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6th Grade ENERGY Teacher Notes

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6th Grade ENERGY Teacher Notes Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                          Updated 7/07 W. Morris
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6 Grade ENERGY Teacher Notes

Teachers,
The information gathered here is taken directly from the support document. Resources were also
taken from the support document but were added to as a result of topic searches, teacher
recommendations and sources available to CMS/District 5 teachers:
US = United Streaming, www.unitedstreaming.com If you are not familiar with this resource
see your Technology Teacher Leader for immediate training – it’s worth it!
EL = Explore Learning “Gizmos” Teachers with an EL login are required to use the gizmos with
classes, www.explorelearning.com
        ***The Gizmos for energy are certainly challenging. Pre-planning and review are
critical before sharing with students. Print out the teacher notes and consider using these
gizmos as teacher demo’s vs. student individual use in a computer lab.
BP = Brainpop, www.brainpop.com (GLENCOE provides some Brainpop videos with the new
textbook). Some free Brainpop videos are available on the website, there are many options for
subscriptions including an individual teacher subscribing for his/her classes to a whole school
subscription.

This is a working document – sort of an ongoing draft. You can make additions, corrections and
any changes to any of the items sent to you. Please consider sharing corrections and resources so
we can all work smarter vs. harder and TOGETHER!
Email me if you have any questions.  Wendy         wmorris@lex5.k12.sc.us



6-5    The student will demonstrate an understanding of the law of conservation of energy
       and the properties of energy and work. (Physical Science)

6-5.1 Identify the sources and properties of heat, solar, chemical, mechanical, and

       electrical energy.

       Taxonomy level: 1.1-B Understand Conceptual Knowledge

Previous/Future knowledge: Students have been introduced to the concepts of sources of heat
and how heat moves by conduction in 3rd grade (3-4.3 and 3-4.4). In 5th grade, students have
been introduced the concept of matter being composed of very small particles (5-4.1) that can
form new substances when they are mixed (5-4.7) and to the concepts of motion and position (5-
5.2). Students have not been introduced to the term “energy,” or to other forms of energy besides
heat in previous grades. Students will further develop the concept of energy traveling in waves in
8th grade (8-6.8).
It is essential for students to know that energy is the ability to cause changes in matter and
involves either motion or position, but that energy can be in many different forms. Students
should know sources and properties of the following forms of energy:
BP: Forms of Energy (Overview of all types)

Heat energy            Heat energy is the total energy of the particles that make up an object.
                       The faster these particles move, the higher the temperature of the object
                       and the more heat energy it has. The Sun, material that is burning, and
                       electricity are sources of heat energy.
Solar energy           Solar energy is the energy from the Sun, which provides heat and light
                       energy for Earth. Green plants use solar energy during photosynthesis (6-
                       2.7) to produce sugar, which contains stored chemical energy.
Chemical energy        Chemical energy is energy stored in particles of matter. Chemical energy
                       can be released, for example in batteries or sugar/food, when these
                       particles react to form new substances.
Mechanical energy      Mechanical energy is the energy due to the motion and position of an
                       object. It is the total energy in a system. Machines are a source of
                       mechanical energy but so is falling water, or a human arm or leg.
Electrical energy      Electrical energy is the energy flowing in an electric circuit. A battery
                       and generator are sources of electrical energy.

BP: Energy Sources (electrical), Electricity

It is not essential for students to know the terms “chemical reactions” or “changes” for
chemical energy or “nuclear reactions” associated with solar energy. They also do not need to
know about “electrons” associated with electrical energy.
Assessment Guidelines:
The objective of this indicator is to identify the sources and properties of heat, solar, chemical,
mechanical, and electrical energy; therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be to recall
sources and properties of the forms of energy listed. However, appropriate assessments should
also require students to recognize forms of energy by their sources.

Websites:
California Energy Commission
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/
This website provides numerous resources about types of energy and energy conservation. It
includes teacher and parent resources, puzzles, games and energy stories. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.3, 6-
5.4)

American Association for the Advancement of Science
http://www.kineticcity.com/controlcar/activity.php?virus=enervia&act=4
Different kinds of energy have different advantages. Some are cheap, some are safer for the
environment, and some are very efficient. Usually, though, you can’t get all three. In this game,
your job is to provide power for a gigantic city. But you need to do it without running out of
money or ruining the environment. (6-5.1, 6-5.3, 6-5.4)

http://volweb.utk.edu/Schools/sullivan/colonial/electricity.html
This webquest is designed to explore conductors and insulators, series and parallel circuits,
electric charge, electrical current, electrical safety, electrical power and fossil fuels. (6-5.1, 6-5.2,
6-5.3, 6-5.4)

http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/web/electric.html
This site contains several links to a variety of websites about electricity. It also includes
activities and lesson plans. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.3, 6-5.4)

National Energy Education Development Project
http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/science/formsofenergy.html
This site contains information about forms of energy, conservation of energy, and energy
efficiency.
 (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.4)

Thinkquest
http://library.thinkquest.org/20331/
The website discusses different types of energy, potential and kinetic energy and conservation of
energy. The energy crisis is described as well as alternative sources of energy. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-
5.4)

US:
Getting to Know Energy
ETV Streamline SC
Segment 4: Forms of Energy
Examples of different types of energy and examples and explanations of types of energy,
including, heat, solar, chemical, electrical, and mechanical energy. (6-5.1, 6-5.4)
05.58 to 15.58
Segment 5: Potential and Kinetic Energy
Good examples of energy transformations and a through description of potential and kinetic
energy. (6-5.2, 6-5.4)
15.09 to 19.25

EL: Gizmos – Advanced Circuits

6-5.2 Explain how energy can be transformed from one form to another
     (including the two types of mechanical energy, potential and kinetic, as
     well as chemical and electrical energy) in accordance with the law of
     conservation of energy.
         Taxonomy level: 2.7-B Understand Conceptual Knowledge

Previous/Future knowledge: Students have not been introduced to the concept of energy
transformation in previous grades. Students will further develop these concepts in high school
Physical Science (PS-6.1).

It is essential for students to know that energy can be changed from one form to another as
follows:


Mechanical energy      Mechanical energy is all the energy that is in a moving object. A moving
                       car, a rolling bicycle, a flying airplane and blowing wind all have
                       mechanical energy. There are two types of mechanical energy:
   1. Potential energy
                          All substances have potential energy which is stored energy or energy
                          of position. Batteries, for example, contain stored energy that can be
                          used to produce electricity. A stretched rubber band has elastic
                          potential energy. Water behind a dam has gravitational potential
                          energy because it can fall down the dam.
                       BP: Potential Energy
                       EL: Gr.6-8>Phys. Sci>Energy > Potential Energy on Shelves
   2. Kinetic energy
                          All substances have kinetic energy which is energy of motion. Any
                          matter in motion has kinetic energy. There are many forms of kinetic
                          energy, for example, thermal energy, electrical energy, light energy
                          and sound energy because something is moving in all these forms of
                          energy.
                       BP: Kinetic Energy
Energy
transformation         When water is behind a dam, it has potential energy of position. The
                       potential energy of the water changes to kinetic energy in the movement of
                       the water as it flows over the dam. Batteries contain potential energy in
                       their stored chemicals, which changes to kinetic energy in the electrical
                       energy of the current when they are wired in a complete circuit.


Chemical energy        Chemical energy is a form of potential energy or stored energy. When
                       plants make sugar it becomes a form of chemical energy. Plants transform
                       light or solar energy to chemical energy in sugar produced during the
                       process of photosynthesis (6-2.7). The chemical energy (stored energy) in
                       sugar is transformed to mechanical and heat energy in animals that eat the
                       sugar in plants.
Electrical energy       Electrical energy can be easily transformed into other forms of energy
                        also. The electrical energy moving through the wires in an electric circuit
                        can be transformed to heat energy in a light bulb and cause it to glow as it
                        transforms to light energy, or electrical energy can be transformed to
                        mechanical energy in a motor in the electric circuit.


BP: Electricity and Electrical Circuits
The total amount of energy in the object or the system does not change when the type of energy
changes from one form to another. This is known as the Law of Conservation of Energy. This
law is true for all types of energy transformations. Energy is not created or destroyed during any
energy transformation. Energy is only changed in form.

It is not essential for students to know the formulas for potential energy and kinetic energy.
They also do not need to know where the potential or kinetic energy of a system is greatest for
example in a pendulum or a roller coaster.

Assessment Guidelines:
The objective of this indicator is to explain how energy can be transformed from one form to
another in accordance to the Law of Conservation of Energy; therefore, the primary focus of
assessment should be to construct cause and effect models of how energy transformations follow
the Law of Conservation of Energy. However, appropriate assessments should require students
to recognize the terms of energy transformations, types of mechanical energy including potential
and kinetic energy, mechanical energy, chemical energy, and electrical energy; to interpret
diagrams or illustrations related to energy transformations; to summarize energy transformations
and how the Law of Conservation of Energy applies.


EL: Gizmos - Energy Conversion in a System, Energy of a Pendulum, Period of a Pendulum,
      Simple Harmonic Motion
Websites:

California Energy Commission
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/
This website provides numerous resources about types of energy and energy conservation. It
includes teacher and parent resources, puzzles, games and energy stories. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.3, 6-
5.4)
http://volweb.utk.edu/Schools/sullivan/colonial/electricity.html
This webquest is designed to explore conductors and insulators, series and parallel circuits,
electric charge, electrical current, electrical safety, electrical power and fossil fuels. (6-5.1, 6-5.2,
6-5.3, 6-5.4)

http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/web/electric.html
This site contains several links to a variety of websites about electricity. It also includes
activities and lesson plans. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.3, 6-5.4)

National Energy Education Development Project
http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/science/formsofenergy.html
This site contains information about forms of energy, conservation of energy, and energy
efficiency.
 (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.4)

Thinkquest
http://library.thinkquest.org/20331/
The website discusses different types of energy, potential and kinetic energy and conservation of
energy. The energy crisis is described as well as alternative sources of energy. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-
5.4)

US:
Getting to Know Energy
ETV Streamline SC
Segment 4: Forms of Energy
Examples of different types of energy and examples and explanations of types of energy,
including, heat, solar, chemical, electrical, and mechanical energy. (6-5.1, 6-5.4)
05.58 to 15.58
Segment 5: Potential and Kinetic Energy
Good examples of energy transformations and a through description of potential and kinetic
energy. (6-5.2, 6-5.4)
15.09 to 19.25
Heat, Temperature, Energy
ETV Streamline SC
Segment 3: Heat: The flow of energy from one thing to another
Provides examples of a variety of examples of heat energy and describes of the ways in which
heat energy may be converted to other types of energy and vice versa. (6-5.2)
2:25 to 5:34
Segment 8: Convection
Defines convection and provides examples of where convection may occur. (6-5.5)
13:27 to 14:57
Exploring Heat
ETV Streamline SC
Segments 11-14: The Movement of Heat, Conduction, Convection, Radiation
Provides definitions of each type of heat transfer and provides examples. (6-5.5)
13:49 to 19:14
6-5.3. Explain how magnetism and electricity are interrelated by using

       descriptions, models, and diagrams of electromagnets, generators, and

       simple electrical motors.

       Taxonomy level: 2.7-B Understand Conceptual Knowledge

Previous/Future knowledge: Students have been introduced to the concept of electromagnets in
4th grade (4-5.9). Students have not been introduced the concept generators and simple electrical
motors in previous grade levels. Students will further develop the concepts of electromagnets,
generators, and simple electrical motors in 9th grade Physical science (PS-6-11).

It is essential for students to know that an electric current flowing through a wire wrapped
around an iron core forms a magnet. A coil of wire spinning around a magnet or a magnet
spinning around a coil of wire can form an electric current. Examples of how magnetism and
electricity are interrelated, are demonstrated by the following devices:
BP: Magnetism
Electromagnets:    An electromagnet is formed when a wire in an electric circuit is wrapped
                   around an iron core. The magnet that results looses its magnetic force if
                   the electric current stops flowing.
BP: Under technology not science; Electromagnets

Generators            A generator produces an electric current when a coil of wire wrapped
                      around an iron core is rotated near a magnet. Generators that produce
                      electric current for our homes contain coils of wire that are stationary, and
                      rotating magnets are connected to turbines that are huge wheels that rotate
                      when pushed by water, wind, or steam. Thus mechanical energy is
                      changed to electrical energy in a generator.
Simple electric
 motors               An electric motor changes electrical energy to mechanical energy. It
                      contains an electromagnet that rotates between the poles of a magnet. The
                      coil of the electromagnet is connected to a battery or other source of
                      electric current. When an electric current flows through the wire in the
                      electromagnet, a magnetic field is produced in the coil. Like poles of the
                      magnets repel and unlike poles of the magnets attract. This causes the coil
                      to rotate and thus changes electrical energy to mechanical energy. This
                      rotating coil of wire can be attached to a shaft and a blade in an electric
                      fan.

BP: Magnetism
EL: Electricity and Magnetism
It is not essential for students to know specific terms associated with generators or motors.
Understanding of the fields around a current-carrying wire is also not essential.

Assessment Guidelines:
The objective of this indicator is to explain how electricity and magnetism are related using
diagrams, models, and descriptions of devices, for example - electromagnets, generators, and
simple electric motors; therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be to construct cause
and effect models of how electricity and magnetism are interrelated using previously mentioned
devices. However, appropriate assessments should also require students to interpret diagrams of
electromagnets, generators, or electric motors showing how electricity and magnetism are
interrelated; to summarize information about how electricity and magnetism are interrelated
using descriptions of devices; to compare devices based on how they interrelate electricity and
magnetism; to recognize devices based on their functions.

Websites:
California Energy Commission
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/
This website provides numerous resources about types of energy and energy conservation. It
includes teacher and parent resources, puzzles, games and energy stories. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.3, 6-
5.4)
http://volweb.utk.edu/Schools/sullivan/colonial/electricity.html
This webquest is designed to explore conductors and insulators, series and parallel circuits,
electric charge, electrical current, electrical safety, electrical power and fossil fuels. (6-5.1, 6-5.2,
6-5.3, 6-5.4)

http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/web/electric.html
This site contains several links to a variety of websites about electricity. It also includes
activities and lesson plans. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.3, 6-5.4)

US:
Getting to Know Electricity
ETV Streamline SC
Segment 8: Electromagnetism
This segment shows the relationship between electricity and magnetism to create electromagnets.
(6-5.3)
8:30 to 10:45

Electricity and Magnetism: Magic of Magnets
ETV Streamline SC
Segment 3: Electromagnets
Describes the discovery of electromagnets and how electromagnets are made. The science
behind electromagnets is also examined. (6-5.3)
7:39 to 10:11
    Segment 4: Electricity from Magnetism
    This segment provides a historical background of the discovery of electricity from magnets. The
    segment also shows how electricity can be created from magnetism and the applications of this
    process. (6-5.3)
    10:12 to 11:56

    Junior Electrician: Current Electricity
    ETV Streamline SC
    Segment 1: Introduction
    This segment gives many examples of the ways in which electricity is used and how energy
    transformation powers every day objects. (6-5.3)
    0:00 to 1:25
    Segment 6: Electromagnets
    Provides a demonstration of how an electromagnet is made. (6-5.3)
    9:56 to 11:09

    American Association for the Advancement of Science
    http://www.kineticcity.com/controlcar/activity.php?virus=enervia&act=4
    Different kinds of energy have different advantages. Some are cheap, some are safer for the
    environment, and some are very efficient. Usually, though, you can’t get all three. In this game,
    your job is to provide power for a gigantic city. But you need to do it without running out of
    money or ruining the environment. (6-5.1, 6-5.3, 6-5.4)

    6-5.4 Illustrate energy transformations (including the production of light,
          sound, heat, and mechanical motion) in electrical circuits.
Taxonomy level: 2.2-B Understand Conceptual Knowledge


    Previous/Future knowledge: Students have been introduced to the concept of electric circuits in
    4th grade (4-5.6 and 4-5.7) and how electricity can be transformed into other forms of energy for
    example light, heat, and sound. Students have not been introduced to the term “mechanical
    motion” in previous grade levels. Students will further develop the concept of energy
    transformations in 9th grade Physical Science (PS-6.1).

    It is essential for students to know that energy can be transformed from one form to another for
    example light, sound, heat, and mechanical motion in an electric circuit. They should be able to
    recognize how the following forms of energy can be produced in an electric circuit:
    Light                 Light can be produced in an electric circuit if a light bulb is added to the
                          circuit.
    Sound                 Sound can be produced in an electric circuit if a bell, buzzer, radio, or TV
                          is added to the circuit.
    Heat                  Heat can be produced in an electric circuit if a toaster, stove, or heater is
                          added to the circuit;
Mechanical motion       Mechanical motion can be produced in an electric circuit if a fan, motor,
                        or generator is added to the circuit

BP: Light, Sound, Heat

It is not essential for students to know the explanations of how these processes result in energy
transformations.

Assessment Guidelines:
The objective of this indicator is to illustrate energy transformations in electric circuits;
therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be to give illustrations or use illustrations to
show the concept of energy transformations in electric circuits. However, appropriate
assessments should also require students to recognize devices used to transfer electrical energy to
another form of energy in an electric circuit; to interpret diagrams of electric circuits and infer
the types of energy transformations that would occur with specific devices illustrated.

Websites:
American Association for the Advancement of Science
http://www.kineticcity.com/controlcar/activity.php?virus=enervia&act=4
Different kinds of energy have different advantages. Some are cheap, some are safer for the
environment, and some are very efficient. Usually, though, you can’t get all three. In this game,
your job is to provide power for a gigantic city. But you need to do it without running out of
money or ruining the environment. (6-5.1, 6-5.3, 6-5.4)

California Energy Commission
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/
This website provides numerous resources about types of energy and energy conservation. It
includes teacher and parent resources, puzzles, games and energy stories. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.3, 6-
5.4)

http://volweb.utk.edu/Schools/sullivan/colonial/electricity.html
This webquest is designed to explore conductors and insulators, series and parallel circuits,
electric charge, electrical current, electrical safety, electrical power and fossil fuels. (6-5.1, 6-5.2,
6-5.3, 6-5.4)

http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/web/electric.html
This site contains several links to a variety of websites about electricity. It also includes
activities and lesson plans. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.3, 6-5.4)

National Energy Education Development Project
http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/science/formsofenergy.html
This site contains information about forms of energy, conservation of energy, and energy
efficiency.
 (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-5.4)

Thinkquest
http://library.thinkquest.org/20331/
The website discusses different types of energy, potential and kinetic energy and conservation of
energy. The energy crisis is described as well as alternative sources of energy. (6-5.1, 6-5.2, 6-
5.4)

EL: Gizmos - Advanced Circuits, Circuits

US:
Getting to Know Energy
ETV Streamline SC
Segment 4: Forms of Energy
Examples of different types of energy and examples and explanations of types of energy,
including, heat, solar, chemical, electrical, and mechanical energy. (6-5.1, 6-5.4)
05.58 to 15.58
Segment 5: Potential and Kinetic Energy
Good examples of energy transformations and a through description of potential and kinetic
energy. (6-5.2, 6-5.4)
15.09 to 19.25

6-5.5 Illustrate the directional transfer of heat energy through convection,
      radiation, and conduction.
       Taxonomy Level: 2.2-B Understand Conceptual Knowledge

Previous/Future knowledge: Students have been introduced to the concept of heat transfer by
conduction in 3rd grade (3-4.3) in previous grades. Students have not been introduced to the
concepts of radiation or convection in previous grades. Students will further develop the concept
of thermal energy in 9th grade Physical Science (PS-6.1).

It is essential for students to know energy transfer as heat can occur in three ways described
below:
Conduction     Conduction involves objects in direct contact. Heat energy transfer occurs
               between particles as they collide within a substance or between two objects in
               contact. The energy transfers from an area of higher temperature to an area of
               lower temperature.

Convection     Convection is the transfer of heat energy in liquids or gases by the movement of
               the heated particles. In convection, particles with higher energy move from one
               location to another carrying their energy with them. Particles with the higher
               energy move from warmer to cooler parts of the fluid.

Radiation      Radiation is the transfer of energy through space without particles of matter
               colliding or moving to transfer the energy. Heat energy moves from an area of
               higher temperature to an area of cooler temperature.
It is not essential for students to know about convection currents or areas of higher or lower
density of fluids. They also do not need to know about electromagnetic waves being transferred
in radiation.

Assessment Guidelines
The objective of this indicator is to illustrate the direction of heat energy transfer through
conduction, convection, and radiation; therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be to
give illustrations or use illustrations to show the concept of heat transfer through conduction,
convection, or radiation. However, appropriate assessments should also require students to
recognize the types of heat transfer based on descriptions of how particles behave; to classify
methods of heat transfer based on how particles behave; to infer the direction of heat transfer; or
to summarize the direction of heat transfer in various types of heat transfer processes if given
temperature differences.


US:
Heat, Temperature, Energy
ETV Streamline SC
Segment 3: Heat: The flow of energy from one thing to another
Provides examples of a variety of examples of heat energy and describes of the ways in which
heat energy may be converted to other types of energy and vice versa. (6-5.2)
2:25 to 5:34
Segment 8: Convection
Defines convection and provides examples of where convection may occur. (6-5.5)
13:27 to 14:57
Exploring Heat
ETV Streamline SC
Segments 11-14: The Movement of Heat, Conduction, Convection, Radiation
Provides definitions of each type of heat transfer and provides examples. (6-5.5)
13:49 to 19:14


6-5.6 Recognize that energy is the ability to do work (force exerted over a
       distance).
       Taxonomy level: 1.1-B Remember Conceptual Knowledge

Previous/Future knowledge: Students have been introduced to the concepts of pushes and pulls
and motion in 3rd grade (3-5.3), and in 5th grade they have been introduced to the concepts of
force and motion (5-5.1 and 5-5.6). Students have not been introduced to the concept of energy
or work in previous grades. They will further develop these concepts of energy and work in 9th
grade Physical Science (PS-6.3).

It is essential for students to know that energy is the ability to do work which is a transfer of
energy that occurs when a force causes a change in the motion of an object. An object must
move in order for work to be done.
EL: Gizmos - Pulley Lab

BP: Work, Power

It is not essential for students to know how to calculate work using the formula of force times
distance or that work is measured in units of joules.

Assessment Guidelines:
The objective of this indicator is to recognize that energy is the ability to do work, which is force
exerted over a distance, implying that the object on which the work is being done actually
moves. However, appropriate assessments should also require students to recall that energy is
the ability to do work and that if an object does not move, no work has been done; to identify
examples of energy based on whether work has been done.

Websites:
BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/10_11/forces_action.shtml
This website gives students the opportunity to experiment with forces. An online quiz assesses
basic concepts about forces. (6-5.6)

Intel
http://www97.intel.com/en/ProjectDesign/UnitPlanIndex/InventAMachine/
This an exemplary Intel Teach to the Future Unit in which students study the concepts of force,
motion, and work as they analyze simple machines. They study the simple machines in complex
machines, and track the transfer of force from input (effort) to output (work). In a design
challenge, students become inventors and identify work they want to perform, and invent a labor-
saving machine to do the job. The design steps of planning, drafting, construction,
troubleshooting, and reliability testing are followed before students unveil their wonderful
inventions to an awed crowd. (6-5.6, 6-5.7, 6-5.8)

Work, Energy and the Simple Machine: Work and Energy
ETV Streamline SC
Segment 1: Work Defined
Work is explained and defined with a variety of examples (6-5.6)
0:00 to 2:18
Segment 2: Energy Defined
Energy is explained and defined with a variety of examples (6-5.6)
2:19-6:09



6-5.7         Explain how the design of simple machines (including levers, pulleys,
        and inclined planes) helps reduce the amount of force required to do work.
        Taxonomy level: 2.7-B Understand Conceptual Knowledge
Previous/Future knowledge: Students have been introduced to the concept of pushes and pulls
and motion in 3rd grade (3-5. 3) and to force and motion in 5th grade (5-5.1 and 5-5.6). Students
have not been introduced to the concept of simple machines in previous grades. Students will
further develop the concept of force in 8th grade (8-5.4) and quantitative relationships of work in
9th grade Physical Science (PS-6.4).

It is essential for students to know that a simple machine is a device that makes doing work
easier by reducing the amount of force required to move an object. They should know that
simple machines could be combined to form compound machines. Machines make work easier
(reduce the amount of force required to move an object) by increasing the distance of the force
required to move an object. This increase in distance the force must move reduces the amount of
force required to move an object. The design of the following simple machines can reduce the
amount of force required to do work as follows:
Lever      A lever is a bar that is free to move around a fixed point called a fulcrum. If the
           distance from the fulcrum to where the force is applied (effort force) is increased, the
           amount of force needed too move the object is decreased. This makes the work
           “easier” ---less force is required---by using the lever.
Pulley     A pulley is a like a lever except that it has a grooved wheel with a rope running along
           the groove. The axle acts as the fulcrum and the rope is like the bar. By increasing
           the distance of the rope pulling the object, the force required to move the object is
           reduced--- like in a lever. Only movable pulleys increase the length of the rope
           moving the object and thus reduce the force needed to move the object. A fixed
           pulley only changes the direction of the movement of the object.
Inclined
plane      An inclined plane is a sloping surface like a ramp that reduces the amount of force
           required to move an object. The greater the distance of the ramp, the less the amount of
           force required to move an object up the ramp. Thus, an inclined plane also makes work
           easier (reduces the amount of force required) by increasing the distance the object is
           moved.

BP: Under TECHNOLOGY not science!: Pulleys, Inclined Plane, Levers
EL: Atwood Machine, Torque and Moment Inertia, Inclined Plane, Pulley Lab, Energy Conversion
          in a System

It is not essential for students to know the classes of levers, examples of types of levers,
various types of pulleys and how to calculate the mechanical advantage of simple machines.
Assessment Guidelines:
The objective of this indicator is to explain how the design of simple machines helps reduce the
amount of force required to do work; therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be to
construct a cause and effect model of how the design of simple machines helps reduce the
amount of force required to move an object. However, appropriate assessments should also
require students to recognize how simple machines can be designed to reduce the force needed to
move an object; to interpret a diagram of several simple machines to infer which would reduce
the amount of force the most based on their designs (length of effort arm; number of ropes in
movable pulleys, distance of ramp); or to summarize the relationship between the design of the
simple machine and the reduction in force required to move an object.

Websites
Intel
http://www97.intel.com/en/ProjectDesign/UnitPlanIndex/InventAMachine/
This an exemplary Intel Teach to the Future Unit in which students study the concepts of force,
motion, and work as they analyze simple machines. They study the simple machines in complex
machines, and track the transfer of force from input (effort) to output (work). In a design
challenge, students become inventors and identify work they want to perform, and invent a labor-
saving machine to do the job. The design steps of planning, drafting, construction,
troubleshooting, and reliability testing are followed before students unveil their wonderful
inventions to an awed crowd. (6-5.6, 6-5.7, 6-5.8)


Work, Energy, and the Simple Machine: Inclined Plane, Wedge, Screw
ETV Streamline SC
Students will see and learn how these three simple machines are closely related. Common
everyday situations are used to illustrate and demonstrate the widespread use of these machines.
(6-5.7)
0:00 to 15:00

Work, Energy, and the Simple Machine: Lever, Wheel and Axle, Pulley
ETV Streamline SC
These three simple machines, as different as they may appear, are actually closely related. The
principles behind each of these simple machines are illustrated and demonstrated with common
situations and tools. (6-5.7)
0:00 to 15:00


6-5.8 Illustrate ways that simple machines exist in common tools and in
      complex machines.
       Taxonomy level: 2.2-B Understand Conceptual Knowledge

Previous/Future knowledge: Students have not been introduced to the concept of simple
machines in previous grade levels.

It is essential for students to know examples of simple machines (listed in 6-5.7 as levers,
pulleys, and inclined planes) used in common tools and in complex machines as follows:

   Levers exist as the type of simple machine in a hammer, pliers, scissors, wheelbarrow, and
    the human forearm;

   Pulleys exist as the type of simple machine in a flag pole and a block and tackle system used
    in cranes and winches;
   Inclined planes exist as the type of simple machine in a ramp, a wedge for example a knife, a
    screw and a screw lid of a jar;

   Complex machines include a can opener containing simple machines for example wedge
    (inclined plane), lever, and wheel and axle (pulley); a car, and a bicycle.


It is not essential for students to know which types of levers are in common tools or complex
machines but just the basic types of simple machines listed in Indicator 6-5.7.

Assessment Guidelines:
The objective of this indicator is to illustrate ways that simple machines exist in common tools
and in complex machines; therefore the primary focus of assessment should be to give
illustrations or use illustrations to show the concept of ways that simple machines are part of
simple tools and of complex machines. However, appropriate assessments should also require
students to identify the types of simple machines that are in common tools and in complex
machines; interpret a diagram of common tools or complex machines to identify the simple
machines present; to recognize the simple machines that make up common tools and complex
machines; or to infer the simple machines present in common tools and complex machines.

Websites: *** Web based activites with worksheet are in the folder titled “ Simple Machines
Treasure Hunt and Games”– the kids really enjoyed the activities!
http://www.edheads.org/activities/simple-machines/
This website contains a variety of interactive activities about Simple Machines. Explore a house
and a tool shed to discover simple machines. (6-5.8)
Intel
http://www97.intel.com/en/ProjectDesign/UnitPlanIndex/InventAMachine/
This an exemplary Intel Teach to the Future Unit in which students study the concepts of force,
motion, and work as they analyze simple machines. They study the simple machines in complex
machines, and track the transfer of force from input (effort) to output (work). In a design
challenge, students become inventors and identify work they want to perform, and invent a labor-
saving machine to do the job. The design steps of planning, drafting, construction,
troubleshooting, and reliability testing are followed before students unveil their wonderful
inventions to an awed crowd. (6-5.6, 6-5.7, 6-5.8)

US:
Work, Energy, and the Simple Machine: Compound Machines
ETV Streamline SC
This program shows how the six simple machines can be found in use in very complicated
machines. The six simple machines are the basis for all other machines. Many examples of
compound machines, machines that use two or more simple machines, are presented and
analyzed. (6-5.8)
0:00 to 15:00

EL: Pulley Lab, Torque and Moment of Inertia

				
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