architecture" comes from the Latin and Greek words meaning
is the activity of designing and
constructing buildings and
other physical structures by a
person or a machine, primarily
to provide shelter.
As people move through a space, architecture is experienced as
a time sequence.
Even though our culture considers architecture to be a visual
experience, other senses play a role in how we experience both
natural and built environments.
Architectural works are perceived as cultural and political
symbols and works of art.
Historical civilizations are often known primarily through their
architectural achievements. Such buildings as the pyramids of
Egypt and the Roman Colosseum are cultural symbols, and are
an important link in public consciousness.
Cities, regions and cultures continue to identify themselves with
(and are known by) their architectural monuments
According to 1st Century Romans, a good
building should satisfy three principles:
•Durability - it should stand up robustly and
remain in good condition.
•Utility - it should be useful and function well
for the people using it
•Beauty - it should delight people and raise
Architecture first evolved out of the dynamics between
needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means
(available building materials and worker skills).
As human cultures developed and knowledge began to
be formalized through training and practices,
architecture became a craft.
What is termed Vernacular architecture continues to
be produced in many parts of the world and is a term
used to categorize methods of construction used locally
with available resources to address local needs.
Vernacular architeture tends to evolve over time to
reflect the environment, cultural and historical context in
which it exists.
Vernacular architecture are the
dwellings and all other buildings of
the people. Customarily owner- or
community-built, utilizing traditional
technologies. Built to meet specific
needs, accommodating the values,
economies and ways of life of the
cultures that produce them.
On the difference between the ideals of
"architecture" and mere”construction” the
renowned 20th C. architect Le Corbusier
"You employ stone, wood, and concrete, and
with these materials you build houses and
palaces: that is construction. Ingenuity is at
work. But suddenly you touch my heart, you do
me good. I am happy and I say: This is
beautiful. That is Architecture".
Air Force Academy Chapel · Colorado Springs, Colorado
Allen Art Museum Addition · Oberlin, Ohio
Private home near
Bank of China Tower · Hong Kong
Barcelona Pavilion · Barcelona, Spain
Centre Le Corbusier · Zurich, Switzerland
main facade overview · East Wing, National Gallery · Washington, D.C.
overview from a
distance, on axis ·
Eiffel Tower · Paris,
Farnsworth House ·Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, at Plano, Illinois, 1946 to 1950
Exterior overview · Guggenheim Museum Bilbao · Bilbao, Spain
Around the world, spiritual beliefs have
inspired great architecture.
Architecture such as famous churches,
cathedrals, temples, shrines, mosques,
and other buildings designed for prayer,
reflection, and religious worship.
In the 5th
St. Patrick's Cathedral is the largest church and oldest Christian site in Ireland.
Frank Lloyd Wright's revolutionary Unity Temple was one of the earliest
public buildings constructed of poured concrete
Unity Temple was one of Frank Lloyd Wright's favorite
He was asked to design the church in 1905 after a storm
destroyed the wooden structure. At the time, Frank Lloyd
Wright's plan for a cubist building made of concrete was
revolutionary. Wright choose concrete because it was, in
his words, "cheap," and yet could be made as dignified
as traditional masonry. Unity Temple was constructed
between 1906 and 1908 at a cost of about $60,000. The
concrete was poured in place into wooden molds. Frank
Lloyd Wright hoped that the building would express the
powerful simplicity of ancient temples, and he suggested
that it be called a "temple" instead of a church.
Chartres is one
of the most
France, and is
The new main synagogue in Munich, Germany was built in 2006 on the site
of the old one destroyed during the Kristallnacht.
Built in 1973-76, Bagsværd Church was designed by Pritzker Prize-winning
architect Jørn Utzon
Neue Synagogue is in the Scheunenviertel District (Barn Quarter), in the
heart of Berlin's once large Jewish district.
known for the
beauty of its
Christian and Islamic architecture combine in the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul,
chapel of Saint
Peter for an
Caliph Abd al-Malik"
(Dome of the Rock
Mosque) is the oldest
surviving example of
Islamic architecture. It
was built between 685
Designed by architect Otto Wagner, Rumbach Synagogue in Budapest, Hungary
is Moorish in design.
The world's largest complex of sacred temples, Angkor, Cambodia, was a
finalist in the campaign to choose the "New 7 Wonders of the World."
The cathedral was
1748 and 1764.
Josefov, the Jewish
quarter of Prague, is the
oldest synagogue in
Europe that is still in
used as a place of
Founded in 1316 by the Earl of Kildare, the Adare Friary was once known
as the Black Abbey.
Today, Adare Friare is St. Nicholas' parish church and school.
Architecture blends with nature at the Buddhist Kiyomizu Temple in Kyoto, Japan.
Catholic Cathedral in
the Kremlin, Moscow,
Russia, built in 1475-
The architect was
Designed by architect Michel Pinseau, Hassan II Mosque is the largest
religious monument in the world after Mecca. Casablanca, Morocco
Built in 1714, the Church of the Transfiguration is made entirely of wood.
Towering over Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil, the
statue was a finalist in
the campaign to
choose New 7
Wonders of the World.
Also called the
Cathedral of the
Protection of the
Mother of God, St.
Basil's Cathedral was
built between 1554 and
Artist and architectural designer James Hubbell used wood, metal, and
stained glass to sculpt Sea Ranch Chapel near Gualala, on the coast of
Built during the
Constructed between 1137 and 1144, the Church of Saint-Denis marks the
beginning of the Gothic style in Europe.
Antoni Gaudí, La
or Holy Family
begun in 1882 in
continued for more
than a century.
has a monastery
founded by St, Kevin,
a hermit monk, in the
early 600s and
several old churches
like this one.
Although built of
roughhewn logs in the
14th century, the
churches of Kizhi, Russia
are surprisingly complex.
The Cathedral of
(also called La
Barcelona is both
The Wieskirche, or
Church of the
Scourged Saviour is
a masterpiece of
one of the
Frank Lloyd Wright
(born Frank Lincoln
Wright, June 8, 1867
– April 9, 1959) was
an American (of
designer, writer and
designed more than
1,000 projects, which
resulted in more than
500 completed works
Organic architecture is a philosophy of architecture
which promotes harmony between human habitation and
the natural world through design approaches so
sympathetic and well integrated with its site that
buildings, furnishings, and surroundings become part of
a unified, interrelated composition.
"Let the design:
be inspired by nature and be sustainable, healthy,
conserving, and diverse.
follow the flows and be flexible and adaptable.
"grow out of the site" and be unique.
A well known example of organic architecture is
Fallingwater, the residence Frank Lloyd Wright designed
for the Kaufman family in rural Pennsylvania.
Wright had many choices
to locate a home on this
large site, but chose to
place the home directly
over the waterfall and
creek creating a close, yet
noisy dialog with the
rushing water and the
steep site. The horizontal
striations of stone masonry
with daring cantilevers of
colored beige concrete
blend with native rock
outcroppings and the
Fallingwater, also known as the Edgar J. Kaufmann
Sr. Residence, is in 1935 in rural southwestern
Pennsylvania, 50 miles southeast of Pittsburgh,
National Register of Historic Places (NRHP)
Hailed by TIME magazine shortly after
its completion as Wright's "most beautiful
job," the home inspired Ayn Rand's
novel The Fountainhead, and is listed
among Smithsonian magazine's Life List
of 28 places "to visit before ...it's too
late." Fallingwater was featured in Bob
Vila's A&E Network production, Guide to
Historic Homes of America.
The Kaufmanns had a summer camp for the
department store employees, located along a
mountain stream called Bear Run. When the Great
Depression made daily living so hard for so many
people, the employees no longer had time or money
to come up to Kaufmanns Summer Camp. But Mr.
and Mrs. Kaufmann and their son dearly loved the
mountains, and decided to make the summer camp
their own country estate.
They owned Kaufmann’s Department Store, a very
exciting and elegant place to shop in the 1930s. (Today, it
is part of the Macy’s chain). Edgar Kaufmann and his wife,
Liliane, had one son, Edgar jr.
Final cost: $155,000 (Included $8,000
architect’s fees, and $4,500 for installed
Square footage: The main house uses
5,330 square feet. (2885 sq. ft.
interior; 2445 sq. ft. terraces) while the
guest house uses 1,700 square. feet.
Visitation: 4 million people since opening
our doors in 1964, with 145,470 in 2007
Homes are now more energy efficient.
They are more sustainable and will last
The architects are more aware of
things that do damage to
They are trying to avoid and eventually
completely abolish all the parts of
architecture that are unhealthy. Homes
now are healthier than they were years
They meet health codes and safety
standards, and now look towards the
future as part of their design.
The new addition complements the historic school building
programmatically and urbanistically, creating a two-building
campus within the university's academic district.
Crosstown 116 St.
This project was created in the fourth
year studio at the New York City College
Cross-town 116 St. is a joint venture between
Architecture schools in New York, the U.N
Habitat agenda the AIA New York Chapter and
the Harlem community. The project is an
important part of the Upper Manhattan
Empowerment Zone enacted by the Federal
Government for the revitalization of the Harlem
116 St. is a wide two way street with
commercial, civic, cultural and urban growth
potential. It was chosen as a focal point
because it has been slightly neglected in
development comparing to other cross-town
streets in the area.
These images of the street represent our
personal impression of it. The street is divided
along its path into several areas. Each area
has a certain anchor and a unique character.
Today these parts are separated by large
open lots, elevation differences, upper railway
tracks and more elements that break it to
There is potential to unify it to a certain level
but we also felt strongly about the importance
of the individual personalities of each part.
The Spanish area, Mosque area, Harlem
Market and more
The site is the location of the Washborn Wire factory which has been
closed for the past twenty years. It spreads over three block along the
highway. There is no direct access from the area to the water front. 116
St. ends at the highway entrance. There are two schools one on each
side of the site
“The First issue we had to deal with was the Highway.
The noise and pollution it creates makes the site
unsuitable for housing together with blocking access to
the water front. We investigated options”
1. Raising the project gradually above the highway or
lowering the road to go underground thus eliminating the
noise and traffic.
We chose to create a
gradual climb of elevation for
the whole site and create a
park on top of the highway.
Designating open spaces. It
was very important for us to
define very clearly the purpose
and identity of the open
spaces. The relations between
public areas, semi public
(blocks), semi private and
private spaces has lead us to
different solutions for the
This is our image of vertical
community layers and
housing types. Creating different
on top of each other.
116 St. is
diverted into the
project and climbs
through a public
by a community
and a small
shopping area. This
leads to the water
and down to a boat
basin with cafe's.
This is the plan of the first floor in
one block. The block surrounds a
courtyard. There is direct access
from the units to the courtyard. We
tried to create a buffer zone
between the unit and the public
space both on the street side and
the courtyard side. The way the
units relate to the street is through
a space outside the front door
which is defined by a small change
in elevation and some plants. We
expect the tenants to personalize
this space and give it there own
This is the sixth floor. This is
the circulation level for the
the top part of our Housing
Project. It sits on top of the
units accessed directly from
the street. The access is
through a number of
elevators that provide the
vertical access and feeds
this Sky Walk. The units are
of different types and range
from large lofts to small
studio apartments. The Sky
Walk feeds three levels, fifth
(one down), sixth, and
seventh (one up). This way
we try to create a whole
community with a roof
garden and a roof
Block Section & Elevations
City Planners in the Bureau of Planning work to develop plans,
policies, and strategies to guide the City’s future.
Architect vs. City Planner….?
MLHS goes DIY…….
Modern Makeover Project
Students will select a local
building to redesign or renovate
for the 21st century.
This building must be in an area
that can be photographed-
(it cannot be within your
Students will develop groups of 3- creating their
own “Architectural Firm”. (When developing your
firm- you need to consider who will play what
role in the project. Don’t just pick a friend..
because you want to gab!)
Who will develop the logo, take pictures of your
building, print the pictures, work on design
sketches, prepare notes for the presentation,
develop the presentation board, create color
design sketches, gather materials for your scale
model, assemble what part of model, work on
interior color sketches, prepare for your formal
proposal, make sure all areas in project are met,
document process for team, etc.)
“Firms” will create a Logo for their firm and use
that Logo in their presentation for approval.
Presentations will include a 8 ½ x 11 color
logo, photographs of their building from at least
3 view points, sketches with ideas of their
redesign/ renovation, and plans for developing
a scale model (what materials will be used)
“Firms” will present their proposals to the
teacher/s for approval. (If presentations are not
accepted, students will have to rework design
ideas and repeat presentation).
Firms will then construct a
scale model of their design
(1 ft. = 1/8”)
Using a variety of materials.
Firms will present their completed
project in a planned and professional
(As if students are competing for the job)
Students will submit a
formal written analysis of the
….referring back to all notes
Notes & Chapter Reviews (individual) January 26, 2009 200 points (50 pts. ea.)
Notes from Chapter 16
Review Questions (16.1 & 16.2)
Project Proposal Presentation (group February 5 -6, 2009 500 points
List of group members responsibilities
Photographs of building (3+)
Research about building
Research on structural design and
ways to make the building modern
Color Design Sketches
Information about scale project
Materials to be used
Project Submission Presentation (group February 26-27, 2009 350 points
List of groups completed tasks
How renovation changed community
Color interior Sketches
Information about scale project
Scale Model with interior color sketches February 26-27, 2009 200 points
March 3, 2009 100 points
Written Reflection (individual)