of Congress passed in 1940
                                                         says, "The bald eagle. . .became the symbolic repre­
                                                         sentation of a new nation under a new government
                                             1
          in a new world;. . .by that Act of Congress and by
                                                         tradition and custom during the life of this nation,
                                                         the bald eagle is not longer a mere bird of biological
                                                         interest but a symbol of the American ideals of
                                                         freedom."
                                                            George was the center of a lot of concern early in
                                                         1971 when the government threatened to take him
                                                         away from the zoo (Speculum, Winter 1971.) George
                                                         was housed in a 12 ft. by 12 ft. cage that was not
                                                         suitable for public display, and the government said
                                                         he must be on view if the zoo was to keep him.
                                                           Omega Tau Sigma heard about George during
                                                         classes at the zoo, and went to work on a "Save the
                                                         Eagle" campaign that caught the community's
                   Call me madame?                       fancy. Columbus youngsters worked to earn money
                                                         to contribute to the fund and Columbus architect
                                                         Byron Ireland offered a striking, moderistic design
What's A Nice Girl Like You                              for a flight facility.
                                                           The facility will be 25 ft. by 25 ft. at the base,
Doing In A Place Like This?                              widening to 30 ft. by 30 ft. near the top of the
   George the bald eagle has a problem that not even     abstract steel tree which will be enclosed in plastic-
the Playboy Advisor can help him with. He has an         coated mesh. The structure will cost about $45,000.
elegant new home going up at the Columbus Zoo,              Construction on the flight facility has been held
but no one knows if it will be a bachelor pad or a       up by the wet weather. Zoo officials hope to have the
lady's boudoir.                                          identity crisis solved so they can move George and
   Since zoo officials hope to breed eagles in the new   his/her mate into the cage by spring.
flight facility, they began to wonder if their speci­       An effective breeding program would help the
man is George, or maybe it's Georgina. Now they          plight of the bald eagle, an endangered species. In
are awaiting the results of a chromosome test, and       the wild, DDT in the shells of eggs weakens them
even that might not be conclusive. If this test still    and parent birds crush them when they sit on them.
leaves the issue in doubt, a simple surgical pro­        In captivity, eggs could be incubated, a move that
cedure could decide the quesition.                       could help save the species.
                                                                Prescribe Pet-Tabs®
                                                                              the filet of
                                                                              vitamin/mineral
                                                                              supplements
                                                               It pays to start every new puppy or

                                                               kitten off on Pet-Tabs. Anything that

                                                               tastes this good is bound to lead to

                                                               better things! Dogs and cats of all

                                                               ages and sizes quickly accept this

                                                               same meaty flavor when you dis­

                                                               pense therapeutics and other supple­

                                                               ments in the Pet-Tabs line. Clients

                                                               appreciate the ease of administration

                                                               and keep coming back for refills.

                                                               Maybe that's why Pet Tabs always

                                                               leads in sales — year after year after

                                                               year. Discuss these fine products with

                                                               your Beecham-Massengill represen­

                                                               tative. • Pet-Cal for calcium defi­

                                                               ciencies. • Pet-Tabs, Jr. for small

                                                               dogs. • Pet-Tabs for cats. • Pet-

                                                               Derm (with pretinisone). • Pet-Tabs/

                                                               FA. Granules for glossy coats. •

                                                               Pet A D . Tabs for diarrhea. • Pet-

                                                               Tabs Gee for aged or debilitated

                                                               pets.


                                                                 Beecham-Massengill
                                                                        PHARMACEUTICALS
                                                                 DIV OF BEECHAM INC   BRISTOL TENN 37620

26                                                                                                         THE SPECULUM
O. R. Adams Lectures At OSU                                       suggested that the condition may be inheritable
                                                                  from the stand-point of conformation. The disease
On Lameness In Horses                                             starts as a bursitis with inflammation within the
                         By Bob Wirt                              synovium. Radiographic signs include enlarged nu­
  "If you are going to live off professionalism, then             trient foramina and localized areas of necrosis.
be a professional."                                                  Dr. Adams stressed the problems of diagnosing
  "You do not graduate with respect; you go out and               navicular disease through the use of the posterior
earn it."                                                         digital nerve block. Because of fibrous adhesions
  "Be honest with your client; be honest with your­               that may develop between the deep flexor tendon
self."                                                            and the navicular bone, the horse may continue
  These quotations are indeed well-established ax­                to land on the toe, despite the block, due to the
ioms, not limited in usefulness to the veterinary pro­            mechanical deficit. He also outlined the problem
fession. Many students have heard the rhetoric                    encountered because of accessory innervation to the
and considered it the substance of generation gaps.               navicular from the anterior digital nerve, thereby
But no heads were turned as Dr. O. R. Adams                       permitting a pain response despite the block. Other
spoke these words at a recent AVMA student chap­                  complications, such as inadequate anesthesia, con­
ter meeting. For no one nan doubt that such a man                 current and bruising of the toe as a result of the con­
of energy and intellect as Dr. Adams has helped to                dition, were also mentioned.
give veterinary medicine a plane of professional­                    In this third and final lecture, Dr. Adams discus­
ism worthy of pride.                                              sed hind leg lameness with students in the equine
   Dr. Adams visited Ohio State for three days in                 medicine and surgery elective offered by the
January as guest of the veterinary college and the                Department of Veterinary Clinics. In this lecture, he
graduate school. During this stay, he delivered three             differentiated stringhalt and fibrotic (or ossifying)
lectures on lameness in horses, toured many areas                 myopathy of the semitendinosis by means of stop-
of the veterinary college and talked with faculty and             action film and descriptive commentary. He also
students.                                                         discussed a range of topics from pelvic fractures to
                                                                  the wobbler syndrome.
                                                                     It is not unusual these days to come upon a dis­
                                                                  cussion of a case in the clinic and hear the final
                                                                  argument begun with, "When Dr. Adams was here,
                                                                  he said . . ." Our lives have been touched for
                                                                  only an instant in time by this man. But by his own
                                                                  words, "You have to contribute something before
                                                                  people will listen to you," Dr. O. R. Adams will al­
                                                                  ways have an audience among those who shared
                                                                  three days with him at Ohio State.




O. R. Adams lectures at the OSU College of Veterinary Medicine.

   Dr. Adams' lectures were stimulating and prac­
tical. His lecture to the student chapter was, "The
Method and Approach of Diagnosis of Lameness in
the Horse." A stop-action projector was used to
demonstrate the finer points of leg lameness. Dr.
Adams suggested that the hoof tester is the stetho­
scope and thermometer for lameness diagnosis. He
was able to convince us that lameness examinations
were not part of some strange voodoo cult, but
were indeed within our scope of performance if
we would simply use available diagnostic equipment
and the tool of observation.
  The second lecture, sponsored by the graduate
school, pertained to navicular disease. Dr. Adams                      'Tricky little devils, aren't they?"
                                                                                                                       27
WINTER, 1973
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    Columbus, Ohio                                             Indianapolis, Indiana
     614/444-1155                                                   317/635-1373
College of Veterinary Medicine                                                                                         Non Profit Org.
  The Ohio State University                                                                                             U.S. Postage
       1900 Coffey Road                                                                                                Columbus, Ohio
    Columbus, Ohio 43210                                                                                                     PAID
                                                                                                                           Permit No. 711




                       ALPO means more

                       than more meat.
                        In Sept. '71,                                   In Nov. 72,
                        ALPO announced the initiation oj its            ALPO announced the appointment of Dr.
                        scholarship program at veterinary colleges.     Harry E. Stoli^er, I DVM, Michigan State
                        Each is a full jour year scholarship worth a    University) as Director of the new ALPO
                        thousand dollars annually. In the first year,   Center for Advanced Pet Study. Dr. Stolifycr
                        ALPO awarded eighteen. This September           is responsible for new metabolic studies at
                        there'll be another eighteen. By September      the ALPO Kennel, and ALPO's on-going
                        '74, the total will be 72 scholarships. Help­   research programs.
                        ing to ease the financial crash on promising
                        veterinary students.
                                                                        In Dec. 72,
                        In Dec. 71,                                     ALPO announced the first four films in the
                        ALPO announced two major research               ALPO Library for Continuing Veterinary
                        grants, at Cornell Research Laboratory and      Education. There are more in production,
                        the University of Pennsylvania. Results are     and by July '73, the library will total 9 films.
                        expected for 1974 publication, and promise      These films offer easy to follow procedures
                        to be of significant     value to today's       applicable to any small animal veterinary
                        veterinarians.                                  practice.


                         In June 72,                                    In 1973
                         ALPO announced a unique summer ex­
                         change program for veterinary students.        ALPO is moving ahead in each of these
                         This represents opportunities     for out­     areas. More scholarships. More grants.
                         standing veterinary students to carry out      More films. Because your response has con­
                         independent research under the guidance of     vinced us that these programs are needed.
                         top veterinary scientists during summer        And because helping you, helps pets
                         vacations.                                     everywhere.


                                                                        A1PO PET FOODS


								
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