What is ADHD
Significant problems with:
Is the most common reason for _________
in the US
Prevalence of ADHD
Approximately 3 - 5% in the US
Boys outnumber girls ___
50% of children dx w/ ADHD show sxs in
_____% meet another dx
Thoughts on Causes of ADHD
Primary cause = ___________
Chronic low levels of lead
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Obstetrical complications during the
Past thoughts on Etiology
Begins in childhood but may persist into
Childhood – hyperactivity / impulsivity
Adulthood – ___________
Symptoms of ADHD
1. _______________ – in school work/ other
2. Difficulty sustaining attention
3. Doesn’t seem to listen
4. Doesn’t follow through with instructions
5. Avoid/ dislike tasks that require sustained
6. Difficulty with organization
7. Often looses things needed for tasks or
8. Easily distracted
9. Is often forgetful.
1. Often fidgets or squirms
2. Often leaves seat in classroom when remaining in seat
3. Often runs or climbs excessively when it’s not
4. Often has difficulty playing ___________
5. Often talks excessively
6. Often “on the go” or acts as if “driven by a motor”
Difficulty waiting his/ her turn
___________ or intrudes on others by butting into
No one is sure that it's a neurochemical
imbalance ... There is no blood test, no PET
scan, no physical exam that can determine
who has it and who does not.
In general, children are said to have ADHD
if they show 6 or more sxs from each
category for at least 6 mos
Prevalence in Females vs Males
Females more likely to be seen as day
dreamers, spacey, social butterflies –
Males - hyperactivity and impulsivity signs
Treatments of ADHD
The best treatment for ADHD is a matter of
______________ drugs are the most
Drugs – Stimulants drugs such as Ritalin,
Concerta, Dexedrine, Adderall or
Antidepressants such as, Paxil, Prozac,
Zoloft and Risperdal.
The use of drugs is becoming of more
concern w/in the science community.
Other Possible Treatments
Diet – ___________
Behavior modification – Token reward
systems / punishments,
Counseling, special accommodations in the
classroom, family and community support.
THE BEST APPROACH = TEAM APPROACH
A Common Misconceptions
Myth - That Ritalin has the ___________
effect on people w/o ADHD.
Fact - Stimulants can temporarily sharpen
almost ___________ focus.
Research on Stimulants
Ritalin which is the primary medication
used seems to increase levels of dopamine
in the brain.
All these medications may help alleviate
the core symptoms of inattention and
Problem - stimulants can be given to
children as young as 2 to 4 years of age.
Side Effects of Psycostimulants in
Small percentage of children may develop
jerky muscle movements
Side Effects Continued
Ritalin – may be associated with a slightly
reduced ___________ rate in children
Adderall – has raised concerns because of
reports of sudden unexplained deaths in
children taking the medication.
Side Effects of Psychostimulants on
Increases in blood pressure
Risk of ______________ may be greater.
Adults are far more likely to be given
antidepressants along with ADHD
medication. Therefore increased side effects