# Appendix A by pengxuebo

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 230

• pg 1
```									Appendix A
Mathematics
Grade Level Expectations at a Glance
High School
1. Number            1. The complex number system includes real numbers and imaginary
Sense,                  numbers
Properties, and      2. Formulate, represent, and use algorithms with real numbers
Operations              flexibly, accurately, and efficiently
3. Systematic counting techniques are used to describe and solve
problems
2. Patterns,         1. Functions model situations where one quantity determines another
Functions, and          and can be represented algebraically, graphically, and using tables
Algebraic            2. Graphs and tables are used to describe the qualitative behavior of
Structures              common types of functions
3. Parameters influence the shape of the graphs of functions
4. Expressions , equations, and inequalities can be expressed in
multiple, equivalent forms
5. Solutions to equations, inequalities and systems of equations are
found using a variety of tools
6. Quantitative relationships in the real world can be modeled and
solved using functions
3. Data              1. Statistical methods take variability into account, supporting
Analysis,               informed decision-making through quantitative studies designed to
Probability          2. The design of an experiment or sample survey is of critical
importance to analyzing the data and drawing conclusions
3. Visual displays and summary statistics condense the information in
data sets into usable knowledge
4. Randomness is the foundation for using statistics to draw
conclusions when testing a claim or estimating plausible values for
a population characteristic
5. Probability models outcomes for situations in which there is
inherent randomness, quantifying the degree of certainty in terms
of relative frequency of occurrence
4. Shape,            1. Attributes of two- and three-dimensional objects are measurable
Dimension, and          and can be quantified
Geometric            2. Objects in the plane and their parts, attributes, and measurements
Relationships           can be analyzed deductively
3. Objects in the plane can be transformed, and those
transformations can be described and analyzed mathematically
4. Right triangles are central to geometry and its applications

Colorado Department of Education        Adopted: December 10, 2009                    Page 1 of 126
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
Ø Understand the structure and properties of our number system. At their most basic level numbers are abstract
symbols that represent real-world quantities

Concepts and skills students master:
1. The complex number system includes real numbers and imaginary numbers
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
(This expectation will be assessed under          1. Is there only one meaning of infinite?
Standard 2)                                       2. How many numbers are between any two points on the number line?
a. Show that between any two rational          3. Are there more complex numbers than real numbers?
numbers there are an infinite number       4. What is a number system?
of rational numbers, and that between
any two irrational numbers there are
also an infinite number of irrational
numbers
b. Express the square root of a negative    Relevance and Application:
number using imaginary numbers             1. The choice of the appropriate measurement tool meets the precision requirements of
the measurement task. For example, using a caliper for the manufacture of brake
discs or a tape measure for pant size.
2. Complex numbers have applications in fields such as chaos theory and fractals. The
familiar image of the Mandelbrot fractal is the Mandelbrot set graphed on the
complex plane.

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematicians build a deep understanding of quantity, ways of representing
numbers, and relationships among numbers and number systems.
2. Mathematics involves making and testing conjectures, generalizing results, and
making connections among ideas, strategies, and solutions.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
Ø Are fluent with basic numerical and symbolic facts and algorithms, and are able to select and use appropriate
(mental math, paper and pencil, and technology) methods based on an understanding of their efficiency,
precision, and transparency

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Formulate, represent, and use algorithms with real numbers flexibly, accurately, and
efficiently
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
(These evidence outcomes will be assessed in        1. Can numbers ever be too big or too small to be useful?
Standard 2, 3, and 4).                              2. How much money is enough for retirement? (PFL)
a. Use appropriate computation methods           3. Is education worth the cost? (PFL)
that encompass estimation and
calculation
b. Use technology to perform operations       Relevance and Application:
(addition, subtraction, multiplication,      1. The reading, interpreting, and writing of numbers in scientific notation with and
and division) on numbers written in             without technology is used extensively in the natural sciences such as representing
scientific notation                             large or small quantities such as speed of light, distance to other planets, distance
c. Describe factors affecting take-home             between stars, the diameter of a cell, and size of a micro–organism.
pay and calculate the impact (PFL)           2. Fluency with computation and estimation allows individuals to analyze aspects of
d. Design and use a budget, including               personal finance, such as calculating a monthly budget, estimating the amount left
income (net take-home pay) and                  in a checking account, making informed purchase decisions, and computing a
expenses (mortgage, car loans, and              probable paycheck given a wage (or salary), tax tables, and other deduction
living expenses) to demonstrate how             schedules.
living within your means is essential
for a secure financial future (PFL)       Nature of Mathematics:
1. Using mathematics to solve a problem requires choosing what mathematics to use;
making simplifying assumptions, estimates, or approximations; computing; and
checking to see whether the solution makes sense.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 1. Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
Ø Recognize and make sense of the many ways that variability, chance, and randomness appear in a variety of
contexts

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Systematic counting techniques are used to describe and solve problems
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
(This evidence outcome will be assessed in       1. Is the lottery really worth playing?
Standard 3)                                      2. How can quantifying certain events lead to better decision- making?
a. Use combinatorics (Fundamental
Counting Principle, permutations and
combinations) to solve problems in
real-world contexts

Relevance and Application:
1. Knowledge of systematic counting techniques helps analyze situations involving
multiple outcomes. For example, finding probability in games of chance or the
lottery, finding the quantity of possible phone numbers with new area codes, and
the number of license plates with combinations of letters and numerals.
2. In an area of biology called phylogenetics, combinatorics are used to study how
different groups of organisms evolve.

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematicians develop strategies to approach complex problems in a systematic
way.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
Ø Make sound predictions and generalizations based on patterns and relationships that arise from numbers,
shapes, symbols, and data

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Functions model situations where one quantity determines another and can be represented
algebraically, graphically, and using tables
Evidence Outcomes                                  21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                      Inquiry Questions:
a. Determine* when a relation is a function        1. Why are relations and functions represented in multiple ways?
using a table, a graph, or an equation          2. How can a table, graph, and function notation be used to explain how one function family is
b. Demonstrate the relationship between                different from and/or similar to another?
all forms of linear functions using point-      3. What is an inverse?
slope, slope-intercept, and standard            4. How is “inverse function” most likely related to addition and subtraction being inverse
form of a line                                      operations and to multiplication and division being inverse operations?
c. Represent* linear, quadratic, absolute          5. How are patterns and functions similar and different?
value, power, exponential, logarithmic,                                                                                  2
rational, trigonometric (sine and cosine),
6.   How could you visualize a function with four variables, such as x       + y 2 + z 2 + w2 = 1?
and step functions in a table, graph, and       7.   Why couldn’t people build skyscrapers without using functions?
equation and convert from one
representation to another                    Relevance and Application:
d. Determine the inverse (expressed                1. The exploration of multiple representations of functions develops a deeper understanding of the
graphically or in tabular form) of a               relationship between the variables in the function.
function from a graph or table                  2. The understanding of the relationship between variables in a function allows people to use
e. Categorize sequences as arithmetic,                functions to model relationships in the real world such as compound interest, population growth
geometric, or neither and develop                  and decay, projectile motion, or payment plans.
formulas for the general terms related to       3. Comprehension of slope, intercepts, and common forms of linear equations allows easy retrieval
arithmetic and geometric sequences                 of information from linear models such as rate of growth or decrease, an initial charge for
services, speed of an object, or the beginning balance of an account.
*
Using all tools including graphing technology         4. Understanding sequences is important preparation for calculus. Sequences can be used to
2
x
represent functions including e       , e x , sin x, and cos x .

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematicians use multiple representations of functions to explore the properties of functions
and the properties of families of functions.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
Ø Make sound predictions and generalizations based on patterns and relationships that arise from numbers,
shapes, symbols, and data

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Graphs and tables are used to describe the qualitative behavior of common types of
functions
Evidence Outcomes                                   21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                       Inquiry Questions:
a. Evaluate* a function at a given point in          1. Why do we classify functions?
its domain given an equation (including           2. The ancient Greeks multiplied binomials and found the roots of quadratic equations
function notation), a table, and a graph             without algebraic notation. How can this be done?
b. Identify* the domain and range of a
function given an equation (including
function notation), a table, and a graph
c. Identify* intercepts, zeros (or roots),        Relevance and Application:
maxima, minima, and intervals of                  1. The understanding of the qualitative behavior of functions allows interpretation of
increase and decrease, and asymptotes                the qualitative behavior of systems modeled by functions such as time-distance,
of a function given an equation                      population growth, decay, heat transfer, and temperature of the ocean versus
(including function notation), a table,              depth.
and a graph                                       2. Knowledge of how to interpret rate of change of a function allows investigation of
d. Make qualitative statements about the                rate of return and time on the value of investments.
rate of change of a function, based on            3. Comprehension of rate of change of a function is important preparation for the study
its graph or table                                   of calculus.
4. The ability to analyze a function for the intercepts, asymptotes, domain, range, and
*
Using all tools including graphing technology         local and global behavior provides insights into the situations modeled by the
function. For example, epidemiologists could compare the rate of flu infection among
people who received flu shots to the rate of flu infection among people who did not
receive a flu shot to gain insight into the effectiveness of the flu shot.

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematicians represent concepts concretely and use multiple representations to
gain insights into relationships among variables.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
Ø Make sound predictions and generalizations based on patterns and relationships that arise from numbers,
shapes, symbols, and data

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Parameters influence the shape of the graphs of functions
Evidence Outcomes                                   21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                       Inquiry Questions:
a. Apply* transformations (translation,             1. What are the effects of performing operations on functions?
reflection, dilation) to a parent                2. How does order matter when applying transformations of functions?
function, f(x)                                   3. How are transformations of a function similar to and different from transformations
b. Interpret the results of these                      of planar figures?
transformations verbally, graphically,           4. How are parameters different from unknowns?
and symbolically

*
Using all tools including graphing technology
Relevance and Application:
1. The understanding of transformations of functions helps to comprehend the effects
of change to a math model such as change of initial investment.
2. Graphing technologies allow the testing of conjectures about the effect of
translations.
3. Translations of elementary functions are used to model real-world data such as
initial height in projectile motion, and initial temperature in a cooling problem.

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematicians experiment with models such as adjusting parameters, recording
data, and readjusting parameters to develop increasingly more accurate models.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
Ø Understand that equivalence is a foundation of mathematics represented in numbers, shapes, measures,
expressions, and equations

Concepts and skills students master:
4. Expressions , equations, and inequalities can be expressed in multiple, equivalent forms
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Perform and justify steps in                1. How do symbolic transformations affect an equation, inequality, or expression?
generating equivalent expressions by        2. How is it determined that two algebraic expressions are equivalent?
identifying properties used including       3. How are order of operations and operational relationships important when solving
the commutative, associative, inverse,         multivariable equations?
identity, and distributive properties       4. How would a number system work without the commutative property?
b. Apply the properties of positive and
negative rational exponents to           Relevance and Application:
generate equivalent algebraic               1. The ability to recognize and find equivalent forms of an equation allows the
expressions including those involving          transformation of equations into the most useful form such as adjusting the density
nth roots                                      formula to calculate for volume or mass.
c. Solve equations for one variable in         2. The simplification of algebraic expressions and solving equations are tools used to
terms of the others                            solve problems in science. Scientists represent relationships between variables by
developing a formula and using values obtained from experimental measurements
and algebraic manipulation to determine values of quantities that are difficult or
impossible to measure directly such as acceleration due to gravity, speed of light,
and mass of the earth.
3. The manipulation of expressions and solving formulas are techniques used to solve
problems in geometry such as finding the area of a circle, determining the volume of
a sphere, calculating the surface area of a prism, and applying the Pythagorean
Theorem.

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematicians abstract a problem by representing it as an equation. They travel
between the concrete problem and the abstraction to gain insights and find
solutions.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
Ø Are fluent with basic numerical and symbolic facts and algorithms, and are able to select and use appropriate
(mental math, paper and pencil, and technology) methods based on an understanding of their efficiency,
precision, and transparency

Concepts and skills students master:
5. Solutions to equations, inequalities and systems of equations are found using a variety of
tools
Evidence Outcomes                                   21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                       Inquiry Questions:
a. Find* solutions to quadratic and cubic           1. What makes a solution strategy both efficient and effective?
equations and linear inequalities by             2. How is it determined if multiple solutions to an equation are valid?
using appropriate algebraic methods              3. How does the context of the problem affect the reasonableness of a solution?
such as factoring, completing the                4. What are some similarities in solving all types of equations?
square, graphing or using the                    5. Why do different types of equations require different types of solution processes?
quadratic formula                                6. Why can two equations be added together to get another true equation?
b. Find* solutions to equations involving           7. Can computers solve algebraic problems that people cannot solve? Why?
power, exponential, rational and
c. Solve* systems of linear equations and           1. Linear programming allows representation of the constraints in a real-world situation
inequalities with two variables                     identification of a feasible region and determination of the maximum or minimum
value such as to optimize profit, or to minimize expense.
*
Using all tools including graphing technology      2. Effective use of graphing technology helps to find solutions to equations or systems
of equations.
3. The understanding and use of equations, inequalities, and systems of equations
allows situation analysis and decision-making. For example, it helps people choose
cell phone plans, calculate credit card interest and payments, and determine health
insurance costs.
Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematics involves visualization.
2. Mathematicians use tools to create visual representations of problems and ideas that
reveal relationships and meaning.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 2. Patterns, Functions, and Algebraic Structures
Ø Use critical thinking to recognize problematic aspects of situations, create mathematical models, and present
and defend solutions

Concepts and skills students master:
6. Quantitative relationships in the real world can be modeled and solved using functions
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Represent, solve*, and interpret              1. What phenomena can be modeled with particular functions?
problems in various contexts using           2. Which financial applications can be modeled with exponential functions? Linear
functions                                    3. What elementary function or functions best represent a given scatter plot of two-
b. Represent, solve*, and interpret                 variable data?
problems involving direct and inverse        4. How much would today’s purchase cost tomorrow?
variations and a combination of direct
and inverse variation
c. Analyze* the impact of interest rates      Relevance and Application:
on a personal financial plan (PFL)           1. The knowledge of how functions model real-world phenomena allows exploration
d. Evaluate* the costs and benefits of              and improved understanding of complex systems such as how population growth
credit (PFL)                                    may affect the environment , how interest rates or inflation affect a personal
e. Analyze various lending sources,                 budget, how stopping distance is related to reaction time and velocity, and how
services, and financial institutions            volume and temperature of a gas are related.
(PFL)                                        2. Biologists use polynomial curves to model the shapes of jaw bone fossils. They
*
Using all tools including graphing technology         analyze the polynomials to find potential evolutionary relationships among the
species.
3. Physicists use basic linear and quadratic functions to model the motion of
projectiles.
Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematicians use their knowledge of functions to create accurate models of
complex systems.
2. Mathematicians use models to better understand systems and make predictions
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
Ø Solve problems and make decisions that depend on understanding, explaining, and quantifying the variability
in data

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Statistical methods take variability into account, supporting informed decision-making
through quantitative studies designed to answer specific questions
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Formulate appropriate research             1. What types of questions and data collection methods are appropriate for statistical
questions that can be answered with           analysis?
statistical analysis                       2. How do you reduce bias in question design and data collection methods?
b. Determine appropriate data collection      3. How can the results of a statistical investigation be used to support an argument?
methods to answer a research               4. How does the method of sampling affect the design of the study?
question                                   5. What happens to sample-to-sample variability when you increase the sample size?
c. Explain how data might be analyzed to      6. When should sampling be used? When is sampling better than using a census?
question
Relevance and Application:
1. Comprehension of the appropriate design of studies allows determination of the
appropriate data collection methods given research questions from various
disciplines such as drug testing, candidates for public office, and student surveys.

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematics involves making conjectures, gathering data, recording results, and
making multiple tests.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
Ø Communicate effective logical arguments using mathematical justification and proof. Mathematical
argumentation involves making and testing conjectures, drawing valid conclusions, and justifying thinking

Concepts and skills students master:
2. The design of an experiment or sample survey is of critical importance to analyzing the data
and drawing conclusions
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify the characteristics of a well-      1. Does a strong correlation imply causation?
designed and well-conducted survey           2. How can you tell when a claim that cannot be substantiated?
b. Identify the characteristics of a well-      3. How can the quality of a study be gauged?
designed and well-conducted                  4. How does sampling build or erode confidence in the claims made?
experiment
c. Differentiate between the inferences
that can be drawn in experiments
versus observational studies
Relevance and Application:
1. The ability to evaluate the design of an experiment or sample survey helps to
determine if claims, projections, and data presented in news articles or other
2. Analysis of the characteristics of different studies allows evaluation and justification
of the design of a research study such as using experiments to determine unsafe
levels of toxins or using observational studies to suggest the relationship between
texting and attention.

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematicians are open to new ideas that provide deeper understanding of the
world around them. They use their knowledge of experimental design to identify
false or unsubstantiated claims.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
Ø Solve problems and make decisions that depend on understanding, explaining, and quantifying the variability
in data

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Visual displays and summary statistics condense the information in data sets into usable
knowledge
Evidence Outcomes                                   21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                       Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify and choose appropriate ways             1. What makes data meaningful or actionable?
to summarize numerical or categorical            2. Why should attention be paid to an unexpected outcome?
data using tables, graphical displays,           3. How can summary statistics or data displays be accurate but misleading?
and numerical summary statistics
and accounting for outliers when
appropriate
b. Define and explain how sampling
distributions (developed through              Relevance and Application:
simulation) are used to describe the             1. Facility with data organization, summary, and display allows the sharing of data
sample-to-sample variability of sample              efficiently and collaborating to answer important questions such as is the climate
statistics                                          changing, how do people think about ballot initiatives in the next election, or is there
c. Describe the relationship between two               a connection between cancers in a community?
categorical variables using percents
d. When the relationship between two
numerical variables is reasonably
linear, apply* the least-squares
criterion for line fitting, use Pearson’s     Nature of Mathematics:
correlation coefficient as a measure of          1. Mathematicians create visual and numerical representations of data to reveal
strength, and interpret the slope and               relationships and meaning hidden in the raw data.
y-intercept in the context of the
problem
*
Using all tools including graphing technology
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
Ø Recognize and make sense of the many ways that variability, chance, and randomness appear in a variety of
contexts

Concepts and skills students master:
4. Randomness is the foundation for using statistics to draw conclusions when testing a claim
or estimating plausible values for a population characteristic
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Define and explain the meaning of         1. Can the practical significance of a given study matter more than statistical
significance (both practical and             significance? Why is it important to know the difference?
statistical)                              2. When can generalizations be made from a study?
b. Explain the role of p-values in           3. Why is the margin of error in a study important?
determining statistical significance      4. How is it known that the results of a study are not simply due to chance?
c. Determine the margin of error
associated with an estimate of a
population characteristic
Relevance and Application:
1. Inference and prediction skills enable informed decision-making based on data such
as whether to stop using a product based on safety concerns, or whether a political
poll is pointing to a trend.

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematicians are skeptical of apparent trends. They use their understanding of
randomness to distinguish meaningful trends from random occurrences.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 3. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
Ø Recognize and make sense of the many ways that variability, chance, and randomness appear in a variety of
contexts

Concepts and skills students master:
5. Probability models outcomes for situations in which there is inherent randomness,
quantifying the degree of certainty in terms of relative frequency of occurrence
Evidence Outcomes                                   21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                       Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop* simulations that demonstrate            1. Can probability be used to model all types of uncertain situations? For example, can
probability as a long-run relative                  the probability that the 50th president of the United States will be female be
frequency                                           determined?
b. Apply and solve problems using the               2. How and why are simulations used to determine probability when the theoretical
concepts of independence and                        probability is unknown?
conditional probability                          3. How does probability relate to obtaining insurance?
c. Apply and solve problems using the
concept of mutually exclusive
properties when combining                     Relevance and Application:
probabilities                                    1. Comprehension of probability allows informed decision-making, such as whether the
d. Evaluate* and interpret probabilities               cost of insurance is less than the expected cost of illness, when the deductible on
using a normal distribution                         car insurance is optimal, whether gambling pays in the long run, or whether an
e. Find* and interpret the expected value              extended warranty justifies the cost.
and standard deviation of a discrete             2. Probability is used in a wide variety of disciplines including physics, biology,
random variable X                                   engineering, finance, and law. For example, employment discrimination cases often
f. Analyze* the cost of insurance as a                 present probability calculations to support a claim.
method to offset the risk of a situation
(PFL)                                         Nature of Mathematics:
1. Some work in mathematics is much like a game. Mathematicians choose an
*
Using all tools including graphing technology         interesting set of rules and then play according to those rules to see what can
happen.
2. Mathematicians explore randomness and chance through probability.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Ø Make claims about relationships among numbers, shapes, symbols, and data and defend those claims by
relying on the properties that are the structure of mathematics

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Attributes of two- and three-dimensional objects are measurable and can be quantified
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Calculate (or estimate when appropriate)       1. How are mathematical objects different from the physical objects they model?
the perimeter and area of a two-               2. What makes a good geometric model of a physical object or situation?
dimensional irregular shape                    3. How might surface area and volume be used to explain biological differences in
b. Justify, interpret, and apply the use of
animals?
formulas for the surface area, and volume
4. How is the area of an irregular shape measured?
of cones, pyramids, and spheres including
real-world situations                          5. How can surface area be minimized while maximizing volume?
c. Solve for unknown quantities in             Relevance and Application:
relationships involving perimeter, area,
1. Understanding areas and volume enables design and building. For example, a
surface area, and volume
container that maximizes volume and minimizes surface area will reduce costs and
d. Apply the effect of dimensional change,
utilizing appropriate units and scales in         increase efficiency. Understanding area helps to decorate a room, or create a
problem-solving situations involving              blueprint for a new building.
perimeter, area, and volume                    2. Geometry is used to create simplified models of complex physical systems.
Analyzing the model helps understand the system. For example, modeling Earth as
a sphere allows us to calculate measures such as diameter, circumference, and
surface area. We can also model the solar system, galaxies, molecules, atoms, and
subatomic particles.

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Mathematicians use geometry to model the physical world. Studying properties and
relationships of geometric objects provides insights in to the physical world that
would otherwise be hidden.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Ø Make claims about relationships among numbers, shapes, symbols, and data and defend those claims by
relying on the properties that are the structure of mathematics

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Objects in the plane and their parts, attributes, and measurements can be analyzed
deductively
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Classify polygons according to their        1. How would the idea of congruency be used outside of mathematics?
similarities and differences                2. What does it mean for two things to be the same? Are there different degrees of
b. Solve for unknown attributes of                “sameness?”
geometric shapes based on their             3. What makes a good definition of a shape?
congruence, similarity, or symmetry         4. Do perfect circles naturally occur in the physical world?
c. Know and apply properties of angles
including corresponding, exterior,
interior, vertical, complementary, and
supplementary angles to solve            Relevance and Application:
problems. Justify the results using         1. Geometry is used to create simplified models of complex physical systems.
two-column proofs, paragraph proofs,           Analyzing the model helps to understand the system and is used for such
flow charts, or illustrations                  applications as creating a floor plan for a house, or creating a schematic diagram for
d. Develop conjectures and solve                  an electrical system.
including definitions and properties
(congruence, similarity, and
symmetry). Justify these conjectures
using two-column proofs, paragraph       Nature of Mathematics:
proofs, flow charts, or illustrations       1. Geometry involves the generalization of ideas. Geometers seek to understand and
describe what is true about all cases related to geometric phenomena.
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Ø Apply transformation to numbers, shapes, functional representations, and data

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Objects in the plane can be transformed, and those transformations can be described and
analyzed mathematically
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Make conjectures involving two-          1. What advantage, if any, is there to using the Cartesian coordinate system to analyze
dimensional objects represented             the properties of shapes?
with Cartesian coordinates. Justify      2. What does it mean for two lines to be parallel? How can you physically verify that
these conjectures using two-                two lines are really parallel?
column proofs, paragraph proofs,         3. What happens to the coordinates of the vertices of shapes when different
flow charts, and/or illustrations           transformations are applied in the plane?
b. Represent transformations
(reflection, translation, rotation,
and dilation) using Cartesian         Relevance and Application:
coordinates                              1. Comprehension of transformations aids with innovation and creation. For example,
c. Develop arguments to establish              dilations are used to enlarge or shrink pictures, rigid motions to make new patterns
what remains invariant and what             for clothing or architectural design, and transformation applications for computer
changes after a transformation              graphics and animation.
(reflection, translation, rotation,
and dilations). Justify these
conjectures using two-column
proofs, paragraph proofs, flow
charts, and/or illustrations          Nature of Mathematics:
d. Using construction tools, including      1. Geometry involves the investigation of invariants. Geometers examine how some
technology, make conjectures                things stay the same while other parts change to analyze situations and solve
properties of shapes in the plane
including those formed through
transformation. Justify these
conjectures using two-column
proofs, paragraph proofs, flow
charts, and/or illustrations
Content Area: Mathematics
Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships
Ø Use critical thinking to recognize problematic aspects of situations, create mathematical models, and present
and defend solutions

Concepts and skills students master:
4. Right triangles are central to geometry and its applications
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Apply right triangle trigonometry           1. How can you determine the measure of something that you can’t measure
(sine, cosine, and tangent) to find            physically?
indirect measures of lengths and            2. How a corner square is made?
angles                                      3. How are mathematical triangles different from built triangles in the physical world?
b. Apply the Pythagorean theorem and              How are they the same?
its converse to solve real-world
problems
c. Determine the midpoint of a line
segment and the distance between         Relevance and Application:
two points in the Cartesian coordinate      1. Knowledge of right triangle trigonometry allows modeling and application of angle
plane                                          and distance relationships such as surveying land boundaries, shadow problems,
angles in a truss, and the design of structures.

Nature of Mathematics:
1. Geometry involves the investigation of invariants. Geometers examine how some
things stay the same while other parts change to analyze situations and solve
problems.
Grade Level Expectations at a Glance
1. Oral Expression    1.   Effective speaking in formal and informal settings requires
and Listening              appropriate use of methods and audience awareness
2.   Effective collaborative groups accomplish goals
2. Reading for All    1.   Literary criticism of complex texts requires the use of analysis,
Purposes                   interpretive, and evaluative strategies
2.   Interpreting and evaluating complex informational texts require the
understanding of rhetoric, critical reading, and analysis skills
3. Writing and        1.   Style, detail, expressive language, and genre create a well-crafted
Composition                statement directed at an intended audience and purpose
2.   Ideas, evidence, structure, and style create persuasive, academic,
and technical texts for particular audiences and specific purposes
3.   Standard English conventions effectively communicate to targeted
audiences and purposes
4. Research and       1.   Independent research designs articulate and defend information,
Reasoning                  conclusions and solutions that address specific contexts and
purposes
2.   Logical arguments distinguish facts from opinions, and evidence
defines reasoned judgment
1. Oral Expression    1.   Verbal and nonverbal cues impact the intent of communication
and Listening         2.   Validity of a message is determined by its accuracy and relevance
2. Reading for All    1.   Complex literary texts require critical reading approaches to
Purposes                   effectively interpret and evaluate meaning
2.   Ideas synthesized from informational texts serve a specific purpose
3. Writing and        1.   Stylistic and thematic elements of literary or narrative texts can be
Composition                refined to engage or entertain an audience
2.   Elements of informational and persuasive texts can be refined to
inform or influence an audience
3.   Writing demands ongoing revisions and refinements for grammar,
usage, mechanics, and clarity
4. Research and       1.   Self-designed research provides insightful information, conclusions,
Reasoning                  and possible solutions
2.   Complex situations require critical thinking across multiple
disciplines
3.   Evaluating quality reasoning includes the value of intellectual
character such as humility, empathy, and confidence

Colorado Department of Education      Adopted: December 10, 2009                  Page 1 of 166
Grade Level Expectations at a Glance
1. Oral Expression    1.   Content that is gathered carefully and organized well successfully
and Listening              influences an audience
2.   Effectively operating in small and large groups to accomplish a goal
requires active listening
2. Reading for All    1.   Literary and historical influences determine the meaning of
Purposes                   traditional and contemporary literary texts
2.   The development of new ideas and concepts within informational
and persuasive manuscripts
3. Writing and        1.   Literary or narrative genres feature a variety of stylistic devices to
Composition                engage or entertain an audience
2.   Organizational writing patterns inform or persuade an audience
3.   Grammar, language usage, mechanics, and clarity are the basis of
ongoing refinements and revisions within the writing process
4. Research and       1.   Collect, analyze, and evaluate information obtained from multiple
Reasoning                  sources to answer a question, propose solutions, or share findings
and conclusions
2.   An author’s reasoning is the essence of legitimate writing and
requires evaluating text for validity and accuracy
1. Oral Expression    1.   Oral presentations require effective preparation strategies
and Listening         2.   Listening critically to comprehend a speaker’s message requires
mental and physical strategies to direct and maintain attention
2. Reading for All    1.   Increasingly complex literary elements in traditional and
Purposes                   contemporary works of literature require scrutiny and comparison
2.   Increasingly complex informational texts require mature
interpretation and study
3. Writing and        1.   Informational materials, including electronic sources, need to be
Composition                collected, evaluated, and analyzed for accuracy, relevance, and
2.   Effective problem-solving strategies require high-quality reasoning
4. Research and       1.   Informational materials, including electronic sources, need to be
Reasoning                  collected, evaluated, and analyzed for effectiveness
2.   Information from primary and secondary sources is used to establish
relevance, significance, and accuracy in answering research
questions
3.   Effective problem-solving strategies require high-quality reasoning

Colorado Department of Education      Adopted: December 10, 2009                   Page 2 of 166
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening
Ø Deliver organized and effective oral presentations for diverse audiences and varied purposes

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Effective speaking in formal and informal settings requires appropriate use of methods and
audience awareness
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Prepare and deliver a formal                  1. How do different purposes and audiences affect presentation outcomes?
presentation for different purposes           2. What connections are there between print text structures (such as chronology,
and audiences (such as expositive,               description, proposition-support, critique, inductive-deductive) and the organization
persuasive, entertaining, inspirational,         and development of content for a specific oral presentation?
or recognition)                               3. Why is it important to match the vocabulary used to a particular audience? (For
b. Identify a central idea or thesis,               example, scientific terms are important to use when talking with biologists or
organize ideas, and develop a speech             physicists.)
for an intended purpose and audience
c. Use examples, illustrations, graphics,     Relevance and Application:
quotations, analogies, facts, and             1. Strong communication and planning skills contribute to local and national
statistics to focus and support the              stewardship.
content of a presentation                     2. Intentional word choice can influence the reader.
d. Use grammar and vocabulary                    3. Political or social causes are only victorious when a representative can persuasively
appropriate for the situation,                   present.

audience, topic, and purpose                  4. Strategic use of multimedia elements and visual displays of data can gain audience
e. Choose specific words and word order             attention and enhance understanding.
for intended effect and meaning               5. An audience can be influenced by the use of theatrical devices such as pausing for
f. Select appropriate technical or                  emphasis and loud and soft tones.
specialized language

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Strong critical thinking in a group setting occurs when an oral presentation is clear
and effective.
2. Knowledge is attained through clear and effective communication.
3. Great presenters plan for a presentation by determining their audience, research a
topic of interest, and use the best presentation methods to convey key points.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening
Ø Collaborate effectively as group members or leaders who listen actively and respectfully pose thoughtful
questions, acknowledge the ideas of others, and contribute ideas to further the group’s attainment of an
objective

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Effective collaborative groups accomplish goals
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Design an effective group effort to          1. Why is being able to effectively function in a collaborative group a necessary skill?
accomplish a goal                            2. How do effective groups balance individual responsibility with group
b. Implement an effective group effort             interdependence?
that achieves a goal                         3. What criteria could be used to measure the effectiveness of a group?
c. Analyze differences in group
perspectives to help bring the group
to consensus or to solve a perceived      Relevance and Application:
problem                                      1. Assuming responsibility for and participation in small group activities (such as a
d. Participate in the preparations of the          sports team, debate team, fundraising, part-time job, service project) improves the
group activity or product, defining and         quality of the intended goal.
assuming individual roles and                2. Raising questions in a group setting can often lead to new and unexpected
responsibilities                                outcomes.
e. Assume a leadership role in a group          3. Using a shared online workspace enables groups to build collective knowledge.
that is collaboratively working to           4. Enlisting all members of a sports team to do their part ensures a win and a
accomplish a goal                               successful team.
f. Self–evaluate roles in the preparation
and completion of the group goal
g. Critique and offer suggestions for        Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
improving presentations given by own         1. Use of skilled communication in group settings creates collaboration and
group and other groups                          understanding.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening
Ø Use language appropriate for purpose and audience

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Verbal and nonverbal cues impact the intent of communication
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Give informal talks using an                   1. In what ways can speakers effectively engage audiences throughout a presentation?
appropriate level of formality of verbal       2. How are speaking, listening, and responding skills used during an effective
language and nonverbal interaction                presentation?
with audience                                  3. What can speakers learn about their own presentation skills from listening to and
b. Deliver formal oral presentations for             critiquing the presentations of others?
intended purpose and audience, using
effective verbal and nonverbal
communication                               Relevance and Application:
c. Deliver oral talks with clear                  1. Tone and eye contact can negatively influence an outcome.
enunciation, vocabulary, and                   2. Verbal and nonverbal cues can build or destroy the trust of an individual or an
appropriate organization; nonverbal               audience.
gestures; and tone                             3. Real-time feedback technologies can provide nonverbal cues and systematic
d. Analyze audience responses to                     information regarding a speaker’s degree of impact or persuasion on an audience.
evaluate how effectively the talk or           4. Electronic tools, for example pod casts or video conferencing, can allow deliver to
presentation met the purpose                      and feedback from a diverse audience.
e. Identify, explain, and use content-            5. World travelers often use nonverbal cues to communicate needs.
specific vocabulary, terminology,              6. Forensic and debate techniques frequently self-correct to gain the favor of an
dialect, or jargon unique to particular           audience’s judgment.
groups, perspectives, or contexts
(such as social, professional, political,   Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
cultural, historical or geographical)          1. Great presenters are accustomed to public speaking.
2. Great presenters think about what types of language (formal or informal) they need
to use to convey a message.
3. Audience analysis is critical to being understood and credible.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening
Ø Demonstrate skill in inferential and evaluative listening

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Validity of a message is determined by its accuracy and relevance
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Critique the accuracy, relevance, and          1. How do people benefit from listening to the perspectives of others?
organization of evidence of a                  2. Why is it important to cite valid and reliable sources?
presentation                                   3. When is something in life perceived as accurate and relevant to experiences, and yet
b. Critique the clarity and effectiveness            wrong?
of delivery                                    4. Is there any fact that is forever certain?
c. Evaluate effectiveness of oral delivery
techniques
d. Listen critically to evaluate the overall
effectiveness of the presentation           Relevance and Application:
e. Analyze the resources cited for validity       1. Informed voters must “do their homework” and verify facts, premises, and claims.
2. Asking relevant questions is a combination of skepticism and good faith.
3. Fact-checking engines can be used to determine citations, sources, and the validity
of evidence.
4. Historians must always substantiate and prove their claims.

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Skilled communicators are both critical listeners and effective speakers.
2. Good communicators evaluate other speakers’ points of view, biases, and evidence.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening
Ø Deliver organized and effective oral presentations for diverse audiences and varied purposes

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Content that is gathered carefully and organized well successfully influences an audience
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Organize and deliver a presentation         1. What are some messages that may be conveyed using only nonverbal techniques?
that influences a specific audience         2. Why is it important for communicators to organize their thinking when trying to
b. Reflect on the content and approach to         support a position?
a presentation                              3. How can strong preparation be a useful tool in defending a position or trying to
c. Select organizational patterns and             persuade others?
structures and choose precise
vocabulary and rhetorical devices
d. Make decisions about how to establish
credibility and enhance appeal to the    Relevance and Application:
audience                                    1. Authors use relevant examples from knowledge and experience to support main
e. Rehearse the presentation to gain              ideas.
fluency, to adjust tone and modulate        2. The legal system has people who gather and organize evidence to present to a jury
volume for emphasis, and to develop            (such as lawyers, legal assistants, and criminal investigators).
poise                                       3. Databases can categorize and scaffold content searches.
f. Use feedback to evaluate and revise         4. Electronic journaling tools can be used for reflection.
the presentation

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Skilled communicators can speak to both sides of an issue because they look at
topics from multiple perspectives.
2. Good presenters automatically prioritize the big idea and its supporting evidence.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening
Ø Demonstrate skill in inferential and evaluative listening

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Effectively operating in small and large groups to accomplish a goal requires active listening
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Listen actively in groups to accomplish      3. Why is being able to effectively function in a collaborative group a necessary skill?
a goal                                       4. What criteria could be used to measure the effectiveness of a group?
b. Contribute effectively in both small         5. What are effective ways to monitor group skills and individual contributions?
and large groups to collaboratively          6. How can individuals monitor their own group’s progress and effectiveness?
accomplish a goal
c. Choose specific words for intended
effect on particular audiences
d. Facilitate (or lead) a group by
developing an agenda designed to          Relevance and Application:
accomplish a specified goal                  1. When working together, each member contributes to the larger outcome. (For
e. Support others in discussions,                  example, airline personnel work collaboratively to safely transport thousands of
activities, and presentations through           people daily. The hospitality industry demands collaborative skills and active
active listening                                listening to provide an enjoyable experience for its patrons.)
f. Participate in group activities through      2. Online shared workspaces host opportunities to operate in an effective group
full engagement in individual roles and         setting.
responsibilities that support the            3. Professional sports teams demand active listening, shared leadership, instant
specified goal of the group                     decision-making, and strategic subordinate roles.

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Skilled communicators are aware of their own actions, which helps them to
determine when leadership is needed and when they need to be more of a support
person to others.
2. Skilled communicators study people in their group and listen for warning signs that
perhaps people are not being heard. When they recognize the inequity, they ask,
“What do you think?”
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening
Ø Deliver organized and effective oral presentations for diverse audiences and varied purposes

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Oral presentations require effective preparation strategies
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Give formal and informal talks to            1. How do different purposes and audiences affect the preparation content and
various audiences for various                   language of presentation?
purposes using appropriate level of          2. How do presenters know if an audience is interested in their topic?
formality and rhetorical devices             3. How can nonverbal cues change the intent of a presentation?
b. Use verbal and nonverbal techniques          4. How do presenters know when they are ready to deliver a presentation?
to communicate information
c. Define a position and select evidence
to support that position
d. Develop a well-organized presentation     Relevance and Application:
to defend a position                         1. Humor, poise, and intuition give society alternative ways to access information.
e. Use effective audience and oral              2. Politicians seek to persuade voters by offering compelling arguments developed
delivery skills to persuade an audience         through well-organized speech writing.
3. Actors research and study the history of their character to present an authentic
portrayal.
4. Media technologies offer opportunities for viewing presentations on a variety of
topics and observing various styles.
5. Electronic presentation tools can be used to enhance oral presentation.

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Skilled communicators use nonverbal techniques in their presentations to help them
convey a particular message.
2. Effective communicators understand the necessity for developing presentations with
sequential and relevant information for a particular audience.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening
Ø Demonstrate skill in inferential and evaluative listening

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Listening critically to comprehend a speaker’s message requires mental and physical strategies
to direct and maintain attention
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Follow the speaker’s arguments as          1. How does a speaker’s personal history affect his point of view?
they develop; take notes when              2. What is appropriate feedback?
appropriate                                3. What is inappropriate feedback?
b. Give verbal and nonverbal feedback to
the speaker
d. Evaluate arguments and evidence         Relevance and Application:
e. Explain how variables such as              1. Taking notes when listening to a speaker helps audience members remember what
background knowledge, experiences,            was said.
values, and beliefs can affect             2. Providing feedback is an important skill that is used in many professional settings
communication                                 (such as a doctor’s office or courtroom, or in construction or engineering
environments).
3. Utilize electronic feedback tools for immediate feedback.
4. Use library databases to evaluate evidence and arguments.

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Skilled listeners understand the context of a presenter’s point of view.
2. Skilled listeners use their own experiences to relate to a speaker’s topic.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes
Ø Evaluate how an author uses words to create mental imagery, suggest mood, and set tone

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Literary criticism of complex texts requires the use of analysis, interpretive, and evaluative
strategies
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Apply understanding of the unique              1. What specific techniques in a classic text elicit historic attention or appreciation? Why?
characteristics of literary text (such as      2. What specific techniques in a modern text deserve critical attention or appreciation?
literary essay, elegy, sonnet, psalm,             Why?
short story, history, comedy, or               3. What strategies are most useful when reading, understanding, and making personal
tragedy) to make connections and draw             connections to literary texts?
subtle generalizations and conclusions         4. Is literary criticism based on skepticism or something else?
b. Describe and contrast characteristics of       5. How can students compare their family or individual beliefs to those of the historical
specific literary movements and                   period they are currently studying?
perspectives
c. Evaluate the influence of historical
context on the form, style, and point of    Relevance and Application:
view of a written work                         1. Interpretation of text, supported by citing evidence, fosters reading skills and coherent
d. Analyze and relate a literary work to             thinking, speaking, and writing, which are priority skills for the workplace and
source documents of its literary period           postsecondary settings.
or to critical perspectives                    2. Book reviewers and editors who make their living commenting and advancing the body
e. Evaluate how literary components                  of good reading interpret and judge new writing so that we all enjoy high-quality
impact meaning (such as tone,                     magazines, books, and online reading.
symbolism, irony, extended metaphor,           3. Screen writers and theatre writers use symbolism, hyperbole, and satire to make
satire, hyperbole)                                audiences laugh, think, or display feelings.
f. Demonstrate knowledge of classical
foundational works of world literature
Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
2. Readers can read and comprehend texts in other content areas (such as American
literature, art history, social studies) proficiently.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes
Ø Engage in a wide range of nonfiction and real-life reading experiences to solve problems, judge the quality of

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Interpreting and evaluating complex informational texts require the understanding of rhetoric,
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Use reading and note-taking                  1. How do different genres, formats, and text features used in informational text help
strategies (outlining, mapping                  readers understand the author’s purpose?
systems, skimming, scanning, key             2. What gives the written word its power?
word search) to organize information         3. How do rhetorical devices and logic impact the reader?
and make connections within and              4. What is the role of logic in informational texts?
across informational texts                   5. What are rhetorical devices that can destroy a valuable piece of substantive text?
b. Use semantic cues, signal words, and
transitions to identify text structures
(such as critique, proposition/support,   Relevance and Application:
inductive/deductive) and to                  1. Interpretation of text, supported by citing evidence, fosters reading skills and
summarize central ideas and                     coherent thinking, speaking, and writing, which are priority skills for the workplace
supporting details                              and postsecondary settings.
c. Obtain and use information from text         2. Civil engineers interpret legislative and legal terms as they construct bridges, roads,
and text features (index, bold or               and reservoirs.
tasks, or identify and solve problems
d. Explain and interpret the visual          Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
and transitional devices, such as use
of white space)
e. Identify, analyze, and evaluate
rhetorical devices and appeals used to
viewpoint.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes
Ø Seek feedback, self-assess, and reflect on personal learning while engaging with increasingly more difficult
texts

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Complex literary texts require critical reading approaches to effectively interpret and evaluate
meaning
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze literary components (e.g.,         1. Which character from the current text do you most identify with and why?
tone, symbolism, irony, extended           2. Why did the author choose this particular setting for this story?
metaphor, satire, hyperbole) to            3. How might this story have been different with another setting?
interpret theme                            4. How does living in the 18th and 19th centuries compare with life in the 21st
b. Explain the influence of historical           century?
context on the form, style, and point
of view of a written work
Relevance and Application:
c. Interpret and synthesize themes
1. Capturing the stories and culture of ancestors through American literature is the role
across multiple literary texts,               of most periodical writers, historians, and sports writers.
providing support for interpretations
2. Exposure to diverse authors and genres of literature enhances readers’ perspectives.
d. Demonstrate knowledge of classical
3. Online book clubs, blog sites, and storytellers depend on ever better literary text
foundational works of American                strategies to find and share meaning in stories.
literature
4. Electronic spreadsheets and online storyboarding are effective tools for comparing
and contrasting, tone, metaphor and theme development.

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
important historical works.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes
Ø Demonstrate comprehension of a variety of informational, literary, and persuasive texts

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Ideas synthesized from informational texts serve a specific purpose
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Designate a purpose for reading             1. Does a periodical’s headline affect an argument differently?
expository texts and use new learning       2. When people’s ideas are challenged, does their ego or instinct respond first?
to complete a specific task (such as        3. What is the greatest authoritative position from which to write for a specific
convince an audience, shape a                  purpose?
personal opinion or decision, or            4. Describe an author’s belief that you can cite from the text. Why do you suppose the
perform an activity)                           author holds that belief? Do you share that same belief? Why or why not?
b. Make generalizations and draw
conclusions from persuasive texts,
citing text-based evidence as support    Relevance and Application:
c. Predict the impact an informational         1. Pharmacists require the ability to compare and synthesize ideas from informational
text will have on an audience and              texts to prevent unnecessary deaths.
justify the prediction                      2. Mechanics use informational texts when making repairs to assess the sufficiency of a
d. Use text features and graphical                specific “fixing” function.
representations to complement               3. Air quality commissioners depend and must discern many research texts to make
comprehension and enhance critical             difficult and specific decisions.
analysis of a text                          4. Trusted Web sites are used to seek out visual and multimedia representations of
e. Explain nuances and connotations of            printed text to enhance understanding.
particular words and sentences, and
as well as potential impact on an        Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
audience                                    1. Readers use relevant background knowledge and consistently apply it to what they
are reading to better facilitate drawing conclusions and increase comprehensibility of
the text.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes
Ø Read a wide range of literature (American and world literature) to understand important universal themes and
the human experience

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Literary and historical influences determine the meaning of traditional and contemporary
literary texts
Evidence Outcomes                          21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                              Inquiry Questions:
a. Generalize about universal              1. How can multiple events in someone’s life carry a particular theme?
themes, cultural or historical          2. Why does an author choose to use this type of writing to make a point?
perspectives from multiple texts        3. After reading about the cultural (or historical) perspectives that were held by people
b. Evaluate the contribution to               during a specific time period, what can be generalized about these individuals, and how
classic, and contemporary               4. What is the difference between personality and the impact a culture has on writing style?
works of literature that deal           5. Are there really a limited number of themes in the world, despite the historical story
with similar topics and problems           differences?
c. Relate a literary work to primary    Relevance and Application:
source documents of its literary        1. Reading news stories will give people access to what is happening in the world.
period or historical setting            2. When people read online articles from different newspapers, they find that certain parts of
d. Analyze how literary                       the country have different views (such as news reporting on the environment in Portland,
components affect meaning                  Oregon, versus another part of the country).
e. Explain the relationship between        3. Foreign film writing and movie making are popular American media because universal
author’s style and literary effect         themes translate from one culture to another.
4. Contemporary advertising uses classic and traditional topics and problems to successfully
sell goods or services.
5. Historic perspectives such as the battle at the Alamo are generalized in cartoons, speech,
writing, and sporting documents.
6. Participating actively in online discussions that follow online news stories adds to the
understanding of diverse perspectives and point of view.
Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
thinking (metacognition) and be clear about what they really believe.
2. Readers are eager to learn new ideology that enhances the quality of life.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes
Ø Engage in a wide range of nonfiction and real-life reading experiences to solve problems, judge the quality of

Concepts and skills students master:
2. The development of new ideas and concepts within informational and persuasive manuscripts
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Provide a response to text that               1. How do readers organize thoughts as they read? Articulate how these thoughts are
expresses an insight (such as an                 stored for future use (for example, connecting clues from Lincoln’s early life to his
author’s perspective or the nature of            leadership and honesty during his presidency).
conflict) or use text-based information       2. What is the difference between old information and old knowledge?
to solve a problem not identified in the      3. What does it take to synthesize two different but noncompeting sources of
text (for example, use information               information?
from a variety of sources to provide a
response to text that expresses an
insight)
b. Analyze how a concept is presented         Relevance and Application:
and developed in multiple texts               1. Literature captures the lives, culture and heritage of the historical past.
c. Compare the development of an idea            2. Making the connections to the past allows people to evaluate current events with
or concept in multiple texts supported           more clarity (for example, looking at the laws of slavery, electing the first black U.S.
by text-based evidence                           president, and understanding the irony of the fact that slaves were used to construct
d. Describe how the author’s use of                 the White House).
persuasive vocabulary influences              3. As people get older, they become more conscious of their beliefs and how they
readers’ opinions or actions                     influence others.
4. Online social/learning networks such as blogs and wikis allows students to
communicate globally.

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Readers are able to fluently discuss topics that have both American and world views.
2. Readers can participate in conversations where multiple perspectives can be shared
and cited for clarity.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes
Ø Read a wide range of literature (American and world literature) to understand important universal themes and
the human experience

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Increasingly complex literary elements in traditional and contemporary works of literature
require scrutiny and comparison
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze character types, including            1. How does an author use a literary device to demonstrate deeper meaning for the
dynamic/round character, static/flat             text? Explain your thinking and cite how you came to this conclusion.
character, stereotype, and caricature         2. How does the setting that was portrayed by the author impact the text?
b. Explain the relationships among               3. What character traits seemed to be conflicting with one character (or more) in the
elements of literature: characters,              text? (For example, a character started out as a generous person and then became
plot, setting, tone, point of view, and          bitter and selfish after a disaster.)
theme
c. Identify the characteristics that
distinguish literary forms and genres      Relevance and Application:
d. Examine the ways in which works of            1. Reading takes people’s minds to places that they may not have personally
literature are related to the issues and         experienced.
themes of their historical periods            2. Reading multiple genres exposes people’s thinking beyond their community.
e. Use literary terms to describe and            3. As people prepare to become members of society, they will encounter multiple
analyze selections                               perspectives that will require judgment and scrutiny.
4. Connecting online with students in locations read about enhance their understanding
of a text.

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Readers fluently compare and contrast story elements to build a deeper
understanding of the ideology or theme of the text.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 2. Reading for All Purposes
Ø Demonstrate comprehension of a variety of informational, literary, and persuasive texts

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Increasingly complex informational texts require mature interpretation and study
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify the intended effects of             1. How does an author work to persuade readers to change their opinions?
rhetorical strategies the author uses        2. How does an author alter readers’ thoughts as they read a text?
to influence readers’ perspectives           3. What visual imagery does the author create to activate one or more of the readers’
b. Evaluate clarity and accuracy of                emotions?
information through close text study         4. What is the difference between text that is explicitly accurate and text that is
and investigation via other sources             explicitly logical?
c. Describe how the organizational
structure and text features support
the meaning and purpose of the text
d. Use flexible reading and note-taking
strategies (outlining, mapping            Relevance and Application:
systems, skimming, scanning, key             1. Companies and organizations like to use influential people in their advertisements to
word search) to organize information            sell their products.
and make connections within and              2. With constant exposure to graphics and multimedia in our world, people need to be
across informational texts                      conscious of how these images influence thinking.
e. Critique author’s choice of expository,      3. Reading newspaper (or online blogs) editorials can affect the way in which people
narrative, persuasive, or descriptive           perceive information (mob mentality or bandwagon effect).
modes to convey a message

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Good readers are able to distinguish what is fact from what is opinion by citing
evidence and not relying on gut feelings.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Effectively use content-specific language, style, tone, and text structure to compose or adapt writing for
different audiences and purposes

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Style, detail, expressive language, and genre create a well-crafted statement directed at an
intended audience and purpose
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Use a range of elaboration techniques          1. How does figurative language enhance the writer’s intended meaning?
(such as questioning, comparing,               2. In what way is the setting a significant part of a text?
connecting, interpreting, analyzing, or        3. How might events in a story be different if the setting were different?
describing) to establish and express           4. What literary genre best fits your interest and why?
point of view and theme                        5. If you were invited to write a short story about an event in your life or that of
b. Create a clear and coherent, logically            another person, what would you write about and why?
consistent structure appropriate to the        6. Who would your intended audience be for this piece of work?
chosen literary genre (biographical
7. How are the lyrics of a song directed at a particular audience?
account, short story, personal narrative,
narrative poem or song, parody of
particular narrative style, play script)
Relevance and Application:
c. Develop context, character/narrator            1. In an adapted film, screenwriters must effectively synthesize original, literary
motivation, problem/conflict and                  writing to produce an action-oriented screenplay.
resolution, and descriptive
details/examples to support and express
theme                                       Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
d. Manipulate elements of style, imagery,         1. Writers look for symbolism, connections, and other elaboration techniques.
tone, and point of view to appeal to the       2. Writers increase their skill set in creating tone and imagery.
senses and emotions of the reader
e. Critique own writing and the writing of
others from the perspective of the
intended audience to guide revisions,
improve voice and style (word choice,
sentence variety, figurative language)
and achieve intended purpose and
effect
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Effectively use content-specific language, style, tone, and text structure to compose or adapt writing for
different audiences and purposes

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Ideas, evidence, structure, and style create persuasive, academic, and technical texts for
particular audiences and specific purposes
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Articulate a position through a            1. How do writers select appropriate details to develop and support a strong thesis?
sophisticated claim or thesis              2. Why is it important to identify audience needs and address counterarguments?
statement and advance it using             3. Why is relevance a key element of technical writing?
evidence, examples, and                    4. How is credibility of sources pertinent to academic or persuasive writing?
counterarguments
b. Select appropriate and relevant
information (excluding extraneous
details) to set context
c. Address audience needs and anticipate   Relevance and Application:
audience questions or                      1. Writers can persuade readers and voice opinions through various forms of writing
misunderstandings                             (such as an editorial for the school or local news source).
d. Select and build context for language      2. Congressional representatives receive many letters from the public voicing their
appropriate to content (technical,            opinions and asking for change.
formal)
e. Control and enhance the flow of ideas   Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
through transitional words or phrases      1. Writers prepare to write by thinking about their intended audience and the purpose
appropriate to text structure                 of their work.
f. Support judgments with substantial         2. Writers anticipate what questions may be asked or could be misunderstood with
evidence and purposeful elaboration           their topic and devote quality time to responding to these questions.
g. Draw a conclusion by synthesizing
information
h. Revise writing using feedback to
maximize effect on audience and to
calibrate purpose
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Apply standard English conventions to effectively communicate with written language

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Standard English conventions effectively communicate to targeted audiences and purposes
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Follow the conventions of standard       1. What makes the final draft of a document look professional and polished?
English to write varied, strong,         2. How does structure affect clarity?
correct, complete sentences              3. What are benefits to using software tools? What are the disadvantages to such
b. Deliberately manipulate the                 software?
conventions of standard English for      4. When is it appropriate to include visuals in a presentation?
stylistic effect appropriate to the
needs of a particular audience and
purpose
c. Seek and use an appropriate style     Relevance and Application:
guide to govern conventions for a        1. Writers produce polished documents for publication.
particular audience and purpose          2. Building fluency with software tools will increase application in writing.
3. Today’s world caters to visual information, graphics and photo images.

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Writers create visual images when writing and think about visual tools that can be
embedded in presentations.
2. Writers self-edit to become more aware of their writing and the key points they want
to make.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Write with a clear focus, coherent organization, sufficient elaboration, and detail

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Stylistic and thematic elements of literary or narrative texts can be refined to engage or
entertain an audience
Evidence Outcomes                                            21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Organize events, details, ideas and reflections or        1. What are the implications if the revision process is not done?
observations strategically to influence the               2. Why do writers want to appeal to the readers’ senses?
audience’s emotions and understanding of the              3. Why use sensory tools to influence the reader?
implicit or explicit theme
b. Write literary and narrative texts using a range of
stylistic devices (poetic techniques, figurative
language, symbolism, graphic or visual
components) to support the presentation of
implicit or explicit theme                             Relevance and Application:
c. Enhance the expression of voice, tone, and point          1. Many companies and colleges require a statement of intent when
of view in a text by strategically using precise             applying for a job or completing applications, respectively.
diction (considering denotation, connotation, and         2. Conveying a point of view in writing is an important skill to have when
audience associations); diverse syntax; varied               applying for a competitive job or to college.
sentence patterns; and punctuation for stylistic
effect
d. Use a range of strategies to evaluate whether the
writing is presented in a clear and engaging
manner (such as reading the text from the              Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
perspective of the intended audience, seeking             1. Writers enjoy finding new ways to create tone or mood in writing.
feedback from a reviewer)
e. Evaluate and revise text to eliminate unnecessary
details, ineffective stylistic devices, and vague or
confusing language
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Write with a clear focus, coherent organization, sufficient elaboration, and detail

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Elements of informational and persuasive texts can be refined to inform or influence an
audience
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Articulate a position through a concise      1. Why is audience determination important to the writer?
and focused claim or thesis statement,       2. What are the implications if the revision process is not done?
and advance it using evidence,               3. Why do authors want to appeal to the readers’ senses?
examples, and counterarguments               4. How is this beneficial to the reader?
b. Locate and select appropriate                5. How does an author use sensory tools to influence readers as they read?
information that clearly supports a
definite purpose, topic, or position
c. Choose, develop, and refine appeals
for desired effect on audience            Relevance and Application:
d. Evaluate and revise own text as              1. Forest rangers and cattlemen can sometimes refine information to differentiate their
needed to eliminate logical fallacies           respective points of view.
and to enhance credibility of ideas and      2. Blogs, advertising and public service announcements are examples of where
information                                     persuasive texts attempt to influence audiences.
e. Use vocabulary for intentional
development of voice and tone for a
specific audience, purpose, or
situation
f. Clarify and order ideas for best          Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
possible effect                              1. Writers can clearly articulate their thoughts to persuade or inform an audience.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Apply standard English conventions to effectively communicate with written language

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Writing demands ongoing revisions and refinements for grammar, usage, mechanics, and
clarity
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Apply punctuation correctly and             1. How does word choice affect the message a writer conveys?
articulate stylistic choices                2. How does a writer plan his/her work for a specific audience?
b. Use a variety of phrases (absolute,         3. Why is it important to know and properly use the English conventions of writing?
appositive) accurately and                  4. What are both a benefit and a caution to using grammar and spell-checker tools?
purposefully to improve writing             5. How does reviewing previous drafts and revisions improve a writer’s work?
c. Use idioms correctly, particularly
d. Ensure that a verb agrees with its
subject in complex constructions (such   Relevance and Application:
as inverted subject/verb order,             1. Writing personal narratives in college essays and scholarship applications is
indefinite pronoun as subject,                 necessary to be considered as a candidate.
intervening phrases or clauses)             2. Using the dictionary, spell-checker, and other tools can teach as well as correct or
e. Use a style guide to follow the                edit writing.
conventions of Modern Language
Association (MLA) or American            Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
Psychological Association (APA) format
1. Writers save copies of their revisions to see how their writing has progressed.
f. Use resources (print and electronic)
2. Writers use proper English conventions when writing.
and feedback to edit and enhance
writing for purpose and audience
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Effectively use content-specific language, style, tone, and text structure to compose or adapt writing for
different audiences and purposes

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Literary or narrative genres feature a variety of stylistic devices to engage or entertain an
audience
Evidence Outcomes                                   21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                       Inquiry Questions:
a. Use conventional structures and                  1. What makes the final draft of a document look professional and polished?
expectations of literary genres (such as         2. How does paragraph structure and formatting increase the clarity of the writer’s
short story, personal narrative, script,            message?
poem, or song) to select content,                3. What style do you find most useful to you as a writer? Why?
represent ideas, make connections,               4. Why is it important to keep an audience engaged?
generate new insights, and develop an            5. What would happen if the audience was bored or uninterested in a piece?
organizational structure for drafting
b. Write literary and narrative texts using a
range of stylistic devices (poetic            Relevance and Application:
techniques, figurative language, imagery,        1. Audience members like to be entertained by different genres, including comedy,
graphic elements) to support the                    drama, and action.
presentation of implicit or explicit theme       2. Consumers lose interest in text that is boring and uneventful.
c. Enhance the expression of voice, tone, and
mood in a text by selecting and using vivid
and precise diction, syntax, and
punctuation
d. Use a variety of strategies to evaluate
whether the writing is presented in a         Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
creative and reflective manner (e.g.,            1. Writers try to anticipate what the counterarguments of their topic may be.
reading the draft aloud, seeking feedback        2. Writers find new ways to increase writing effectiveness by working to infuse
from a reviewer, scoring guides)                    more elegance in their wording and sentence fluency.
e. Revise texts using feedback to enhance
the effect on the reader and clarify the
presentation of implicit or explicit theme
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Master the techniques of effective informational, literary, and persuasive writing

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Organizational writing patterns inform or persuade an audience
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Devise and adjust a topic, claim, or         1. How does a writer organize writing to convey the intended message?
thesis                                       2. What is the primary audience for this type of writing? Why?
b. Select and apply the organizational          3. What would writing be like without figurative language?
pattern best suited to purpose and           4. Why is it important that language match the audience being addressed?
audience                                     5. What are the implications of using language that may not match an audience?
c. Choose and develop an effective              6. How does a writer determine the purpose of his/her writing?
appeal
d. Collect, organize, and evaluate
materials to support ideas                Relevance and Application:
e. Revise writing by evaluating                 1. Learning different purposes for writing increases an author’s effectiveness.
relationship of central idea, evidence,      2. Researchers synthesize information from a variety of sources to present ideas.
and organizational pattern
f. Explain how writers use organization
and details to communicate their
purposes
g. Present writing to an authentic
audience and gauge effect on
audience for intended purpose             Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Writers are purposeful in what they say, in how they develop the topic, and in the
words they choose. The empowerment of being an author is exciting!
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Apply standard English conventions to effectively communicate with written language

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Grammar, language usage, mechanics, and clarity are the basis of ongoing refinements and
revisions within the writing process
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Apply dashes, colons, and semi-colons       1. What would writing look like if there were no punctuation?
to create varied sentences, to              2. Why would it be difficult to read texts that do not have correct punctuation?
emphasize important ideas, and to           3. How does voice make writing more interesting?
show relationships among ideas.             4. Why is correct grammar important to the reader?
b. Identify instances where sentences
are not grammatically parallel and
revise sentences to establish
parallelism
c. Identify the various types of clauses    Relevance and Application:
and use this knowledge to write             1. Book publishers edit texts before they are sent to printing.
varied, strong, correct, complete           2. Professional editing tools help publishers edit work to meet rapid deadlines.
sentences
d. Distinguish between the active and
passive voice, and write in the active
voice

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Writers create texts that are coherent to the reader.
2. Writers revise texts multiple times before a final draft is published.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Master the techniques of effective informational, literary, and persuasive writing

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Literary and narrative texts develop a controlling idea or theme with descriptive and
expressive language
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Write well-focused texts with an               1. Why does descriptive language make writing more appealing to the readers?
explicit or implicit theme and details         2. Would people want to read texts that have no organizational structure? Why?
that contribute to a definite point of         3. Why is it important for authors to be able to develop texts that have an organized
view and tone                                     theme?
b. Organize paragraphs or stanzas to
present ideas clearly and purposefully
for a specific audience
c. Write literary and narrative texts using
a range of poetic techniques,               Relevance and Application:
figurative language, and graphic               1. Consumers enjoy reading books with rich, descriptive language so they can picture
elements to engage or entertain the               what they are reading.
intended audience                              2. Reporters and columnists at newspapers accept improvements in their writing to
d. Refine the expression of voice and                improve their work.
tone in a text by selecting and using          3. Business workers are self-directed and rewarded for their efforts when they refine
appropriate vocabulary, sentence                  their writing to engage the reader.
structure, and sentence organization
e. Review and revise ideas and
development in substantive ways to          Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
improve the depth of ideas and                 1. Writers use descriptive language in their texts to make them more appealing to the
f. Explain strengths and weaknesses of            2. Writers know that revision, editing comments, and feedback strengthen a text.
own writing and the writing of others
using criteria (e.g., checklists, scoring
guides)
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Master the techniques of effective informational, literary, and persuasive writing

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Informational and persuasive texts develop a topic and establish a controlling idea or thesis
with relevant support
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop texts that define or classify a      1. Why should an author plan with clarity what the reader is expecting in the piece?
topic                                        2. How does an author monitor his/her work if the author is biased? What clues make
b. Use appropriate rhetorical appeals and          the reader sense bias?
genre to engage and guide the                3. What makes a descriptive text appeal to certain audiences?
intended audience                            4. Why is it essential to explain technical terms and notations in writing?
c. Arrange paragraphs into a logical            5. Do all audiences need this type of explanation? Why or why not?
progression
and expectations                          Relevance and Application:
e. Revise ideas and structure to improve        1. Authors share ideas with a wider audience through writing.
depth of information and logic of            2. Researchers often submit an article stating their opinion about a current topic.
organization                                 3. Legal representatives prepare an argument by researching both sides and
f. Explain and imitate emotional, logical,         persuading an audience to one point of view by controlling one main idea.
and ethical appeals used by writers          4. Rhetoric and ethical texts explain information with relevant supporting ideas.
who are trying to persuade an
audience

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Writers anticipate how biases play a role in the writing process. They try to think
about readers and how they may perceive what the author is writing.
2. Writers use different techniques to effectively support their arguments.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 3. Writing and Composition
Ø Apply standard English conventions to effectively communicate with written language

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Writing for grammar, usage, mechanics, and clarity requires ongoing refinements and
revisions
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Use punctuation correctly (semi-             1. What message does an author give a reader if there are flaws and errors in
colons with conjunctive adverbs to              grammar and punctuation?
combine clauses; colons for emphasis         2. What are the benefits of using computer-based tools for grammar support? What
and to introduce a list).                       are the cautions of using these tools?
b. Identify comma splices and fused             3. What is meant by an obscure or oblique reference?
sentences in writing and revise to           4. Why should the writer beware when using a reference that may be obscure?
eliminate them                               5. When a writer has text at an adequate phase, is it necessary to keep tweaking it?
c. Distinguish between phrases and                 Why or why not?
clauses and use this knowledge to
write varied, strong, correct, complete   Relevance and Application:
sentences                                    1. Learning to rewrite with improvements creates a thoughtful, thorough writer.
d. Use various reference tools to vary          2. Artificial intelligence software is sophisticated enough to correct and complete
word choice and make sure words are             unfinished sentences.
spelled correctly

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Writers review work for clarity and the match it has to their audience.
2. Good writers are always highly valued.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning
Ø Gather information from a variety of sources; analyze and evaluate the quality and relevance of the source;
and use it to answer complex questions
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Independent research designs articulate and defend information, conclusions and solutions that address
specific contexts and purposes
Evidence Outcomes                    21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Define and narrow a topic for self-           1. How do researchers identify a significant problem or issue to study?
designed research for a variety of            2. If an initial inquiry proves fruitless, how can they reformulate the research question to address
purposes and audiences                            an alternative topic, issue, or problem? (intellectual flexibility)
b. Critique research questions of self and       3. To what extent can researchers compare and contrast their research conclusions/results with
others for bias and underlying                    alternative conclusions/results? (breadth)
assumptions                                   4. How do researchers check for clarity and credentials of the contributing authors that they
c. Critique and defend sources and                   selected for their research?
information based on credibility,             5. How do researchers check their resources and evaluate evidence to ensure that they were
relevance and appropriateness relative            relevant and significant to the research question or purpose?
to context and purpose                        6. How do researchers check their conclusion(s) for significance and accuracy?
d. Design and defend a set of diverse         Relevance and Application:
research strategies (e.g. cross-              1. Technology tools such as meters, lenses, data capture tools, and documented research
referencing bibliographies, creating              archives accelerate all searches.
annotated bibliographies, researching         2. Fact-checking tools help confirm the accuracy of self-designed research such as small business
source credentials) to identify                   interests.
information appropriate to the needs of       3. Inventors in sports medicine speak to the breadth of issues related to a research topic but not
a research question, hypothesis, or               necessarily addressed within the original research.
thesis statement                              4. Students use factual information to support their ideas to go to a certain college or the military
e. Critique and defend evidence relative to          branches.
its use to address a particular context       5. Data organization is a skill used in medical testing.
and purpose                                   6. Environmental leaders review research results to share with others. Reviewing research for
f. Determine and use the appropriate                 personal use will support many personal and professional choices.
style guide to govern format and              7. Using the Internet to locate and converse with experts in the field can enhance your
documentation of quotations,                      understanding and research.
paraphrases, and other information            8. Following up on citations found in research articles online and in libraries helps us validate
from a range of research sources                  accuracy of information and deepen our understanding.
Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Researchers must be flexible with their thinking so new learning can take place.
2. People are consumers of information.
3. People are generators of information.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning
Ø Articulate the position of self and others using experiential and material logic

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Logical arguments distinguish facts from opinions, and evidence defines reasoned judgment
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Synthesize information to support a         1. How do authors measure the quality of their argument along the way?
logical argument                            2. What criteria do authors use to evaluate the quality of their reasoning? (clarity,
b. Distinguish between evidence and               validity, logic, relevance, completeness, depth, breadth)
inferences                                  3. When have you last heard a “pitch” based predominantly using assumption?
c. Identify false premises or assumptions      4. When can a scattered argument ever be successful?
d. Analyze rhetorical devices used in own
and others’ appeals
e. Summarize ideas that include
alternate views, rich detail, well-      Relevance and Application:
developed paragraphs, and logical           1. Editors at news agencies synthesize alternate views and vast appeals in order to
argumentation                                  make concise weekly editorials.
2. Expensive purchases such as a car, home or college education are usually made
after a first impressions and false evidence have been eliminated.
3. Rhetorical devices are usually practiced and refined in most professions and jobs in
4. Recognizing the difference between primary and secondary sources and analyzing primary sources
applying our own knowledge and perspective can lead to deeper understanding.

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Researchers are consumers of information.
2. Researchers are generators of information.
3. Investigative thinkers careful attend to language and the influence of bias or false
premises
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning
Ø Gather information from a variety of sources; analyze and evaluate the quality and relevance of the source;
and use it to answer complex questions

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Self-designed research provides insightful information, conclusions, and possible solutions
Evidence Outcomes                                   21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                       Inquiry Questions:
a. Define and narrow a topic for research           1. How do you know if an online source is credible?
(thesis statement, hypothesis, research          2. How can subjective viewpoints be used in research?
question) to address a specific purpose
and audience
b. Evaluate and revise research questions
for precision and clarity
c. Evaluate quality, accuracy, and
completeness of information and the           Relevance and Application:
bias, credibility and reliability of the         1. Representing and accurately citing data, conclusions, the opinions of others can
sources                                             be compromised if the researcher does not recognize his/her bias on the topic.
d. Use a variety of strategies (e.g. technical      2. Accurately documenting sources of information can prevent accusations of
reading, direct observation, survey                 plagiarism which can sometimes lead to legal action.
development) to collect relevant
information to support the
thesis/research question and explain why
specific strategies were used instead of
others
e. Evaluate and select appropriate types of
evidence to support a particular research
purpose                                       Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
f. Document sources of quotations,                  1. Researchers follow the reasoning that supports an argument or explanation and
paraphrases, and other information,                 can assess whether the evidence provided is relevant and sufficient
using a style sheet, such as that of the
Modern Language Association (MLA) or
the American Psychological Association
(APA)
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning
Ø Evaluate explicit and implicit viewpoints, values, attitudes, and assumptions concealed in speech, writing, and
illustration

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Complex situations require critical thinking across multiple disciplines
Evidence Outcomes                                   21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                       Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze the logic of complex situations by         1. How do readers determine if the author(s) they are using are credible, biased on
questioning the purpose, question at issue,           a topic or have a neutral, unbiased approach?
information, points of view, implications          2. As they read from multiple texts and across disciplines, how do people organize
and consequences inferences, assumptions              their thinking for depth of content understanding?
and concepts                                       3. Are there any disciplines of study which do not require critical thinking?
b. Evaluate strengths and weaknesses of their         4. When does logic undermine a discipline?
logic and logic of others by using criteria
including relevance, clarity, accuracy,         Relevance and Application:
fairness, significance, depth, breadth, logic      1. Presenters organize information and present it to others around a point of view.
and precision                                      2. In the media world, people are bombarded with many pieces of information. Keen
c. Determine the extent to which they                    observing skills to sift through information for clarity, bias, and relevance help
entered empathetically into competing                 one to discriminate good information from faulty input when making informed
points of view, exercised confidence in               decisions.
reason, recognized the limits of their             3. Writers have strong influence on others’ thinking. Good professors help students
knowledge on the topic (intellectual                  expand the ability to critically think and foster intellectual humility.
humility), explored alternative approaches         4. Reading and participating in blogs give practice in applying critical thinking
to solving or addressing complex problems             through the engagement with an authentic audience.
(intellectual flexibility), and were open to
constructive critique (intellectual open-
mindedness)                                     Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
d. Analyze and assess the logic of the                1. Researchers must be flexible with their thinking, so new learning can take place.
interdisciplinary domains inherent in              2. When researchers analyze and assess thinking, they attempt to be fair-minded
reasoning through complex situations                  and look for connections to other content areas.
e. Monitor and assess the extent to which             3. Investigative intellects can transform their ideas when being flexible, open-
their own beliefs and biases influenced               minded, empathetic, humble and confident in reason.
their reactions to the viewpoints and logic
of others
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning
Ø Discriminate and justify a position using traditional lines of rhetorical argument and reasoning

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Evaluating quality reasoning includes the value of intellectual character such as humility,
empathy, and confidence
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze the purpose, question at              1. How does one analyze the logic of thinking?
issue, information, points of view,           2. How does one evaluate the logic of thinking?
implications and consequences,                3. What does it look like to see intellectual humility or intellectual arrogance?
inferences, assumptions, and concepts         4. What types of complexities make it difficult for one to take apart his/her own
inherent in thinking                             thinking?
b. Assess strengths and weaknesses of            5. What obstacles interfere with quality reasoning?
thinking and thinking of others by
using criteria including relevance,        Relevance and Application:
clarity, accuracy, fairness,                  1. Intellectual open-mindedness challenges rules and traditions and can instigate
significance, depth, breadth, logic, and         tension in a society.
precision                                     2. The absence of logic and precision has steep consequences in medical, safety and
c. Determine the extent to which they               judicial settings.
entered empathetically into competing         3. “Growing up” is a lifelong event and most often is noticed when faced with differing
points of view, exercised confidence in          information, points of view, assumptions, and inferences.
reason, recognized the limits of their        4. Sociologists, anthropologists and historians make a living studying influence, bias,
knowledge on the topic (intellectual             and patterns of quality thinking.
humility), explored alternative               5. Reading and participating in social networking sites such as blogs give practice in
approaches to solving or addressing              applying humility, empathy and confidence through the engagement with an
complex problems (intellectual                   authentic audience.
flexibility), were open to constructive    Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
critique (intellectual open-                  1. Evaluating quality logic and mental flexibility is a trait that becomes a habit which
mindedness)                                      improves the thinking of others.
d. Evaluate the reasoning of self and            2. Making connections and bringing fresh clarity to an intellectual assumption brings
others for quality, strong-sense                 into mental focus the actual problem or a possible solution.
thinking
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning
Ø Use primary, secondary, and tertiary written sources to generate and answer research questions

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Collect, analyze, and evaluate information obtained from multiple sources to answer a
question, propose solutions, or share findings and conclusions
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Define and narrow a topic for                 1. How does media influence the questions you ask about an issue?
research, developing the central idea,        2. What is “strong” evidence?
focus, or question at issue                   3. When does framing a question incorrectly set off a series of flawed evaluations?
b. Formulate research questions that are         4. How can a group of different-minded opinion leaders weaken a central idea or
clear and precise                                search for solution?
c. Identify and evaluate potential
sources of information for accuracy,
reliability, validity, and timeliness
d. Use a variety of strategies (such as       Relevance and Application:
search engines, online databases ,            1. Multiple sources are used to conduct second level claim checks on “so called” quality
interview) to collect and organize               research (such as the Internet or library focus groups and polling).
relevant and significant information          2. “Clicker” or opinion technology can pinpoint public trust in information.
e. Distinguish between types of evidence         3. Students can locate experts in the field of their research using online resources and
(such as expert testimony, analogies,            use technology tools such as Skype, email, and wikis to communicate with them to
variety of types to support a particular
research purpose
f. Use in-text parenthetical citations to
document sources of quotations,            Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
paraphrases and information                   1. Collecting, evaluating, and analyzing information are skills that are needed for
2. When researchers find information and build upon their knowledge or inquiry, they
can find additional sources to support or disprove their thinking.
3. We overcome initial limitations of information to make sense and propose solutions
or findings.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning
Ø Demonstrate the use of a range of strategies, research techniques, and persistence when engaging with
difficult texts or examining complex problems or issues

Concepts and skills students master:
2. An author’s reasoning is the essence of legitimate writing and requires evaluating text for
validity and accuracy
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze the logic (including                  1. Can one physically draw a line of reasoning?
assumptions and beliefs) and use of           2. When does missing evidence possibly invent a new legitimate argument?
evidence (existing and missing                3. If an author claims to be defenseless in a text, what authority does this give the
secondary sources) used by two or
more authors presenting similar or
opposing arguments (such as articles
by two political columnists that
address the same issue)                    Relevance and Application:
b. Evaluate the accuracy of the                  1. With the accessibility and use of the Internet, individuals need to be able to
information in a text, citing text-based         synthesize and assess the information quickly.
evidence, author’s use of expert              2. Critically evaluating online and print content will protect individuals from using
authority, and author’s credibility to           incorrect or harmful information.
defend the evaluation                         3. Making judgments about daily experiences can result in improving the quality of life.
(Analyzing medical research and procedures about anesthesia can save lives.)

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Researchers evaluate circumstances that may occur and make informed judgments
based on strong-sense critical thinking and use of resources.
2. Researchers are persistent with work. When a decision or situation is new or
questionable, the learner will look at multiple perspectives striving for validity or
accuracy.
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning
Ø Gather information from a variety of sources; analyze and evaluate the quality and relevance of the source;
and use it to answer complex questions

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Informational materials, including electronic sources, need to be collected, evaluated, and
analyzed for accuracy, relevance, and effectiveness for answering research questions
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Integrate information from                 1. When a researcher is “reflecting” on information to use in a project, what is actually
different sources to research and             happening in the thought pattern?
complete a project                         2. When are multiple resources NOT HELPFUL?
b. Integrate information from                 3. How do researchers plan for such challenges as little to no primary information?
different sources to form                  4. What was your most unusual source for a personal research project? What resource
conclusions about an author’s                 was the least useful and why?
assumptions, biases, credibility,
cultural and social perspectives, or    Relevance and Application:
world views                                1. Information from a variety sources is needed to conduct accurate, clear, and coherent
c. Judge the usefulness of                       research.
information based on relevance to          2. Looking at multiple perspectives expands people’s thinking and adds clarity to their own
purpose, source, objectivity,                 thoughts and words.
copyright date, cultural and world         3. Using information from many sources helps broaden ability to locate and use
perspective (such as editorials),             information.
and support the decision                   4. In the global society, multiple perspectives and a wide range of information are within
d. Examine materials to determine                easy reach and importantly applicable. Global perspectives can be obtained through
appropriate primary and secondary             participating in online social media networks.
sources to use for investigating a         5. Global perspectives can be obtained through participating in online social media
question, topic, or issue (e.g.,              networks.
library databases, print and
electronic encyclopedia and other       Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
reference materials, pamphlets,            1. Researchers constantly analyze and assess information.
book excerpts, online and print            2. Researchers are attentive to bias in resources and monitor their own writing and
newspaper and magazine articles,              speaking for biases to assess and maintain their own credibility.
letters to an editor, digital forums,
oral records, research summaries,
Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
Standard: 4. Research and Reasoning
Ø Demonstrate the use of a range of strategies, research techniques, and persistence when engaging with
difficult texts or examining complex problems or issues

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Effective problem-solving strategies require high-quality reasoning
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze the purpose, question at            1. How is reasoning used in problem solving?
issue, information, points of view,         2. Why is it important to state the problem with clarity before beginning a research
implications and consequences,                 project?
inferences, assumptions and concepts        3. How do you monitor what they are reading for fairness and accuracy?
inherent in thinking                        4. What assumptions need to be asked about “relevant and irrelevant” information
b. Assess strengths and weaknesses of             when solving a problem?
their thinking and thinking of others
by using criteria including relevance,
Relevance and Application:
clarity, accuracy, fairness,
1. Problem-solving strategies are used in all content areas.
2. Problem solving is a daily expectation.
and precision
3. Learning to reason supports relationships and the ability to solve problems that arise
c. Implement a purposeful and
at home or at work.
articulated process to solve a
4. Everyone benefits from finding new ways to solve problems.
problem
5. Recognition of multiple perspectives is important in this global society.
d. Monitor and reflect on the rationale
for, and effectiveness of, choices
7. An increased clarity of language helps people become better communicators both in
speaking and writing.
process

Nature of Reading, Writing, and Communicating:
1. Researchers know that there are biases that can influence their thinking. They
monitor how they approach problem solving to keep these external influences in
check.
2. Researchers acknowledge the perspectives of others, which helps them be clear and
precise in their language and writing.
Science
Grade Level Expectations at a Glance
High School
1. Physical          1.   Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation describe the relationships
Science                   among forces acting on and between objects, their masses, and
changes in their motion – but have limitations
2.   Matter has definite structure that determines characteristic physical
and chemical properties
3.   Matter can change form through chemical or nuclear reactions abiding
by the laws of conservation of mass and energy
4.   Atoms bond in different ways to form molecules and compounds that
have definite properties
5.   Energy exists in many forms such as mechanical, chemical, electrical,
radiant, thermal, and nuclear, that can be quantified and
experimentally determined
6.   When energy changes form, it is neither created not destroyed;
however, because some is necessarily lost as heat, the amount of
energy available to do work decreases
2. Life Science      1.   Matter tends to be cycled within an ecosystem, while energy is
transformed and eventually exits an ecosystem
2.   The size and persistence of populations depend on their interactions
with each other and on the abiotic factors in an ecosystem
3.   Cellular metabolic activities are carried out by biomolecules produced
by organisms
4.   The energy for life primarily derives from the interrelated processes of
photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis transforms the
sun’s light energy into the chemical energy of molecular bonds.
Cellular respiration allows cells to utilize chemical energy when these
bonds are broken.
5.   Cells use the passive and active transport of substances across
membranes to maintain relatively stable intracellular environments
6.   Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems maintain relatively stable
internal environments, even in the face of changing external
environments
7.   Physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism are influenced
to varying degrees by heritable genes, many of which encode
instructions for the production of proteins
8.   Multicellularity makes possible a division of labor at the cellular level
through the expression of select genes, but not the entire genome
9.   Evolution occurs as the heritable characteristics of populations change
to their environment

Colorado Department of Education         Adopted: December 10, 2009                       Page 1 of 108
Science
Grade Level Expectations at a Glance
High School        (continued)
3. Earth Systems      1. The history of the universe, solar system and Earth can be inferred
Science                  from evidence left from past events
2. As part of the solar system, Earth interacts with various
extraterrestrial forces and energies such as gravity, solar phenomena,
electromagnetic radiation, and impact events that influence the
planet’s geosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere in a variety of ways
3. The theory of plate tectonics helps to explain geological, physical, and
geographical features of Earth
4. Climate is the result of energy transfer among interactions of the
atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere
5. There are costs, benefits, and consequences of exploration,
development, and consumption of renewable and nonrenewable
resources
6. The interaction of Earth's surface with water, air, gravity, and
biological activity causes physical and chemical changes
7. Natural hazards have local, national and global impacts such as
volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and thunderstorms

Colorado Department of Education         Adopted: December 10, 2009                     Page 2 of 108
Science
Observe, explain, and predict natural phenomena governed by Newton's
laws of motion, acknowledging the limitations of their application to
very small or very fast objects
High School         •   Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation describe the relationships
among forces acting on and between objects, their masses, and
changes in their motion – but have limitations
Apply an understanding of atomic and molecular structure to explain the
properties of matter, and predict outcomes of chemical and nuclear
reactions
High School         •   Matter has definite structure that determines characteristic physical and
chemical properties
•   Matter can change form through chemical or nuclear reactions abiding
by the laws of conservation of mass and energy
•   Atoms bond in different ways to form molecules and compounds that
have definite properties
Apply an understanding that energy exists in various forms, and its
transformation and conservation occur in processes that are predictable
and measurable
High School         •   Energy exists in many forms such as mechanical, chemical, electrical,
radiant, thermal, and nuclear, that can be quantified and experimentally
determined
•   When energy changes form, it is neither created not destroyed;
however, because some is necessarily lost as heat, the amount of
energy available to do work decreases
Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living
systems at a variety of organizational levels, and recognize livings
systems’ dependence on natural selection
High School         •   Cellular metabolic activities are carried out by biomolecules produced by
organisms
•   The energy for life primarily derives from the interrelated processes of
photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis transforms the
sun’s light energy into the chemical energy of molecular bonds. Cellular
respiration allows cells to utilize chemical energy when these bonds are
broken
•   Cells use the passive and active transport of substances across
membranes to maintain relatively stable intracellular environments
•   Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems maintain relatively stable
internal environments, even in the face of changing external
environments

Colorado Department of Education         Adopted: December 10, 2009                     Page 3 of 108
Science
Explain and illustrate with examples how living systems interact with
the biotic and abiotic environment
High School         •   Matter tends to be cycled within an ecosystem, while energy is
transformed and eventually exits an ecosystem
•   The size and persistence of populations depend on their interactions
with each other and on the abiotic factors in an ecosystem
Analyze how various organisms grow, develop, and differentiate during
their lifetimes based on an interplay between genetics and their
environment
High school         •   Physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism are influenced to
varying degrees by heritable genes, many of which encode instructions
for the production of proteins
•   Multicellularity makes possible a division of labor at the cellular level
through the expression of select genes, but not the entire genome.
•
Explain how biological evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of
living organisms
High School         •   Evolution occurs as the heritable characteristics of populations change
to their environment
Describe and interpret how Earth's geologic history and place in space
are relevant to our understanding of the processes that have shaped our
planet
High School         •   The history of the universe, solar system and Earth can be inferred from
evidence left from past events
•   As part of the solar system, Earth interacts with various extraterrestrial
forces and energies such as gravity, solar phenomena, electromagnetic
radiation, and impact events that influence the planet’s geosphere,
atmosphere, and biosphere in a variety of ways
Evaluate evidence that Earth’s geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere,
and biosphere interact as a complex system
High School         •   The theory of plate tectonics helps to explain geological, physical, and
geographical features of Earth
•   Climate is the result of energy transfer among interactions of the
atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere
•   The interaction of Earth's surface with water, air, gravity, and biological
activity causes physical and chemical changes
•   Natural hazards have local, national and global impacts such as
volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and thunderstorms
Describe how humans are dependent on the diversity of resources
provided by Earth and sun
High school         •   There are costs, benefits, and consequences of exploration,
development, and consumption of renewable and nonrenewable
resources

Colorado Department of Education         Adopted: December 10, 2009                       Page 4 of 108
Content Area: Science
Standard: 1. Physical Science
Ø Observe, explain, and predict natural phenomena governed by Newton's laws of motion, acknowledging the
limitations of their application to very small or very fast objects

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation describe the relationships among forces acting on and
between objects, their masses, and changes in their motion – but have limitations
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Gather, analyze and interpret data         1. How can forces be acting on an object without changing the object’s motion?
and create graphs regarding position,      2. Why do equal but opposite action and reaction forces not cancel?
velocity and acceleration of moving
objects
b. Develop, communicate and justify an
evidence-based analysis of the forces
acting on an object and the resultant   Relevance and Application:
acceleration produced by a net force       1. Newton's laws are used in a variety of design processes such as vehicle safety,
c. Develop, communicate and justify an           aerospace, bridge design and interplanetary probes.
evidence-based scientific prediction       2. An understanding of forces leads to safer building designs such as earthquake-safe
regarding the effects of the action-          buildings.
reaction force pairs on the motion of      3. Forces present in the earth lead to plate tectonics.
two interacting objects
d. Examine the effect of changing
masses and distance when applying
Newton's law of universal gravitation   Nature of Science:
to a system of two bodies                  1. Use an inquiry approach to answer a testable question about an application of
e. Identify the limitations of Newton’s          Newton’s laws of motion.
laws in extreme situations                 2. Share experimental data, respectfully discuss conflicting results, and analyze ways
to minimize error and uncertainty in measurement.
3. Differentiate between the use of the terms “law” and “theory” as they are defined
and used in science compared to how they are used in other disciplines or common
use.
4. Use technology to perform calculations and to organize, analyze and report data.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 1. Physical Science
Ø Apply an understanding of atomic and molecular structure to explain the properties of matter, and predict
outcomes of chemical and nuclear reactions

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Matter has definite structure that determines characteristic physical and chemical properties
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an        1. What patterns can be observed in the properties of elements and families in the
evidence-based scientific explanation          periodic table?
supporting the current model of an          2. What properties do nanoscale particles have that are different than those of
atom                                           macroscopic samples of the same substance?
b. Gather, analyze and interpret data on
chemical and physical properties of      Relevance and Application:
elements such as density, melting           1. The unique properties of various elements make them useful for specific
point, boiling point, and conductivity         applications. For example, metalloids and semiconductors are useful in electronic
c. Use characteristic physical and                applications.
chemical properties to develop              2. Alloys are created by combining metals with other elements to produce materials
predictions and supporting claims              with useful properties that are not found in nature. For example, iron and carbon
about elements’ positions on the               make steel.
periodic table                              3. Consumers can make informed decisions regarding the purchase of household
d. Develop a model that differentiates            chemicals when they understand chemical properties and their implications. For
atoms and molecules, elements and              example, choosing lead based versus non-lead based paints weighs safety concerns
compounds, and pure substances and             against color and durability in applications.
mixtures                                    4. The unique properties of nanoscale particles provide special benefits and dangers.

Nature of Science:
1. Recognize that the current understanding of molecular structure related to the
physical and chemical properties of matter has developed over time and become
more sophisticated as new technologies have led to new evidence.
2. Ask testable questions about the nature of matter, and use an inquiry approach to
investigate it.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 1. Physical Science
Ø Apply an understanding of atomic and molecular structure to explain the properties of matter, and predict
outcomes of chemical and nuclear reactions

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Matter can change form through chemical or nuclear reactions abiding by the laws of
conservation of mass and energy
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Recognize, analyze, interpret, and          1. What patterns of chemical reactions exist?
balance chemical equations                  2. How are chemical reactions distinguished from nuclear reactions?
(synthesis, decomposition,
combustion, and replacement) or
nuclear equations (fusion and fission)
b. Predict reactants and products for
different types of chemical and          Relevance and Application:
nuclear reactions                           1. Products formed in different types of reactions are useful to people. For example,
c. Predict and calculate the amount of            polymerase reactions making nylon.
products produced in a chemical             2. The use of chemicals can have both positive and negative environmental effects. For
reaction based on the amount of                example, the use of lime to make acidic soils more productive or the use of CFCs
reactants                                      causing the ozone hole.
d. Examine, evaluate, question, and            3. When using radioactive substances, there are benefits such as medicine and energy
ethically use information from a               production as well as dangers such as environmental and health concerns.
variety of sources and media to
investigate the conservation of mass     Nature of Science:
and energy                                  1. Critically evaluate chemical and nuclear change models.
2. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of a model which represents complex natural
phenomenon.
3. Use an inquiry approach to test predictions about chemical reactions.
4. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 1. Physical Science
Ø Apply an understanding of atomic and molecular structure to explain the properties of matter, and predict
outcomes of chemical and nuclear reactions

Concepts and skills students master:
4. Atoms bond in different ways to form molecules and compounds that have definite
properties
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an        1. How can various substances be classified as ionic or covalent compounds?
evidence-based scientific explanation       2. What role do electrons play in different types of chemical bonds?
supporting the current models of
chemical bonding
b. Gather, analyze, and interpret data on
chemical and physical properties of
different compounds such as density,     Relevance and Application:
melting point, boiling point, pH, and       1. Related compounds share some properties that help focus chemists when looking for
conductivity                                   a substance with particular properties for a specific application. For example, finding
c. Use characteristic physical and                new super conductors.
chemical properties to develop              2. Carbon atoms bond in ways that provide the foundation for a wide range of
predictions and supporting claims              applications. For example, forming chains and rings such as sugars and fats that are
about compounds’ classification as             essential to life and developing synthetic fibers and oils.
ionic, polar or covalent                    3. Living systems create and use various chemical compounds such as plants making
d. Describe the role electrons play in            sugars from photosynthesis and chemicals that can be used as medicine, and
atomic bonding                                 endocrine glands producing hormones.
e. Predict the type of bonding that will
occur among elements based on their      Nature of Science:
position in the periodic table              1. Recognize that the current understanding of molecular structure related to the
physical and chemical properties of matter has developed over time and become
more sophisticated as new technologies have led to new evidence.
2. Employ data-collection technology to gather, view, analyze, and interpret data about
chemical and physical properties of different compounds.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 1. Physical Science
Ø Apply an understanding that energy exists in various forms, and its transformation and conservation occur in
processes that are predictable and measurable

Concepts and skills students master:
5. Energy exists in many forms such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, radiant, thermal, and
nuclear, that can be quantified and experimentally determined
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an       1. What factors can be measured to determine the amount of energy associated with
evidence-based scientific explanation         an object?
regarding the potential and kinetic        2. What are the most common forms of energy in our physical world?
nature of mechanical energy                3. What makes an energy form renewable or nonrenewable?
b. Use appropriate measurements,              4. What makes some forms of energy hard to measure?
equations and graphs to gather,         Relevance and Application:
analyze, and interpret data on the         1. Society and energy providers must conduct a cost-benefit analysis of different ways
quantity of energy in a system or an          to provide electricity to our society.
object                                     2. An understanding of energy transformations is necessary when designing clean
c. Use direct and indirect evidence to           energy systems that convert any type of energy into electricity such as wind
develop predictions of the types of           generators and solar cells.
energy associated with objects             3. There are advantages and disadvantages to using various energy sources such as
d. Identify different energy forms, and          gasoline, diesel, ethanol, hydrogen, and electricity as transportation fuel.
calculate their amounts by measuring       4. Politics plays a role in shaping energy policy such as balancing conflicting
their defining characteristics                stakeholder needs.
5. Energy plays a role in living systems and Earth’s systems. For example, cells convert
sugar to ATP and then to energy, energy inside the earth drives plate tectonic
phenomena such as earthquakes and volcanoes, and energy from the Sun drives
weather.
Nature of Science:
1. Critically evaluate scientific claims made in popular media or by peers regarding the
application of energy forms, and determine if the evidence presented is appropriate
and sufficient to support the claims.
2. Use the historical context and impact of early energy research and consider the
potential implications for current energy studies on science and our society.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 1. Physical Science
Ø Apply an understanding that energy exists in various forms, and its transformation and conservation occur in
processes that are predictable and measurable

Concepts and skills students master:
6. When energy changes form, it is neither created not destroyed; however, because some is
necessarily lost as heat, the amount of energy available to do work decreases
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Use direct and indirect evidence to          1. Why is 100 percent efficiency impossible in an energy transformation?
develop and support claims about the         2. How does the law of conservation of energy help us solve problems involving
conservation of energy in a variety of          complex systems?
systems, including transformations to        3. Scientists or engineers often say energy is “lost.” Is there a word that might be
heat                                            better than “lost?” Why?
b. Evaluate the energy conversion
efficiency of a variety of energy         Relevance and Application:
transformations                              1. Incremental strides have been made in improving the efficiency of different forms of
c. Describe energy transformations both            energy production and consumption. For example, today’s engines are much more
quantitatively and qualitatively                efficient than those from 50 years ago, and batteries are more powerful and last
d. Differentiate among the characteristics         longer than those from just a few years ago.
of mechanical and electromagnetic            2. Different technologies such as light-emitting diodes, compact fluorescent lights, and
waves that determine their energy               incandescent light bulbs have different efficiencies and environmental impacts.
e. Examine, evaluate, question, and
ethically use information from a          Nature of Science:
variety of sources and media to              1. Critically evaluate scientific claims made in popular media or by peers regarding the
investigate energy conservation and             application of energy transformations, and determine if the evidence presented is
loss                                            appropriate and sufficient to support the claims.
2. Ask testable questions and make a falsifiable hypothesis about the conservation of
energy, and use an inquiry approach to find an answer.
3. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results emulating the
practice of scientists.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 2. Life Science
Ø Explain and illustrate with examples how living systems interact with the biotic and abiotic environment

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Matter tends to be cycled within an ecosystem, while energy is transformed and eventually
exits an ecosystem
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze how energy flows through           1. How does a change in abiotic factors influence the stability or progression of an
trophic levels                                ecosystem?
b. Evaluate the potential ecological          2. What happens when the cycling of matter in ecosystems is disrupted?
impacts of a plant-based or meat-          3. What energy transformations occur in ecosystems?
based diet                                 4. How does the process of burning carbon-rich fossil fuels compare to the oxidation of
c. Analyze and interpret data from               carbon biomolecules in cells?
experiments on ecosystems where
matter such as fertilizer has been
added or withdrawn such as through      Relevance and Application:
drought                                    1. When the matter or energy flow in an ecosystem is disturbed, there are measurable
d. Develop, communicate, and justify an          effects such as the eutrophication of water.
evidence-based scientific explanation      2. Matter and energy are cycled in natural systems such as wetlands in both similar
showing how ecosystems follow the             and different ways than in human-managed systems such as waste water treatment
laws of conservation of matter and            plants.
energy
e. Define and distinguish between matter
and energy, and how they are cycled     Nature of Science:
or lost through life processes             1. Address differences between experiments where variables can be controlled and
f. Describe how carbon, nitrogen,                those where extensive observations on a highly variable natural system are
phosphorus, and water cycles work             necessary to determine what is happening – such as dead zones in the Gulf of
g. Use computer simulations to analyze           Mexico.
how energy flows through trophic           2. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results emulating the
levels                                        practice of scientists.
3. Design ecological experiments in a closed system.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 2. Life Science
Ø Explain and illustrate with examples how living systems interact with the biotic and abiotic environment

Concepts and skills students master:
2. The size and persistence of populations depend on their interactions with each other and on
the abiotic factors in an ecosystem
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze and interpret data about the         1. How do keystone species maintain balance in ecosystems?
impact of removing keystone species          2. How does the introduction of a non-native species influence the balance of an
from an ecosystem or introducing                ecosystem?
non-native species into an ecosystem         3. How is the succession of local organisms altered in an area that is disturbed or
b. Describe or evaluate communities in             destroyed?
terms of primary and secondary
succession as they progress over time
c. Evaluate data and assumptions
Relevance and Application:
regarding different scenarios for future
1. Earth’s carrying capacity is limited, and as the human population grows, we must
human population growth and their
find ways to increase the production of resources all people need to live.
projected consequences
2. The extraction of resources by humans impacts nature ecosystems.
d. Examine, evaluate, question, and
ethically use information from a
variety of sources and media to
investigate ecosystem interactions

Nature of Science:
1. Critically evaluate scientific explanations in popular media to determine if the
research methodology and evidence presented are appropriate and sufficient to
support the claims.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 2. Life Science
Ø Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living systems at a variety of organizational levels,
and recognize living systems’ dependence on natural selection

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Cellular metabolic activities are carried out by biomolecules produced by organisms
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify biomolecules and their            1. How are rates of enzyme activity in cells affected by various factors such as pH or
precursors/building blocks                    temperature?
b. Develop, communicate, and justify an       2. How does one know that enzymes speed up chemical reactions?
evidence-based explanation that
biomolecules follow the same rules of
chemistry as any other molecule
c. Develop, communicate, and justify an    Relevance and Application:
evidence-based explanation regarding       1. Apply knowledge of biomolecular structure and activity to make consumer decisions,
the optimal conditions required for           especially about diet with respect to saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, essential
enzyme activity                               and nonessential amino acids, and simple and complex carbohydrates.
d. Infer the consequences to organisms        2. Explain how high temperatures such as a fever may alter cellular enzyme activity.
of suboptimal enzyme function – such       3. Recognize that many biomolecules can be made in the lab and have the exact same
as altered blood pH or high fever –           structure and function as ones made by living organisms.
using direct and indirect evidence
e. Analyze and interpret data on the
body’s utilization of carbohydrates,
lipids, and proteins
Nature of Science:
1. Critically evaluate scientific explanations in popular media to determine if the
research methodology and evidence presented are appropriate and sufficient to
support the claims.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 2. Life Science
Ø Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living systems at a variety of organizational levels,
and recognize living systems’ dependence on natural selection

Concepts and skills students master:
4. The energy for life primarily derives from the interrelated processes of photosynthesis and
cellular respiration. Photosynthesis transforms the sun’s light energy into the chemical energy
of molecular bonds. Cellular respiration allows cells to utilize chemical energy when these
bonds are broken.
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an       1. What variables can be manipulated to change the rate of photosynthesis?
evidence-based scientific explanation      2. What variables affect the rate of cell respiration?
the optimal environment for                3. How does body heat relate to cellular respiration?
photosynthetic activity
b. Discuss the interdependence of
autotrophic and heterotrophic life      Relevance and Application:
forms such as depicting the flow of a      1. Agriculture is of great importance to humans. For example, most food comes from
carbon atom from the atmosphere, to           agriculture.
a leaf, through the food chain, and        2. Various foods such as cheeses, yogurts, alcohol, and breads are produced by
back to the atmosphere                        fermentation – anaerobic respiration – that is carried out by various organisms.
c. Explain how carbon compounds are           3. The experience of muscle fatigue after intense exercise is related to anaerobic
gradually oxidized to provide energy          respiration in muscle cells.
in the form of adenosine triphosphate      4. Primary producers such as marine phytoplankton and rainforest flora play an
(ATP), which drives many chemical             integral role in sustaining all life on Earth.
reactions in the cell
Nature of Science:
1. Recognize that the current understanding of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
has developed over time and become more sophisticated as new technologies have
2. Critically evaluate models for photosynthesis and cellular respiration, and identify
their strengths and weaknesses.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 2. Life Science
Ø Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living systems at a variety of organizational levels,
and recognize living systems’ dependence on natural selection

Concepts and skills students master:
5. Cells use passive and active transport of substances across membranes to maintain
relatively stable intracellular environments
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze and interpret data to               1. What variables affect the rate of transport across a membrane?
determine the energy requirements           2. Why is it important that cell membranes are selectively permeable?
and/or rates of substance transport
across cell membranes
b. Compare organisms that live in
freshwater and marine environments,
and identify the challenges of osmotic
regulation for these organisms           Relevance and Application:
c. Diagram the cell membrane                   1. Osmotically balanced solutions such as intravenous and ophthalmic solutions are
schematically, and highlight receptor          critical in medical settings.
proteins as targets of hormones,            2. Drugs target receptor proteins such as hormones and neurotransmitters in
neurotransmitters, or drugs that serve         membranes and mimic the action of natural signals there.
as active links between intra and           3. Technology is used to support humans on dialysis.
extracellular environments
d. Use tools to gather, view, analyze,
Nature of Science:
and interpret data produced during
1. Ask testable questions and make a falsifiable hypothesis about how cells transport
scientific investigations that involve
materials into and out of the cell and use an inquiry approach to find the answer.
passive and active transport
2. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results emulating the
e. Use computer simulations and models
practice of scientists.
to analyze cell transport mechanisms
3. Recognize and describe the ethical traditions of science: value peer review; truthful
reporting of methods and outcomes; making work public; and sharing a lens of
professional skepticism when reviewing the work of others.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 2. Life Science
Ø Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living systems at a variety of organizational levels,
and recognize living systems’ dependence on natural selection

Concepts and skills students master:
6. Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems maintain relatively stable internal environments,
even in the face of changing external environments
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Discuss how two or more body                1. How can an experiment be designed and conducted to test for adaptive homeostasis
systems interact to promote health for         during exercise and other body activities?
the whole organism                          2. Where and when are negative versus positive feedback loops more effective in the
b. Analyze and interpret data on                  human body?
homeostatic mechanisms using direct
and indirect evidence to develop and     Relevance and Application:
support claims about the effectiveness      1. The disruption of homeostatic mechanisms may lead to disease, and if severe
of feedback loops to maintain                  enough, death.
homeostasis                                 2. Body systems differ when in a state of health and disease. For example, buildup and
c. Distinguish between causation and              rupture of atherosclerotic plaque inside a blood vessel can cause a heart attack.
correlation in epidemiological data,        3. The regulatory responses of autoimmune diseases such as Type I diabetes, multiple
such as examining scientifically valid         sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis are different than those of healthy immune
evidence regarding disrupted                   systems.
homeostasis in particular diseases
d. Use computer simulations and models      Nature of Science:
of homeostatic mechanisms                   1. Research and present findings about the results of dietary deficiencies or excesses.
2. Research and present findings about how medical problems that impact life span
have changed throughout history due to altered lifestyles and advances in medicine.
3. Differentiate between scientific evidence evaluated by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) for drug approval and anecdotal evidence shared among
individuals or in magazines/newspapers that a food or supplement is effective for a
given problem.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 2. Life Science
Ø Analyze how various organisms grow, develop, and differentiate during their lifetimes based on an interplay
between genetics and their environment

Concepts and skills students master:
7. Physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism are influenced to varying degrees by
heritable genes, many of which encode instructions for the production of proteins
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze and interpret data that genes          1. Why is it possible for a cell from one species to express genes from another species
are expressed portions of DNA.                    as in genetic modification of organisms?
b. Analyze and interpret data on the              2. Why are human offspring not genetic clones of their parents or siblings?
processes of DNA replication,                  3. How is it possible to distinguish learned from instinctual behaviors such as
transcription, translation, and gene              imprinting etiquette, and suckling by mammals?
regulation, and show how these
processes are the same in all               Relevance and Application:
organisms                                      1. Recombinant DNA technology has many uses in society such as the development of
c. Recognize that proteins carry out most            new medical therapies and increased production of drugs.
cell activities and mediate the effect of      2. Selective breeding differs from genetic modification, yet shares a common goal.
genes on physical and behavioral               3. There are benefits and risks to having genetically modified organisms in the food
traits in an organism                             supply.
d. Evaluate data showing that offspring           4. There are implications to inheriting DNA replication errors.
are not clones of their parents or
siblings due to the meiotic processes
of independent assortment of                Nature of Science:
chromosomes, crossing over, and                1. Recognizing that research on genetically modified organisms is done in university
mutations                                         laboratories and seed companies, discuss the implications of different types of
e. Explain using examples how genetic                funding and the ethical traditions of science: value peer review; truthful reporting of
mutations can benefit, harm, or have              methods and outcomes; making work public; and sharing a lens of professional
neutral effects on an organism                    skepticism when reviewing the work of others.
2. Understand that scientists work from the assumption that the universe is a single
system in which the basic rules are the same everywhere – that basic principles for
genetics apply to all organisms.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 2. Life Science
Ø Analyze how various organisms grow, develop, and differentiate during their lifetimes based on an interplay
between genetics and their environment

Concepts and skills students master:
8. Multicellularity makes possible a division of labor at the cellular level through the expression
of select genes, but not the entire genome.
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an         1. Why is it possible to clone a whole organism from an undifferentiated cell?
evidence-based scientific explanation        2. Why are stem cells sought by researchers as potential cures to medical problems?
of how cells form specialized tissues
due to the expression of some genes
and not others
b. Analyze and interpret data that show      Relevance and Application:
most eukaryotic deoxyribonucleic acid        1. Stem cells may be used to improve medical disorders such as diabetes, Parkinson’s
(DNA) does not actively code for                disease, torn cartilage, and damaged hearts.
proteins within cells                        2. Recent research and insights into DNA and genes have changed many aspects of
c. Develop, communicate, and justify an            society such as the criminal justice system, food supply, and medical treatments.
evidence-based scientific explanation
for how a whole organism can be
cloned from a differentiated – or adult
– cell
d. Analyze and interpret data on medical     Nature of Science:
problems using direct and indirect           1. Debate the advantages and disadvantages of bioengineering – cloning or genetically
evidence in developing and supporting           modifying – organisms in the food supply.
claims that genetic mutations and            2. Science is influenced by the cultural norms of a society. Discuss the ethical and
cancer are brought about by exposure            political issues associated with stem cell research and how these have impacted
to environmental toxins, radiation, or          both the research done and its applications.
smoking                                      3. Debate the ethical and political issues associated with stem cell research and how
these affect research.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 2. Life Science
Ø Explain how biological evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of living organisms

Concepts and skills students master:
9. Evolution occurs as the heritable characteristics of populations change across generations
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an         1. How do subtle differences among closely-related fossil species provide evidence of
evidence-based scientific explanation           environmental change and speciation?
for how Earth’s diverse life forms           2. How does studying extinct species contribute to our current understanding of
today evolved from common ancestors             evolution?
b. Analyze and interpret multiple lines of      3. How can patterns of characteristics shared among organisms be used to categorize
evidence supporting the idea that all           life's diversity according to relatedness?
species are related by common                4. How does modern agriculture affect biodiversity?
ancestry such as molecular studies,
comparative anatomy, biogeography,        Relevance and Application:
fossil record and embryology                 1. Resistance can occur when antibiotics and pesticides are overused or abused.
c. Analyze and interpret data suggesting        2. Human activities can generate selective pressures on organisms, such as breeding
that over geologic time, discrete               new kinds of dogs and improving livestock.
bursts of rapid genetic changes and
speciation                                Nature of Science:
d. Analyze and interpret data on how            1. Understand that all scientific knowledge is subject to new findings and that
evolution can be driven by three key            reproducible, corroborated, and converging lines of data yield a scientific theory.
components of natural selection –            2. Differentiate among the use of the terms “hypothesis,” “theory,” and “law” as they
heritability, genetic variation, and            are defined and used in science compared to the usage of these terms in other
differential survival and reproduction          disciplines or everyday use.
e. Generate a model – an evolutionary
tree – showing how a group of
organisms is most likely diverged from
common ancestry
Content Area: Science
Standard: 3. Earth Systems Science
Ø Describe and interpret how Earth's geologic history and place in space are relevant to our understanding of the
processes that have shaped our planet

Concepts and skills students master:
1. The history of the universe, solar system and Earth can be inferred from evidence left from
past events
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an          1. How do we know the age of Earth, Sun and universe?
evidence-based scientific explanation         2. How did the formation of Earth help shape its features today?
addressing questions about Earth’s            3. How can we interpret the geologic history of an area?
history
b. Analyze and interpret data regarding
Earth’s history using direct and
Relevance and Application:
indirect evidence
1. Geologic principles such as original horizontality, superposition, cross-cutting
c. Analyze and interpret data regarding
relationships, unconformities, and index fossils allow us to accurately interpret
the history of the universe using direct
geologic history.
and indirect evidence
2. Employ data-collection technology such as geographic mapping systems and
d. Seek, evaluate, and use a variety of
visualization tools to gather and analyze data and scientific information about
specialized resources available from
Earth’s history.
libraries, the Internet, and the
community to find scientific
information on Earth’s history
Nature of Science:
e. Examine, evaluate, question, and
1. Understand that all scientific knowledge is subject to new evidence and that the
ethically use information from a
presence of reproducible results yields a scientific theory.
variety of sources and media to
2. Critically evaluate scientific claims in popular media and by peers regarding Earth’s
investigate the history of the universe,
history, and determine if evidence presented is appropriate and sufficient to support
solar system and Earth
the claims.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 3. Earth Systems Science
Ø Describe and interpret how Earth's geologic history and place in space are relevant to our understanding of the
processes that have shaped our planet

Concepts and skills students master:
2. As part of the solar system, Earth interacts with various extraterrestrial forces and energies
such as gravity, solar phenomena, electromagnetic radiation, and impact events that
influence the planet’s geosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere in a variety of ways
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an         1. What influences Earth’s position in the universe?
evidence-based scientific explanation        2. How does Earth get its energy?
addressing questions around the              3. How does the electromagnetic spectrum positively and negatively impact Earth’s
extraterrestrial forces and energies            systems?
that influence Earth
b. Analyze and interpret data regarding
extraterrestrial forces and energies      Relevance and Application:
c. Clearly identify assumptions behind          1. Fusion is the most common source of energy in the universe, and it provides the
conclusions regarding extraterrestrial          basis of Earth’s energy through fusion reactions in the Sun.
forces and energies and provide              2. Different types of telescopes have given us data about the universe, galaxy, and
feedback on the validity of alternative         solar system.
explanations
d. Use specific equipment, technology,
and resources such as satellite
imagery, global positioning systems
(GPS), global information systems         Nature of Science:
(GIS), telescopes, video and image           1. Understand the physical laws that govern Earth are the same physical laws that
libraries, and computers to explore             govern the rest of the universe.
the universe )                               2. Critically evaluate strengths and weaknesses of a model which represents complex
natural phenomena.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 3. Earth Systems Science
Ø Evaluate evidence that Earth’s geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact as a complex
system

Concepts and skills students master:
3. The theory of plate tectonics helps explain geological, physical, and geographical features of
Earth
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an          1. How do the different types of plate boundaries create different landforms on Earth?
evidence-based scientific explanation         2. How have scientists “discovered” the layers of Earth?
about the theory of plate tectonics and       3. What drives plate motion?
how it can be used to understand              4. What might happen to Earth’s landforms in the future?
geological, physical, and geographical
features of Earth
b. Analyze and interpret data on plate
tectonics and the geological, physical,    Relevance and Application:
and geographical features of Earth            1. New conceptual interpretations of data and innovative geophysical technologies led
c. Understand the role plate tectonics              to the current theory of plate tectonics.
has had with respect to long-term
global changes in Earth’s systems
such as continental buildup,
glaciations, sea-level fluctuations, and
climate change                             Nature of Science:
d. Investigate and explain how new               1. Understand that all scientific knowledge is subject to new findings and that the
conceptual interpretations of data and           presence of reproducible results yields a scientific theory.
innovative geophysical technologies           2. Ask testable questions and make a falsifiable hypothesis about plate tectonics and
led to the current theory of plate               design a method to find an answer.
tectonics                                     3. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results.
4. Recognize that the current understanding of plate tectonics has developed over time
and become more sophisticated as new technologies have lead to new evidence.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 3. Earth Systems Science
Ø Evaluate evidence that Earth’s geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact as a complex
system

Concepts and skills students master:
4. Climate is the result of energy transfer among interactions of the atmosphere,
hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an          1. How can changes in the ocean create climate change?
evidence-based scientific explanation         2. How is climate influenced by changes in Earth’s energy balance?
that shows climate is a result of             3. How have climates changed over Earth’s history?
energy transfer among the                     4. How does climate change impact all of Earth’s systems?
atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere            5. How have climate changes impacted human society?
and biosphere
b. Analyze and interpret data on Earth’s      Relevance and Application:
climate                                       1. Much of the data we receive about the ocean and the atmosphere is from satellites.
c. Explain how a combination of factors          2. Human actions such as burning fossil fuels might impact Earth’s climate.
such as Earth’s tilt, seasons,                3. Technological solutions and personal choices such as driving higher mileage cars and
geophysical location, proximity to               using less electricity could reduce the human impact on climate.
oceans, landmass location, latitude,
and elevation determine a location’s
climate                                    Nature of Science:
d. Identify mechanisms in the past and           1. Understand how observations, experiments, and theory are used to construct and
present that have changed Earth’s                refine computer models.
climate                                       2. Examine how computer models are used in predicting the impacts of climate
e. Analyze the evidence and assumptions             change.
regarding climate change                      3. Critically evaluate scientific claims in popular media and by peers regarding climate
f. Interpret evidence from weather                  and climate change, and determine if the evidence presented is appropriate and
stations, buoys, satellites, radars, ice         sufficient to support the claims.
and ocean sediment cores, tree rings,
cave deposits, native knowledge, and
other sources in relation to climate
change
Content Area: Science
Standard: 3. Earth Systems Science
Ø Describe how humans are dependent on the diversity of resources provided by Earth and Sun

Concepts and skills students master:
5. There are costs, benefits, and consequences of exploration, development, and consumption
of renewable and nonrenewable resources
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an       1. How do humans use resources?
evidence-based scientific explanation      2. How can humans reduce the impact of resource use?
regarding the costs and benefits of        3. How are resources used in our community?
exploration, development, and              4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using different types of energy?
consumption of renewable and
nonrenewable resources
b. Evaluate positive and negative          Relevance and Application:
impacts on the geosphere,                  1. Technologies have had a variety of impacts on how resources are located, extracted,
atmosphere, hydrosphere, and                  and consumed.
biosphere in regards to resource use       2. Technology development has reduced the pollution, waste, and ecosystem
c. Create a plan to reduce environmental         degradation caused by extraction and use.
impacts due to resource consumption
d. Analyze and interpret data about the
effect of resource consumption and
development on resource reserves to
draw conclusions about sustainable      Nature of Science:
use                                        1. Infer assumptions behind emotional, political, and data-driven conclusions about
renewable and nonrenewable resource use.
2. Critically evaluate scientific claims in popular media and by peers, and determine if
evidence presented is appropriate and sufficient to support the claims.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 3. Earth Systems Science
Ø Evaluate evidence that Earth’s geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact as a complex
system

Concepts and skills students master:
6. The interaction of Earth's surface with water, air, gravity, and biological activity causes
physical and chemical changes
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an         1. How do Earth’s systems interact to create new landforms?
evidence-based scientific explanation        2. What are positive changes on Earth’s geosphere due to water, air, gravity, and
addressing questions regarding the              biological activity?
interaction of Earth’s surface with          3. What are negative changes on Earth’s geosphere due to water, air, gravity, and
water, air, gravity, and biological             biological activity?
activity
b. Analyze and interpret data, maps, and     Relevance and Application:
models concerning the direct and             1. Geologic, physical, and topographic maps can be used to interpret surface features
indirect evidence produced by physical       2. Recognize that landform models help us understand the interaction among Earth’s
and chemical changes that water, air,           systems.
gravity, and biological activity create      3. Human activities such as agricultural practices have impacts on soil formation and
c. Evaluate negative and positive                  soil loss.)
consequences of physical and
chemical changes on the geosphere
d. Use remote sensing and geographic
information systems (GIS) data to         Nature of Science:
interpret landforms and landform             1. Ask testable questions and make a falsifiable hypothesis about physical and
impact on human activity                        chemical changes on the geosphere and use an inquiry based approach to find an
2. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results.
3. Use appropriate technology to help gather and analyze data, find background
information, and communicate scientific information on physical and chemical
changes.
Content Area: Science
Standard: 3. Earth Systems Science
Ø Evaluate evidence that Earth’s geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact as a complex
system

Concepts and skills students master:
7. Natural hazards have local, national and global impacts such as volcanoes, earthquakes,
tsunamis, hurricanes, and thunderstorms
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an          1. Why are some natural hazards difficult to predict, while others are easier to predict?
evidence-based scientific explanation         2. How are humans impacted by natural hazards?
regarding natural hazards, and explain        3. How can we prepare for natural hazards?
their potential local and global impacts      4. How is climate change expected to change the incidence of natural hazards?
b. Analyze and interpret data about
natural hazards using direct and           Relevance and Application:
indirect evidence                             1. Engineers must know the hazards of a local area and design for it such as building
c. Make predictions and draw conclusions            safe structures in zones prone to earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, or tornadoes.
about the impact of natural hazards           2. Differing technologies are used to study different types of natural hazards.
on human activity – locally and               3. Natural hazard zones affect construction or explain why monitoring natural hazards
globally                                         through air traffic safety, evacuations, and protecting property is important.
4. Science is used by disaster planners who work with the scientific community to
develop diverse ways to mitigate the impacts of natural hazards on the human
population and on a given ecosystem.

Nature of Science:
1. Collaborate with local, national, and global organizations to report and review
natural disaster data, and compare their conclusions to alternate explanations.
Social Studies
Grade Level Expectations at a Glance
High School
1. History            1.   The historical method of inquiry to ask questions, evaluate primary
and secondary sources, critically analyze and interpret data, and
develop interpretations defended by evidence from a variety of
primary and secondary sources
2.   Analyze the key concepts of continuity and change, cause and effect,
complexity, unity and diversity over time
3.   The significance of ideas as powerful forces throughout history
2. Geography          1.   Use different types of maps and geographic tools to analyze features
on Earth to investigate and solve geographic questions
2.   Explain and interpret geographic variables that influence the
interaction of people, places, and environments
3.   The interconnected nature of the world, its people and places
3. Economics          1.   Productive resources - natural, human, capital - are scarce;
governments, and societies allocate these resources
2.   Economic policies impact markets
3.   Government and competition impact markets
4.   Design, analyze, and apply a financial plan based on short- and
long-term financial goals (PFL)
5.   Analyze strategic spending, saving, and investment options to
achieve the objectives of diversification, liquidity, income, and
growth (PFL)
6.   The components of personal credit to manage credit and debt (PFL)
7.   Identify, develop, and evaluate risk-management strategies (PFL)
4. Civics             1.   Research, formulate positions, and engage in appropriate civic
participation to address local, state, or national issues or policies
2.   Purposes of and limitations on the foundations, structures and
functions of government
3.   Analyze how public policy - domestic and foreign - is developed at
the local, state, and national levels and compare how policy-making
occurs in other forms of government

Colorado Department of Education         Adopted: December 10, 2009              Page 1 of 119
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 1. History
Ø Develop an understanding of how people view, construct, and interpret history

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Use the historical method of inquiry to ask questions, evaluate primary and secondary
sources, critically analyze and interpret data, and develop interpretations defended by
evidence
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Evaluate a historical source for point         1. How does the point of view of the historian impact how history is interpreted?
of view and historical context                 2. What qualifies an event as historically significant rather than simply noteworthy?
b. Gather and analyze historical                  3. What if the history of a war was told by the losing side?
information, including contradictory           4. Why are historical questions important?
data, from a variety of primary and            5. How do historical thinkers use primary and secondary sources to formulate historical
secondary sources, including sources              arguments?
located on the Internet, to support or         6. How might historical inquiry be used to make decisions on contemporary issues?
reject hypotheses
c. Construct and defend a written              Relevance and Application:
historical argument using relevant             1. Historical information and context are used to interpret, evaluate, and inform
primary and secondary sources as                  decisions or policies regarding such issues as discrimination of various groups –
evidence                                          women, indigenous people – throughout history and religious conflicts - the Middle
d. Differentiate between facts and                   East Peace process, the troubles between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland,
historical interpretations, recognizing           conflicts in Africa and genocide.
that a historian’s narrative reflects his      2. The historical method of inquiry is used to continue to interpret and refine history.
or her judgment about the significance            For example, new information and discoveries regarding the origins of the Cold War
of particular facts                               and new insights into the relationship between Europeans and Africans during the
early era of colonization change the interpretation of history.

Nature of History:
1. Historical thinkers evaluate historical sources for audience, purpose, point of view,
context, and authenticity
2. Historical thinkers use primary and secondary sources to evaluate and develop
hypotheses and interpretations of historical events and figures
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 1. History
Ø Analyze key historical periods and patterns of change over time within and across nations and cultures

Concepts and skills students master:
2. The key concepts of continuity and change, cause and effect, complexity, unity and diversity
over time
Evidence Outcomes                                      21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                          Inquiry Questions:
World history (both East and West including               1. What impact have individuals had on history?
modern world history):                                    2. How has culture defined civilization?
a. Evaluate continuity and change over the             3. How does society decide what is important in history?
course of world history                            4. What ideas have united people over time?
b. Investigate causes and effects of significant       5. How has diversity impacted the concepts of change over time?
events in world history
c. Analyze the complexity of events in world        Relevance and Application:
history                                            1. The complex relationships among change, diversity and unity have long-lasting
d. Examine and evaluate issues of unity and               impacts on the cultural, political, and ideological components in society. For
diversity in world history                            example, there is a need to understand cultural traditions and history in order
United States history (Reconstruction to the                 to interact in the international world of business.
present):                                                 2. The complex interrelationship between the past and the present is evident
e. Analyze continuity and change in eras over             when solving issues over time. For example, human interaction with the
the course of United States history                   environment has been a critical issue throughout history and continues to be a
f. Investigate causes and effects of significant          factor in pollution, climate change, and resource management.
events in United States history. Topics to         3. Businesses and individuals use history to understand the feasibility of new
include but not limited to WWI, Great                 ideas and markets.
Depression, Cold War
g. Analyze the complexity of events in United       Nature of History:
States history. Topics to include but not          1. Historical thinkers analyze the significance of interactions among eras, ideas,
limited to the suffrage movement and the              individuals, and groups
Civil Rights Movement                              2. Historical thinkers organize events into chronological eras and periods
h. Examine and evaluate issues of unity and            3. Historical thinkers study cause and effect, patterns, themes, and
diversity from Reconstruction to present.             interdependence of events
Topics to include but not limited to the rise
and fall of Jim Crow, role of patriotism, and
the role of religion
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 1. History
Ø Analyze key historical periods and patterns of change over time within and across nations and cultures
Concepts and skills students master:
3. The significance of ideas as powerful forces throughout history
Evidence Outcomes                                           21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                               Inquiry Questions:
World history (both East and West; to include but not          1. What if the belief “all men are created equal” did not exist?
be limited to modern world history):                           2. Which ideas provide the greatest insight to understanding a culture or
a. Discuss the historical development and impact              nation’s history?
of major world religions and philosophies. Topics      3. How has music, art, and literature reflected powerful ideas throughout
to include but not limited to the Enlightenment           history?
and modern changes in Christianity, Islam,             4. How have philosophical and religious traditions affected the
Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism                            development of political institutions?
b. Investigate the historical development of and           5. How have scientific and technological developments affected societies?
impact of major scientific and technological
innovations. Topics to include but not limited to   Relevance and Application:
the Industrial Revolution                              1. The world is interconnected through the exchange of ideas as evident
c. Evaluate the historical development and impact             in science, technology, and economies. Examples include the printing
of political thought, theory and actions                  press, trade routes, spread of information through the Internet,
d. Analyze the origins of fundamental political               scientists working collaboratively but living in different countries, and
debates and how conflict, compromise, and                 instant reporting on the Internet.
cooperation have shaped national unity and             2. Philosophies, religions, and other powerful ideas have developed over
diversity. Topics to include but not limited to           time and across the world. Examples include the spread of religions
suffrage, Civil Rights and the role of government         around the globe, minority rights over time, exploration of space and
e. Analyze ideas critical to the understanding of             the oceans, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
American history. Topics to include but not            3. Literature, art (drama, music, dance) reflect and express powerful
limited to populism, progressivism, isolationism,         ideas over time, such as equal rights, civil disobedience, religious
imperialism, anti-communism,                              thought and expression, government issues)
environmentalism, liberalism, fundamentalism,
Nature of History:
and conservatism
1. Historical thinkers study and analyze the impacts that arise from the
f. Describe and analyze the historical development
interaction of political, philosophical, technological, artistic, and
and impact of the arts and literature on the
scientific thought.
culture of the United States
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 2. Geography
Ø Develop spatial understanding, perspectives, and personal connections to the world

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Use different types of maps and geographic tools to analyze features on Earth to investigate
and solve geographic questions
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Gather data, make inferences and         1. What is the significance of spatial orientation, place, and location?
draw conclusions from maps and           2. How can maps be used for political purposes?
other visual representations             3. How can current world events change maps?
b. Create and interpret various             4. How do the division and control of the physical, social, political, and cultural spaces on
graphs, tables, charts, and                 Earth cause cooperation or conflict?
thematic maps                            5. What would the world map look like if physical geography was the defining variable for
c. Analyze and present information             country boundaries?
using a variety of geographic tools
and geographic findings in graphs,    Relevance and Application:
tables, charts, and thematic maps        1. Geographic tools, such as satellite imagery, GIS, GPS, are used to place world events
d. Locate physical and human features          and study human activities over time and provide deeper understanding of the world.
and evaluate their implications for         For example, satellite imagery is used to track the disappearance of the Aral Sea, find
society                                     the location of lost cities and measure the melting of ice caps.
2. The location of resources, physical boundaries, and natural hazards affect human
interaction such as conflicts over water rights, and location of resources in relation to
3. Technology is used to gather and graph geographic information to inform decisions. For
example, weather and climate patterns affect the farming industry, and population and
migration patterns affect city planners and Realtors.
4. Technology is used to collect and communicate geographic data such as the
distribution of resources and its influence on population density.
Nature of Geography:
1. Spatial thinkers gather, display, and analyze geographic information using geographic
tools.
2. Spatial thinkers use absolute and relative location, mental maps, and spatial
orientation in studying geographic questions.
3. Spatial thinkers predict how human activities will help shape Earth’s surface and ways
that people might cooperate and compete for use of Earth’s surface.
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 2. Geography
Ø Develop spatial understanding, perspectives, and personal connections to the world

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Explain and interpret geographic variables that influence the interactions of people, places
and environments
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Apply geography skills to help               1. What will happen if farm land degrades around the world?
investigate issues and justify possible      2. How might the physical geography of Earth change in the future?
resolutions involving people, places,        3. Why do countries and cultures struggle to maintain spatial cohesiveness and
and environments. Topics to include             national identity?
but not limited to how people prepare        4. What might happen if we thought locally and acted globally?
for and respond to natural hazards           5. What are the maximum limits of human activity the environment can withstand
b. Identify, evaluate, and communicate             without deterioration?
strategies to respond to constraints
placed on human systems by the            Relevance and Application:
physical environment                         1. Individual actions affect the local environment and global community such as the
c. Explain how altering the environment            impact of recycling and consumption of resources.
has brought prosperity to some places        2. Technology can support invention and influence how humans modify the
and created environmental dilemmas              environment in both positive and negative ways such as renovation of existing
for others                                      buildings to “green” technologies, prevention and prediction of natural hazards and
d. Research and interpret multiple                 disasters, and satellite imagery used to track water availability in the Middle East.
viewpoints on issues that shaped the
current policies and programs for         Nature of Geography:
resource use                                 1. Spatial thinkers study how the physical environment is modified by human activities,
e. Explain how information and changing            including how human societies value and use natural resources.
perceptions and values of places and         2. Spatial thinkers evaluate major areas of environmental and societal interaction.
environment influence personal
actions
f. Define sustainability and explain how
an individual’s actions may influence
sustainability
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 2. Geography
Ø Examine places and regions and the connections among them

Concepts and skills students master:
3. The interconnected nature of the world, its people and places
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Explain how the uneven distribution of      1. How does increasing globalization influence the interaction of people on Earth?
resources in the world can lead to          2. How do cooperation and conflict influence the division and control of the social,
conflict, competition, or cooperation          economic, and political spaces on Earth?
among nations, regions, and cultural        3. What predictions can be made about human migration patterns?
groups                                      4. How do technologies result in social change, some of which is unanticipated such as
b. Explain that the world’s population is         social networking?
increasingly connected to and
dependent upon other people for both
human and natural resources              Relevance and Application:
c. Explain how migration of people and         1. The world is geographically interconnected, affecting daily life in such ways as the
movement of goods and ideas can                spread of disease, global impact of modern technology, and the impact of cultural
enrich cultures, but also create               diffusion.
tensions                                    2. Technology creates new life choices, new interconnections between l people, new
d. Analyze how cooperation and conflict           opportunities, and new conflicts. For example the spread of knowledge and
influence the division and control of          democratic ideals throughout the world changes lives.
Earth
e. Analyze patterns of distribution and
arrangements of settlements and the
processes of the diffusion of human
activities                               Nature of Geography:
f. Make predictions and draw conclusions       1. Spatial thinkers evaluate global systems such as culture, diffusion, interdependence,
about the global impact of cultural            migration, population pyramids, regional alliances, development of competition and
diffusion                                      trade, and the impact of population changes on society.
2. Spatial thinkers study the interconnection between physical processes and human
activities that help shape the Earth’s surface.
3. Spatial thinkers analyze how people’s lives and identities are rooted in time and
place.
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 3. Economics
Ø   Understand the allocation of scarce resources in societies through analysis of individual choice, market
interaction, and public policy

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Productive resources – natural, human, capital – are scarce; therefore, choices are made
Evidence Outcomes                          21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                              Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze the relationships               1. How is marginal thinking used in determining societal and individual decisions?
between economic goals and the          2. How has globalization changed the availability of human capital?
allocation of scarce resources          3. What are some of the ways that the values of a society affect the goods and services it
b. Explain how economic choices by            produces?
individuals, businesses,                4. What entrepreneurial idea would solve some of the world scarcity issues?
governments, and societies incur     Relevance and Application:
opportunity costs                       1. The availability of natural resources, such as fossil fuels and blood diamonds, has an
c. Understand that effective                  impact on economic decisions made in a global economy.
decision-making requires                2. Entrepreneurship and innovation create new paradigms to address scarcity and choice.
comparing the additional                   Examples include electric cars, cell phones, social networking, Internet, and satellite
(marginal) costs of alternatives           television.
with the additional (marginal)          3. Natural resources can be scarce in the world or specific regions, impacting markets and
benefits                                   creating innovation such as projects developed to provide clean drinking water around the
d. Identify influential entrepreneurs         world, lack of water in the Middle East created significant desalination research).
and describe how they have              4. Marginal thinking allows for good economic decisions to be made by individuals,
utilized resources to produce              businesses, and governments.
goods and services                   Nature of Economics:
1. When using an economic way of thinking individuals study how productive resources are
changing in order to anticipate new problems with scarcity of desired resources
2. Economic thinkers analyze how economies utilize resources to meet the cumulative wants
and needs of the individuals in a society
3. When using an economic way of thinking individuals study factors that lead to increased
economic interdependence, increased productivity, and improved standard of living for
the individuals in a society.
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 3. Economics
Ø    Understand the allocation of scarce resources in societies through analysis of individual choice, market interaction, and
public policy

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Economic policies affect markets
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze how government activities          1. What is government’s role in a market economy?
influence the economy. Topics to           2. How do embargoes and tariffs influence the balance of trade in a positive or
include but not limited to: taxation,         negative manner?
monetary policy, and the Federal           3. What is the economic impact of various monetary and fiscal policies that a
Reserve                                       government can use?
b. Recognize the interaction between          4. How would you change monetary policy?
foreign and domestic economic              5. What type of monetary and fiscal policies would be best for businesses?
policies. Topics to include but not     Relevance and Application:
limited to: embargoes, tariffs, and        1. Fiscal and monetary policies affect financial markets and individuals such as the
subsidies                                     impact of exchange rates on tourists, and the effect of interest rates on the cost of
c. Identify government activities that           borrowing money.
affect the local, state, or national       2. Businesses understand and follow the changes in fiscal and monetary policy to make
economy                                       better choices and react to changing markets.
d. Give examples of the role of               3. Technology allows both individuals and businesses to access up-to-date information
government in a market economic               regarding fiscal and monetary policies and the fluctuations in markets.
system                                     4. Economic behavior is modified based on positive and negative incentives such as tax
e. Analyze how positive and negative             credits on alternative energy and increases in payroll taxes.
incentives influence the economic
governments, and societies                 1. Economic thinkers gather and analyze data to explore trends and predictions.
2. Economic thinkers study the relationship between policy and market reaction.
f. Compare and contrast monetary and
fiscal policies of the United States       3. Economic thinkers decipher trends in financial markets by looking for patterns of
behavior.
government that are used to
stabilize the economy
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 3. Economics
Ø Understand the allocation of scarce resources in societies through analysis of individual choice, market
interaction, and public policy

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Government and competition affect markets
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze the role of government within        1. In what ways does the United States government influence decisions regarding
different economies. Topics to include          production and distribution of goods?
but not limited to command socialism,        2. How does competition affect the choices consumers have in an economy?
communism, and market capitalism             3. What are some ways that different market structures affect the goods and services
b. Analyze the role of competition within          available for purchase?
different market structures. Topics to       4. How do various economic systems make decisions regarding production and
include but not limited to pure                 distribution of goods and the role government will play?
competition, monopolistic competition,
oligopoly, and monopoly                   Relevance and Application:
c. Compare and contrast economic                1. Knowledge of the changing role of government in various markets helps to make
systems in terms of their ability to            informed choices.
achieve economic goals                       2. The understanding of the role of competition in markets helps to make informed
d. Compare and contrast different types            decisions and create business strategies.
of taxing. Topics to include but not         3. Government taxing and spending policies affect individuals and businesses.
limited to progressive, regressive, and
proportional

Nature of Economics:
1. Economic thinkers compare systems of economics to determine how best to meet
economic goals.
2. Economic thinkers study the use of monetary and fiscal policies.
3. Economic thinkers analyze the effects of specific government regulations on
different groups, including consumers, employees and businesses.
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 3. Economics
Ø Acquire the knowledge and economic reasoning skills to make sound financial decisions (PFL)

Concepts and skills students master:
4. Design, analyze, and apply a financial plan based on short- and long-term financial goals (PFL)
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop a financial plan including a      1. How can you develop short- and long-term financial goals and plans that reflect
budget based on short- and long-             personal objectives?
term goals                                2. How does a consumer determine the accuracy, relevancy, and security of financial
b. Analyze financial information for            information?
accuracy, relevance, and steps for        3. What is the role that various sources of income play in a financial plan?
identity protection                       4. What are the financial and legal consequences of not paying your taxes?
c. Describe factors affecting take-home      5. What is the role of education in building financial security?
pay
Relevance and Application:
d. Identify sources of personal income
and likely deductions and                 1. Individuals create long- and short-term financial plans that include predictions about
education, costs; potential to achieve financial goals; projected income; likely
expenditures as a basis for a
expenditures, savings and interest; credit or loans; and investment decisions including
financial plan
e. Describe legal and ethical                   diversification.
2. Individuals are able use the appropriate contracts and identify each party’s basic
responsibilities regarding tax
rights and responsibilities to protect financial well-being.
liabilities
3. Technology allows individuals to research and track information regarding personal
finances using such tools as online banking and brokerage accounts.

Nature of Economics:
1. Financially responsible individuals   describe factors that influence financial planning.
2. Financially responsible individuals   plan for tax liabilities.
3. Financially responsible individuals   consider opportunity costs of saving over spending
and vice versa.
4. Financially responsible individuals   analyze economic cycles and make predictions
regarding economic trends.
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 3. Economics
Ø Acquire the knowledge and economic reasoning skills to make sound financial decisions (PFL)

Concepts and skills students master:
5. Analyze strategic spending, saving, and investment options to achieve the objectives of
diversification, liquidity, income, and growth (PFL)
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Compare and contrast the variety of          1. How does a consumer choose between investment options?
investments available for a diversified      2. How might changes in the economic cycle affect future earnings on an individual's
portfolio                                       investments?
b. Evaluate factors to consider when            3. What are some ways that you might rate the security, accuracy, and relevancy of
managing savings and investment                 financial information?
accounts                                     4. How does compound interest manifest in investment and debt situations?
c. Explain how economic cycles affect
personal financial decisions
d. Describe the appropriate types of         Relevance and Application:
investments to achieve the objectives        1. Investigation of different investment strategies helps to identify which strategies are
of liquidity, income and growth                 appropriate for different life stages such as early adulthood through to retirement.
2. The creation of a plan to diversify a portfolio of investments balances risks and
returns and prepares for a solid financial future.
3. A personal career plan includes educational requirements, costs, and analysis of the
potential job demand to achieve financial well-being.

Nature of Economics:
1. Financially responsible individuals carefully consider the amount of financial risk that
they can tolerate based on life stage and plan for changes in the economic cycles.
2. Financially responsible individuals create plans based on sound economic principles
to maximize their standard of living over time.
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 3. Economics
Ø Acquire the knowledge and economic reasoning skills to make sound financial decisions (PFL)

Concepts and skills students master:
6. The components of personal credit to manage credit and debt (PFL)
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze various lending sources,            1. Why is it important to know the similarities and differences of revolving credit,
services, and financial institutions           personal loans, and mortgages?
b. Investigate legal and personal              2. How does the law protect both borrowers and lenders?
responsibilities affecting lenders and      3. Why is a good credit history essential to the ability to purchase goods and
borrowers                                      insurance, and gain employment?
c. Make connections between building           4. When should you use revolving credit and/or personal loans?
and maintaining a credit history and
its impact on lifestyle                  Relevance and Application:
1. The understanding of the components of personal credit allows for the management
of credit and debt. For example, individuals can use an amortization schedule to
examine how mortgages differ, check a credit history, know the uses of and
meaning of a credit score, and use technology to compare costs of revolving credit
and personal loans.
2. Knowledge of the penalties that accompany bad credit, such as the inability to
qualify for loans, leads to good financial planning.

Nature of Economics:
1. Financially responsible consumers know their rights and obligations when using
credit.
2. Financially responsible consumers frequently check their own credit history to verify
its accuracy and amend it when inaccurate.
3. Financially responsible consumers make decisions that require weighing benefit
against cost.
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 3. Economics
Ø Acquire the knowledge and economic reasoning skills to make sound financial decisions (PFL)

Concepts and skills students master:
7. Identify, develop, and evaluate risk-management strategies (PFL)
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Differentiate between types of           1. What are the benefits of car, health, life, mortgage, long-term care, liability,
insurance                                   disability, home and apartment insurance?
b. Explain the function and purpose of      2. How does a consumer choose between various insurance plans?
insurance                                3. How does insurance help consumers to prepare for the unexpected?
c. Select and evaluate strategies to        4. What additional ways can individuals alleviate financial risks?
mitigate risk

Relevance and Application:
1. The knowledge of how to evaluate, develop, revise, and implement risk-
management strategies allow individuals to be prepared for the future. For example,
a plan for insurance may change over the course of life depending on changing
circumstances.
2. Individuals seek advice and counsel from insurance companies, financial planners,
and other businesses on risk management.

Nature of Economics:
1. Financially responsible individuals mitigate the risks associated with everyday life
through planning, saving, and insurance.
2. Financially responsible individuals consider insurance as a part of their financial plan.
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 4. Civics
Ø Analyze and practice rights, roles, and responsibilities of citizens

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Research, formulate positions, and engage in appropriate civic participation to address local,
state, and national issues or policies
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Engage ethically in civic activities         1. What is the meaning of civic participation in a democratic republic?
including discussing current issues,         2. How do citizens act as a “check” on government?
advocating for their rights and the          3. What strategies can citizens use most effectively to influence public policy?
rights of others, practicing their           4. How do people resolve differences while remaining respectful of multiple
responsibilities, influencing                   perspectives?
governmental actions, and other              5. Why should you participate in government?
community service learning
opportunities                             Relevance and Application:
b. Evaluate how individuals and groups          1. Decision-making involves researching an issue, listening to multiple perspectives,
can effectively use the structure and           and weighing potential consequences of alternative actions. For example, citizens
functions of various levels of                  study the issues before voting.
government to shape policy                   2. Participation in a local or national issue involves research, planning, and
c. Describe the roles and influence of             implementing appropriate and ethical civic engagement. For example, citizens speak
individuals, groups, and the press as           at a school board meeting or run for office.
checks on governmental practices             3. Technology is a tool for researching civic issues, advocating for ideas, and
d. Identify which level of government is           expressing views to elected officials.
appropriate for various policies and
demonstrate an ability to
appropriately engage with that level of
government                                Nature of Civics:
e. Critique various media sources for           1. Responsible community members research civic issues and act appropriately using a
accuracy and perspective                        variety of sources from multiple perspectives and communicating views in a
respectful, ethical manner.
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 4. Civics
Ø Analyze origins, structure, and functions of governments and their impacts on societies and citizens

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Purposes of and limitations on the foundations, structures and functions of government
Evidence Outcomes                                          21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                              Inquiry Questions:
a. Describe the origins, purposes and limitations of       1. What are the most important democratic ideals and practices?
government and include the contribution of key          2. What would society look like if several landmark court cases had been
philosophers and documents                                 decided differently?
b. Identify the structure, function, and roles of          3. How does government best protect individual rights and the rights of
members of government and their relationship               minorities, yet have the majority rule?
to democratic values                                    4. What would United States government look like with no checks and
c. Analyze and explain the importance of the                  balances or another mix of those limitations?
principles of democracy and the inherent             Relevance and Application:
competition among values. Values to include             1. Skills and strategies are used to participate in public life and exercise
but not be limited to freedom and security,                rights, roles, and responsibilities. For example, eligible individuals vote,
individual rights and common good, and rights              individuals pay taxes to support government services, and citizens act as
d. Analyze the role of the founding documents and          2. Political issues are covered by the media, and individuals evaluate multiple
the evolution of their interpretation through              media accounts using technology.
governmental action and court cases.
Documents to include but not limited to the
United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights    Nature of Civics:
e. Use media literacy skills to locate multiple valid      1. Responsible community members understand the concept of “rule of law”
sources of information regarding the                       and its role in policies and practices of the government.
foundations, structures, and functions of               2. Responsible community members know the political theories that
government                                                 contributed to the foundation and development of the structures of
f. Analyze how court decisions, legislative                   government and their meaning today.
debates, and various and diverse groups have
helped to preserve, develop, and interpret the
rights and ideals of the American system of
government
g. Evaluate the effectiveness of our justice system
in protecting life, liberty, and property
Content Area: Social Studies
Standard: 4. Civics
Ø Analyze origins, structure, and functions of governments and their impacts on societies and citizens

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Analyze how public policy - domestic and foreign - is developed at the local, state, and
national levels and compare how policy-making occurs in other forms of government
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Discuss multiple perspectives on local         1. Why do countries view global issues from different perspectives?
issues and options for participating in        2. How does domestic policy affect foreign policy?
civic life                                     3. How does a government make foreign policy and can individuals influence policy?
b. Analyze and discuss multiple                   4. What are possible motivations underlying foreign policy decisions?
perspectives on state issues and
option for participating in civic affairs
by shaping policies
c. Explain how to monitor and influence
public policy                               Relevance and Application:
d. Analyze goals and tools used by the            1. The making of foreign and domestic policies impacts daily lives. For example, unrest
United States in developing foreign               in the Middle East could cause gasoline prices to rise and unrest in another nation
policy                                            affects extended families in the United States.
e. Illustrate how various governments
and leaders interact and evaluate how
interactions among nations affect
domestic and world events
f. Compare and contrast how different
systems of government function              Nature of Civics:
1. Responsible community members gather and analyze data from multiple sources to
look for patterns and create hypotheses regarding foreign policy.
2. Responsible community members investigate foreign policy issues prior to making
decisions.
Visual Arts
Grade Level Expectations at a Glance
High School
1. Observe         1. Visual art has inherent characteristics and expressive features
and Learn to       2. Historical and cultural context are found in visual art
Comprehend
3. Art and design have purpose and function
2. Envision        1. Reflective strategies are used to understand the creative process
and Critique to    2. A personal philosophy of art is accomplished through use of sophisticated
Reflect               language and studio art processes
3. Interpretation is a means for understanding and evaluating works of art
3. Invent and      1. Demonstrate competency in traditional and new art media, and apply
Discover to           appropriate and available technology for the expression of ideas
Create             2. Assess and produce art with various materials and methods
3. Make judgments from visual messages
4. Relate and      1. The work of art scholars impacts how art is viewed today
Connect to         2. Communication through advanced visual methods is a necessary skill in
Transfer              everyday life
3. Art is a lifelong endeavor

.

Colorado Department of Education           Adopted: December 10, 2009              Page 1 of 119
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 1. Observe and Learn to Comprehend
Ø Make informed critical evaluations of visual and material culture, information, and technologies

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Visual art has inherent characteristics and expressive features
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate skills that utilize the            1. What are the ways to analyze and discuss works of art?
characteristics and expressive features        2. What other ways are there to analyze and discuss works of art beyond the
of art and design to communicate                  characteristics and expressive features of art and design?
meaning                                        3. How do various cultures experience and define art?
b. Investigate and articulate the value of
the characteristics and expressive
and disparate works of art
c. Connect and compare visual art
characteristics and expressive features     Relevance and Application:
of art and design in cultural contexts         1. Visual arts provide opportunities for making informed choices about material culture
d. Demonstrate a practiced ability to                by employing visual literacy in society while recognizing urban, suburban, historical,
critically analyze the origins of art and         and environmental influences.
design across all cultures                     2. Rituals in creating cultural art solidify the foundational understanding of the identity
and purpose of various cultures within society.
3. New technologies and media allow for innovative ways to create new rituals with
evolutionary characteristics.

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. Artists use close observation to understand objective reality.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 1. Observe and Learn to Comprehend
Ø Explain, demonstrate, and interpret a range of purposes of art and design, recognizing that the making and
study of art and design can be approached from a variety of viewpoints, intelligences, and perspectives
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Historical and cultural context are found in visual art
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze visual arts traditions                1. What is considered art?
b. Discern the complexity of art and             2. How does context affect works of art?
historical paradigms in cultural context      3. Why would context matter when interpreting art?
c. Debate divergent art histories and            4. What is a culturally sensitive issue, and how does it impact works of art?
d. Research and document community
art and architecture
e. Analyze innovation in art through
historical and cultural context
Relevance and Application:
f. Analyze the reasons to avoid
1. Interpreting visual art provides an ability to place contemporary art culture in a
replication, interpretation, or
illustration of images or icons that are
2. Technology creates new interdisciplinary art forms that build on historical art forms.
culturally sensitive such as kachina
3. Innovators of the past were not highly valued, and it is only recently that society is
dolls, and Navajo sand painting
recognizing their importance.

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. The new media of today creates the future of art.
2. Respect for the art of cultures informs our diversity.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 1. Observe and Learn to Comprehend
Ø Recognize, articulate, and debate that the visual arts are a means for expression
Ø Analyze, interpret, and make meaning of art and design critically using oral and written discourse

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Art and design have purpose and function
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Investigate and articulate the aims of      1. What is the purpose of art?
disparate art practices and traditions      2. How do different cultures manifest the purposes of art?
b. Research and document how the               3. How can art make important contributions to society?
visual arts are manifested in
contemporary society
c. Interpret the purposes of art across
time, culture, and diversity, and be     Relevance and Application:
mindful of cultural sensitivities           1. Visual arts provide an ability to discern the underlying intended and unintended
purposes of art.
2. Visual arts provide for the ability to discern multiple solutions to visual and spatial
problems.
3. Contemporary technologies have enabled the purpose of art to expand.

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. Investigating art ideas provides for alternative viewpoints and encourages divergent
thinking about the reasons for the existence of art.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 2. Envision and Critique to Reflect
Ø Critique personal work and the work of others with informed criteria
Ø Use specific criteria to discuss and evaluate works of art

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Reflective strategies are used to understand the creative process
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Explain the process of critique using       1. When is art criticism vital, and when is it beside the point?
the progression of description,             2. To what extent does a work of art depend on the artist’s point of view?
analysis, interpretation, and               3. To what extent does a work of art depend on the viewer’s point of view?
evaluation
b. Communicate and defend reasons for
Relevance and Application:
(successful or not) of a work of art
1. The critical process leads to informed judgments regarding the relative merits of
c. Compare and contrast the technical
works of art.
proficiency of artists to communicate
2. The critical process developed through the arts also is found in all other disciplines
ideas, emotions, and information
such as scientific inquiry, mathematical problem-solving, and music and literary
d. Provide examples of how critique may
critique.
affect the creation or modification of
3. Fluency in the critical process in art develops an innate ability to investigate and
an existing or new work of art
persevere.
e. Make informed judgments about the
4. Artists may work independently or collaboratively in a variety of virtual or concrete
relative merits of works of art using
environments.
observation, description, analysis,
interpretation, and evaluation

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. Comprehending the intentions of art leads to understanding how meaning is made.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 2. Envision and Critique to Reflect
Ø Recognize, articulate, and implement critical thinking in the visual arts by synthesizing, evaluating, and
analyzing visual information
Concepts and skills students master:
2. A personal philosophy of art is accomplished through use of sophisticated language and
studio art processes
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Articulate and defend a personal           1. What is old, and what is new in any work of art?
philosophy of art using informed           2. How and why is art used as a vehicle for communication?
criteria
b. Document and apply investigations
into a range of traditional and
nontraditional studio practices to      Relevance and Application:
personal expression                        1. Breaking accepted norms often gives rise to new forms of artistic expression.
c. Compare and contrast the technical         2. Using current technology for personal expression opens new opportunities for varied
proficiency of artists to communicate         modes of communication.
ideas, emotions, and information           3. Articulating a personal philosophy creates individual identification in one’s own
works of art.
4. Interpreting the world through art, artists seek to represent concepts through a
range of styles and approaches.

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. Culture affects self-expression, whether we realize it.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 2. Envision and Critique to Reflect
Ø Recognize, demonstrate, and debate philosophic arguments about the nature of art and beauty (aesthetics)

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Interpretation is a means for understanding and evaluating works of art
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze and interpret philosophies of       1. How do underlying structures unconsciously guide the creation of art works?
Western and non-Western art
b. Demonstrate fluency in using critique
vocabulary to assess personal works
of art and the others’ works of art      Relevance and Application:
c. Recognize and debate diverse                1. Art reflects the history and culture in which it is created.
approaches to creating art across time      2. Innovation and critical reasoning results from utilizing known structures and
and culture                                    identifying ways to stretch boundaries.
d. Interpret how meaning in works of art       3. Using current technologies to research diverse approaches from around the globe
is related to the materials and                and applying them to new artistic styles creates a merging of ideas.
processes chosen by the artist

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. Every artist has a style, just as every artistic period has a style.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 3. Invent and Discover to Create
Ø Develop and build appropriate mastery in art-making skills using traditional and new technologies and an
understanding of the characteristics and expressive features of art and design
Ø Recognize, interpret, and validate that the creative process builds on the development of ideas through a
process of inquiry, discovery, and research
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Demonstrate competency in traditional and new art media, and apply appropriate and
available technology to express ideas
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Articulate ideas that can be             1. How can information be shared artistically?
expressed in traditional,                2. How does creating art differ from viewing art?
advanced, and evolving media             3. What differentiates art-making technologies?
b. Investigate and document a wide
and evolving media used in
creating images that                  Relevance and Application:
communicate ideas                        1. Skills in art and design are employed to create three-dimensional animation, film,
c. Create works of art representing            gaming, and environmental graphic design.
traditional subject matter that use      2. The identification of personal narratives in art and the translation of their meaning using
new media                                   new media allows for the development of the personal, self-direction skills necessary to
d. Create works of art representing            be an artist.
personal narratives that use new         3. The translation of media allows for the development of skills to work within the
media                                       commercial art environment.
4. Through new technologies, studio skills have evolved beyond the traditional skills, and
yet can still rely on the foundational structures to create new skills.

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. Though the artist’s imagination and intuition drive the work, great art and design require
skills and discipline to turn notions into a quality product.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 3. Invent and Discover to Create
Ø Develop and build appropriate mastery in art-making skills using traditional and new technologies and an
understanding of the characteristics and expressive features of art and design
Ø Recognize, interpret, and validate that the creative process builds on the development of ideas through a
process of inquiry, discovery, and research
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Assess and produce art with various materials and methods
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Skillfully use a variety of techniques        1. How are the characteristics and expressive features of art and design used to create
and media to create works of art                 art?
b. Discern and articulate the quality of         2. How can an artist create works of art through combining, expanding, and
personal works of art using a variety            sequencing?
of reflective processes                       3. What problem-solving skills are employed in making works of art?
c. Demonstrate collaboration to create
works of art
d. Create works of art that speak to
Relevance and Application:
personal artistic opinion in response to
cultural contexts                             1. The use of current technology as an adjunct to creating art opens the door to
creating new works, and discovering lost works of art.
e. Skillfully create and exhibit one’s own
2. Visual arts rely on reflective processes to create new and evolved works of art
works of art
through introspection, collaboration, global connection, experimentation, and
research.

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. The visual arts serve multiple functions such as enlightenment, education, therapy,
and entertainment.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 3. Invent and Discover to Create
Ø Recognize, compare, and affirm that the making and study of art and design can be approached from a variety
of viewpoints, intelligences, and perspectives
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Make judgments from visual messages
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Compare and contrast the analytical            1. Why is one type of visual image or object considered to be more important than
processes used to interpret works of              another?
art and images of mass media                   2. How is value assigned to art?
b. Interpret similarities and differences in      3. How does visual imagery used in mass media correlate with art?
artistic decision making
c. Discuss and debate how society has
come to value some works of art over        Relevance and Application:
others                                         1. Understanding the use of branding in marketing helps to use art to make purchase
decisions.
make informed decisions.
3. Recognizing stereotyping in visual media helps to change norms.
4. Recognizing that current technology plays a role in understanding visual culture
clears the way to new thinking in art-making.

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. The artistic process can lead to unforeseen or unpredictable outcomes.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 4. Relate and Connect to Transfer
Ø Identify, compare and justify that the visual arts are a way to acknowledge, exhibit and learn about the
diversity of peoples, cultures and ideas
Concepts and skills students master:
1. The work of art scholars impacts how art is viewed today
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Research and debate viewpoints found         1. What constitutes art? According to whom?
in a variety of resources that focus on      2. Why create?
and discuss visual art and design            3. How does beauty influence the quality of life?
b. Discern the value of works of art
based on historical significance,
craftsmanship, cultural context, and
originality using appropriate, domain-    Relevance and Application:
specific terminology that honors             1. Manipulating and analyzing various criticisms from existing and historical art
sensitive traditions                            scholars allows students to identify how art can elicit varying opinions.
2. Providing knowledge and relevance of artistic and cultural history can help to bring
about alternative views of previous and contemporary societies.
3. Giving context and new thinking to works of art, scholars hold the knowledge of the
past and present.

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. Informed opinions about art are debated, but not necessarily resolved.
2. Investigating diverse cultures and their viewpoints leads to a more knowledgeable
society.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 4. Relate and Connect to Transfer
Ø Transfer the value of visual arts to lifelong learning and the human experience
Ø Explain, compare and justify that the visual arts are connected to other disciplines, the other art forms, social
activities, mass media, and careers in art and non-art related arenas
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Communication through advanced visual methods is a necessary skill in everyday life
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Use sketches, plans, and models to         1. Why do artists produce preliminary plans?
create and/or design a functioning         2. How does material culture influence artistic decisions?
work of art                                3. What informs the look of our material culture?
b. Explain the personal influences shape
the creation of functioning art         Relevance and Application:
1. Understanding the cultural influences in functional design such as architecture and
furniture creates comprehension of trends and patterns in society.
2. Knowing the role of artists and designers in creating our built environment and
material culture identifies the contemporary societal role that artists possess.
3. Shaping our understanding of new media gives us insight to the understanding of
material culture.

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. Artists and designers are important creators of our material culture.
2. Cultural traditions influence the creation of material culture.
Content Area: Visual Arts
Standard: 4. Relate and Connect to Transfer
Ø Transfer the value of visual arts to lifelong learning and the human experience
Ø Explain, compare and justify that the visual arts are connected to other disciplines, the other art forms, social
activities, mass media, and careers in art and non-art related arenas
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Art is a lifelong endeavor
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Compare and contrast the roles of            1. How and why is art used as a vehicle for communication?
artists and designers in historical and      2. To what extent does good design integrate form with function?
contemporary context                         3. How is art used in everyday life?
b. Research the range of careers
available to artists such as museum
curation, automobile design, gaming
design, medical illustration, and
photojournalism                           Relevance and Application:
c. Outline required training for one’s          1. Integrating and connecting knowledge and skills in art to other fields of study gives
individual career goals                         a broader understanding of the roles that artists play in society.
2. Using job placement technology to research the range of careers available for
personal career development provide insight into the many levels of visual art skills
that are valued in today’s workforce such as graphic design and software design
skills in marketing, forensics, medicine, and video game design.

Nature of Visual Arts:
1. Artists and designers make important contributions to society.
World Languages

Standards are the topical organization of an academic content area. The four standards
of world languages are:

1. Communication in Languages Other Than English:
The educated American of the 21st century needs to be conversant in at least one
is going to rely heavily on its capacity to communicate across borders.
Communication is the heart and soul of any culture, but learning another
language builds a bridge that helps Americans relate to people of other nations
and cultures. Students acquire the communication strategies that will aid them in
participating in the global community.

In the 21st century students speak, read, view, and comprehend both spoken and
written languages other than English to participate effectively in personal
interactions with members of other cultures. Students interpret the concepts,
ideas, and opinions expressed by members of these cultures through their media
and literature. As students learn the languages and cultures that they may
encounter in their personal lives and careers in the future, communication
strategies that empower students include the ability to guess intelligently; to
derive meaning from context; to understand, interpret, and produce gestures
effectively; to ask for and provide clarification; to make and check hypotheses; to
make inferences, predictions, and generalizations; to reflect on the nature of
interaction; and to draw informed conclusions and maintain a healthy sense of
humor, patience, and tenacity in the communication process. Language study
helps students analyze important questions to extend learning beyond the
classroom. Strong, confident communicative command in a language other than
English gives students excellent skill and knowledge for success in the workforce
of the 21st century.

Real-world communication occurs in a variety of ways. It may be interpersonal,
in which culturally appropriate listening, reading, viewing, speaking, and writing
occurs as a shared activity among language users. It may be interpretive, in
which language users listen, view, and read using knowledge of cultural products,
practices, and perspectives. It may be presentational, in which speaking and
writing occur in culturally appropriate ways.

2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures:
Today’s increasingly global society requires a better understanding of cultures. To
communicate successfully in another language, students must not only develop
facility with the language but they should also develop familiarity with the
cultures that use the languages and an awareness of how language and culture
interact in society. Only those who possess knowledge of both can then realize
the unique and significant connections between the culture that is lived and the
language that is spoken. Students apply this knowledge as they express and
interpret events and ideas in a second language and reflect upon observations
from other cultures. Through their analysis of various resources in the target
language, students are able to obtain information on topics of personal and global
interest. Second language study helps students formulate self-identity and
develops their world view.

1Colorado Department of Education     Adopted: December 10, 2009            Page 1 of 53
Culturally appropriate language use requires the understanding of the
relationship between the products a culture produces, the practices that the
culture manifests, and the perspectives that underlie these products and
practices. Students must acquire the ability to interact appropriately with target
culture members to communicate successfully. This category allows students to
connect and compare languages and cultures. As students grow in their language
development, they develop strategies for building relationships within the world
community.

3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition:
Learning is interdisciplinary. Students bring a wealth of experience and
knowledge of the world around them to the language classroom. Connecting the
foreign language curriculum to what students already know from other parts of
their academic lives opens doors to information and experiences that can enrich
their entire school and life experience. Examining authentic information available
via technology widens the lens of a world language learner to include
international sources. The connections that flow from other areas to the foreign
language classroom can add unique experiences and insights into the rest of the
school’s curriculum. Students use their developing language skills to pursue
topics of personal interest, unrelated to the limits of academic life, and as a result
nurture and strengthen their lifelong learning skills and lifelong language-using
skills. As students engage in experiences where skills in another language and
cross-cultural knowledge are needed, their intercultural understanding is
heightened.

4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and
Culture:
The study of a language other than English (a second language) fosters the
development of a greater understanding of not only the language and culture
being studied, but of an individual’s own language and culture. The resulting
linguistic and intercultural explorations expand a learner’s view of the world.
Students gain insights into the nature of language in society in culturally
appropriate ways. The study fosters an awareness of alternative views of other
cultures by comparing the student’s own culture with another culture, including
the relationship between accepted practices, products, and perspectives.

2Colorado Department of Education       Adopted: December 10, 2009            Page 2 of 53
Range Level Expectations at a Glance

Range Level Expectations: Intermediate-Mid
1. Communication in
1. Initiate, sustain, and conclude conversations
Languages Other Than
(written or oral) in a variety of situations based on
English
familiar and unfamiliar vocabulary and learned
grammatical structures (interpersonal mode)
2. Comprehend spoken or written language in a
variety of situations based on familiar and
unfamiliar vocabulary and learned grammatical
structures (interpretive mode)
3. Present (written or oral) in a variety of situations
based on familiar and unfamiliar vocabulary and
learned grammatical structures (presentational
mode)

2. Knowledge and
1. Analyze how the perspectives of people who speak
Understanding of Other
the target language are reflected in their practices
Cultures
2. Analyze how products reflect practices           and
perspectives of the cultures studied

3. Connections with
1. Analyze information gathered from target language
Other Disciplines and
resources connected to other content areas
Information Acquisition
2. Evaluate information and viewpoints present in
authentic resources

4. Comparisons to
1. Analyze the significance of the similarities and
Develop Insight into the
differences between the target language and the
Nature of Language and
student’s own language
Culture
2. Analyze the significance of the similarities and
differences between the target culture(s) and the
student’s own culture

Range Level Expectations: Intermediate-Low
1. Communication in
1. Initiate, sustain, and conclude conversations
Languages Other Than
(written or oral) in a variety of situations based on
English
familiar and unfamiliar vocabulary and learned
grammatical structures (interpersonal mode)
2. Comprehend spoken or written language in a
variety of situations based on familiar and
unfamiliar vocabulary and learned grammatical
structures (interpretive mode)
3. Present (written or oral) on a variety of familiar
topics, using familiar vocabulary and learned
grammatical structures (presentational mode)

Range Level Expectations: Intermediate-Low (continued)

3Colorado Department of Education   Adopted: December 10, 2009           Page 3 of 53
Range Level Expectations at a Glance

2. Knowledge and
1. Draw conclusions using a personal understanding of
Understanding of Other
the perspectives and practices of the cultures
Cultures
studied
2. Examine how the perspectives of people who speak
the target language are reflected in their products

3. Connections with
1. Assess the usefulness of information gathered from
Other Disciplines and
target language resources for application in other
Information Acquisition
content areas
2. Examine information and viewpoints presented in
authentic resources

4. Comparisons to
1. Recognize how the significance of the similarities
Develop Insight into the
and differences between the target language and
Nature of Language and
the student’s own language provides insight into
Culture
the structures of their own language
2. Compare the similarities and differences between
the target culture(s) and the student’s own culture

Range Level Expectations: Novice-High
1. Communication in
1. Participate in exchanges (written or oral) on a
Languages Other Than
variety of familiar topics using familiar vocabulary
English
and learned grammatical structures (interpersonal
mode)
2. Comprehend exchanges (written or oral) on a
variety of familiar topics using both high-frequency
vocabulary,    new      vocabulary,   and     learned
grammatical structures (interpretive mode)
3. Present (written or oral) on a variety of familiar
topics using both high-frequency vocabulary, new
vocabulary, and learned grammatical structures
(Presentational mode)

2. Knowledge and
1. Examine common practices and perspectives within
Understanding of Other
the cultures studied
Cultures
2. Examine familiar products of the cultures studied

3. Connections with
1. Examine information gathered from target language
Other Disciplines and
resources connected to other content areas
Information Acquisition
2. Relate   information    acquired    from   authentic
resources    to    individual    perspectives   and
experiences

Range Level Expectations: Novice-High (continued)
4. Comparisons to
1. Describe   similarities   and   differences   between
Develop Insight into the

4Colorado Department of Education   Adopted: December 10, 2009              Page 4 of 53
Range Level Expectations at a Glance

Nature of Language and        structural patterns of the target language through
Culture                       comparisons of the student’s own language and the
language studied
2. Describe the nature of culture through comparisons
of the target culture(s) and the student’s own
culture and how the two cultures interact

Range Level Expectations: Novice-Mid
1. Communication in
1. Participate in basic conversations (written or oral)
Languages Other Than
on a variety of familiar and predictable topics using
English
isolated words and learned phrases (interpersonal
mode)
2. Comprehend short learned exchanges (written or
oral) on learned topics that use learned vocabulary
and grammatical structures (interpretive mode)
3. Present using learned and simple phrases or
expressions (written or oral) on very familiar topics
(presentational mode)

2. Knowledge and
1. Reproduce    common     practices   of   the    cultures
Understanding of Other
studied
Cultures
2. Describe familiar products of the cultures studied

3. Connections with
1. Summarize information gathered from target
Other Disciplines and
language resources connected to other content
Information Acquisition
areas
2. Organize information     acquired    from      authentic
resources

4. Comparisons to
1. Expand knowledge of similarities and differences of
Develop Insight into the
basic structural patterns of language through
Nature of Language and
comparisons of the student’s own language and the
Culture
language studied
2. Investigate  the   nature of  culture through
comparisons of the target culture(s) and the
student’s own culture and how the two cultures
interact

5Colorado Department of Education   Adopted: December 10, 2009               Page 5 of 53
Range Level Expectations at a Glance

Range Level Expectations: Novice-Low
1. Communication in
1. Communicate about very familiar topics (written or
Languages Other Than
oral) using isolated words and high frequency
English
phrases (interpersonal mode)
2. Comprehend isolated learned words and high-
frequency phrases (written or oral) on very familiar
topics (interpretive mode)
3. Present on very familiar topics (written or oral)
using isolated words, and high-frequency phrases
(presentational mode)

2. Knowledge and
1. Identify common      practices   within   the   target
Understanding of Other
cultures studied
Cultures
2. Identify common products of the target cultures
studied

3. Connections with
1. Identify information that can be gathered from
Other Disciplines and
target language resources connected to other
Information Acquisition
content areas
2. Locate and use basic information from target
language resources.

4. Comparisons to
1. Identify similarities and differences of the most
Develop Insight into the
basic vocabulary through comparisons of the
Nature of Language and
student’s own language and the language studied
Culture
2. Identify and recognize the nature of culture through
comparisons of the target culture(s) and the
student’s own culture

6Colorado Department of Education   Adopted: December 10, 2009            Page 6 of 53
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange
opinions (interpersonal mode)

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Mid
The articulation of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Initiate, sustain, and conclude conversations (written or oral) in a variety of situations based
on familiar and unfamiliar vocabulary and learned grammatical structures (interpersonal
mode)
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Express and support opinions about        1. How does the context (people, place, purpose) affect how people engage in
topics appropriate to grade level            conversations with those who speak another language?
b. Initiate, sustain, and conclude           2. How do particular words and phrases help to start, maintain, and end conversations
conversations on a wide variety of           more effectively?
general knowledge, personal and           3. How do misunderstandings occur and how can they be addressed?
about issues or points of view            1. Communication via webinars and video conferences takes place in multiple
d. Use a wide range of strategies to            languages.
negotiate meaning                         2. Exchanging ideas and opinions with people from different cultures can provide new
e. Paraphrase, ask questions,                   perspectives on local and international issues.
circumlocute, and self-correct as
needed to sustain communication

Nature of World Languages:
1. Successful language learners find opportunities to communicate with other speakers
of the target language.
2. Successful language learners recognize and correct their own errors and accept
corrections from others.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics (interpretive mode)

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Mid
The articulation of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Comprehend spoken or written language in a variety of situations based on familiar and
unfamiliar vocabulary and learned grammatical structures (interpretive mode)
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify the purpose and main idea,        1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to correctly interpret
point of view, and predict outcomes           what they hear and read in another language?
b. Apply content and background               2. What strategies can people use to aid in comprehension?
knowledge to infer meaning                 3. How does background knowledge help in interpreting meaning?
c. Interpret and imitate culturally
appropriate verbal communication
(such as idioms, colloquial language,
slang)
d. Interpret meaning through knowledge     Relevance and Application:
of grammatical structures, cognates,       1. Written and spoken information in articles and videos on websites is available in
and context                                   multiple languages.
e. Use a wide range of strategies to          2. Negotiating meaning with people from different cultures contributes to mutual
negotiate meaning                             understanding in international personal and business relations.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners realize that it takes a significant amount of time to become
proficient in another language.
2. Successful language learners use and adapt comprehension strategies for various
situations.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics
(presentational mode)

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Mid
The articulation of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a
Concepts and skills students master:
3.                                                                                                                                        P
resent (written or oral) in a variety of situations based on familiar and unfamiliar vocabulary
and learned grammatical structures (presentational mode)
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Apply learned as well as original            1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to effectively present
language, idiomatic expressions,                oral and written information in another language?
nonverbal behaviors and structural           2. How does the audience affect the presentation?
patterns in increasingly complex             3. Why is risk-taking important in presentations?
sentences and paragraphs to present
in oral and written form with
comprehensibility and some degree of      Relevance and Application:
fluidity                                     1. Written and spoken information in archives and databases is available in multiple
b. Formulate and defend a position on a            languages.
researched issue                             2. Translators and interpreters can make information in one language available to
c. Narrate orally, visually or in writing,         people who speak other languages.
with relevant details, an event or
personal experience
d. Apply age-appropriate writing process
strategies to publish a document for a
range of audiences                        Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners realize that it takes a significant length of time to be proficient in
another language.
2. Successful language learners use and adapt presentation strategies for different
audiences and purposes.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange
opinions (interpersonal mode)

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Initiate, sustain, and conclude conversations (written or oral) on a variety of familiar topics,
using familiar vocabulary and learned grammatical structures (interpersonal mode)
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Engage in oral, visual or written            1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to conduct effective
exchanges to obtain and provide                 interpersonal communication with those who speak another language?
information related to target language       2. What communication strategies help maintain communication?
cultures or topics from other content        3. What can a person do when someone does not understand him/her?
areas (interviews, conversations)
b. Give and follow a series of directions,
instructions, and requests
c. Meet practical writing needs such as      Relevance and Application:
short letters, blogs or notes by             1. Communicating via email and on Internet blogs and career or personal networking
recombining learned vocabulary and              websites takes place in multiple languages.
structures                                   2. Exchanging ideas and information with people from different cultures can provide
new perspectives on local and international issues.
3. Expressing basic needs is important for functioning in another culture.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners learn from their mistakes.
2. Language learners show interest in others.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics (interpretive mode)

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Comprehend spoken or written language in a variety of situations based on familiar vocabulary
and learned grammatical structures (interpretive mode)
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Use listening and reading strategies       1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to correctly interpret
(e.g., applying prior knowledge) to           what they hear and read in another language?
make inferences and draw conclusions       2. Why is grammar important?
b. Identify the purpose, main idea,           3. How does context aid in understanding?
characters, setting, and important
events in age-appropriate media
c. Interpret meaning through knowledge     Relevance and Application:
of grammatical structures, cognates,       1. Written and spoken information in articles and videos on websites is available in
and context (prefixes, suffixes, root         multiple languages.
words, cognates, intonation, word          2. Determining meaning in media from different cultures contributes to mutual
order)                                        understanding in international personal and business relations.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners learn from their mistakes.
2. Language learners read for understanding.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics
(presentational mode)

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Present (written or oral) on a variety of familiar topics, using familiar vocabulary and learned
grammatical structures (presentational mode)
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Use information acquired from target         1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to effectively present
language sources to solve everyday              oral and written information in another language?
problems and situations (such as             2. When is it appropriate to take a risk?
using media to make plans to see a           3. How can presenters improve accuracy in their presentation?
movie)
b. Summarize, explain, and critique
information from a variety of oral,
written, and visual sources
c. Narrate orally, visually, or in writing   Relevance and Application:
with relevant details, an event, or          1. Written and spoken information in directories and reviews is available in multiple
personal experience comprehensible              languages.
to a sympathetic audience                    2. Translators and interpreters can make information in one language available to
d. Produce and publish informal and                people who speak other languages.
formal communication comprehensible
to a sympathetic audience

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners learn from their mistakes.
2. Language learners share their interests with others.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange
opinions (interpersonal mode)

Range Level Expectation: Novice-High
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-low expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Participate in exchanges (written or oral) on a variety of familiar topics using familiar
vocabulary and learned grammatical structures (interpersonal mode)
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Exchange written communication            1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to conduct effective
b. Ask and answer questions to clarify          interpersonal communication with those who speak another language?
information about familiar topics         2. What is the importance of accuracy in effective communication?
c. State and follow a short sequence of      3. How do people communicate more effectively with a native speaker who is not
oral or written requests                     accustomed to a language learner?

Relevance and Application:
1. Communicating via email and chat applications on websites takes place in multiple
languages.
2. Exchanging information with people from different cultures can provide new
perspectives on local and international issues.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners understand that grammatical accuracy contributes to meaning.
2. Language learners take risks.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics (interpretive mode)

Range Level Expectation: Novice-High
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-low expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Comprehend exchanges (written or oral) on a variety of familiar topics using both high-
frequency vocabulary, new vocabulary, and learned grammatical structures (interpretive
mode)
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skill and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify main ideas from oral, visual,      1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to correctly interpret
or written sources                             what they hear and read in another language?
b. Identify the meaning of unfamiliar          2. How does sentence structure aid in comprehension?
words using decoding skills (such as        3. Why is it important to follow instructions?
prefixes and suffixes, root words,
knowledge or recognition of word or
characters in character-based            Relevance and Application:
languages)                                  1. Written and spoken information on web pages and in videos is available in multiple
c. Interpret meaning using oral, visual,          languages.
and contextual clues                        2. Determining meaning in short stories and informational documents from different
cultures contributes to mutual understanding in international relations.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners understand that grammatical accuracy contributes to meaning.
2. Language learners take risks.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics
(presentational mode)

Range Level Expectation: Novice-High
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-low expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
3.                                                Present (written or oral) on a variety of familiar
topics using both high-frequency vocabulary, new vocabulary, and learned grammatical
structures (presentational mode)
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Write or tell briefly about an event or      1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to effectively present
personal experience                             oral and written information in another language?
b. Create texts incorporating some              2. How do writers choose a topic?
description and detail                       3. What are the essential elements of a story?
c. Apply age-appropriate writing process
strategies (prewriting, drafting,
revising, editing, publishing)
Relevance and Application:
1. Record and play back oral narratives, and brainstorm ideas using a tape recorder.
2. Bilingual or multilingual workers in airports, hotels, and hospitals can provide
information to people who speak a variety of languages.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners understand that grammatical accuracy contributes to meaning.
2. Language learners take risks.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange
opinions (interpersonal mode)

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Mid
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-high expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Participate in basic conversations (written or oral) on a variety of familiar and predictable
topics using isolated words and learned phrases (interpersonal mode)
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Use basic greetings and expressions of       1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to conduct effective
courtesy                                        interpersonal communication with those who speak another language?
b. Express feelings, basic needs,               2. How do people use body language and gestures to communicate more effectively?
emotions, or opinions                        3. What is the importance of the use of expressions of courtesy in communication with
frequency and learned phrases
d. State and follow simple oral or written   Relevance and Application:
requests or directions                       1. Simple surveys and instructions in videos and on websites appear in multiple
languages.
2. Exchanging basic information with people from different cultures creates positive
personal connections around the world.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners practice and repeat what they hear in the target language.
2. Language learners practice social courtesies.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics (interpretive mode)

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Mid
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-high expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Comprehend short exchanges (written or oral) that use learned vocabulary and grammatical
structures on familiar topics (interpretive mode)
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify main ideas from oral, visual,       1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to correctly interpret
or written sources                              what they hear and read in another language?
b. Respond appropriately to simple              2. What can people do to better understand language?
directions                                   3. What is the value of a guess?
c. Recognize meaning from cognates and
context, intonation and visual cues
d. Demonstrate comprehension of a            Relevance and Application:
listening activity or reading selection      1. Labels, lists, and simple instructions on web pages and in videos are available in
multiple languages.
2. Determining meaning in short stories and informational documents from different
cultures helps create positive personal connections around the world.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners use background knowledge.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics
(presentational mode)

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Mid
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-high expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Present using learned and simple phrases or expressions (written or oral) on very familiar
topics (presentational mode)
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Write and speak using a variety of         1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to effectively present
visual cues                                   oral and written information in another language?
b. Share information about personal           2. How do visual cues enhance a presentation?
interests                                  3. What is the importance of pronunciation and intonation?
c. Produce and share basic
communication
d. Apply age-appropriate writing process
strategies (prewriting, drafting,       Relevance and Application:
revising, editing, publishing)             1. Record and play back verbal role-playing, and brainstorm ideas using a tape
recorder.
2. Bilingual or multilingual workers at schools and in stores can provide information to
people who speak a variety of languages.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners practice and present.
2. Language learners tell stories.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange
opinions (interpersonal mode)

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Communicate about very familiar topics (written or oral) using isolated words and high-
frequency phrases (interpersonal mode)
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Copy and exchange simple messages        1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to conduct effective
b. Imitate modeled words and phrases           interpersonal communication with those who speak another language?
using intonation and pronunciation       2. How do people show that they do not understand?
c. Form simple sentences on very            3. How does one know they are understood?
familiar topics using learned
vocabulary and high-frequency
phrases
d. Use words and phrases without
awareness of grammatical structures   Relevance and Application:
e. Answer simple questions about very       1. Simple surveys on websites appear in multiple languages.
familiar topics                          2. Exchanging words, phrases, and short messages with people from different cultures
creates positive personal connections around the world.

Nature of World Languages:
2. Language learners acquire and retain.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics (interpretive mode)

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Comprehend isolated learned words and high-frequency phrases (written or oral) on very
familiar topics (interpretive mode)
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Understand short, simple                  1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to correctly interpret
conversations and narratives when            what they hear and read in another language?
using objects, visuals, and gestures      2. Why do cognates exist?
b. Respond to questions seeking              3. Why are there many languages in the world?
clarification (for example, do you
understand? What is this?)
c. Follow simple commands                 Relevance and Application:
d. Recognize the symbols of the target       1. Information on writing systems for languages around the world is available on web
language writing system                      pages.
2. Understanding basic questions and commands in different languages helps people
from different cultures create positive personal connections.

Nature of World Languages:
2. Language learners acquire and preserve connections.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 1. Communication in Languages Other Than English
Ø Present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics
(presentational mode)

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Present on very familiar topics (written or oral) using isolated words and high-frequency
phrases (presentational mode)
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Reproduce high-frequency words and        1. What do people need to know, understand, and be able to do to effectively present
phrases                                      oral and written information in another language?
b. Use words derived from cognates,          2. Why memorize?
prefixes, and thematic vocabulary         3. What is the impact of culture on language?
c. Recite single-word or high-frequency
responses to visual cues
Relevance and Application:
1. Record and play aural playback lists, chants, and songs using a tape recorder.
2. Bilingual or multilingual signs and labels on streets and buildings can provide
information to people who speak a variety of languages.

Nature of World Languages:
2. Language learners acquire and retain.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Ø Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the cultures
studied

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Mid
The articulation of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Analyze how the perspectives of people who speak the target language are reflected in their
practices
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze interactions typical of the      1. How does an understanding of the relationship between the practices and the
culture studied (such as                    perspectives of a given culture allow one to communicate with those who speak the
salutations, dating, adult/youth            language of that culture?
interactions)                            2. How does cultural knowledge contribute to more socially acceptable interaction?
b. Analyze behavior patterns in the         3. How can cultural understanding modify people’s performance in their own culture?
target culture                           4. How does globalization imply the understanding of what the cultures around the world
c. Connect and relate the cultural             have in common?
relevance and historical context of
Relevance and Application:
current events                           1. Films and videos include depictions of personal interactions, traditions, and celebrations
in other cultures.
2. Learning about cultures contributes to mutual understanding, a sense of global
citizenship, and personal fulfillment.
3. Studying other cultures facilitates a broader perspective of learning in other disciplines
(such as literature and social sciences).

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners realize that culture and language cannot be separated.
2. Language learners know that understanding culture is essential to authentic
communication.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Ø Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the cultures
studied

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Mid
The articulation of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Analyze how products reflect practices and perspectives of the cultures studied
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Investigate and explain how cultural      1. How does an understanding of the relationship between the products and the
perspectives and other factors               perspectives of a given culture allow one to communicate with those who speak the
(education, economics, history,              language of that culture?
climate, geography) contribute to         2. How does examining the media of a culture tell people more about the culture?
shaping products of a culture             3. How are cultural values present in cultural products?

Relevance and Application:
1. Articles and documentaries provide information about the relationship between
history and culture.
2. Archeologists study artifacts to contribute to the understanding of a culture’s past.
3. Learning about tangible and expressive products contributes to a mutual
understanding, a sense of global citizenship, and a sense of personal fulfillment.
4. Tangible and expressive cultural products in a global context create opportunities for
exchanges between cultures.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners understand the role and importance of cultural products in the
global community.
2. Language learners understand that products are inextricably linked to the culture
they represent.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Ø Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the cultures
studied

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Draw conclusions using a personal understanding of the perspectives and practices of the
cultures studied
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Examine simple patterns of behavior,       1. How does an understanding of the relationship between the practices and the
gestures, and social courtesies in a          perspectives of a given culture allow people to communicate with those who speak
variety of informal and formal social         the language of that culture?
situations                                 2. How does the study of a culture help one understand and appreciate other cultures'
b. Compare daily practices of people in          world views and unique ways of living and behavior patterns?
the target culture(s) with their own       3. How have historical events influenced cultural practices?
c. Interpret and explain the cultural
relevance or historical context of      Relevance and Application:
traditions and celebrations                1. Websites and video clips provide information on social interaction, traditions, and
celebrations in other cultures.
2. International businesspeople with intercultural skills have a competitive edge for
future success.
3. Studying other cultures provides opportunities for learning about other subjects
(such as literature, social sciences).

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners are able to defuse stereotypes.
2. Language learners are able to compare and contrast stereotypes.
3. Language learners recognize the presence of cultural practices in their daily lives.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Ø Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the cultures
studied

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Examine how the perspectives of people who speak the target language are reflected in their
products
Evidence Outcomes                          21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                              Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze and assess factors              1. How does an understanding of the relationship between the products and the
(education, economics, history,            perspectives of a given culture allow people to communicate with those who speak the
religion, climate, geography) that         language of that culture?
impact cultural products                2. What messages are reflected through a culture's media?
3. How is the humor of a culture reflected through its expressive products?
4. Why have expressive products been such an integral part of every culture throughout
history?

Relevance and Application:
1. Historians study the relationship of past and current events and cultural products.
2. Knowledge of the use of tangible and expressive products enhances the ability to
interact with other cultures.
3. Studying tangible and expressive products of other cultures enhances a student’s
application of knowledge in other subjects (such as music, athletics, and math).

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners recognize the presence of cultural products in their daily lives.
2. Language learners recognize the usefulness of cultural products in their daily lives.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Ø Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the cultures
studied

Range Level Expectation: Novice-High
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-low expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Examine common practices and perspectives within the cultures studied
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Use appropriate, gestures, and social       1. How does an understanding of the relationship between the practices and the
courtesies in a variety of structured,         perspectives of a given culture allow one to communicate with those who speak the
everyday situations                            language of that culture?
b. Investigate common social practices in      2. How do cultural values and attitudes impact daily practices?
relevant situations                         3. How does cultural understanding improve by engaging with learners of other
c. Examine major traditions and                   cultures?
celebrations and the practices
associated with them                     Relevance and Application:
1. Websites and video clips provide information on social interaction, traditions, and
celebrations in other cultures.
2. Cultural understanding promotes a global outlook.
3. Studying other cultures enhances and facilitates knowledge in other subjects
(e.g., social studies, literature, visual arts).

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners realize that cultural similarities are just as important as the
differences.
2. Language learners learn that culture is important to communication.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Ø Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the cultures
studied

Range Level Expectation: Novice-High
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-low expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Examine familiar products of the cultures studied
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Examine how the contributions of         1. How does an understanding of the relationship between the products and the
people from the target culture have         perspectives of a given culture allow people to communicate with those who speak
impacted such areas as advanced             the language of that culture?
science, technology, and the arts        2. How does advertising reflect the personality of a culture?
3. What impact do products from one culture have on another culture?

Relevance and Application:
1. Artists and inventors around the world create products reflecting their culture.
2. The function of tangible and expressive products enhances understanding of other
cultures.
3. Studying tangible and expressive products enhances and facilitates knowledge in
other subjects (such as music, athletics, math, and history).

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners experience cultural products.
2. Language learners realize that the use of products varies among cultures.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Ø Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the cultures
studied

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Mid
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-high expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Reproduce common practices of the cultures studied
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Initiate greetings and use appropriate      1. How does an understanding of the relationship between the practices and the
gestures with support                          perspectives of a given culture allow people to communicate with those who speak
b. Imitate some common social practices           the language of that culture?
c. Describe some major traditions and          2. How does body language impact spoken language, and how does spoken language
celebrations                                   impact body language?
3. Why does every culture have its own traditions and celebrations?

Relevance and Application:
1. Websites and video clips provide information on communicative gestures, traditions,
and celebrations in other cultures.
2. Understanding cultural diversity helps people to connect across cultures.
3. Studying other cultures enhances a student’s understanding of interpersonal and
societal relationships.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners are curious about practices and perspectives.
2. Language learners acknowledge that cultural similarities and differences exist.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Ø Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the cultures
studied

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Mid
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-high expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Describe familiar products of the cultures studied
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Examine the use and relevance of            1. How does an understanding of the relationship between the products and the
common daily products (such as food,           perspectives of a given culture allow people to communicate with those who speak
clothes, and transportation)                   the language of that culture?
b. Compare similarities and differences        2. What insights can be made about a culture by looking at its products?
of common expressive products               3. What can be inferred about a culture through its expressive products?
between the native and target cultures      4. What purposes do expressive products serve since they are not critical to daily
(songs, artwork, crafts, etc.)                 functioning?

Relevance and Application:
1. Musicians’ performances and costumes reflect elements of their culture.
2. Tangible and expressive products are tools for understanding other cultures.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners enjoy learning about cultural products.
2. Language learners are curious about cultural products.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Ø Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the cultures
studied

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Identify common practices within the target cultures studied
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Acknowledge and imitate basic              1. How does an understanding of the relationship between the practices and the
greetings and gestures                        perspectives of a given culture allow people to communicate with those who speak
b. Identify some common social practices         the language of that culture?
at home and school                         2. What do greetings and gestures say about a culture?
c. Identify a few major traditions and        3. What attitudes and values are reflected in traditions and celebrations?
celebrations
Relevance and Application:
1. Websites and video clips provide information on communicative gestures, traditions,
and celebrations in other cultures.
2. People from different cultures can interact with each other in multiple ways.
3. A variety of societal norms and behaviors exist in cultures throughout the world.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners begin to see that differences exist among cultures.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 2. Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Ø Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the cultures
studied

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Identify common products of the target cultures studied
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Use language resources, including           1. How does an understanding of the relationship between the products and the
authentic materials, to identify daily         perspectives of a given culture allow people to communicate with those who speak
products that are unique to the target         the language of that culture?
culture and common to other cultures        2. How does a student develop cultural understanding by examining the products of
(such as food, clothes, and                    another culture?
transportation)                             3. How is the culture of a people reflected in its expressive products?
b. Use language resources, including           4. Why are certain foods popular or staples in some cultures, but never have that
authentic materials, to identify               status in others (such as crumpets)?
common expressive products that are
unique to the target culture and         Relevance and Application:
common to other cultures (songs,            1. Dancers’ and mimes’ costumes and performances reflect elements of their culture.
artwork, crafts, etc.)                      2. Every culture produces a variety of tangible and expressive products.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners understand that products vary among cultures.
2. Language learners point out products that are different from their own cultural
experiences.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition
Ø Reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Mid
Thearticulation of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Analyze information gathered from target language resources connected to other content
areas
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Synthesize level-appropriate resources      1. How does an understanding of another language and culture increase people’s
connected to other content areas in            ability to function in a variety of content areas in an interdisciplinary manner?
the target language (such as politics,      2. What is the connection between the study of another language and other content
government structures, and history)            areas?
b. Apply concepts, information, and            3. How does the study of other content areas help with the acquisition of other
vocabulary from other content areas            languages?
to further comprehend and analyze
oral and written selections in the
target language                          Relevance and Application:
1. Websites and videos contain information about politicians and governments
throughout history around the world.
2. Connections with other content areas are vital in the 21st century.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners recognize the diversity of the world and its interrelated nature as
well.
2. Language learners recognize the complexity of the language acquisition process.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition
Ø Acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign
language and its cultures

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Mid
The articulation of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Evaluate information and viewpoints present in authentic resources
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify the perspective evident in        1. How does an understanding of another language and culture broaden people’s ability
authentic resources                           to access information and to appreciate a variety of distinctive viewpoints?
b. Use authentic resources to                 2. How can people determine perspective in authentic sources?
investigate, analyze, and present new      3. How do cultural aspects shape perspectives in that culture?
information

Relevance and Application:
1. Connections with other cultures develop a global outlook.
2. Authentic food can be vastly different than a commercial approach.
3. Bona fide Asian poetry has an historical and authentic reference to stories unlike
modern imitations.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learning provides skills and helps develop interests beyond the limits of a
person’s formal education.
2. Extending student access to information through the use of the target language
increases student abilities to know and do.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition
Ø Reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Assess the usefulness of information gathered from target language resources for application
in other content areas
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze resources connected to other       1. How does an understanding of another language and culture increase people’s
content areas in the target language          ability to function in a variety of content areas in an interdisciplinary manner?
(literature, people of importance,         2. How does the knowledge of cognates help make inferences in other content areas?
environment)
b. Use concepts, information, and
vocabulary from other content areas
to further comprehend oral and
written selections in target language
Relevance and Application:
1. Biographies on the Internet describe the lives of important writers, thinkers, and
inventors throughout history around the world.
2. Application of concepts and information from other content areas provides a richer
dimension of understanding and utility.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners understand that cultural connections are fascinating.
2. Using a target language to acquire information empowers students with knowledge,
no matter what the topic or content area.
3. Language learners begin to desire compelling information in other subjects in order
to make richer relationships with the language studied
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition
Ø Acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign
language and its cultures

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Examine information and viewpoints present in authentic resources
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Extract information and decipher         1. How does an understanding of another language and culture broaden people’s ability
meaning, including inferences, from         to access information and to appreciate a variety of distinctive viewpoints?
authentic resources                      2. What is the value of an authentic source?
b. Use new knowledge to evaluate and        3. What is the impact of point of view?
synthesize a variety of viewpoints
from authentic resources

Relevance and Application:
1. Connecting with other languages contributes to a mutual understanding and a sense
of global citizenship.
2. The Internet allows people to access a variety of authentic resources that express
varying viewpoints.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Learning another language adds unique experiences and insights.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition
Ø Reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language

Range Level Expectation: Novice-High
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-low expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Examine information gathered from target language resources connected to other content
areas
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Evaluate resources connected to other      1. How does an understanding of another language and culture increase people’s
content areas in the target languages         ability to function in a variety of content areas in an interdisciplinary manner?
(such as fine arts, music, and media)      2. How does understanding a world language help in another content area?
b. Apply the concepts, information, and       3. How can someone relate world language knowledge to another content area?
vocabulary in target-language
resources that are connected to
knowledge in other content areas

Relevance and Application:
1. Web-based newspapers and magazines describe artist and art exhibitions
throughout the world.
2. Language learning contributes to expansion of vocabulary in a person’s own
language and the target language.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners understand that cultural connections are important.
2. Connecting the target language curriculum with other parts of the students’
academic lives open doors to information and experiences that enrich the students’
entire school and life experience.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition
Ø Acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign
language and its cultures

Range Level Expectation: Novice-High
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-low expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Relate information acquired from authentic resources to individual perspectives and
experiences
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Extract and decipher meaning from        1. How does an understanding of another language and culture broaden people’s ability
authentic resources                         to access information and to appreciate a variety of distinctive viewpoints?
b. Compare and contrast new                 2. What is the importance of comparing experiences with those of a native speaker?
information with previous knowledge      3. What can people do to connect with a native speaker?

Relevance and Application:
1. Movies and documentaries put in context the perspective of a target language.
2. Learning languages contributes to personal fulfillment.
3. Knowing presentational skills and examples of oratory in a target language improves
communication.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners are able to extract increasingly detailed information from
authentic resources.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition
Ø Reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Mid
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-high expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Summarize information gathered from target language resources connected to other content
areas
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Locate and identify resources                1. How does an understanding of another language and culture increase people’s
connected to other content areas in             ability to function in a variety of content areas in an interdisciplinary manner?
the target language (daily practices in      2. What does studying a language have in common with the study of other subjects?
other countries like schedules,              3. What study skills from world languages transfer and are applicable to other content
transportation, and cuisine)                    areas?
b. Recognize some commonalities of
structures, information, and
vocabulary between the target
language resources connected to other     Relevance and Application:
content areas                                1. Websites provide information on transportation methods, routes, and schedules for
cities and countries around the world.
2. Studying another language will increase the understanding of language
commonalities and differences.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners are able to compare and contrast basic information about topics
for which they have some previous knowledge.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition
Ø Acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign
language and its cultures

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Mid
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-high expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Organize information acquired from authentic resources
Evidence Outcomes                         21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                             Inquiry Questions:
a. Extract main ideas and supporting      1. How does an understanding of another language and culture broaden people’s ability
details from authentic resources          to access information and to appreciate a variety of distinctive viewpoints?
b. Use obtained knowledge to expand       2. How can a student rely on previous understandings and experiences to evaluate and
awareness about relevant topics           interpret new information?
3. What are ways to organize information?

Relevance and Application:
1. Language learning enhances brain development.
2. Language learners build greater awareness of world cultures through use of the
Internet.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners develop the ability to extract basic information from authentic
resources.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition
Ø Reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Identify information that can be gathered from target language resources connected to other
content areas
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify resources connected to other      1. How does an understanding of another language and culture increase people’s
content areas in the target language          ability to function in a variety of content areas in an interdisciplinary manner?
(i.e.: math systems, maps, weather         2. How does studying a language help?
patterns and forecasts)                    3. How does one acquire a language?
b. Identify concepts, information and
vocabulary in target language
resources which incorporate             Relevance and Application:
knowledge in other content areas           1. Learning a different language leads to greater understanding of an individual’s own
language.
2. Websites provide information on geographical and weather maps for areas in all
parts of the world.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners realize there are resources available in the target language about
topics they study in other classes.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 3. Connections with Other Disciplines and Information Acquisition
Ø Acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign
language and its cultures

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Use authentic resources to locate basic information
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Extract main ideas and key words         1. How does an understanding of another language and culture broaden people’s ability
from authentic resources                    to access information and to appreciate a variety of distinctive viewpoints?
b. Use knowledge obtained from              2. Where can people find a target language outside of the classroom?
authentic resources to apply to new      3. Why is using background knowledge important?
topics

Relevance and Application:
1. International examples of search engines both enlarge one’s perspectives but also
permit one to better access a target language. Studying another language will
promote increased cultural awareness.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners realize that there are other languages and cultures different from
their own.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Ø Demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their
own

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Mid
The articulation of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Analyze the significance of the similarities and differences between the target language and
the student’s own language
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate their understanding of          1. How does knowledge of another language enhance people’s understanding of the
more complex structural patterns in            nature of language?
both the native language and their          2. How does a student improve language accuracy by evaluating grammatical
own language to make sophisticated             accuracy?
comparisons                                 3. In what way does the study of another language develop an individual’s ability to
b. Evaluate and demonstrate                       assess critical thinking skills?
understanding of the relationship
between the target language and the      Relevance and Application:
student’s own language                      1. Historical linguists use databases and historical records to study the history of
c. Understand that pronunciation,                 various languages and language groups.
intonation, and syntax may vary             2. Applied linguists compare and contrast the structures of different languages to
according to region or country                 understand language acquisition processes.
d. Compare and contrast etymological
linguistic roots of English words with
target language words as they apply
Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners realize that it takes a significant amount of time to become
proficient in a language.
2. Language learners embrace the target language and further pursue opportunities for
enrichment.

Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Ø Demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their
own

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Mid
The articulation of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Analyze the significance of the similarities and differences between the target culture(s) and
the student’s own culture
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze the relationship between             1. How does knowledge of another language enhance people’s understanding of culture
cultural perspectives and expressive            and society?
products (music, visual arts, age level      2. How can the assessment of diverse cultures cultivate an understanding and
forms of literature) by analyzing               appreciation of the multilingual world?
selective products from the target           3. How does language study challenge and alter a student's understanding and
culture(s) and their own                        appreciation of his/her own culture?
b. Compare the form, meaning, and
importance of certain expressive
practices in the target culture(s) and    Relevance and Application:
their own                                    1. Anthropologists compare and contrast cultural perspectives and products to gain
c. Compare the nuances of the target               insight on cross-cultural interaction.
culture(s) (regional dialects,               2. People traveling or working in various cultures can better adapt and communicate
behaviors, beliefs, practices) and              when they understand differences and commonalities among cultural practices and
contrast these with their own                   products around the world.
d. Evaluate the impact of the
contributions of the target cultures to
the student’s culture and vice versa
Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners recognize the effect of culture upon the target language.
2. Language learners analyze various media for cultural differences.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Ø   Demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied
and their own
Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Recognize how the significance of the similarities and differences between the target language
and the student’s own language provides insight into the structures of their own language
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Expand their understanding and apply       1. How does knowledge of another language enhance people’s understanding of the
complex structural patterns in both           nature of language?
the native language and their own          2. How does a student improve language accuracy by analyzing grammatical accuracy?
language to make comparisons               3. In what way does the study of another language develop an individual’s ability to
b. Demonstrate their understanding of            analyze critical thinking skills?
the relationship between languages
based on complex grammatical
structures                              Relevance and Application:
c. Understand that pronunciation and          1. Linguists use interviews and records of written and spoken literature to analyze the
intonation may vary according to              sentence structures of a variety of languages.
region or country                          2. Sociolinguists study how pronunciation varies across cultures based on location,
d. Compare and contrast features of              education, age, and ethnicity.
their native and target language such
as prefixes, suffixes, word roots,
idioms, and sentence structure to
derive meaning
Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners develop an understanding of proficiency.
2. Language learners embrace and accept the differences reflected in the target
language.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Ø Demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their
own

Range Level Expectation: Intermediate-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Compare the similarities and differences between the target culture(s) and the student’s own
culture
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Compare the relationship between             1. How does knowledge of another language enhance people’s understanding of
cultural perspectives and expressive            culture and society?
products (music, visual arts, age-level      2. How can the analysis of diverse cultures cultivate an understanding and
forms of literature) of the target              appreciation of the multilingual world?
culture(s) and their own                     3. How does language study create a student's understanding and appreciation of
b. Compare the form, meaning, and                  his/her own culture?
importance of certain practices in the
target culture (s) and their own          Relevance and Application:
c. Compare and contrast tangible                1. Anthropologists study the similarities and differences among various artistic
products as well as simple intangible           products created by cultures around the world.
products of the target culture(s) to         2. Travel writers examine and describe cultural practices and perspectives in regions
those of their own                              and countries around the world.
d. Analyze the impact of the contributions
of the target cultures to the student’s
culture and vice versa

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners compare and contrast their own culture with the target culture.
2. Language learners examine various media for cultural differences.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Ø   Demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied
and their own
Range Level Expectation: Novice-High
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-low expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Describe the similarities and differences between structural patterns of the target language
through comparisons of the student’s own language and the language studied
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate their understanding of          1. How does knowledge of another language enhance people’s understanding of the
and apply structural patterns in both          nature of language in general?
the native language and their own           2. How does a student improve language accuracy by describing grammatical
language to make comparisons                   accuracy?
b. Demonstrate their understanding of the      3. How does the study of another language develop an individual’s ability to
relationship between languages based           categorize critical thinking skills?
on grammatical structures
c. Recognize that pronunciation and         Relevance and Application:
intonation may vary according to            1. Linguists use databases, dictionaries, and records of written and spoken literature
region or country                              to analyze the structures of words and word parts in a variety of languages.
d. Describe features of their native and       2. Applied linguists determine which languages are harder or easier to learn by
target language such as prefixes,              studying the types of errors learners make when learning different languages.
suffixes, word roots, idioms, and
sentence structure

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners are developing an understanding of language acquisition.
2. Language learners gain an increased awareness of the target language through
increased opportunities to communicate in authentic situations.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Ø Demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their
own

Range Level Expectation: Novice-High
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for intermediate-low expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Describe the nature of culture through comparisons of the target culture(s) and the student’s
own culture and how the two cultures interact
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Strengthen knowledge of the                    1. How does knowledge of another language enhance people’s understanding of
relationship between cultural                     culture and society in general?
perspectives and expressive products           2. How can the description of diverse cultures cultivate an understanding and
(music, visual arts, age-level forms of           appreciation of the multilingual world?
literature) of the target cultures and         3. How does language study demonstrate a student's understanding and appreciation
their own                                         of his/her own culture?
b. Demonstrate an understanding of the
form, meaning, and importance of            Relevance and Application:
certain practices in different cultures        1. Understanding different concepts of time and relationships in various cultures can
and their own                                     help people working or traveling in other cultures to behave politely and helpfully.
c. Differentiate and compare tangible             2. People who create new artistic and tangible products can find ideas by studying
products (toys, sports equipment,                 comparable products in other cultures.
food) as well as simple intangible
products of the target culture (concept
of time, daily routine, peer
those of their own                          Nature of World Languages:
d. Describe the contributions of the target       1. Language learners develop an understanding of the target language culture.
cultures to the student’s culture and          2. Language learners role-play and demonstrate a variety of cultural differences.
vice versa
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Ø   Demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied
and their own
Range Level Expectation: Novice-Mid
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-high expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Expand knowledge of similarities and differences of basic structural patterns of language
through comparisons of the student’s own language and the language studied
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify structural patterns in both the      1. How does knowledge of another language enhance people’s understanding of the
native language and their own                    essentials of language in general?
language to make comparisons                  2. How does a student improve language accuracy by identifying grammatical
b. Describe the relationship between                accuracy?
languages based on grammatical                3. How does the study of another language develop an individual’s ability to organize
structures                                       critical thinking skills?
c. Recognize differing pronunciation and
intonation patterns                        Relevance and Application:
d. Identify features of their native and         1. Linguists use voice recording instruments and computer programs to analyze
target language such as prefixes,                sounds and sound systems in a variety of languages.
suffixes, word roots, idioms, and             2. Sociolinguists study how words from one language are introduced and used in
sentence structure                               another language.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners become aware of how long it takes to learn a language.
2. Language learners explore opportunities to communicate with speakers of the
target language.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Ø Demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their
own

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Mid
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-high expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Investigate the nature of culture through comparisons of the target culture(s) and the
student’s own culture and how the two cultures interact
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Research the relationship between             1. How does knowledge of another language enhance people’s understanding and
cultural perspectives and expressive             appreciation of culture and society in general?
products (music, visual arts, age-level       2. How can the identification of diverse cultures cultivate an understanding and
forms of literature) of the target               appreciation of the multilingual world?
culture(s) and their own                      3. How does language study develop a student's understanding and appreciation of
b. Begin to apply an understanding of the           his/her own culture?
form, meaning, and importance of
certain practices in the target            Relevance and Application:
culture(s) and their own                      1. Understanding different ideas about food and eating practices can help people
c. Describe and compare tangible                    working or traveling in other cultures to behave politely and helpfully.
products (toys, sports equipment,             2. People who send products to other countries for charity or business need to
food) and intangible products (concept           understand differences and similarities in products and perspectives between
of time, daily routine, peer                     cultures.
the target culture(s) to those of their
own
d. Identify the contributions of the target   Nature of World Languages:
cultures to the student’s culture and         1. Language learners describe a variety of cultural differences.
vice versa                                    2. Language learners research and report on cultural differences.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Ø   Demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied
and their own
Range Level Expectation: Novice-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Identify similarities and differences of the most basic vocabulary through comparisons of
the student’s own language and the language studied
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Recognize basic vocabulary in both the        1. How does knowledge of another language enhance people’s understanding of the
native language and their own                    essentials of language in general?
language to make comparisons                  2. How does a student identify most basic vocabulary and language patterns within
b. Recognize some simple structures in              his/her own language and the language studied?
the target language that differ from          3. How does the study of another language develop an individual’s ability to identify
their own language                               and understand critical thinking skills?
c. Recognize different pronunciation and
intonation of individual words and basic
phrases                                    Relevance and Application:
d. Recognize features of their native and        1. Linguists use databases, dictionaries, and interviews to analyze the meanings of
target language such as prefixes,                words and phrases in a variety of languages.
suffixes, word roots, idioms, and             2. Language researchers study word games (such as tongue twisters) in a variety of
sentence structure                               languages to learn about sounds and word structures.

Nature of World Languages:
1. Language learners experiment with a new language.
2. Language learners are eager to learn a language.
Content Area: World Languages
Standard: 4. Comparisons to Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Ø Demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their
own

Range Level Expectation: Novice-Low
The articulation at range level of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress
toward being ready for novice-mid expectations.
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Identify and recognize the nature of culture through comparisons of the target culture(s)
and the student’s own culture
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify the relationship between             1. How does knowledge of another language enhance people’s understanding of
cultural perspectives and expressive             culture and society in general?
products (music, visual arts, age level       2. How can the recognition of diverse cultures cultivate an understanding and
forms of literature) of the target               appreciation of the multilingual world?
culture(s) and their own                      3. How does language study increase a student's understanding and appreciation of
b. Recognize an understanding of the                his/her own culture?
form, meaning, and importance of
certain practices in the target
culture(s) and their own                   Relevance and Application:
c. Identify and compare tangible products        1. Understanding games and songs around the world can help people working or
(toys, sports equipment, food) and               traveling in other cultures to make friends.
intangible products (concept of time,         2. People who buy or sell things in other cultures need to understand differences and
daily routine, peer relationships,               similarities in products and perspectives between cultures.
culture(s) to those of their own
d. Recognize the contributions of the         Nature of World Languages:
target cultures to the student’s culture      1. Language learners identify cultural similarities.
and vice versa                                2. Language learners recognize and list significant cultural differences.
Music
Grade Level Expectations at a Glance
High School – Performance Pathway
1. Perform accurately and expressively, demonstrating self-evaluation
and personal interpretation at the minimal level of 3 on the difficulty
rating scale
2. Perform music accurately and expressively at the first reading at the
1. Expression of        minimal level of 2 on the difficulty rating scale
Music
3. Participate appropriately as an ensemble member while performing
music at the minimal level of 3 on the difficulty rating scale
4. Demonstrate requisite performance skill sets appropriate for
postsecondary pursuits
1. Improvise a stylistically appropriate vocal or instrumental solo over a
given harmonic progression
2. Creation of     2. Compose complex music in several distinct styles
Music          3. Arrange selections for voices and/or instruments other than those for
which they were written in ways that preserve and enhance the
expressive effect of the music
1. Interpretation of musical elements and ideas
3. Theory of
2. Classification by genre, style, historical period or culture
Music
3. Evaluation of music using critical, informed analysis
1. Practice of appropriate behavior during cultural activities
2. Evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of musical performances
4. Aesthetic       3. Development of criteria-based aesthetic judgment of artistic process
Valuation of Music       and products in music
4. Knowledge of available musical opportunities for continued musical
growth and professional development

High School – Generalist Pathway
1. Expression of     1. Present music expressively using appropriate technology
Music           2. Demonstrate informed participation in music-making activities
1. Extended improvisation over varied harmonic progressions
2. Creation of
Music          2. Create original music, or arrange the music of others, using
appropriate technology

3. Theory of       1. Discernment of musical elements
Music           2. Classification by genre, style, historical period, or culture
1. Practice of appropriate behavior during cultural activities
2. Knowledge of available musical opportunities for continued musical
growth and professional development
4. Aesthetic
3. Development of criteria-based aesthetic judgment of artistic process
Valuation of Music
and products in music
4. Informed judgments through participation, performance, and the
creative process

Colorado Department of Education         Adopted: December 10, 2009                        Page 1 of 159
Content Area: Music
Standard: 1. Expression of Music
Ø Employ musical skills through a variety of means, including singing, playing instruments, and purposeful
movement

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Perform music accurately and expressively demonstrating self-evaluation and personal
interpretation at the minimal level of 3 on the difficulty rating scale
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Incorporate all musical symbols,             1. Does musical expression have a language?
tempo indications, expressive                2. Why is it important to perform in all genres of music?
indications, and technical indications,      3. How would an event in history impact use of expressive musical elements of the
while maintaining consistent tone               time?
quality, intonation, balance, blend,         4. Why do Asian, African, Native American, Middle Eastern, calypso, and American folk
diction (vocal), and phrasing                   songs have different expressive qualities?
b. Demonstrate advanced techniques              5. Why do performers need to evaluate themselves?
c. Interpret nontraditional notation         Relevance and Application:
symbols                                      1. Synthesizing several expressive musical elements into one performance gives
d. Select appropriate literature for               listeners a rich, memorable, and unique experience.
performance (for solo or small               2. Using music software, musicians can isolate, emphasize, and blend expressive
ensemble)                                       elements in varying ways to change the message of the music to be interpreted in
e. Describe and defend interpretive                accordance with the musical expressions of varying cultures.
judgments                                    3. Using musical elements helps to interpret the message of the composer.
f. Explain how self-evaluation has              4. A musician conveys music using emotions and senses as a storyteller conveys a
strengthened the performance during             story.
the course of preparation                    5. Current technologies can be used to support and assist with performance, practice,
and evaluation (such as recording performances for evaluating expression and
technique).
Nature of Music:
1. Musicians believe the craft of music is enhanced through accuracy and expression,
which aid in the emotional and intellectual link between the performer and the
listener.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 1. Expression of Music
Ø Employ musical skills through a variety of means, including singing, playing instruments, and purposeful
movement
Ø Perform music with appropriate technique and level of expression at an appropriate level of difficulty in sight
Ø Demonstrate the processes of development of musical literature from rehearsal to performance, exhibiting
appropriate interpersonal and expressive skills, both individually and within ensembles

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Perform accurately and expressively at the first reading at the minimal level of 2 on the
difficulty rating scale
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
symbols, tempo indications,                2. How does strong intonation, balance, blend, and phrasing enhance sight reading?
expressive indications, and technical      3. Why do nontraditional notation symbols exist?
indications, while maintaining
consistent tone quality, intonation,    Relevance and Application:
balance, blend, and phrasing               1. Sight reading enables musicians to access varying types of music without having to
(vocalists, pitches only)                     hear it first.
b. Interpret nontraditional notation          2. Sight reading allows musicians from all backgrounds to play together in impromptu
symbols                                       acts of expression.
3. Music software enables a novice musician to sight-read more difficult arrangements
of music through playing notes aloud for ear training.
4. When musicians read music from sight, they are using patterns just as
mathematicians; scientists, and historians locate patterns to solve problems.

Nature of Music:
1. Musicians with the ability to sight-read are given diverse performing opportunities.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 1. Expression of Music
Ø Employ musical skills through a variety of means, including singing, playing instruments, and purposeful
movement
Ø Demonstrate the processes of development of musical literature from rehearsal to performance, exhibiting
appropriate interpersonal and expressive skills, both individually and within ensembles

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Participate appropriately as an ensemble member while performing music at the minimal level
of 3 on the difficulty rating scale
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Adjust tempo, dynamics, and                 1. Why is it important for musicians to adjust their individual performance to aid in the
expression, according to the conductor         success of an ensemble performance?
b. Adjust tempo, dynamics, and                 2. How does an ensemble communicate?
expression according to other               3. Does it require more or less musicianship to perform in an ensemble?
members of the ensemble                     4. How does culture play a role in the type of ensembles that are prevalent in society?

Relevance and Application:
1. Engagement in collaboration through ensembles enhances perception and requires
persistence in self-monitoring and decision making to work for the benefit of a
common, societal goal.
2. Use of ensembles varies depending on the era and culture.
3. Software companies have begun to develop programs that adjust musical elements
in real time as the performer adjusts in live performance.
4. Performers access a variety of instrumentations electronically versus hiring and
practicing with many instrumentalists.

Nature of Music:
1. Ensembles foster collaboration as well as interdependent thought.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 1. Expression of Music
Ø Employ musical skills through a variety of means, including singing, playing instruments, and purposeful
movement
Ø Demonstrate the expressive elements of music – including melody, harmony, rhythm, style, genre, texture,
voicing/instrumentation, mood, tonality, and form – through voice, musical instruments, and/or the use of
electronic tools

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
4. Demonstrate requisite performance skill sets appropriate for postsecondary pursuits
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify all major and relative minor      1. Why does each voice and instrument have its own timbre?
scales and arpeggios                       2. How does music communicate?
b. Identify augmented or diminished           3. How does a general knowledge of tone and form apply to postsecondary pursuits?
triads, starting on any given pitch
c. Produce a characteristic tone
d. Demonstrate ability to identify music
in other languages (vocal)              Relevance and Application:
1. Everyone can perform and respond to music in meaningful ways such as speeches,
electronic presentations, and live presentations.
2. Mastery of music performance skills can lead to success in other academic
disciplines, social activities, mass media pursuits, and several other career pursuits.
3. The persistent study of music develops discipline and resiliency that extends into
everyday life.
4. People can use electronic instruments as well as electronic and/or digital audio and
video devices to create performances that entertain and communicate with an
audience (such as using electronic keyboards or synthesizers, playing or singing
with digital audio software to record performance).

Nature of Music:
1. Creating and performing music are forms of self-expression.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 1. Expression of Music
Ø Employ musical skills through a variety of means, including singing, playing instruments, and purposeful
movement
Ø Demonstrate the expressive elements of music – including melody, harmony, rhythm, style, genre, texture,
voicing/instrumentation, mood, tonality, and form – through voice, musical instruments, and/or the use of
electronic tools

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Generalist Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Present music expressively using appropriate technology
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Present musical project based on the      1. How does pirating music effect composers’ lives?
use of original or borrowed musical       2. Why would one perform music from cultures other than their own?
material, or environmental sounds         3. What is the importance of performing music from different historical periods,
from one or more sources, using one          cultures, and traditions?
or more of the techniques of
sequencing, mixing, overdubbing, and
Relevance and Application:
layering
1. Understanding multiple career pathways through music allows for one to apply their
b. Articulate further learning
creative skills to many future vocations in the 21st century workforce.
opportunities for the above skills
2. The use of appropriate technology provides opportunities for meaningful musical
experiences and expression by individuals who may not be skilled performers in a
3. Using available technology methods such as music software, computer assisted
learning, and/or long distance allow ones’ learning to go beyond basic classroom
mastery of skills to explore and expand one’s expression of musicality and potential
career opportunities.

Nature of Music:
1. Engaging in the study of music develops one’s ability to think and work
interdependently.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 1. Expression of Music
Ø Demonstrate the processes of development of musical literature from rehearsal to performance, exhibiting
appropriate interpersonal and expressive skills, both individually and within ensembles

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Generalist Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Demonstrate informed participation in music-making activities
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Actively participate in music making          1. When looking at the community, how, when, and why is music used?
by singing or playing instruments             2. How does society benefit from individuals participating in musical activities?
through the medium of a “garage
band,” cultural or religious musical       Relevance and Application:
group, family get-together,                   1. Knowing how music affects human emotion, people can program appropriate
community ensemble, classroom                    musical genres for appropriate settings.
inter-disciplinary group project,             2. Understanding how composers earn money for their compositions leads to respect
individual music-making effort, music-           for copyright laws.
technology-based project or similar           3. Exploring copyright alternatives for granting or receiving limited rights to share
b. Articulate the benefits of participation      4. Describing how various art forms and cultural resources preserve cultural heritage
in music-related activities                      and influence contemporary art illustrates the interdisciplinary connections between
music and other art forms.
5. Promoting technology-based projects can incorporate diversity of interests and
musical abilities, and connect with the community at large.

Nature of Music:
1. Self-expression is embodied in personal musical choices and musical endeavors.
2. Participating in musical activities develops the ability to gather input through all the
senses.

Content Area: Music
Standard: 2. Creation of Music
Ø Display instrumental or vocal improvisation skills by performing extemporaneously what is created in the mind

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Improvise a stylistically appropriate vocal or instrumental solo over a given pattern of
harmonic progressions
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Play and/or sing individually or in         1. What is the meaning of “stylistically appropriate”?
ensembles, employing appropriate            2. How do jazz musicians learn to choose pitches that are integrated into harmonic
harmonic and non-harmonic tones in             configurations?
relationship to chords                      3. How does a performer develop a sense of what is appropriate in terms of rhythm,
b. Play in rhythmically appropriate style         pitch, and style?
(such as swing eighth notes if playing
bebop style)                             Relevance and Application:
c. Play extended cohesive musical ideas,
1. Spontaneously creating music within various styles allows performers and
not fragments, paced and shaped                composers to be relevant to a variety of audiences in a variety of settings.
appropriately according to length of        2. Understanding composers from different eras allows students to create music in
given solo
multiple genres, thereby improving their understanding of relevant history.
d. Vary musical material when re-              3. Composing in various genres allows students to realize the historical and cultural
approaching same harmonic
significance of music.
progressions (improvises rather than
4. Accessing recordings and Internet sources of historically authentic performances
composes)                                      gives students a unique perspective and basis for comparison of today’s culture.
5. Using music software to support or enhance vocal and instrumental improvisation in
various styles and harmonic progressions provides opportunities for musical
experiences outside the classroom.
6. Demonstrating adaptability by changing strategies when necessary to achieve
success transfers to critical abilities in other disciplines and life pursuits.

Nature of Music:
1. Musical improvisation provides for increased freedom of expression, exploration in
multiple genres of music, encourages creativity, and improves self-confidence.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 2. Creation of Music
Ø Create music by composing and/or arranging what is heard or envisioned, in notated or non-notated form,
with or without the use of music technology, demonstrating originality and technical understanding

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Compose complex music in several distinct styles
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Compose music incorporating                  1. Why is important to understand traditional notation when composing music?
appropriate voicing and ranges               2. How does the element of style affect choices of sounds, voicings, etc.?
b. Use a variety of sounds, notational,
and technological sources to compose
music
c. Notate original musical ideas using
traditional notation with a variety of    Relevance and Application:
clefs                                        1. The ability to create music provides a medium for meaningful self-expression.
d. Notate original musical ideas using          2. Understanding the use of traditional notation allows the preservation of original
nontraditional notation, as appropriate         musical ideas for others to use.
3. Understanding how composers make their livelihood leads to respect for copyright
laws.
4. Understanding how music applies to a variety of careers enables students to
5. Using current technologies expands the possibilities for working with sound and
making creative musical decisions.

Nature of Music:
1. Musical composition adds to the existing body of artistic works, provides for
preservation of unique ideas, and may be used as a means of expression.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 2. Creation of Music
Ø Create music by composing and/or arranging what is heard or envisioned, in notated or non-notated form,
with or without the use of music technology, demonstrating originality and technical understanding

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Arrange selections for voices or instruments other than those for which they were written in
ways that preserve and enhance the expressive effect of the music
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Arrange music incorporating                  1. Why is it necessary to understand instrumentation and voicing when arranging
appropriate voicing and ranges                  music?
b. Use a variety of sound, notational, and      2. How is an understanding of traditional notation important to arranging music?
technological sources to arrange music       3. How can one devise their own means of notating sound for others to use?
c. Notate arranged musical ideas using
traditional notation with a variety of
clefs
Relevance and Application:
d. Notate arranged musical ideas using
1. Recognizing and manipulating timbre and combinations of sounds allows one to
nontraditional notation, as appropriate         arrange music for a variety of settings and purposes.
2. Comparing an arrangement with the original work develops awareness of how music
is used to affect mood and action within society (advertising, patriotism, etc.).
3. Using timbres and combinations of sounds that are used in the music of a specific
culture leads to increased awareness of that culture and circumstances surrounding
the development of its music.
4. Changing musical elements within music by using various software programs
provides a means by which one can manipulate the character or mood of the original
work and demonstrate originality and inventiveness in work.

Nature of Music:
1. Musicians have an infinite number of choices with regard to combinations of musical
elements, all of which have a perceivable affect on the resulting character of the
musical product.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 2. Creation of Music
Ø Display instrumental or vocal improvisation skills by performing extemporaneously what is created in the mind

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Generalist Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Extended improvisation over varied harmonic progressions
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Improvise a rudimentary instrumental      1. Why is the skill of improvisation desirable to a musician?
solo over harmonic progressions.          2. How do musicians learn to choose pitches (and rhythms) that are appropriate for a
b. Improvise a rudimentary vocal solo           given harmonic progression?
over a harmonic progressions
Relevance and Application:
1. The ability to improvise a melody over a harmonic progression using technology as
a tool allows one to experiment with their ideas in a non-performance setting.
2. The freedom to experiment with improvisation provides for a wide variety of musical
possibilities, making each experience unique and relevant to the user.
3. Improvisation provides a means of musical expression and experimentation that is
not dependent upon a requisite level of technical skill.
4. Contemporary music relies on improvisation and manipulation of basic harmonic
progressions to deliver a “fresh” sound to the consumer.
5. Technology allows performers of all musical skill levels to improvise using voice or
instrumental modalities to create original works as a means of personal or group
expression.

Nature of Music:
1. Musical improvisation is relevant to other disciplines as well as in everyday life; a
means of problem-solving.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 2. Creation of Music
Ø Create music by composing and/or arranging what is heard or envisioned, in notated or non-notated form,
with or without the use of music technology, demonstrating originality and technical understanding

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Generalist Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Create original music, or arrange the music of others, using appropriate technology
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Create a musical product using              1. Why is it important to understand the basic elements of music (rhythm, tone color)
original or borrowed musical material,         when composing using technology-assisted programs?
electronic sounds or environmental          2. How does a working knowledge of standard music notation enhance the ability to
sounds from one or more sources                create original music when using technology as a tool?
b. Use one or more of the techniques of        3. Should contemporary musicians be allowed to use new arrangements of existing
sequencing, mixing, overdubbing, and           music to sell their own music? Why or why not?
layering

Relevance and Application:
1. The use of appropriate technology allows opportunities for creative personal
expression by all individuals regardless of musical skill and knowledge level.
2. Technology that may be used as a tool for musical expression is widely available, is
relatively simple to learn, and expands the opportunities for working with sound.
3. Music created in this manner may be used to enhance the relevance and
effectiveness of work in other disciplines (such as literature, visual art, and public
speaking)
4. The problem-solving and invention skills used to create original works or new
arrangements can be transferred to other real-world applications such as but not
limited to graphic design, highway engineering, software game design, and political
initiatives.

Nature of Music:
1. Musical technology makes it possible for anyone to participate in musical expression
without the necessity of involvement in formal performance activities.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 3. Theory of Music
Ø Demonstrate melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic aural skills through identification, transcription, and
vocalization or instrumental playback of aural musical examples

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Interpretation of notated of musical elements and ideas
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify musical elements in written      1. Why is it important to understand the different transpositions for various
form                                         instruments (such as Bb, Eb, C, etc.)?
b. Describe the uses of elements of          2. Why is it important to understand varied orchestrations in diverse repertoire?
music and expressive devices with         3. How can mathematical proofs be related to music?
appropriate musical vocabulary            4. Why is it important to know the timbre of each voice and instrument?

Relevance and Application:
1. Being able to transpose allows one to rehearse and perform with other
instrumentations.
2. Music technology, such as music notation and sequencing software or interactive
music websites, can be used to analyze and produce music notation.
3. Ability to compare and contrast aural examples from various cultures leads to
discernment of the unique qualities of the culture.
4. Utilizing accurate musical vocabulary allows people to communicate using the
language of music.

Nature of Music:
1. Musical sound is organized through the use of musical symbols.
2. Musical understanding requires gathering data through different senses.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 3. Theory of Music
Ø Read and employ the language and vocabulary of music in discussing musical examples and writing music,
including technology related to melody, harmony, rhythm, style, genre, voicing/orchestration, mood, tonality,
expression, and form

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Classification by genre, style, historical period, or culture
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Classify and describe unfamiliar but       1. Why should people examine music from cultures other than their own?
representative aural examples of           2. Why do some cultures not have a word in their native language for music?
music from a given musical genre and       3. How can we come to understand the connections of music and society?
explain the reasoning for the              4. How does music impact the video and film world?
classification (such as rock, jazz,
classical)
b. Classify and describe unfamiliar but
representative aural examples of
music from a given musical style and    Relevance and Application:
explain the reasoning for the              1. Historically significant events have an impact on current and future music.
classification (classical or baroque,      2. An understanding of distinguishing characteristics of musical genre allows people to
bebop or swing)                               articulate why diversity in music is important.
c. Classify and describe unfamiliar but       3. The Internet provides access to various genres and styles of music as well as music
representative aural examples of              from different historical periods and cultures.
music from a given musical/historical
period and explain the reasoning for
the classification (renaissance or
baroque, ‘80s pop or ‘50s rock)         Nature of Music:
d. Classify and describe unfamiliar but       1. The unique uses of musical elements are the determining factors for the cultural and
representative aural examples of              historical origins of a given musical work.
music from a given culture and
explain the reasoning for the
classification (Indonesian Gamelan or
Japanese Koto)
Content Area: Music
Standard: 3. Theory of Music
Ø Read and employ the language and vocabulary of music in discussing musical examples and writing music,
including technology related to melody, harmony, rhythm, style, genre, voicing/orchestration, mood, tonality,
expression, and form

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Evaluation of music using critical, informed analysis
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify basic elements of written           1. How does one develop the skills to analyze, assess, and evaluate music?
examples of music using appropriate          2. What determines someone’s criteria when evaluating music?
musical vocabulary                           3. How is personal preference for music developed?
b. Apply specific criteria from similar or
exemplary models in evaluating music
of compositions, arrangements, and
Relevance and Application:
improvisations
1. Being able to describe and analyze music gives one a more in-depth understanding
of music as a whole.
2. Evaluating compositions enables one to become a better performer.
3. Using appropriate vocabulary helps one successfully participate in various
performance activities.
4. Comparing an original work of music with an arrangement of the same piece
identifies ways to critique music just as comparisons of adapted works of art,
political speeches, or athletic performances are used to critique in society.

Nature of Music:
1. Musical knowledge is broadened through an informed viewpoint. Music evaluation
requires a developed understanding of music.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 3. Theory of Music
Ø Demonstrate melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic aural skills through identification, transcription, and
vocalization or instrumental playback of aural musical examples

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Generalist Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Discernment of musical elements
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Describe at a basic level aural          1. How do musical elements differ in music from various cultures?
examples of a varied repertoire of       2. Why is it important to be able to discriminate musical elements when listening to
music by describing the uses of             various repertoires?
elements of music and expressive         3. How can people learn to understand the use of the different elements of music?
devices with appropriate musical
vocabulary
b. Identify basic elements of written
examples of music using appropriate
musical vocabulary                    Relevance and Application:
1. The ability to compare and contrast the important musical elements from various
cultures allows people to understand the importance music plays in a particular
culture.
2. Digital technology can be used to hear musical compositions and allow one to
identify and describe the musical elements in the compositions.
3. Understanding how the elements of music affect the musical message helps people
to discern how music is used to influence society.
4. Using accurate musical vocabulary allows people to communicate clearly about
music.

Nature of Music:
1. All music uses the same elements but in different ways.
2. Knowing the elements of music helps people to understand music.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 3. Theory of Music
Ø Read and employ the language and vocabulary of music in discussing musical examples and writing music,
including technology related to melody, harmony, rhythm, style, genre, voicing/orchestration, mood, tonality,
expression, and form

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Generalist Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Classification by genre, style, historical period or culture
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Classify and describe unfamiliar but        1. Why should people examine music from cultures other than their own?
representative aural examples of            2. What is the importance of examining music from different historical periods, cultures
music from a given musical genre and           and traditions?
explain the reasoning for the               3. How, when, and why is music used in the community?
classification (rock, jazz, classical)
b. Classify and describe unfamiliar but
representative aural examples of
music from a given musical style and
explain the reasoning for the            Relevance and Application:
classification (classical or baroque,       1. Historically significant events have an impact on current and future music.
bebop or swing)                             2. Understanding distinguishing characteristics of musical genre allows one to
c. Classify and describe unfamiliar but           articulate why diversity in music is important.
representative aural examples of            3. The Internet provides access to various genres and styles of music as well as music
music from a given musical or                  from different historical periods and cultures and situates music in a cultural
historical period and explain the              context.
reasoning for the classification            4. Identifying the cultural characteristics of music aids in identifying and understanding
(renaissance or baroque, ‘80s pop or           different cultures.
‘50s rock)
d. Classify and describe unfamiliar but     Nature of Music:
representative aural examples of            1. Music is unique to function, nationality, culture, time, and other factors, but use the
music from a given culture and                 same elements.
explain the reasoning for the
classification (Indonesian Gamelan or
Japanese Koto)
Content Area: Music
Standard: 4. Aesthetic Valuation of Music
Ø Know the place of each of the participants in the performance environment and practice appropriate audience
participation; recognize the place and importance of music in life

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Practice of appropriate behavior in cultural activities
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate respect for the music         1. What is the importance of performing music from different historical periods,
preferences of others                        cultures, and traditions?
b. Articulate and demonstrate                2. How does gaining and applying knowledge of appropriate behavior as an audience
appropriate audience behavior in             member enhance the concert experience for an individual and for others?
various kinds of musical performance
and music-related events

Relevance and Application:
1. Historically significant events impact music during the time period and future.
2. Understanding music of different cultures helps people understand the culture as a
whole.
3. Understanding that technology may or may not be used in different cultural contexts
gives insight to a culture’s belief in the function of music and the quality of a natural
versus technologically enhanced performance.

Nature of Music:
1. Musical activities pertinent to a given culture are illustrative of the people of that
culture.
2. Giving attention to and demonstrating respect for those musical activities promote
understanding between individuals and ethnicities.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 4. Aesthetic Valuation of Music
Ø Make informed, critical evaluations of the effectiveness of musical works and performances on the basis of
aesthetic qualities, technical excellence, musicality, or convincing expression of feelings and ideas related to
cultural and ideological associations
Ø Develop a framework for making informed personal musical choices, and utilize that framework in the making
and defending of musical choices

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of musical performances
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Apply specific criteria from similar or      1. How will evaluating performances help someone become a better musician?
exemplary models in evaluating music         2. What qualifies a specific performance as exemplary?
by others or themselves                      3. What makes one performance effective over another?
b. Read and understand professional             4. What is the relationship between musical criticism and composers/performers?
critiques of musical works and
performances                              Relevance and Application:
1. Using audio or video recordings to critique a musical performance and compare it
with an existing professional review of the same performance builds understanding
of artistic license and exemplary components of a performance.
2. Reviewing individual progress in the preparation of a performance selection over the
full course of the rehearsal cycle, using digital recording technology to make periodic
recordings, and making reflective written review of each recording toward
improvement of performance reinforce the cyclical nature of critique and evaluation.
3. Participating in musical assessment exchanges, in which individuals partner with
others to exchange reviews of music works in progress, to improve performance
provides development of interpersonal skills required to make and accept criticism
effectively.

Nature of Music:
1. Musical performance skills are improved through the ability to critically evaluate
performances.
2. Performing musicians progress and improve through reflective review.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 4. Aesthetic Valuation of Music
Ø Make informed, critical evaluations of the effectiveness of musical works and performances on the basis of
aesthetic qualities, technical excellence, musicality, or convincing expression of feelings and ideas related to
cultural and ideological associations
Ø Demonstrate a nuanced understanding of aesthetics in music, appropriate to the particular features of given
styles and genres, as it relates to the human experience in music

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Development of criteria-based aesthetic judgment of the artistic process and products in music
Evidence Outcomes                   21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                       Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop criteria for making      1. Why is it important to cite specific musical details when making judgments about a piece of music?
informed aesthetic               2. What kind of personal viewpoints or concerns might prevent an objective aesthetic evaluation of a
(personal) judgments about          musical work or performance?
music                            3. Art philosophers argue the difference between the qualities and value of original works of visual art
b. Make and defend informed            and forgeries or the same works. What issues might be similar in music?
aesthetic (personal)             4. Is all music (and art) beautiful?
judgments based on the
criteria developed            Relevance and Application:
c. Discuss, with some               1. The ability to aesthetically critique music provides a more in-depth understanding of cultural
understanding, the ideas of         traditions and exemplary works.
aesthetic qualities and          2. Reviewing and discussing the ideas that early philosophers like Plato and Aristotle had about the
aesthetic appreciation              aesthetics of music provide historical and philosophical perspectives on the aesthetics of music.
3. Exploring the place of process, product, and aesthetic content in music creation and performance
enhances people’s understanding of the meaning of music and its relationship to meaning in life.

Nature of Music:
1. Musicians possess the ability to develop and defend opinions about personal musical choices
because it is essential to success in musical careers.
2. While many of the basic arguments about the nature of art and beauty began many centuries ago
and are still unresolved, it still expands people’s understanding of music and the arts to think about
these issues.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 4. Aesthetic Valuation of Music
Ø Know the place of each of the participants in the performance environment and practice appropriate audience
participation; recognize the place and importance of music in life

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Performance Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
4. Knowledge of available musical opportunities for continued musical growth and professional
development
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Articulate pathways to further musical      1. When looking at the community, how, when, and why is music used?
education including but not limited to      2. How does pirating music affect composers’ lives?
higher education, music production,         3. What kinds of opportunities are available for amateur music-making in American
community institutions, music-making        4. What kinds of people are involved in various kinds of community music efforts?
with others (interpersonal/friends),
personal music-making, and music in
everyday life
b. Articulate career pathways that          Relevance and Application:
encourage musical and artistic              1. Knowing how music affects human emotion, people can program appropriate
qualities for success                          musical genres for appropriate settings.
2. Understanding how composers earn money for their compositions leads to respect
3. Examining the music industry and career pathways that support music performance,
music media, and education provides an understanding of the variety of career
opportunities available through music.

Nature of Music:
1. Music can provide lifelong learning experiences, enriching lives as an avocation.
2. Music offers many nonperformance and non-instructional careers.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 4. Aesthetic Valuation of Music
Ø Know the place of each of the participants in the performance environment and practice appropriate audience
participation; recognize the place and importance of music in life

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Generalist Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Practice of appropriate behavior during cultural activities
Evidence Outcomes                            21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate respect for the music         1. Why is it important for people to recognize differences between music of various
preferences of others                        cultures?
b. Demonstrate appropriate audience          2. How does gaining and applying knowledge of appropriate behavior as an audience
behavior in various kinds of musical         member enhance the concert experience for an individual and for others?
performance and music-related events

Relevance and Application:
1. Historically significant events impact music and influence future musical events.
2. Understanding music of different cultures helps people understand the culture as a
whole.
3. Comparing appropriate behavioral expectations for music events in various kinds of
music genres and social and cultural situations creates a musically literate audience.

Nature of Music:
1. The universal nature of music encourages respect for and brings to light
commonalities between various cultures.
2. Music of the past provides insights into the events, people, and circumstances
responsible for shaping history.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 4. Aesthetic Valuation of Music
Ø Make informed, critical evaluations of the effectiveness of musical works and performances on the basis of
aesthetic qualities, technical excellence, musicality, or convincing expression of feelings and ideas related to
cultural and ideological associations
Ø Develop a framework for making informed personal musical choices, and utilize that framework in the making
and defending of musical choices

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Generalist Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Knowledge of available musical opportunities for continued musical growth and professional
development
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Articulate pathways to further musical      1. When looking at the community, how, when, and why is music used?
education including but not limited to      2. What kinds of opportunities are available for amateur music-making in American
higher education, music production,            community life?
music business, song-writing,               3. What kinds of people are involved in various kinds of community music efforts?
community institutions, music-making        4. How does pirating music affect composers’ lives?
with others (interpersonal/friends),
personal music-making, and music in      Relevance and Application:
everyday life                               1. Knowing how music affects human emotion, people can program appropriate
b. Articulate career pathways that                musical genres for appropriate settings.
encourage musical and artistic              2. Understanding how composers earn money for their compositions leads to respect
qualities for success                          for copyright laws.
3. Examining the music industry and career pathways that support music performance,
music media, and education provides an understanding of the variety of career
opportunities available through music.

Nature of Music:
1. Music can provide lifelong learning experiences, enriching lives as an avocation.
2. Music offers many nonperformance and non-instructional careers.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 4. Aesthetic Valuation of Music
Ø Make informed, critical evaluations of the effectiveness of musical works and performances on the basis of
aesthetic qualities, technical excellence, musicality, or convincing expression of feelings and ideas related to
cultural and ideological associations
Ø Demonstrate a nuanced understanding of aesthetics in music, appropriate to the particular features of given
styles and genres, as it relates to the human experience in music

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Generalist Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Development of criteria-based aesthetic judgment of the artistic process and products in music
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop criteria for making informed       1. Why is it important to cite specific musical details when making judgments about a
aesthetic (personal) judgments about          piece of music?
music                                      2. How can using specific criteria when making music choices improve the listening
b. Make and defend informed aesthetic            experience?
(personal) judgments based on the          3. How has music impacted the course of events in history?
criteria developed                         4. What are the criteria for qualifying as a work of musical art?
c. Discuss, with some basic                   5. What elements of visual art might be correlated to musical qualities of form, texture,
understanding, the ideas of aesthetic         voicing/instrumentation, emotional intensity, and mode?
qualities and aesthetic appreciation    Relevance and Application:
1. Informed judgments of music preserve cultural tradition and exemplary works.
2. Discussing and thinking about the concepts of beauty in the object versus beauty in
the eye of the beholder leads to a basic understanding of the meaning of aesthetics.
3. Attending a live performance and comparing it with a recorded version of the
performance provide an understanding of the differences in musical elements
between a digitized musical experience and a live musical experience.
Nature of Music:
1. Musicians possess the ability to develop and defend opinions about personal musical
choices because it is essential to success in musical careers.
2. While many of the basic arguments about the nature of art and beauty began many
centuries ago and are still unresolved, it still expands people’s understanding of
music and the arts to think about these issues.
Content Area: Music
Standard: 4. Aesthetic Valuation of Music
Ø Make informed, critical evaluations of the effectiveness of musical works and performances on the basis of
aesthetic qualities, technical excellence, musicality, or convincing expression of feelings and ideas related to
cultural and ideological associations

Grade Level Expectation: High School – Generalist Pathway
Concepts and skills students master:
4. Informed judgments through participation, performance, and the creative process
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate an awareness of artistic        1. What specific criteria are evaluated when judging a musical performance?
choices involved in the musical             2. What makes one performance of better quality than another?
process                                     3. What would be the impact on music if judgments were not made?
b. Use specific criteria when judging the
relative quality of musical
performances
c. Describe characteristics that make a     Relevance and Application:
composition or performance a work of        1. Researching musical selections that have been identified as works of art provides
art                                            insight to long-term selection criteria and the impact of societal norms.
d. Make and articulate evaluations and         2. Examining a work that has been identified as significant in any genre will provide
aesthetic judgments of musical works           ways to describe the characteristics that contribute to its significance.
and performances in the basic               3. The entertainment industry creates musical talent shows, music-based television
language of music criticism                    shows, and broadcasts of performances based on select criteria that rely on broad-
e. Combine evaluation and personal                based audience appeal to improve viewership ratings, which can convey a narrow
preference in making informed                  view of a society’s musical culture.
selection and participation              Nature of Music:
1. Increased understanding of what constitutes artistic merit as well as characteristics
of quality in music provide for better choices as a performer and consumer.
Appendix A

Colorado Choral Literature Difficulty Level Criteria

add: 2/2, 6/8 (compound);                                                                                                       any meter or combination of
Meter           4/4, 2/4, 3/4
meter changes
meters
alternating meters
Tempo           ritardando                  accelerando, tempo changes    rallentando, rubato
Largo-Presto
mosso, meno mosso
Largamente-Prestissimo

Notes and rests include:    add quarter note pickup and   add quarter and half ties           add 8th ties across barline,   add 16th ties across barline   add double dotted quarter;
notes and rythmic patterns    across the barline, 8th note         16th note pickup, swing       and the following rhythmic     uncommon tuplets
including:                    pickup; and notes, rests and       8ths, and the following rests   patterns:                      including 5, 6, 7 or more
Note / Rest Value &                                                             rhythmic patterns including:          and rhythmic patterns:                                      notes, complex and
Rhythm Patterns                                                                                                                                                                  combined tuplet rhythms,
and any complex mixture of
notes and rests
Dynamics          f, p
diminuendo
all dynamic indications
including legato-staccato,
Articulation       marks,
fermata
swing weightedness,
simultaneous marks
all forms of articulaton
staccato-legato (8th-quarter
syncopation)
3-part labeled I, II, III III is
SATB with one additional        6-8 voices, double choir,
Scoring          2-part treble               2-part with descant           in bass clef with limited
female voice possible         soloists
any combination
range
Selection Length     1-2 minutes                 2-3 minutes                   2 & 1/2 -4 minutes                         3-7 minutes             6 minutes +                    any length
Full normal range of voice,    Extreme ranges and
Ranges          Narrow, within one octave   Limited to one octave         Octave plus major third                  Octave plus 5th
some brief extreme             tessitura possible
Appendix B

Colorado Choral Literature Difficulty Level Criteria
Appendix C

Colorado Instrumental Literature Difficulty Level Criteria

add: 6/8 (simple), 6/4,                                                               any meter or
Meter                4/4, 2/4, 3/4         same as .5                   (compound); meter
3/8
combination of meters
changes                                                   5/8, alternating meters
Tempo                  Andante
ritardando                   accelerando                 rallentando, rubato
Largo-Presto
piu mosso, meno mosso
Largamente-Prestissimo
Note / Rest Value                               and notes and rythmic        across the barline, 8th     barline, 16th note            barline and the following   quarter; uncommon           combined tuplet
patterns including:          note pickup; and notes,     pickup, swing 8ths, and       rhythmic patterns:          tuplets including 5, 6, 7   rhythms, and any
& Rhythm                                                                  rests and rhythmic          the following rests and                                   or more notes               complex mixture of
Patterns                                                                 patterns including:         rhythmic patterns:                                                                    notes and rests

Dynamics                   f, p
diminuendo
crescendo/diminuendo
patterns including
attack, release, breath                                                                                           add: 2 or more
marks; Strings:        add: slur, staccato,                                                                   simultaneous marks,
Articulation        pizzicato, bow lifts,     accent; Strings: legato
accent, fermata; Strings:   weightedness, staccato-
double-tongued 16ths;
all forms of articulaton    all forms of articulaton
spiccato, staccato          legato (8th-quarter
slurs, ties                                                                                                 Strings: richochet
syncopation); Strings:
marcato
add: single grace note;                                                               all forms or                all forms or
Strings: trills
grace notes, double or        trills, mordents, turns
ornamentation               ornamentation
triple grace notes
sections functioning
less doubling of section     section functioning
independently with up to
section lines doubled, no   lines, occasional division   independently, with
3 parts (Strings: 4parts),
division within sections,   within sections, limited     section divisions into 2                                  Full range of
occasional exposed short                                  add: combinations of
division according to     division by tone color,      or 3 parts, limited                                       instrumentation,
solo sections, exposed                                    connecting solo lines       add: multiple
Scoring          range, rather than tone    homophonic and               exposed parts,
soli sections, sections
homophonic/polyphonic,
among several               contrapunctal solo lines
color, homophonic, with     occasional melodic           homophonic with                                           exposed parts for any
featuring full woodwind,                                  instruments
some question-answer       inversion as                 occasional contrapunctal                                  part within any section
brass or percussion
between sections        countermelody or brief       movement,
sections, limited
contrapunctal moments        countermelody/obligato
polyphonic texture
Selection Length          1-2 minutes           1 & 1/2 -3 minutes           2 & 1/2 -4 minutes          3-7 minutes                   6 minutes +                 any length                  any length
Drums: snare, bass;                                    add: Drums: bongos,
Drums: drum set,
Pitched: bells; Non-                                   congas, timpani (3);                                                                  All common and less
pitched: tambourine,                                    Pitched: marimba; Non-                                                                common traditional,         All percussion
Percussion Use      cymbals, woodblock,
; Pitched: chimes; Non-
pitched: gong, many
common traditional,           Latin, African and other
Latin, African and other    instruments
pitched: maracas, claves,                                Latin, African and other      ethnic percussion
triangle, suspended                                    common Latin, African                                                                 ethnic percussion
ethnic percussion
Appendix D
Colorado Instrumental Literature Difficulty Level Criteria

Flute

Oboe

Bassoon

Clarinet

Saxophones

Trumpet
Horn

Trombone/
Baritone

Tuba

Violin

Viola

Cello

Bass
Office of Standards and Assessments
201 East Colfax Ave. • Denver, CO 80203 • 303-866-6929
www.cde.state.co.us
Physical Education
Grade Level Expectations at a Glance
High School
1. Movement              1.   Participate at a competent level in a variety of lifelong physical
Competence and                activities
Understanding            2.   Understand the cognitive impact of movement
3.   Apply rules, principles, problem-solving skills, and concepts to
2. Physical and          1.   Establish goals based on fitness assessment data, and develop,
Personal Wellness             implement, achieve, and monitor an individual health and fitness
plan
2.   Identify community resources to maintain lifelong physical
activity
3. Emotional and         1.   Demonstrate respect for individual differences in physical activity
Social Wellness               settings
2.   Demonstrate collaboration, cooperation, and leadership skills
3.   Demonstrate responsible behavior in group settings
4. Prevention and        1.   Understand the risks and safety factors that may affect
Risk Management               participation in physical activity
2.   Demonstrate knowledge of safety and emergency response
procedures

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 1. Movement Competence and Understanding in Physical Education
Ø Demonstrate competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical
activities
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Participate at a competent level in a variety of lifelong physical activities
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Combine and apply movement                     1. Why are both skill-related fitness and health-related fitness taught? Why is each one
patterns from simple to complex to                important?
participate successfully in aquatic,           2. Which lifelong physical activities do you think you'll be participating in when you're
rhythms/dance, combatives, outdoor                20, 40, and 60?
adventure activities, and variety of           3. How does being healthy and active affect what one can do in life?
lifelong sports and games                      4. Why is it important for an individual to practice and learn sports skills?
b. Identify, explain, and apply the skill-
related components of balance,
reaction time, agility, coordination,       Relevance and Application:
explosive power, and speed that                1. Individuals participate successfully in a wide range of physical activities over the
enhance performance levels in                     course of their education, with the aim that such participation will continue through
aquatic, rhythms/dance, combatives,               an individual’s lifetime.
outdoor adventure activities, and              2. The knowledge and understanding of the concepts of movement improve
lifelong sports and games                         performance in a specific skill, and provide the foundation for the transfer of skills in
c. Explain and demonstrate advanced                  a variety of sports and activities.
offensive, defensive, coaching,
officiating, and transition strategies in   Nature of Physical Education:
lifelong sports and games                      1. Individuals who learn to move safely, effectively, and efficiently and who feel
d. Explain and demonstrate training and              comfortable and confident in the performance of motor skills are more likely to
conditioning practices that have the              participate in health-enhancing forms of physical activity throughout life.
greatest impact on skill acquisition           2. A strong foundation in physical education prepares an individual for a lifetime of
and performance in aquatic,                       physical activity.
rhythms/dance, combatives, outdoor
adventure activities, and a variety of
lifelong and individual and dual
activities

Colorado Department of Education                         Adopted: December 10, 2009                                              Page 2 of 202
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 1. Movement Competence and Understanding in Physical Education
Ø Demonstrate competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical
activities
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Understand the cognitive impact of movement
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate ability to combine and         1. How can movement facilitate or enhance learning in other disciplines?
perform movement sequences                 2. What is your favorite type of movement and why?
b. Identify parts of the brain and            3. How can one become more mentally prepared for competition and sports
describe how movement impacts brain           performance?
development                                4. When is anxiety helpful, and when is it harmful in a competitive situation?
c. Describe and participate in
movements that promote neural
pathway development
d. Identify and evaluate personal          Relevance and Application:
psychological responses to physical        1. Individuals participate in social activities that include rhythm, music, patterns, and
activity (i.e., anxiety/stress, etc.)         cross-lateral movements such as social dance.
e. Demonstrate the ability to use             2. Individuals understand the effect that stress, anxiety, and excitement can have on
cognitive information to understand           physical performance. People can take steps to control stress, anxiety, and
and enhance motor skill acquisition           excitement in their workplace.
and performance (i.e. left/right
dominance factor)
Nature of Physical Education:
1. Exercise is important for a healthy brain.
2. The important relationship between the brain and its impact on physical
performance and academic learning is integral in the development of the whole
child.

Colorado Department of Education                     Adopted: December 10, 2009                                             Page 3 of 202
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 1. Movement Competence and Understanding in Physical Education
Ø Demonstrate understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to learning
and performing physical activities
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Apply rules, principles, problem-solving skills and concepts to traditional and nontraditional
movement settings
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze and explain training and            1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of training and participating year-round
conditioning practices that have the           in one sport, or training and participating in multiple sports in a year?
greatest impact on skill acquisition        2. How does one develop an appropriate personal fitness program?
and successful performance in a             3. What techniques can be employed to maintain motivation?
variety of lifelong activities
b. Create or modify practice and training
plans based on evaluative feedback of
skill acquisition and performance in a
variety of lifelong activities           Relevance and Application:
1. Individuals develop and implement a fitness program that utilizes appropriate
training principles necessary for a lifetime of fitness such as jogging two days per
week, or lifting weights two days a week.
2. Periodically evaluate the effectiveness of one’s personal fitness program.

Nature of Physical Education:
1. The integration of the health and skill-related fitness components in designing and
implementing a personal fitness plan supports a healthy, active lifestyle.
2. Ongoing feedback and assessment are necessary to determine the effectiveness of a
personal fitness program.

Colorado Department of Education                      Adopted: December 10, 2009                                             Page 4 of 202
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 2. Physical and Personal Wellness in Physical Education
Ø Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Establish goals based on fitness assessment data, and develop, implement, achieve, and
monitor an individual health and fitness plan
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop and describe a physical               1. When one experiences a plateau in his or her fitness plan, what are options to
fitness plan that enhances personal              consider?
health and performance in future              2. How does one know that a fitness plan is effective?
leisure and workplace activities              3. How might one help a friend to develop personal fitness goals and a fitness plan that
b. Design and participate in activities             fits his or her individual lifestyle?
that improve all components of                4. How does your fitness plan compare to a friend’s fitness plan?
health-related fitness
c. Assess the components of health-
related physical fitness                   Relevance and Application:
d. Refine individual fitness goals for each      1. Individuals investigate such as by performing an Internet search the economic
of the five components of health-                impact of being healthy.
related physical fitness using                2. Individuals use health-related fitness software to compare fitness performance over
research-based criteria                          several years.
e. Examine fitness assessment data, and          3. Individuals use the Internet to research a physical fitness plan that integrates
develop a plan to show personal                  workplace activities.
improvement toward achievement of
fitness goals, including monitoring
personal levels of fitness within each
of the five health-related fitness         Nature of Physical Education:
components                                    1. Continually reassess fitness levels in order to establish and work toward meaningful
f. Evaluate individual measures of                  goals.
physical fitness in relationship to           2. Regular assessment of physical activity is important for physical well-being.
patterns of physical activity                 3. Be personally responsible for and monitor one’s own physical fitness goals.
g. Plan an extended personal physical
fitness program in collaboration with
an instructor

Colorado Department of Education                         Adopted: December 10, 2009                                           Page 5 of 202
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 2. Physical and Personal Wellness in Physical Education
Ø   Participate regularly in physical activity
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Identify community resources to maintain lifelong physical activity
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Identify and access physical             1. Should insurance companies pay for memberships to health clubs if they will help to
activity opportunities in the               prevent chronic diseases?
communities                              2. How do TV commercials and other fitness advertisements try to influence one to buy certain
b. Explain the requirements such as            products, and how does one decide on quality fitness facilities, equipment, and activities?
cost involved with participation in      3. If you could create the ultimate physical activity facility, what would it include, where would
a variety of physical activities            it be located, and how much would it cost?
c. Evaluate and make wise                   4. If you lived in a social sphere with absolutely no fitness resources such as facilities, modern
consumer choices about                      equipment, or the Internet, what would you do to reach and maintain optimal levels of
equipment, products, and                    health and fitness?
programs needed to successfully       Relevance and Application:
participate in a wide range of           1. Individuals access resources for physical activity participation throughout a lifetime such as
physical activities                         public gyms, parks, and swimming pools.
d. Evaluate the availability and            2. Individuals use a blog to compare and contrast physical activity opportunities in their
quality of fitness resources in the         community.
community                                3. Individuals select a piece of sporting equipment, and conduct Internet research and analysis
of brands and cost.
4. Individuals compare the cost of participating in an outdoor adventure sport such as
mountain biking and a community-organized sport such as basketball.
5. Individuals analyze the physical fitness messages in sports and athletic-related television
Nature of Physical Education:
1. There are a variety of activities used to improve and maintain lifelong fitness. Participating
in these activities likely improves quality of life now and in the future.
2. Regular participation in physical activity requires access to opportunities in the wider
community.
3. Taking responsibility for one's own health is an essential step toward developing and
maintaining a healthy, active lifestyle.
4. The revolution of health and fitness in the world and our nation is an ongoing evolution.
5. There are a number of ways to get physical activity outside of school.

Colorado Department of Education                         Adopted: December 10, 2009                                             Page 6 of 202
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 2. Physical and Personal Wellness in Physical Education
Ø Participate regularly in physical activity

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Participate regularly in health-enhancing and personally rewarding physical activity outside of
physical education
Evidence Outcomes                                 21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                     Inquiry Questions:
a. Participate willingly in a variety of          1. How should physical activity be prioritized between work and school?
physical activities appropriate for            2. Why is using a variety of physical activities important?
maintaining or enhancing a healthy             3. What are the pros and cons of participating in a variety of physical activities versus
lifestyle                                         specializing in one sport or activity?
b. Establish personal physical activity           4. If you had a chance to address the U.S. President and Congress about the importance
goals to accumulate a recommended                 of physical activity, what would you say?
number of minutes of moderate to               5. How are your current fitness goals likely to change over time?
vigorous physical activity outside of
physical education classes on five or       Relevance and Application:
more days during the week
1. Individuals make physical activity a part of an individual lifestyle at home.
c. Monitor physical activity in a physical
2. Individuals use technology such as computer spreadsheets to create and keep a
activity log through the use of fitness           physical activity diary or log.
equipment such as a pedometer or
3. Individuals compare and contrast the lifelong wellness benefits of participation in a
heart-rate monitor
physical education class versus participating in a high school marching band or a
d. Explain the benefits of participation in          varsity sport.
a variety of physical activities
4. Individuals appreciate the physical benefits of dancing.
e. Demonstrate effective time                     5. Individuals appreciate the physical benefits of walking or riding a bike instead of
management skills that allow                      driving a car.
opportunities for physical activity
during the day                              Nature of Physical Education:
f. Demonstrate the ability to monitor             1. There are a variety of activities used to improve and maintain lifelong fitness.
and adjust activity to meet personal              Participating in these activities likely improves the quality of one’s life now and in the
goals                                             future.
g. Participate in a variety of self-selected      2. Taking responsibility for one's own health is an essential step toward developing and
physical activities, and evaluates the            maintaining a healthy, active lifestyle.
value of each as it relates to personal        3. There are a number of ways to get physical activity outside of school.
fitness goals

Colorado Department of Education                          Adopted: December 10, 2009                                              Page 7 of 202
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 3. Emotional and Social Wellness in Physical Education
Ø Exhibit responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Demonstrate respect for individual differences in physical activity settings
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Acknowledge the performance of               1. Why do some attendees at sporting events behave so badly?
others, regardless of the outcome            2. What constitutes healthy competition?
b. Participate with others in all types of      3. What might one do if someone were being bullied because he or she showed poor
physical activity, regardless of their          physical fitness skills?
race or ethnicity, gender, or culture        4. If peer pressure were nonexistent, how would you determine your choices of physical
c. Practice conflict management and                activity?
listening skills in a competitive            5. How might one peacefully resolve a dispute between friends? Between people who are
atmosphere                                      not friends?
d. Demonstrate appropriate audience
and participant behavior during class     Relevance and Application:
performances                                 1. Individuals appreciate the diversity of physical activity experiences in the broader
e. Identify areas of personal weakness,            community such as visiting a park and seeing the variety of people engaged in
and complete an action plan for                 physical activities).
improvement                                  2. Individuals explain how social networking tools help to and hinder interpersonal
relationships.

Nature of Physical Education:
1. Physical education can help individuals from different backgrounds to work together
successfully.
2. Developing self-esteem, resiliency, tolerance, and coping skills support social and
emotional health.
3. In order for all participants and spectators to experience the maximum benefit from
games and sports, everyone must demonstrate knowledge and commitment to
sportsmanship, rules, and safety guidelines.

Colorado Department of Education                         Adopted: December 10, 2009                                            Page 8 of 202
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 3. Emotional and Social Wellness in Physical Education
Ø Exhibit responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Demonstrate collaboration, cooperation, and leadership skills
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Contribute to group success through a        1. Is it more important to have the most-skilled players on a team, or to have a team that
variety of noncompetitive roles                 demonstrates teamwork? Which has more influence on the outcome of a game?
b. Initiate responsible behavior, and           2. How do you choose to lead or follow in group settings?
function independently and                   3. How would a team look if all teammates’ behavior were the same?
cooperatively                                4. If you could develop the perfect team, what behaviors and traits would your players
c. Identify and utilize the potential              express?
strengths of each individual within a        5. What are some things one could do to show appreciation of opponents?
group setting                             Relevance and Application:
d. Influence positively the behavior of         1. Individuals participate effectively in groups across a variety of settings such as community-
others in physical activity settings            sponsored sports leagues.
e. Evaluate the role of cooperation and         2. Individuals describe how technology can aid a coach of a sport team.
positive interactions with others when       3. Individuals create and follow behavior modification plans for a variety of wellness areas.
participating in physical activity in a
4. Individuals describe how they could use technology to create and monitor an action plan for
variety of settings
physical activity.
5. Individuals create a document outlining proper etiquette for social networking sites.
6. Individuals react to negative events in healthy ways such as going for a walk after an
argument with a friend.
g. Implement cooperative learning
7. Individuals work effectively with a wide range of personality types in a job setting.
strategies to achieve group goals
h. Abide by the decisions of officials,         8. Individuals use technology to show appreciation of fans, officials, and teammates. For
accept the outcome of the game, and             example, they might design a website or blog.
show appreciation toward participants     Nature of Physical Education:
i. Identify contributions of members of a       1. Participation in lifetime sports requires cooperation and leadership skills.
group or team, and reward members            2. Character can be developed and supported through individual and group activities,
for accomplishing a task or goal                influence of positive role models, and involvement in community service and activities.
j. Compare and contrast different               3. Individuals can develop positive behavior patterns if they take personal responsibility for
leadership skills required in a variety         their actions.
of physical activities such as outdoor       4. Cooperation can help to solve difficult problems in groups or teams.
education and adventure activities,          5. In order for all participants and spectators to experience the maximum benefit from games
and weight training                             and sports, everyone must demonstrate knowledge and commitment to sportsmanship,
rules, and safety guidelines.
Colorado Department of Education                          Adopted: December 10, 2009                                              Page 9 of 202
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 3. Emotional and Social Wellness in Physical Education
Ø Exhibit responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Demonstrate responsible behavior in group settings
Evidence Outcomes                                  21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                      Inquiry Questions:
a. Engage in physical activity with others         1. How might one help a teammate with poor physical skills to be a team
b. Display empathy toward the feelings of             contributor?
others during physical activities               2. What might one do if he or she were assigned to a team with friends whom he or
c. Accept the diversity and individual                she doesn’t like?
differences in participation in physical        3. How might one respond if friends didn't want him or her on their team?
activity                                        4. How might one try to make a new team member feel welcomed to the team?
d. Accept the roles of group members
within the structure of a game or activity
Relevance and Application:
1. Individuals participate as both a leader and a group member in a variety of
settings such as a community-sponsored sports league.
2. Individuals describe how a social networking site could be used to include others
in physical activity such as using social networking sites to organize a game.

Nature of Physical Education:
1. Respect for differences can enhance group performance.
2. Character can be developed and supported through individual and group
activities, influence of positive role models, and involvement in community
service and activities.
3. The development of self-esteem, resiliency, tolerance, and coping skills supports
social and emotional health.
4. Individuals with different levels of physical skill can make a contribution to a
group activity.
5. Physical activities can be useful tools for getting to know other people.

Colorado Department of Education                       Adopted: December 10, 2009                                          Page 10 of 202
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Physical Education
Ø Apply personal safety knowledge and skills to prevent and treat intentional or unintentional injury

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Understand the risks and safety factors that may affect participation in physical activity
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Describe and demonstrate the correct        1. Are physical activities becoming safer or more dangerous?
use of safety equipment for a variety       2. What is the meaning of the saying, "No pain, no gain?” What's the potential harm in
of physical activities                         it?
b. Identify and apply principles from          3. What is the importance of fitness and nutrition to safe and efficient practices at
biomechanics and exercise physiology           home, in school, and at work?
necessary for safe performance of           4. Why is risk a positive aspect of physical activity?
physical activities
c. Demonstrate proper spotting
techniques for all lifts and exercises
Relevance and Application:
that require spotting
1. Individuals participate safely in lifetime physical activities.
d. Inspect equipment and facilities for
2. Individuals create a video demonstrating proper form for lifts and exercises.
safety hazards prior to participation
3. Individuals make good choices when confronted with a life-threatening situation.
e. Explain strategies for the prevention
4. Individuals identify proper safety equipment for different physical activities. For
of injuries when engaging in physical
example, they visit a sporting goods store, and compare safety equipment for
activity
different physical activities.

Nature of Physical Education:
1. Participation in physical activity requires attention to safety.
2. Participation in physical activity often involves controlled risk.

Colorado Department of Education                      Adopted: December 10, 2009                                           Page 11 of 202
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Physical Education
Ø Apply personal safety knowledge and skills to prevent and treat intentional or unintentional injury

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Demonstrate knowledge of safety and emergency response procedures
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate knowledge in one or               1. If you are not trained in first aid or CPR, how can you be of help in an emergency
more of the following areas: Basic first         situation?
aid, CPR, lifeguard training, water           2. When did you want to help with a problem, but couldn't?
safety instruction, basic water safety,       3. Why is it important to be trained in first aid, CPR, lifeguarding, water safety, and
and automated external defibrillators            AEDs?
(AEDs)
b. Describe emergency procedures for a
Relevance and Application:
physical education setting
1. Individuals assist in efforts to help someone in case of an accident or emergency.
2. Individuals use technology to practice skills in emergency first aid or CPR. For
example, they might take a CPR course at a community center.
3. Individuals can volunteer to work as lifeguards after they are properly trained.

Nature of Physical Education:
1. Everybody can save a life if given the proper training.
2. Safety and emergency response procedures are not limited to emergency medical
technician (EMT) professionals.
3. Understanding safety and emergency response procedures is important to the well-
being of the community.

Colorado Department of Education                        Adopted: December 10, 2009                                           Page 12 of 202
Comprehensive Health
Grade Level Expectations at a Glance
High School
2. Physical and        1.   Analyze the benefits of a healthy diet and the consequences of an
Personal Wellness           unhealthy diet
2.   Analyze how family, peers, media, culture, and technology influence
healthy eating choices
3.   Demonstrate ways to take responsibility for healthy eating
4.   Use a decision-making process to make healthy decisions about
relationships and sexual health
5.   Support others in making positive and healthful choices about sexual
activity
6.   Develop and maintain the ongoing evaluation of factors that impact
health, and modify lifestyle accordingly
3. Emotional and       1.   Analyze the interrelationship of physical, mental, emotional, and
Social Wellness             social health
2.   Set goals, and monitor progress on attaining goals for future success
3.   Advocate to improve or maintain positive mental and emotional
health for self and others
4. Prevention and      1.   The impact of individuals’ use or nonuse of alcohol or other drugs
Risk Management        2.   Analyze the factors that influence a person’s decision to use or not
use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
3.   Develop interpersonal communication skills to refuse or avoid
alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs
4.   Develop self-management skills to improving health by staying
tobacco, alcohol, and drug-free
5.   Analyze the factors that influence community and societal beliefs
that underlie violence, and describe relationships, attitudes,
behavior, and vulnerability to violence
6.   Analyze the underlying causes of self- harming behavior, harming
others and steps involved in seeking help
7.   Identify the emotional and physical consequences of violence, and
find strategies to deal with, prevent, and report them
8.   Access valid information and resources that provide information
9.   Demonstrate verbal and nonverbal communication skills and
strategies to prevent violence
10.    Advocate for changes in the home, school, or community that would
increase safety

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 2. Physical and Personal Wellness in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills to engage in lifelong healthy eating

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Analyze the benefits of a healthy diet and the consequences of an unhealthy diet
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Use nutritional evidence to describe a      1. How do you define "healthy eating"?
healthy diet and an unhealthy diet          2. If everyone had a healthy diet, how would diseases would be impacted?
b. Analyze and describe the relationship       3. Can frequent exercise make up for poor food habits (or vice versa)? Why or why
among healthy eating, physical                 not?
activity, and chronic diseases such as
heart disease, cancer, type-2
diabetes, hypertension, and
osteoporosis
c. Describe the importance of eating a      Relevance and Application:
variety of foods to balance nutrient        1. Nutritionists evaluate the diets and eating behaviors of others, and recommend
and caloric needs                              strategies for improving health.
d. Explain the effects of disordered           2. Restaurants and food companies respond to concerns among consumers about
eating and eating disorders on healthy         healthful food choices, and create menus and products to address those concerns.
growth and development                      3. Community leaders advocate for nutritious foods in public programs such as food
e. Analyze the relationship between               banks and school lunch programs.
eating behavior and metabolism

Nature of Health:
1. Healthful living requires an individual to act on available information about good
nutrition, even it means breaking comfortable habits.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 2. Physical and Personal Wellness in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills to engage in lifelong healthy eating

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Analyze how family, peers, media, culture, and technology influence healthy eating choices
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze advertising claims for               1. What might a media campaign to promote healthy eating look like?
nutrition supplements and weight-loss        2. If there were no food advertising, how might your diet be different?
products                                     3. How does body image affect behavior?
b. Analyze how family, peers, and the           4. How can you determine which claims about nutrition supplements and weight-loss, if
media influence food choices                    any, are true? What criteria can you use, and what supporting evidence should you
c. Analyze the influence of media on the           seek?
selection of products and services           5. How can personal economics influence food choices?
related to weight management
d. Analyze the influence of family, peers,   Relevance and Application:
culture, and media on body image and         1. Diet analysis software helps people to create healthy diets by providing extensive
the subsequent effects on eating                nutritional information.
behavior                                     2. School and community policies such as replacing soda machines with water and
e. Analyze how a positive or a negative            high-quality juices can influence healthy or unhealthy eating.
body image can influence eating              3. Food availability subsidies, farm policy, food advertising and cultural and media
behavior                                        messages influence nutritional choices.

Nature of Health:
1. Healthful living requires an individual to critically analyze all available information
about good nutrition, and make healthy, informed choices based on that
information.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 2. Physical and Personal Wellness in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills to engage in lifelong healthy eating

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Demonstrate ways to take responsibility for healthy eating
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Describe and explain how current           1. How can you use “Nutrition Facts” labels and federal nutrition standards and
federal nutrition standards and               guidelines such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans or My Pyramid to help to
guidelines are useful in planning a           make nutritious food choices as well as establish healthy eating habits?
healthy diet                               2. From a health perspective, how can you become a “wise” shopper?
b. Use information on food labels to
make healthy eating choices             Relevance and Application:
c. Demonstrate how to balance caloric         1. “Nutrition Facts” labels provide information that aid in making healthy choices.
intake with caloric expenditure to         2. Current research on how heredity and individual metabolism impacts caloric needs is
maintain, gain, or reduce weight in a         revolutionizing the wellness industry.
healthy manner                             3. Specific diet plans found in popular magazines, books, Internet sites, and
d. Set a goal to improve one’s personal          infomercials should be carefully evaluated for health benefits or consequences.
food choices that lead to a healthier
diet

Nature of Health:
1. Dietary requirements vary for individuals based on age, activity level, metabolism,
and health.
2. Healthy eating can influence physical, emotional, and mental health in a variety of
positive ways.

Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 2. Physical and Personal Wellness in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills necessary to make personal decisions that promote healthy relationships and
sexual and reproductive health
Concepts and skills students master:
4. Use a decision-making process to make healthy decisions about relationships and sexual
health
Evidence Outcomes                                       21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                           Inquiry Questions:
a. Define the characteristics of healthy                1. How can a personal decision to become sexually active affect one’s future goals and
relationships, dating, committed relationships,          options?
marriage, and family                                 2. How does one know when one is ready to become a parent?
b. Analyze the possible consequences of early           3. What kind of work is involved in being a parent?
sexual activity and the emotional, mental,           4. In order to achieve lifelong sexual and reproductive health, what should I plan for?
social, and physical benefits for delaying           5. Why are relationships important?
sexual activity                                      6. How do we learn to understand and respect diversity in relationships?
c. Describe how a person can choose to abstain          7. How do we know when a relationship is not worth saving?
from sexual activity at any point in time, even      8. How do we know when someone is being truthful online?
after having engaged in prior sexual activity     Relevance and Application:
d. Analyze factors that influence the choice, use,      1. Family structures, values, rituals, and traditions impact decisions regarding health, and
and effectiveness of contraception, including            vary from individual to individual, family to family, and culture to culture.
the availability of contraceptive methods            2. Various factors often create discrepancies between actual and perceived social norms
e. Explain the difference between risk avoidance            related to sexual activity among teenagers.
and risk reduction and strategies one can            3. Cultural and religious beliefs, popular trends and fads, and current and emerging
utilize for each as it relates to STD’s and              technological advances influence sexual and reproductive health.
pregnancy.                                           4. Analyze the physical, economic, emotional, social, intellectual, and cultural demands of
f. Analyze when it is necessary to seek help with           raising a child.
or leave an unhealthy situation                      5. Culture, media, and other people influence perceptions about body image, gender roles,
g. Analyze risks of sharing personal information            sexuality, attractiveness, relationships, and sexual orientation.
thru modern technology Evaluate how                  6. Prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, infections, and environmental
HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted                  hazards may affect the incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome, sudden infant death
diseases (STDs) or pregnancy could impact life           syndrome, low birth weight, and disabilities.
goals                                             Nature of Health:
h. Examine the responsibilities of parenthood           1. Decision-making can be affected by a variety of influences that may or may not be in a
i. Appraise internal and external influences and            person's best interest.
pressures to become sexually active, and             2. Tolerance, appreciation, and understanding of individual differences are necessary in
demonstrate strategies to resist those                   order to establish healthy relationships.
pressures                                            3. Technological advances continue to provide increased opportunities to develop
relationships anytime and anyplace with a worldwide audience.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 2. Physical and Personal Wellness in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills necessary to make personal decisions that promote healthy relationships and
sexual and reproductive health
Concepts and skills students master:
5. Support others in making positive and healthful choices about sexual activity
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate ways to encourage                1. Why would someone engage in intimate behaviors without first having the emotional
friends to remain sexually abstinent or         safety to talk about it?
return to abstinence if sexually active      2. What support do you need to assist you in making healthy decisions about sexual
b. Communicate the benefits of avoiding            activity?
or reducing the risk of unwanted             3. Why would a teenager choose to delay sexual activity?
pregnancy and sexually transmitted
diseases, including HIV
c. Communicate the importance of HIV
and sexually transmitted disease          Relevance and Application:
(STD) testing and counseling to those        1. Cultural and religious beliefs, popular trends, fads, and current and emerging
who are sexually active                         technological advances influence sexual and reproductive health.
2. Advocating to others at school or in the community regarding positive and healthful
choices about sexual activity creates an environment of open communication.

Nature of Health:
1. Leadership and advocacy to promote personal and community wellness can impact
the immediate community and society as a whole.
2. Reliable personal and professional resources are available to assist with sexual and
reproductive health problems.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 2. Physical and Personal Wellness in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills related to health promotion, disease prevention, and health maintenance

Concepts and skills students master:
6. Develop and maintain the ongoing evaluation of factors that impact health, and modify
lifestyle accordingly
Evidence Outcomes                        21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                            Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze the role of personal          1. Would one still need a doctor if one always ate "healthy," and always maintained an active
responsibility in maintaining            lifestyle?
and enhancing personal,               2. What could happen if everyone's medical records were open for public viewing?
family, and community                 3. How does one’s neighborhood impact one’s health?
wellness                              4. What are the obstacles to accessing health care?
b. Debate the social and ethical         5. Should medical research focus on promoting wellness or finding cures for known diseases?
implications of the availability
and use of technology and          Relevance and Application:
wellness                                 for developing illnesses.
c. Explain important health              2. Socioeconomic status and educational attainment impact health.
screenings, immunizations,            3. Public health policies are designed to protect the health of a community and can include
and checkups, including                  laws pertaining to air quality, food protection, solid waste management, hazardous waste
screenings and examinations              management, and water quality.
that are necessary to maintain        4. Behavioral and environmental factors can contribute to major chronic diseases.

Nature of Health:
1. Quality of life is linked to our personal investment in health and wellness.
2. Self-evaluation and self-regulation contribute to well-being.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 3. Emotional and Social Wellness in Health
Ø Utilize knowledge and skills to enhance mental, emotional, and social well-being

Concepts and skills students master:
1. Analyze the interrelationship of physical, mental, emotional, and social health
Evidence Outcomes                         21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                             Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze the characteristics of a       1. How do you recognize stress in others and respond with kindness and respect, and
mentally and emotionally healthy          offer assistance?
person
b. Describe how mental and emotional
health can affect health-related
behaviors
c. Evaluate effective strategies for
dealing with stress
d. Analyze the causes, symptoms, and   Relevance and Application:
effects of depression and anxiety      1. Individual, family, school, peer, and community factors can affect physical, mental,
emotional and social health.
2. Consistent access to real-time technologies can influence a person's stress level.
3. There are strategies that can relieve stress.

Nature of Health:
1. One's overall well being and learning are affected by physical, mental and emotional
health.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 3. Emotional and Social Wellness in Health
Ø Utilize knowledge and skills to enhance mental, emotional, and social well-being

Concepts and skills students master:
2. Set goals, and monitor progress on attaining goals for future success
Evidence Outcomes                           21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                               Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze why setting a personal goal      1. How can planning affect my future?
contributes to mental and emotional      2. How does future orientation and goal setting increase one’s mental, emotional and
wellness                                    social well-being?
b. Define a clear, attainable personal      3. Why is achieving a goal gratifying?
goal
c. Describe steps needed to reach
personal goals

Relevance and Application:
1. Setting goals can influence a person’s health.
2. Individual, family, school, and peer factors influence goal setting.

Nature of Health:
1. The ability to plan and set realistic goals can lead to a sense of well being and
positive mental health.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 3. Emotional and Social Wellness in Health
Ø Utilize knowledge and skills to enhance mental, emotional, and social well-being

Concepts and skills students master:
3. Advocate to improve or maintain positive mental and emotional health for self and others
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate effective and respectful       1. Why are some people embarrassed or afraid to speak up on behalf of others?
advocacy strategies in support of the      2. Why do we have biases?
needs and rights of others                 3. What if I found out my best friend was involved in something I had been raised to
b. Demonstrate support and respect for           believe was not right?
diversity
c. Advocate for positive and respectful
school environment that supports pro-
social behavior
d. Demonstrate how to communicate the      Relevance and Application:
importance of seeking help for mental      1. The Internet and other digital communications devices allow people from different
and emotional problems                        countries to correspond and learn about each other’s lives and culture.
2. Specialized support groups offer respectful assistance to those experiencing medical,

Nature of Health:
1. Mental and emotional health sometimes seems like a personal issue but others can
support and advocate for improved mental and emotional health.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills to make health-enhancing decisions regarding the use of alcohol, tobacco, and
other drugs
Concepts and skills students master:
1. The impact of individuals’ use or nonuse of alcohol or other drugs
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze healthy alternatives to               1. Why does it matter whether or not I understand there are relationships between
substance use                                    risky behaviors?
b. Predict the potential effects of an           2. What could happen if I relied on substances to solve situational needs that
individual’s substance abuse on others           confronted me (weight, trying to improve athletic performance, adrenalin rush...)
c. Analyze the consequences of using             3. Why is a person more likely to engage in risky behaviors when under the influence
weight-loss pills and products as well           of alcohol or drugs than when sober?
as and performance-enhancing drugs            4. What kinds of risks do people sometimes take when under the influence of alcohol
d. Analyze the relationship between using           or drugs?
alcohol and other drugs as well as            5. How can a person’s decision to use/abuse tobacco, alcohol, or drugs affect other
other health risks such as unintentional         people (e.g., friends, families, strangers)?
injuries, violence, suicide, sexual
activity, and tobacco use                  Relevance and Application:
e. Describe the harmful effects of binge         1. There are physical, financial, social, and psychological cost of addiction.
drinking                                      2. Rules and community laws related to the sale and use of tobacco, alcohol, and
f. Summarize the relationship between               other drug products are based on the potential risks of drug and alcohol use.
intravenous drug use and the                  3. Alcohol, tobacco and other drug use is related to the major causes of death,
transmission of blood-borne diseases             including driving a motor vehicle, and disease in the United States.
such as HIV and hepatitis

Nature of Health:
1. There are common indicators, stages, and influencing factors of chemical
dependency.
2. Knowledge about alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs inform decision making related
to personal wellness and the wellness of others.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills to make health-enhancing decisions regarding the use of alcohol, tobacco, and
other drugs
Concepts and skills students master:
2. Analyze the factors that influence a person’s decision to use or not to use alcohol, tobacco,
and other drugs
Evidence Outcomes                                  21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                      Inquiry Questions:
a. Evaluate strategies for managing the            1. Why would I choose not to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs when it sometimes
impact of internal and external                    feels like "everyone is doing it"?
influences on alcohol, tobacco, and             2. How do I make the "right" decisions?
other drug use                                  3. Is the teen brain the same as an adult brain?
b. Analyze the role of individual, family,
community, and cultural norms on the
use of alcohol, tobacco, and other
drugs
c. Describe the financial, political, social,   Relevance and Application:
and legal influences on the use of              1. Financial interests based in agriculture, lobbying, manufacturing and distribution
alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs                  support targeted marketing to maintain or increase sales of alcohol and tobacco.
2. Normal and daily socializing may present access to alcohol, tobacco and drugs.
3. As society changes and new drugs are developed, knowledge and skills about drugs
will need to be learned.

Nature of Health:
1. Culture, media and social pressures influence health decision-making related to
alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use.
2. Effective decision-making and communication skills and accurate information about
tobacco, alcohol, and drugs can help people make healthy choices that benefit
themselves and others.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills to make health-enhancing decisions regarding the use of alcohol, tobacco, and
other drugs
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Develop interpersonal communication skills to refuse or avoid alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate verbal and nonverbal             1. What would I say if my best friend wanted to drive home after drinking alcohol at a
ways to refuse alcohol, tobacco, and            party?
other drugs                                  2. Are some strategies more effective than others in getting people to stop pressuring
b. Demonstrate effective negotiating               you to use tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs?
skills to avoid riding in a car with         3. What could you say or do to convince a friend not to try or use tobacco, alcohol, or
someone who has been using alcohol              other drugs?
or other drugs
c. Demonstrate effective persuasion
skills that encourage friends and         Relevance and Application:
family not to use alcohol, tobacco, and      1. Communication skills will need to change as communication technology changes.
other drugs                                  2. Automobile technologies exist to prevent the starting of an ignition if alcohol is
present in the driver.

Nature of Health:
1. Knowledge and skills about alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs are needed to inform
decision making related to personal wellness and the wellness of others.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills to make health-enhancing decisions regarding the use of alcohol, tobacco, and
other drugs
Concepts and skills students master:
4. Develop self-management skills to improving health by staying tobacco, alcohol, and drug-free
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Develop a personal plan to improve           1. Under what circumstances, if any, is it "ok" to use alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs?
health by staying free of alcohol,           2. If you make a commitment to remain or become tobacco, alcohol, and drug free,
tobacco, and other drugs                        what support will you need to be successful?
b. Demonstrate the ability to monitor           3. How can remaining alcohol and drug free help you achieve your goals for the future?
personal behavior related to alcohol or
other drug use, including sexual
activity and other risky behaviors
c. Make a personal commitment to avoid
situations that put a person at risk      Relevance and Application:
due to the presence of alcohol and           1. Groups in neighborhoods and around the world exist to support alcohol and drug-
other drugs                                     free living.
d. Predict how a drug-free lifestyle            2. Many athletes promote and demonstrate examples of how clean lifestyles bring
supports the achievement of short-              success.
and long-term goals                          3. The use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs has short- and long-term psychological
and social effects on self and others.
Nature of Health:
1. Effective strategies can be learned to develop and promote healthy behaviors and
to avoid, reduce, and cope with, risky, or potentially unsafe situations.
2. Choosing a drug-free lifestyle can lead to a variety of health benefits, and can help a
person set and achieve important personal goals and lead a fulfilling life.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills that promote healthy, violence-free relationships

Concepts and skills students master:
5. Analyze the factors that influence community and societal beliefs that underlie violence, and
describe relationships, attitudes, behavior, and vulnerability to violence
Evidence Outcomes                                21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                    Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate tolerance for individual          1. Under what circumstances is conflict necessary?
differences                                   2. What are strategies for preventing a conflict from escalating?
b. Analyze the consequences of                   3. Is society desensitized to violence?
prejudice, discrimination, bias, racism,      4. Are all prejudices wrong?
sexism, and hate crimes
c. Analyze situations that could lead to
different types of violence such as
bullying, verbal abuse, hazing,
physical assault and fighting, dating      Relevance and Application:
violence, acquaintance rape, sexual           1. Police responsible for stopping and reducing crime often measure related symptoms
assault, and family violence                     and contributing behaviors which lead to fights, bullying, and assaults.
d. Demonstrate the ability to take the           2. Blogs, websites and social networks provide vast opportunities to see the
perspectives of others in a conflict             perspectives of others in a conflict situation.
situation
Nature of Health:
1. Personal responsibility is the first line of violence-freebehavior.
2. Individual differences are linked to personal perspectives.
3. Federal, state, and local laws are often written to prevent violence.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills that promote healthy, violence-free relationships

Concepts and skills students master:
6. Analyze the underlying causes of self-harming behavior and harming others, and identify steps
involved in seeking help
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze the signs and symptoms of            1. Why might someone think it is necessary to feel pain to feel alive?
people who are in danger of harming          2. Under what circumstances should you maintain a confidence with someone who may
themselves or others                            be at risk of hurting himself or others?
b. Explain how self-directed violence is
the result of the accumulation of
multiple problems rather than just one
problem
c. Summarize why it is important to tell
an adult if there are people who are in   Relevance and Application:
danger of harming themselves or              1. School and community resources for adolescent mental and emotional health
others                                          services provide support for those in need.

Nature of Health:
1. Knowledge about self harming behaviors informs decision making related to
personal wellness and the wellness of others.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills that promote healthy, violence-free relationships

Concepts and skills students master:
7. Identify the emotional and physical consequences of violence, and find strategies to deal with,
prevent, and report them
Evidence Outcomes                              21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                  Inquiry Questions:
a. Analyze how power and control               1. Is emotional abuse as harmful as physical abuse?
differences in relationships such as        2. What are the short- and long-term effects of emotional abuse and physical abuse?
peer, dating, or family relationships       3. Are the friends and relationships you keep a reflection of yourself or just a collection
can contribute to aggression and               of people to keep you company?
violence                                    4. How do I know what personal boundaries to set in relationships?
b. Analyze situations that could lead to
pressure to have sex
c. Summarize why individuals have the
right to refuse sexual contact           Relevance and Application:
d. Analyze the effects of emotional abuse      1. School and community resources for domestic violence, abuse and rape are
e. Analyze how media messages                     available to those in need.
normalize violence                          2. Power and control differences affect personal relationships.
f. Explain the risks associated with
choosing friends who use substances
Nature of Health:
and violence to solve problems
1. Personal strategies can be learned to develop and enhance healthy behaviors and to
avoid unsafe situations.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills that promote healthy, violence-free relationships

Concepts and skills students master:
8. Access valid information and resources that provide information about sexual assault and
violence
Evidence Outcomes                             21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                 Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate the ability to access          1. Who can I trust to talk to about sexual assault and personal violence?
resources such as rape crisis centers      2. Under what circumstances should you maintain a confidence with someone who has
that provide accurate information             been sexually assaulted?
about sexual assault and sexual            3. When is it most important to turn to adult resources and/or school or community
violence                                      authorities for help?
b. Demonstrate the ability to locate
reliable school and community
resources to assist with problems
related to violence                     Relevance and Application:
1. School and community resources are available to assist individuals with problems
related to violence.

Nature of Health:
1. Personal strategies can be learned to develop and enhance healthy behaviors and to
avoid, reduce, and cope with unhealthy, risky, or potentially unsafe situations.
2. The school and community provide valuable resources to support adolescent mental
and emotional health, including providing immediate aid, protection, or shelter
following an act of violence.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Health
Ø Apply knowledge and skills that promote healthy, violence-free relationships

Concepts and skills students master:
9. Demonstrate verbal and nonverbal communication skills and strategies to prevent violence
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Demonstrate verbal and nonverbal             1. How can I stop violence and still keep my friends?
ways to ask for help from a parent,          2. How can I tell if someone needs help?
other trusted adult, or friend when          3. What are different strategies for helping someone who may be at risk of being a
pressured to engage in violence                 victim of violence?
b. Demonstrate verbal and nonverbal             4. When does good-natured teasing become hazing?
ways to refuse pressure to engage in
violence
c. Demonstrate strategies that could be
used to prevent a conflict from
starting or escalating                    Relevance and Application:
d. Demonstrate effective strategies for         1. Effective conflict resolution strategies—both verbal and non-verbal are learned over
resolving conflicts with another person         time when the temptation to accept pressure is resisted.
in nonviolent ways                           2. Hostage negotiators utilize conflict resolution strategies to avoid violence and the
e. Demonstrate verbal and nonverbal                escalation of conflict.
ways to stop or prevent hazing               3. Effective refusal skills can be used to resist pressures to engage in unhealthy
behaviors and situations.

Nature of Health:
1. Personal strategies can be learned to develop and enhance healthy behaviors and to
avoid, reduce, and cope with unhealthy, risky, or potentially unsafe situations.
Content Area: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
Standard: 4. Prevention and Risk Management in Health
Ø Apply personal safety knowledge and skills to prevent, and treat unintentional injury

Concepts and skills students master:
10.        Advocate for changes in the home, school, or community that would increase safety
Evidence Outcomes                               21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:                                   Inquiry Questions:
a. Determine situations and                     1. What can you do to increase the chances of being safe?
environments that could lead to              2. What conditions are most likely to increase the risk of injury? Which are under your
unsafe risks that cause injuries                control?
b. Explain ways to reduce the risk of           3. Why does risky behavior sometimes seem fun?
injuries while biking or driving motor
vehicles such as automobiles,
snowmobiles, and jet skis, including
cell phone use and texting
c. Advocate for others to not use alcohol    Relevance and Application:
or other drugs when biking, driving, or      1. Insurance companies advocate for safe practices.
riding in a car                              2. Employers reward employees at work for reduced injuries and constantly remind
d. Advocate for changes at home, in                workers to be safe.
school, or in the community that             3. Underwriters Laboratory is the nation’s authority on product safety and preventable
would increase safety – such as                 injury concerns.
testing smoke detectors,
implementing a fire escape plan, and      Nature of Health:
erecting fencing around swimming             1. Advocating for better results is a trait which serves others.
pools                                        2. Effective strategies can be learned for avoiding and reducing the risk of harm in
unhealthy or potentially unsafe situations.

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