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					ADHD


  Abnormal Psychology


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What is ADHD
 Significant problems with:
   Attention
   ___________
   Hyperactivity
 Is the most common reason for _________
  in the US
Prevalence of ADHD
Approximately 3 - 5% in the US
 1/20 children.
 Boys outnumber girls ___
 50% of children dx w/ ADHD show sxs in
  adulthood.
Comorbidity

 _____% meet another dx
 Examples:
   ODD
   CD
   Tourette’s
Thoughts on Causes of ADHD

 Primary cause = ___________
 Chronic low levels of lead
 Fetal alcohol syndrome
 Pre-maturity
 Obstetrical complications during the
  pregnancy
 Infectious diseases
Past thoughts on Etiology
 Allergic/toxic reactions
 Diet
 Environmental causes
 Poor ___________
Symptoms
 Begins in childhood but may persist into
  adult life
 Childhood – hyperactivity / impulsivity
 Adulthood – ___________
              Symptoms of ADHD
INNATTENTION

1. _______________            – in school work/ other
     activities.
2.   Difficulty sustaining attention
3.   Doesn’t seem to listen
4.   Doesn’t follow through with instructions
5.   Avoid/ dislike tasks that require sustained
     mental effort.
6.   Difficulty with organization
7.   Often looses things needed for tasks or
     activities.
8.   Easily distracted
9.   Is often forgetful.
Symptoms Continued
HYPERACTIVITY
1.   Often fidgets or squirms
2.   Often leaves seat in classroom when remaining in seat
     is expected.
3.   Often runs or climbs excessively when it’s not
     appropriate.
4.   Often has difficulty playing ___________
5.   Often talks excessively
6.   Often “on the go” or acts as if “driven by a motor”
Symptoms Continued
IMPULSIVITY
 ___________ answers
   Difficulty waiting his/ her turn
   ___________ or intrudes on others by butting into
    conversations
Diagnosing ADHD
 No one is sure that it's a neurochemical
  imbalance ... There is no blood test, no PET
  scan, no physical exam that can determine
  who has it and who does not.
 In general, children are said to have ADHD
  if they show 6 or more sxs from each
  category for at least 6 mos
Prevalence in Females vs Males
 Females more likely to be seen as day
  dreamers, spacey, social butterflies –
 Males - hyperactivity and impulsivity signs
  of ADHD
Treatments of ADHD
 The best treatment for ADHD is a matter of
  debate.
 ______________ drugs are the most
  common treatment.
 Drugs – Stimulants drugs such as Ritalin,
  Concerta, Dexedrine, Adderall or
  Antidepressants such as, Paxil, Prozac,
  Zoloft and Risperdal.
 The use of drugs is becoming of more
  concern w/in the science community.
Other Possible Treatments

 Diet – ___________
 Behavior modification – Token reward
  systems / punishments,
 Counseling, special accommodations in the
  classroom, family and community support.
 THE BEST APPROACH = TEAM APPROACH
A Common Misconceptions
Regarding Psychostimulants

 Myth - That Ritalin has the ___________
  effect on people w/o ADHD.
 Fact - Stimulants can temporarily sharpen
  almost ___________ focus.
Research on Stimulants
 Ritalin which is the primary medication
  used seems to increase levels of dopamine
  in the brain.
 All these medications may help alleviate
  the core symptoms of inattention and
  hyperactivity.
 Problem - stimulants can be given to
  children as young as 2 to 4 years of age.
Side Effects of Psycostimulants in
Children
 Decreased appetite
 Weight loss
 ___________
 problems sleeping.
 Small percentage of children may develop
  jerky muscle movements
Side Effects Continued
 Ritalin – may be associated with a slightly
  reduced ___________ rate in children

 Adderall – has raised concerns because of
  reports of sudden unexplained deaths in
  children taking the medication.
Side Effects of Psychostimulants on
Adults
 Increases in blood pressure
 Risk of ______________ may be greater.
 Adults are far more likely to be given
  antidepressants along with ADHD
  medication. Therefore increased side effects
  are:
 Dry mouth,
 Urinary retention,
 Weight gain,
 Drowsiness
 Sexual dysfunction.

				
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