VIEWS: 28 PAGES: 19 POSTED ON: 6/23/2011
ADHD Abnormal Psychology •http://www.tvfinternational.com/video/ 9a12f83121266f6e86c576a030cc42d e_video.wmv What is ADHD Significant problems with: Attention ___________ Hyperactivity Is the most common reason for _________ in the US Prevalence of ADHD Approximately 3 - 5% in the US 1/20 children. Boys outnumber girls ___ 50% of children dx w/ ADHD show sxs in adulthood. Comorbidity _____% meet another dx Examples: ODD CD Tourette’s Thoughts on Causes of ADHD Primary cause = ___________ Chronic low levels of lead Fetal alcohol syndrome Pre-maturity Obstetrical complications during the pregnancy Infectious diseases Past thoughts on Etiology Allergic/toxic reactions Diet Environmental causes Poor ___________ Symptoms Begins in childhood but may persist into adult life Childhood – hyperactivity / impulsivity Adulthood – ___________ Symptoms of ADHD INNATTENTION 1. _______________ – in school work/ other activities. 2. Difficulty sustaining attention 3. Doesn’t seem to listen 4. Doesn’t follow through with instructions 5. Avoid/ dislike tasks that require sustained mental effort. 6. Difficulty with organization 7. Often looses things needed for tasks or activities. 8. Easily distracted 9. Is often forgetful. Symptoms Continued HYPERACTIVITY 1. Often fidgets or squirms 2. Often leaves seat in classroom when remaining in seat is expected. 3. Often runs or climbs excessively when it’s not appropriate. 4. Often has difficulty playing ___________ 5. Often talks excessively 6. Often “on the go” or acts as if “driven by a motor” Symptoms Continued IMPULSIVITY ___________ answers Difficulty waiting his/ her turn ___________ or intrudes on others by butting into conversations Diagnosing ADHD No one is sure that it's a neurochemical imbalance ... There is no blood test, no PET scan, no physical exam that can determine who has it and who does not. In general, children are said to have ADHD if they show 6 or more sxs from each category for at least 6 mos Prevalence in Females vs Males Females more likely to be seen as day dreamers, spacey, social butterflies – Males - hyperactivity and impulsivity signs of ADHD Treatments of ADHD The best treatment for ADHD is a matter of debate. ______________ drugs are the most common treatment. Drugs – Stimulants drugs such as Ritalin, Concerta, Dexedrine, Adderall or Antidepressants such as, Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft and Risperdal. The use of drugs is becoming of more concern w/in the science community. Other Possible Treatments Diet – ___________ Behavior modification – Token reward systems / punishments, Counseling, special accommodations in the classroom, family and community support. THE BEST APPROACH = TEAM APPROACH A Common Misconceptions Regarding Psychostimulants Myth - That Ritalin has the ___________ effect on people w/o ADHD. Fact - Stimulants can temporarily sharpen almost ___________ focus. Research on Stimulants Ritalin which is the primary medication used seems to increase levels of dopamine in the brain. All these medications may help alleviate the core symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity. Problem - stimulants can be given to children as young as 2 to 4 years of age. Side Effects of Psycostimulants in Children Decreased appetite Weight loss ___________ problems sleeping. Small percentage of children may develop jerky muscle movements Side Effects Continued Ritalin – may be associated with a slightly reduced ___________ rate in children Adderall – has raised concerns because of reports of sudden unexplained deaths in children taking the medication. Side Effects of Psychostimulants on Adults Increases in blood pressure Risk of ______________ may be greater. Adults are far more likely to be given antidepressants along with ADHD medication. Therefore increased side effects are: Dry mouth, Urinary retention, Weight gain, Drowsiness Sexual dysfunction.