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California by qingyunliuliu

VIEWS: 12 PAGES: 30

									Settling the West
California Here We Come
  Spaniards Settle in California
• California = Catholic Spain
• New England = Protestant England
          Mission California
• The missions were a
  key part of Spain’s
  plan to colonize
  California.
• 21 in all stretched
  from San Diego to
  San Francisco /
  Sonoma.
• Each were a days
  walk between one
  another.
• .
          Mission California
• Missions included a church, workshop and
  storerooms, rooms for the priest and
  homes for the Indian converts.
• Most missions resembled small self-
  contained cities much like the plantations
  of the South
           Jobs of the Native
           American Converts
• Labored in the wheat     • Artists worked to
  fields, orchards or        beautify the church
  vineyards.               • Tended to sheep and
• Work in the kitchen or     cattle.
  workrooms grinding
  wheat into flour,
  tanning hides, making
  tile and adobe bricks
  or weaving cloth.
• .
     Mission Life was a
     difficult transition

• Missions required the Native Americans to give
  up their nomadic life for one that was more
  sedentary.
• The work could be very demanding.
• The lives of Native American converts could be
  compared to the slaves in the South.
• With in 65 years of mission life, one half of the
  Native American population was wiped out due
  to diseases.
 California Rancheros

• 1821 Mexico wins its independence from
  Spain and takes over CA and TX.
• As early as 1820, US citizens started to
  settle in California along side the
  Californios as ranchers, storekeepers,
  tinsmiths, carpenters, lumberjacks etc.
• In 1833 the Mexican government
  secularizes the missions hoping to break
  the bond of loyalty with Spain.
       California Rancheros
• The Mexican government began to give
  away mission land to rancheros through
  the use of land grants.
• To obtain a land grant you needed a
  diseno – a drawing that described the
  land.
                    The Gold Fields

• In 1849 James Marshall found a pea sized
  nugget of gold at Sutter’s Fort.
• Sutter swore Marshall and others to secrecy.
• To prove gold was found in California, a tea
  caddy’s worth was sent back to President Polk in
  Washington D.C.
• Everyone was headed to California from every
  walk of life via any mode of transportation.
          The Journey West
• Many chose to travel by sea.
  They boarded ship (Clipper
  ships) that sailed 18,000
  miles down along the East
  Coast, around Cape Horn
  (the tip of South America)
  and on up to San Francisco.
• The trip took about 89 days
  and cost approximately
  $400.
• It was the most popular
  route.
The Journey West
       • Others broke their
         voyage and chose
         to trek through the
         fever-ridden and
         snake infested
         jungles of Panama
         hoping to catch a
         vessel northward on
         the other side.
            The Journey West
• Yet a third group chose to   – Crossing the Great
  follow the overland paths      Basin proved perilous.
  (The Overland Trail) laid      During this 40 day
  by the mountain men            trek, people got lost,
   – From Independence,          ran out of water or
      MO up to the South         exhaustion took over.
      Pass (Wyoming)           – Over 5,000 would die
      everything was fine        of cholera
      and the path/route was
      clearly laid out.
             Tales of Riches
• Tall tales flourished in the gold fields and
  beyond as more and more people moved
  westward looking for the one great “get rich
  quick” strike. Looking for the “Mother Lode”
• It was said that all you had to do is stick your
  thumb in the ground and when pulled out it
  would be covered in gold dust.
• People would say that there was so much gold
  that people just tripped over nuggets the size of
  boulders.
             Tales of Riches

• In just 60 days you could go from dirt poor to
  filthy rich – rich enough for 5 generations.
• Only 4-6 hours a day work could yield $10,000.
• Women as well as men caught the “Gold Fever”.
  Their lot was much better as there were few
  women and they could have the pick of the
  bunch.
• People who came to the gold fields of California
  were known as “Forty-niners”.
            Tales of Riches
• Many Chinese immigrants (often as contract
  laborers) came to work on the “Gold Mountain”
  in the mines.
• The Chinese would be defrauded, not allowed to
  testify in court, etc.
            Tales of Riches
• Because of this,
  they would create a
  counter culture
  separate from the
  mainstream. They
  would even go so
  far as to build an
  entire city
  underground
  complete with a
  saloon, hotel, jail
  and church.
                Mining Camps
• All that glitters is not
  gold.
• Mining camps were
  fly by night “towns”
  inhabited mostly by
  men – the rough and
  tumble types – who
  were not known for
  their manners.
Mining Camps
      • Disputes were
        common, eruptions of
        violence a nightly
        occurrence.
      • To settle the disputes,
        vigilante group were
        formed to take
        matters into their own
        hands (judge, jury
        and executioner if
        necessary
            Mining Camps
• Money was made not in the gold fields, but
  by those who supplied the miners with
  shovels, tents, cradles and the like.
• Levi Strauss, a Swiss immigrant, would
  create durable dungarees worn by the
  miners.
• It became the official uniform of the gold
  fields.
               Mining Camps
• Women earned a            • Lola Montez was a
  living too (no not like     famous dancer.
  that!) They were            Tickets were $65 –
  laundresses and             that’s $3000 today –
  cooks who earned            to see her dance.
  $16 a week.
• They would spear
  head the movement
  to bring schools and
  churches to the west.
               Mining Camps
• Since fresh fruit and veggies were both scarce
  and exorbitantly priced, most miners lived off of
  flapjacks, sourdough bread, beans and pickled
  or dried pork.
  – 1 lb of potatoes in CA cost $1, but in NYC $0.005.
  – 1 lb of dried apples cost $1 in CA, but in NYC $0.04.
• This resulted in the miners being susceptible to
  diseases.
             Mining Camps
• Mining camps took on colorful names –
  Shinbone Peak, Rough and Ready, Muddy
  Gulch etc.
• Mining towns were transitory. They were there
  one minute and gone with the next big strike.
  “Boom” when gold was found and “Bust” when
  news of strike was found somewhere else.
                Mining Camps
• The result was the
  creation of ghost towns –
  where a town could be
  deserted in a matter of
  hours and the only thing
  left would be the wooded
  structures if you were
  lucky, but most people
  took the wood with them
  to the next town.
           Statehood for California
• The idea of statehood for California was
  controversial.
• San Francisco was cosmopolitan where
  anything goes, but the rest was a random
  collection of pueblos.
• African Americans were seen as free citizens.
  There was a fear that CA would upset the
  balance of free/slave states.
• After the Compromise of 1850 CA became the
  31st state in the Union.
Impact of the Westward Movement

• The Westward Movement created a sense
  of regionalism – a sense of belonging to a
  specific area or region – among the
  pioneers.
        Impact on Inhabitants
• Californios and rancheros lost land to white
  encroachment as the courts failed to honor their
  land grants or uphold their rights as US citizens.
• The Native Americans were alarmed by the
  large number of pioneers “sailing” across the
  prairie, but because they did not stay, they were
  left alone for the most part.
Impact on Inhabitants
           • The Native Americans
             in California lost their
             land and their way of
             life first to the
             missions then to the
             influx of settlers.
           • Often times they were
             abused or murdered
             despite the efforts of
             Juanipero Serra.
          Impact on Pioneers
• Because of the unique topography, the pioneers
  learned to be tough, resourceful and frugal.
• The trials and tribulations faced by the pioneers
  was a form of bonding in which they shared a
  common experience which then lead to a sense
  of community in the West
• This would be carried through in the
  development of towns where schools and
  churches had to be built; neighbors helped
  neighbors building homes and raising barns.
         Impact on Pioneers
• Even though they helped each other,
  people settling in the West had a strong
  sense of individualism and self-reliance.
• And the rest they say is “history”!

								
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