Docstoc

Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.-2005-Markowitz-850-1

Document Sample
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.-2005-Markowitz-850-1 Powered By Docstoc
					850                                                                                                  Nephrol Dial Transplant (2005) 20: 850
effect is apparent, with an increasing risk of renal side                three tablets with at least 8 oz (227 g) clear liquids every
effects as the number of administered doses increases. Our               15 min, for a total of 20 tablets, both the evening before
patient’s liver function was deranged, possibly due to                   and again the morning of colonoscopy. The cumulative dose
granulomatous hepatitis, which has been described in this                of 40 tablets contains 44.08 g sodium phosphate monobasic
setting [2].                                                             monohydrate (USP) and 15.92 g sodium dibasic anhydrous
   Treatment with prednisolone and anti-tuberculous                      (USP) for a total of 60 g sodium phosphate. Visicol has been
chemotherapy was based on advice found in the literature                 shown to be an effective and safe bowel purgative [1,2].
[2,4,5]. Prednisolone at a starting dose of 40 mg daily, tapering        We describe a case of acute renal failure (ARF) with sustained
over 3 months as response occurs, plus isoniazid and                     loss of renal function following use of Visicol.
rifampicin for 6 months, represents current optimal therapy.                A 44-year-old Caucasian male presented for evaluation
Prognosis appears good, though some renal impairment may                 of renal dysfunction. The patient had mild chronic renal
persist.                                                                 insufficiency (CRI) with a creatinine of 1.5 mg/dl (normal
   We have described a patient with acute renal failure due to           range: 0.7–1.5 mg/dl) in August 2002 and 1.7 mg/dl in early
tubulointerstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis following            December 2003. In early February 2004, the patient was
intravesical BCG treatment who recovered with steroids                   found to have a creatinine of 2.6 mg/dl and was referred for
and antituberculous chemotherapy. The diagnosis should                   nephrological consultation.
be considered in at-risk patients, and established with early               Past medical history was significant for coronary artery
renal biopsy, as the outcome appears to be better when                   disease, requiring multiple percutaneous interventions (PCIs)
treatment is initiated promptly before the interstitial lesion           and stent placements over the previous 2 years. The most
can progress to scarring and fibrosis.                                    recent PCI was in July 2003 and was not associated with a
                                                                         change in renal function. There was also a history of hyper-
Conflict of interest statement. None declared.
                                                                         tension, gout and osteoarthritis, for which he had been treated
                                                                         with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) for the
                                                                         past 10 years. There was no history of diabetes mellitus.
1
                                                                         Medications included meloxicam 15 mg QD and ramipril
 Department of Renal Medicine                         Andrew Fry1        10 mg QD. The patient experienced an episode of haema-
Lister Hospital                                     Asad Saleemi2        tochezia in autumn 2003 and underwent colonoscopy in




                                                                                                                                                Downloaded from ndt.oxfordjournals.org by guest on June 13, 2011
Stevenage                                          Meryl Griffiths3       mid-December 2003. For bowel preparation, the patient was
2
 Department of Urology                             Ken Farrington1       given Visicol, 20 tablets the evening before and 12 tablets
Luton and Dunstable Hospital                                             the morning of the colonoscopy procedure.
Luton                                                                       Physical examination revealed a blood pressure of
3
 Department of Pathology                                                 138/82 mmHg, obesity [height: 5’ 1’’ (155 cm); weight: 238 lb
University of Cambridge                                                  (108 kg)] and no oedema. The patient had serum albumin of
Addenbrooke’s Hospital                                                   4.4 g/dl (normal: 3.2–5.2 g/dl), calcium of 9.2 mg/dl (normal:
Cambridge                                                                8.4–10.4 mg/dl), 24 h urine protein of 95 mg (normal:
UK                                                                       0–150 mg) and bland urinary sediment. Serological evalua-
Email: andyfry@doctors.org.uk                                            tion revealed normal C3 and C4 complement levels, negative
                                                                         ANA and no evidence of a monoclonal serum or urine spike.
                                                                         Magnetic resonance angiography was negative for renal
    1. Meyer J-P, Persad R, Gillatt DA. Use of bacille
                      ´
       Calmette–Guerin in superficial bladder cancer. Postgrad Med
                                                                         artery stenosis. The kidneys measured 11.7 and 12.0 cm in
       J 2002; 78: 449–454                                               length by ultrasound. While the patient’s mild CRI appeared
    2. Lamm DL, van der Meijden PM, Morales A et al. Incidence           to be related to chronic NSAID use, the aetiology of the
       and treatment of complications of bacillus Calmette–Guerin  ´     superimposed ARF was unclear.
       intravesical therapy in superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 1992;
       147: 596–600
    3. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital (Case 29-
       1998). N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 831–837
    4. Modesto A, Marty L, Suc J-M et al. Renal complications of
                                          ´
       intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guerin therapy. Am J Nephrol
       1991; 11: 501–504
                                     ˆ               ´
    5. Binaut R, Bridoux F, Provot F et al. Nephrite interstitielle
                                            ´
       granulomateuse avec insuffisance renale aigue, une complica-
                                                       ¨
                                       ´           ´
       tion potentielle de la BCG therapie intravesicale. Ne´phrologie
       1997; 18: 187–191

doi:10.1093/ndt/gfh688



Renal failure following bowel cleansing with
a sodium phosphate purgative


Sir,                                                                     Fig. 1. Multiple basophilic calcifications are seen in tubular lumina
   VisicolÕ (InKline Pharmaceutical Co., Inc., Blue Bell, PA,            and adjacent interstitium. The calcifications did not polarize and
USA) is a tablet form of sodium phosphate used as a bowel                were von Kossa positive, consistent with calcium phosphate.
purgative prior to colonoscopy. Patients are instructed to take          (Haematoxylin and eosin; original magnification: Â400.)
Nephrol Dial Transplant (2005) 20: 851                                                                                           851
   Renal biopsy revealed a tubulointerstitial nephropathy         New York, NY
                                                                  2
characterized by degenerative changes in proximal tubules           Indiana Nephrology & Internal Medicine
and numerous distal tubular calcifications with staining           Indianapolis, IN
properties of calcium phosphate (Figure 1), accompanied by        USA
mild tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The findings of     Email: gsm17@columbia.edu
‘acute nephrocalcinosis’ were not associated with glomerular
or vascular disease. No specific therapy was given and              1. Kastenberg D, Chasen R, Choudhary C et al. Efficacy and
4 months post-biopsy the patient’s creatinine was 2.2 mg/dl.          safety of sodium phosphate tablets compared with PEG
   Oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS; Phospho-soda,                solution in colon cleansing: two identically designed, random-
CB Fleet, Lynchburg, PA, USA) is widely used for bowel                ized, controlled, parallel group, multicenter phase III trials.
cleansing prior to colonoscopy. The recommended regimen of            Gastrointest Endosc 2001; 54: 705–713
two 45 ml doses taken 12 h apart contains 37.6 g monobasic         2. Rex DK, Chasen R, Pochapin MB. Safety and efficacy of
sodium phosphate and 8.6 g dibasic sodium phosphate,                  two reduced dosing regimens of sodium phosphate tablets
for a total of 46.2 g sodium phosphate. This regimen is asso-         for preparation prior to colonoscopy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther
ciated with a transient increase in serum phosphorus of               2002; 16: 937–944
3.0–3.5 mg/dl and a transient decline in serum calcium of          3. Vanner SJ, MacDonald PH, Paterson WG, Prentice RS,
0.2–0.3 mg/dl [3,4].                                                  Da Costa LR, Beck IT. A randomized prospective trial
   We recently reported the occurrence of renal failure and           comparing oral sodium phosphate with standard polyethylene
                                                                      glycol-based lavage solution (Golytely) in the preparation
acute nephrocalcinosis following bowel cleansing with OSPS
                                                                      of patients for colonoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol 1990; 85:
[5]. The five reported patients had a mean age of 69.2 years
                                                                      422–427
and a mean baseline serum creatinine of 0.9 mg/dl (with            4. Cohen SM, Wexner SD, Binderow SW et al. Prospective,
a mean interval from baseline creatinine determination to             randomized, endoscopic-blinded trial comparing precolono-
colonoscopy of 4 months). Patients presented with ARF and             scopy bowel cleansing methods. Dis Colon Rectum 1994; 37:
a mean creatinine of 4.9 mg/dl at 3 days to 2 months (mean:           689–696
3 weeks) post-colonoscopy. Renal biopsy revealed acute             5. Markowitz GS, Nasr SH, Klein P et al. Renal failure and acute
nephrocalcinosis with abundant distal tubular calcium phos-           nephrocalcinosis following oral sodium phosphate bowel
phate deposition in all five patients. The close temporal rela-        cleansing. Human Pathol 2004; 35: 675–684




                                                                                                                                        Downloaded from ndt.oxfordjournals.org by guest on June 13, 2011
tionship with colonoscopy, the presence of tubular calcium         6. Alon U, Donaldson DL, Hellerstein S, Warady BA, Harris DJ.
phosphate precipitates and previous reports of a similar lesion       Metabolic and histologic investigation of the nature of
occurring after oral phosphate treatment of children with             nephrocalcinosis in children with hypophosphatemic rickets
hypophosphataemic rickets [6], all strongly implicated OSPS           and in the Hyp mouse. J Pediatr 1992; 120: 899–905
as the precipitating factor. At 4 months post-colonoscopy,
renal function was unchanged in four patients and slightly        doi:10.1093/ndt/gfh718
improved in one patient. Subsequent to this report, we have
seen 10 additional cases of ARF due to biopsy-proven acute
nephrocalcinosis following treatment with OSPS.
   Visicol is a newer purgative preparation with a nearly         The immunohistochemical localization of
identical composition to OSPS. While all purgatives have          a2-Heremans–Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A (AHSG)
the potential for abuse, in the case of OSPS abuse is limited
by its unpleasant taste. In contrast, Visicol tablets are         Sir,
virtually tasteless and, therefore, are only available by         As reviewed by Floege and Ketteler [1], vascular calcification
prescription [1]. Similar to OSPS, Visicol is associated with     is a frequent complication found in patients with end-stage
transient electrolyte abnormalities. At 3–5 h after the second    renal diseases (ESRD). It has been recognized that the serum
dose of 20 tablets, patients experience a mean increase in        levels of a2-Heremans–Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A (AHSG)
serum phosphorus of 3.7 mg/dl and a mean decline in serum         [2] are generally low in ESRD patients [3]. Recently, AHSG
calcium of 0.5 mg/dl [1]. These changes resolve within            was shown to exert a calcification inhibitory action both
48–72 h. It is recommended that both agents be used with          in vitro and in vivo [4,5]. Thus, low levels of circulating AHSG
caution in patients who have electrolyte abnormalities or         may be one of the causes of ectopic calcification associated
renal insufficiency.                                               with uraemia [1]. In principle, we agree with this hypothesis;
   This is the first report of ARF following the use of Visicol,   however, circulating molecules may not be the only AHSG
a tablet form of sodium phosphate bowel purgative. The renal      that inhibits ectopic calcification.
biopsy findings of acute nephrocalcinosis following Visicol           We examined the localization of AHSG around lesions
administration are identical to those reported for OSPS. This     with ectopic calcification in dialysis patients. Anti-human
observation reaffirms that ARF and acute nephrocalcinosis          AHSG antibody (DakoCytomation, Glostrup, Denmark)
is a potential complication of all orally administered sodium     was used for the immunohistochemical study. Figure 1 shows
phosphate purgatives, whether they are given in liquid or         ectopic calcification around the right wrist joint in a dialysis
tablet form. Clinicians should be aware of this potential         patient. Calcified tissue is indicated by von Kossa staining
complication of sodium phosphate-containing purgative             (Figure 1A). Note that AHSG-positive immunoreactivity
agents.                                                           surrounds the calcified tissue (Figure 1B).
                                                                     AHSG seems to be assimilated into the tissues through
                                                                  passive or active mechanisms. On the other hand, the calcified
Conflict of interest statement. None declared.                     lesions containing AHSG may not progress rapidly, since
                                                                  AHSG inhibits further calcification.
                                                                     Thus, AHSG was found to be concentrated around
1
 Department of Pathology                    Glen S. Markowitz1    ectopic calcified lesions. This type of localized deposition
Columbia University,                            Joseph Whelan2    might enhance the calcification inhibitory action of AHSG
College of Physicians & Surgeons            Vivette D. D’Agati1   in vivo.