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6 20th Century American Literature 6.1 20th Century American

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6 20th Century American Literature 6.1 20th Century American Powered By Docstoc
					               6      20th Century American Literature

6.1 20th Century American Poetry
I. Fill in the blanks
1. Imagism is a poetic movement of England and The United States, which flourished
   from________ to 1917.
2. Generally considered the leader of the imagist movement, _________ borrowed
   techniques from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry and produced poems
   stressing clarity, precision, and economy of language, and foregoing traditional
   rhyme and meter.
3. ________ by T. S. Eliot is regarded as a central text of modernism. It is said to
   catch precisely the state of culture and society after World War Ⅰand graphically
   illustrate the spiritual poverty of the West of that time.
4. Published in 1917, Prufrock and Other Observations immediately established T. S.
   Eliot as a leading poem of the avant-garde. The most notable poem in this
   collection is entitled __________.
5. In 1927 T. S. Eliot became a ___________citizen and converted from the Unitarian
   Church to the Church of England.
6. Among the imagists, ________ is credited with giving a female voice to classical
   myths.
7. Winner of the National Book Award in 1950 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1963,
   _________ is the author of the five-volume epic Paterson which is a lucid
   statement of the author‘s aesthetics.
8. The prose masterpiece of _________is the monumental biography Abraham
   Lincoln: The Prairie Years (two volumes, 1926) and Abraham Lincoln: The War
   Years (four volumes, 1939), the latter of which earned him the 1940 Pulitzer Prize
   in history.
9. __________ was successful in two different fields which seemed rather
   incompatible with each other: he was vice-president of an insurance company and a
   remarkable poet at the same time.
10. Besides poems, T. S. Eliot also wrote verse plays and he excelled in dramatic
   monologue. __________- is widely acknowledged as his best verse play which is
   based on the story of Thomas à Becket, a saint of the Roman Catholic Church of
   the ancient time.
11. The author of Audubon: A Vision is ________.
12. The author of The Far Field, and The North American Sequence is _________
13. The author of Howl is __________.
14. The author of Ariel, Lady Lazarus, The Bell Jar is _________
15. The author of Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law, Strom Warnings, and Orion is
   __________.
II. Multiple Choice.
1. Imagist poems are mainly composed in the form of _________.
   A. blank verse         B. free verse      C. heroic couplet  D. sonnet

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2. Imagism was equivalent to ________in fiction in a sense. Imagist never stated the
   emotion in the poem, but just presented an image: concrete, firm, and definite in
   picture.
   A. naturalism        B. romanticism         C. modernism       D. surrealism
3. Exultations and Personae are poetic collections of ________. His last and greatest
   works is __________.
   A. T. S. Eliot, The Waste Land
   B. Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken
   C. Ezra Pound, Cantos
   D. Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar
4. Pioneer of modern American poetry, _________ did not only produce great poetry
   himself but also helped his contemporary poets including T. S. Eliot, H. D., and
   Robert Frost with their literary careers.
   A. Robert Lowell                         B. Edgar Allan Poe
   C. Ezra Pound                             D. William Carlos Williams
5. Which of the following poets is a Nobel Prize winner?
   A. Ezra Pound                           B. Robert Frost
   C. T. S. Eliot                            D. Wallace Stevens
6. To many who read Fog (1916), I Am the People, the Mob (1916), Grass (1918), and
   the 21 sections of Good Morning, America, ________ was successor to
   19th-century poet Walt Whitman as the proclaimer of the American spirit.
   A.T. S. Eliot                            B. Ezra Pound
   C. Robert Frost                           D. Carl Sandburg
7. Four of Robert Frost‘s poetic collections were Pulitzer Prize winners. They are
   _________, Collected Poems, A Further Range, and A Witness Tree.
   A. Paterson         B. New Hampshire          C. Cathay      D. Des Imagistes
8. E. A. Robinson wrote narrative poems based on Arthurian legends in his later life.
   The poems include __________, Lancelot, and Tristram.
   A. Merlin        B. Guinevere       C. The Holy Grail          D. Camelot
9. Which of the following was not written by Robert Frost?
   A. The Road Not Taken                B. After Apple-Picking
   C. Birches                          D. Richard Cory
10. E. A. Robinson produced a large body of works and was honored with the
   ________ Prize in 1922, 1925, and 1928.
   A. National Book                     B. National Critic Circle
   C. Nobel                             D. Pulitzer
11. Like T. S. Eliot, __________ mainly appealed to the taste of the so-called elites.
   A.E. A. Robinson                     B. Wallace Stevens
   C.E. E. Cummings                     D. Carl Sandburg
12. Which of the following was not written by E. A. Robinson?
   A. Richard Cory                         B. Mr. Flood’s Party
   C. Miniver Cheevy                       D. Chicago
13. Like Robert Frost, ________ was also noted for his use of a dry, sometimes biting,
   New England humor.

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  A. Carl Sandburg                        B. Wallace Stevens
  C. E. A. Robinson                        D.E. E. Cummings
14. Which of the following is not Carl Sandburg‘s works?
  A. Carl Poems                           B. Good Morning, America
  C. The People, Yes                      D. Criterion
15. Carl Sandburg was associated with the imagists and wrote well-known imagist
  poems such as ___________.
  A. The Harbor                           B. Merlin
  C. Smoke and Steel                     D. Camlot
16. The imagist poets followed three principles; they are ________, direct treatment
  and economy of expression.
  A. blank verse                          B. clear rhythm
  C. free verse                            D. everyday speech
17. T. S. Eliot was a __________.
  A. playwright, critic and poet         B. critic, poet and novelist
  C. novelist, essayist and poet         D. poet, novelist and politician
18._________ championed the imagist movement from 1912 to 1914, setting down
  the imagist principles. Then Amy Lowell led the movement into the period of
  ―Amygism,‖ as Pound called it, from 1914 to 1917.
  A. T. S. Eliot                         B. H. D.
  C. Ezra Pound                           D. Carl Sandburg
19. Of the following poets, who is NOT remembered as a confessional poet?
  A. Anne Sexton                          B. Sylvia Plath
  C. Robert Lowell                        D. Elizabeth Bishop
20. What is the title of the following poem by William Stafford?
  ―No sound —a spell—on, on out / where the wind went, our kite sent back / its
  thrill along the string that / sagged but sang and said, ‗I‘ m here! I‘ m here!‘ —till
  broke somewhere, / gone years ago, but sailed forever clear / of earth. I
  hold—whatever tugs / the other end—I hold the string.‖
  A. A Lost Kite                        B. Father and Son
  C. I’ m Here                          D. The String
21. Which figure of speech is NOT adopted in the following lines from a poem
  written by John Ashbery? ―This poem is concerned with language on a very plain
  level. / Look at it talking to you. You look out a window / or pretend to fidget. You
  have it but you don‘t have it. / You miss it, it misses you. You miss each other. ―
  A. paradox         B. personification       C. simile      D. metaphor
22. Which of the following statements concerning Theodore Roethke‘s Cuttings is not
  correct?
  ―This urge, wrestle, resurrection of dry sticks, / Cut stems struggling to put down
  feet, / What saint strained so much, / Rose on such lopped limbs to a new life? /
  I can hear, underground, that sucking and sobbing, / In my veins, in my bones I feel
  it, — / The small water seeping upward, / The tight grains parting at last. / When
  sprouts break out, / Slippery as fish, / I quail, lean to beginnings, heath-wet.‖
  A. The first stanza focuses on a close observation of nature and describes the

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       spontaneous and organic life
   B. Stanza Two focuses on what the speaker can here in the physical world
   C. The speaker feels an intense sympathy for this sprouting of ―new life.‖
   D. In this poem, the speaker witnesses the outer growth and then interiorizes it.
23. Which of the following poets is NOT a member of the New York School?
   A. William Burroughs                       B. John Ashbery
   C. Frank O‘ Hara                           D. Kenneth Koch
24. Which of the following poets is NOT member of the Black Mountain poets?
   A. Robert Creeley                           B. Robert Duncan
   C. Theodore Roethke                        D. Charles Olson
Ⅲ. Matching.
   Poems                                 Authors
1. Four Quarters                         a. Ezra Pound
2. Anecdote of a Jar                    b. H. D.
3. Oread                                c. Carl Sandburg
4. Chicago                              d. Wallace Stevens
5. Richard Cory                         e. Robert Frost
6. Mending Wall                         f. E. A. Robinson
7. Red Wheelbarrow                       g. William Carlos Williams
8. In a Station of the Metro             h. T. S. Eliot
Ⅳ. Identification.
Passage 1
The apparition of these faces in the crowd;
Petals on a wet, black bough.
Questions:
1. What is the title of the poem?
2. What is the name of the poet?
3. What do ―petals‖ and ―bough‖ respectively stand for?
Passage 2
Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice.
From what I‘ve tasted of fire.
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great and would suffice.
Questions:
4. What is the title of the poem?
5. What is the name of the poet?
6. What do fire and ice respectively symbolize?
7. What does the poet think the world will end in?
Passage 3
So much depends

                                           4
Upon

a red wheel
barrow

glazed with rain
water

beside the white
chickens.
Questions:
8. What is the title of the poem?
9. What is the name of the poet?
10. What is the most visually compelling word in each of the last three pairs of lines?
11. Is it an imagist poem? Why or why not?
Passage 4
I placed a jar in Tennessee,
And round it was, upon a hill
It made the slovenly wilderness
Surround that hill.

The wilderness rose up to it,
And sprawled around, no longer wild.
The jar was round upon the ground
And tall and of a port in air.

It took dominion everywhere.
The jar was gray and bare.
It did not give bird or bush,
Like nothing else in Tennessee.
Questions:
12. What is the title of the poem?
13. What is the name of the poet?
14. What does the jar in the poem symbolize?
15. What effect does the jar have on surroundings when placed on the ground?
Passage 5
Let us go then, you and I,
When the evening is spread out against the sky
Like a patient etherized upon a table;
Let us go, through certain half-deserted streets,
The muttering retreats
Of restless nights in on-night cheap hotels
And sawdust restaurants with oyster-shells:
Streets that follow like a tedious argument

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Of insidious intent
To lead you to an overwhelming question…
Oh, do not ask, ―What is it?‖
Let us go and make our visit.

In the room the women come and go
Talking of Michelangelo.
Questions:
16. What is the title of the poem?
17. What is the name of the poet?
18. What is the name of the speaker? What does he/she represent?
19. What social class do the women belong to?
20. What poetic device is notably applied in the whole poem?
Passage 6
Miniver Cheevy, child of scorn,
Grew lean while he assailed the seasons;
He wept that he was ever born,
And he had reasons.

Miniver loved the days of old
When swords were bright and steeds were prancing;
The vision of a warrior bold
Would set him dancing.

…
Miniver Cheevy, born too late,
Scratched his head and kept on thinking;
Miniver coughed, and called it fate,
And kept on drinking.
Questions:
21. What poem is the passage taken from?
22. What is the name of the poet?
23. What does Miniver Cheevy regret that he was born too late?
24. What does he indulge himself in drinking?
Passage 7
Speaking indifferently to him,
who had driven out the cold and polished my good shoes as well.
what did I know, what did I know
of love‘s austere and lonely offices?
Questions:
25. Identify the poem and the poet.
Passage 8
I am the lover and the loved,
home and wanderer, she who splits

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firewood and she who knocks, a stranger
in the storm
Questions:
26. Who is the author of the poem?
Passage 9
From my mother‘s sleep I fell into the State,
And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze.
Six miles from earth, loosed from its dream of life,
I woke to black flak and the nightmare fighters.
When I died they washed me out of the turret with a hose.
Questions:
27. Identify the poem and the poet.
Passage 10
I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness,
starving hysterical naked,
dragging themselves through the negro streets at dawn looking
for an angry fix,
angelheaded hipsters burning for the ancient heavenly connection
to the starry dynamo in the machinery of night…
Questions:
28. Identify the poem and the poet.
Passage 11
                              The Walking
                           by Theodore Roethke
I wake to sleep, and take my waling slow.
I feel my fate in what I cannot fear.
I learn by going where I have to go.

We think by feeling. What is there to know?
I hear my being dance from ear to ear.
I wake to sleep, and take my waking slow.

Of those so close beside me, which are you?
God bless the Ground! I shall walk softly there,
And learn by going where I have to go.

Light takes the Tree; but who can tell us how?
The lowly worm climbs up a winding stair;
I wake to sleep, and take my waking slow.

Great Nature has another thing to do
To you and me, so take the lively air,
And, lovely, learn by going where to go.


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This shaking keeps me steady. I should know.
What falls away is always. And is near.
I wake to sleep, and take my waking slow.
I learn by going where I have to go.
Questions:
29. Identify the type of poem and discuss how Roethke varies the refrain in The
   Waking?
Ⅴ. Literary Terms.
1. Imagism                          4. Black Mountain poets
2. Free verse                       5. The Beat Generation
3. Confessional poetry              6. The New York School
Ⅵ. Questions and Answers
1. Name at least three imagist poets.
2. What are the major characteristics of imagist poetry?
3. What is the theme of The Waste Land by T. S. Eliot?
4. Read the poem and answer the questions:
                                          Delta
                                   By Adrienne Rich
If you have taken this rubble for my past
Raking through it for fragments you could see
Know that I long ago moved on
Deeper into the heart of the matter

If you think you can grasp me, think again:
My story flows in more than one direction
a delta springing from the riverbed
with its five fingers spread
Questions:
(1) How does the speaker of Delta describe herself and her past? In what sense has
   she ―moved on‖ beyond the ―rubble‖?
(2) Explain the poem‘s title.
5. Read four stanzas of the poem and answer the questions:
                                      Cinderella
                                    By Anne Sexton
You always read about it:
The plumber with twelve children
Who wins the Irish Sweepstakes.
From toilets to riches.
That story.

Or the nursemaid,
Some luscious sweet from Denmark
Who captures the oldest son‘s heart.
From diapers to Dior.

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That story.

Or a milkman who serves the wealthy,
Eggs, cream, butter, yogurt, milk,
The white truck like an ambulance
Who goes into real estate
And make a pile.
From homogenized to martinis at lunch.

Or the charwoman
Who is on the bus when it cracks up
And collects enough from the insurance.
From mops to Bonwit Teller.
That story.
Questions:
(1) The poem begins with the description of some episodes. What do these episodes
   have in common?
(2) How does Sexton‘s refrain of ―that story‖ alter the meaning of the episodes it
   describes? What is the tone of the poem?
6. Read the poem and answer the questions:
                                The Unknown Citizen
                                    by W. H. Auden
    (To JS/07 M 378 This Marble Monument Is Erected by the State)

He was found by the Bureau of Statistics to be
One against whom there was no official complaint,
And all the reports on this conduct agree
That, in the modern sense of an old-fashioned word, he was a saint,
For in everything he did he served the Greater Community.
Except for the War till the day he retired
He worked in a factory and never got fired,
But satisfied his employers, Fudge Motors Inc.
Yet he wasn‘t a scab or odd in his views,
For his Union reports that he paid his dues,
(Our report on his Union shows it was sound)
And our Social Psychology workers found
That he was popular with his mates and liked a drink.
The Press is convinced that he bought a paper every day
And that his reactions to advertisements were normal in every way.
Policies taken out in his name prove that he was fully insured,
And his Health-card shows he was once in a hospital but left it cured.
Both Producers Research and High-Grade Living declare
He was fully sensible to the advantages of the Installment Plan
And had everything necessary to the Modern Man,

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A phonograph, a radio, a car and a frigidaire.
Our researchers into Public Opinion are content
That he held the proper opinions for the time of year;
When there was peace, he was for peace; when there was war, he went.
He was married and added five children to the population,
Which our Eugenist says was the right interfered with their education.
And our teachers report that he never interfered with their education.
Was he free? Was he happy? The question is absurd:
Had anything been wrong, we should certainly have heard.
Questions:
(1) Describe at least four ways in which the unknown citizen was found to be ―ideal. ―
(2) What is ironic about the last two lines of the poem?
(3) Basically, what is this poem criticizing?
7. Read the four stanzas taken from a poem and answer the questions:
                                      Lady Lazarus
                                     by Sylvia Plath
I have done it again
One year in every ten
I manage it—

A sort of walking miracle, my skin
Bright as a Nazi lampshade,
My right foot

A paperweight,
My face a featureless, fine
Jew linen.

Peel of the napkin
O My enemy.
Do I terrify? —
Questions:
(1) What does the poet want to convey in this poem?
(2) Discuss the Confessional poetry with reference to this poem.
8. Read the poem and answer the questions:
                                  Maximus, to Himself
I have had to learn the simplest things
last. Which made for difficulties.
Even at sea I was slow, to get the hand out, or to cross
a wet deck.
                      The sea was not, finally, my trade.
But even my trade, at it, I stood estranged
from that which was most familiar. Was delayed,
and not content with the man‘s argument

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that such postponement
is now the nature of
obedience,
                              that we are all late
                              in a slow time,
                              that we grow up many
                              And the single
                              is not easily
                              known
Question:
The lines are taken from the poem by Charles Olson. He once said, ―A poem is energy
transferred from where the poet got it…by way of the poem itself to, all the way over
to, to reader.‖ He has proposed ―open form‖ in his influential essay ―projective verse‖.
Analyze the features of such form with reference to the lines above.
VII. Essay Question.
Discuss Robert Frost‘s poetic style.

6.2 Modernism and 20th Century Fiction
I. Fill in the blanks.
1. The term ―the lost generation‖ stems from a remark made by_______ to Ernest
   Hemingway, ―You are all a lost generation.‖
2. The author of The Grapes of Wrath is_______
3. The impact of Darwin‘s evolutionary theory on the American thought and the
   influence of the nineteenth century French literature on the American men of letters
   gave rise to another school of realism: American________.
4. ________is an element which recurs in a literary work, or across literary works.
5. ________is a literary device used when a character reveals his or her innermost
   thoughts and feelings, those that are hidden throughout the course of the story line,
   through a poem or a speech.
6. _______is a character in a story or poem who deceives, frustrates, or works again
   the main character.
7. _______is a reference in a literary work to a person, place, or thing in history or
   another work of literature.
8. _______refers to hints of what is to come in the action of a play or a story.
9. The author of Main Street is__________.
10. The famous French philosopher ________wrote serious, highly complimentary
   criticism on William Faulkner‘s work, saying that the latter‘s novels were
   experiments with time.
11. The Sound and the Fury has _______section with ________different narrators.
   The daughter of the Compson family named_______, who is the only one capable
   of loving among the Compson children, appears in all the narratives.
12. William Faulkner was awarded _______for literature in 1950 because he created a
   symbolic picture of the remote past ―to retell the recurrent story of human dreams,
   bravely and defeat, to make a statement about the past and use that statement to talk

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   about man‘s lot in his world.‖
13. The Hamlet, The Town and _______by William Faulkner compose The Snopes
   Trilogy about the rising bourgeoisies.
14. ________wrote about the society in the South by inventing families which
   represented different social forces: the old decaying upper class; the rising,
   ambitious unscrupulous class of the ―Poor Whites‖; and the Negroes who labored
   for both of them.
15. The title of The Sound and the Fury comes from the speech of the title character in
   Shakespeare‘s play_______.
16. In William Faulkner‘s novel_______, ________, one of the narrators in The
   Sound and the Fury tells the story of the Sutpens family under the request of his
   fellow students at college.
17. Like some of his peers, _________ joined the Royal Canadian Air Force World
   War I but never saw battle action.
18. William Faulkner‘s novel __________tells the story of a family‘s journey to bury
   a mother.
19. Two writers played important roles in making Faulkner what he later became.
   ________helped him to write and publish his first novel Soldier’s Pay and
   ________was his idol and inspired him to write creatively.
20. _________by William Faulkner writes about how a young man, who is not sure of
   his racial status, contradicts with prevailing social values and how he suffers from
   alienation and isolation.
II. Matching.
1. Match the names of the writers with their works.
   (1) Martin Eden                          a. Zora Neale Hurston
   (2) Babbit                               b. Saul Bellow
   (3) Ida, a Novel                        c. Eugene O‘ Neill
   (4) Trifles                             d. Edward Albee
   (5) The Emperor Jones                    e. Ernest Hemingway
   (6) Their Eyes Were Watching God        f. Susan Glaspell
   (7) Cane                                 g. John Steinbeck
   (8) The Adventure of Augie March         h. Pearl S. Buck
   (9) Men without Women                   i. Jack London
   (10) American Dream                       j. Dos Passo
   (11) East of Eden                          k. Gertrude Stein
   (12) The Good Earth                       l. Jean Toomer
   (13) The 42th Parallel                     m. Sinclair Lewis
2. The following author mainly wrote after the end of WWⅡ. Match the names of the
   writers with their works.
   (1) James Jones                           a. Catch-22
   (2) Joyce Carol Oates                       b. Good-by Columbus
   (3) Flannery O‘ Connor                     c. The Crying of Lot 49
   (4) Joseph Heller                         d. Cat’s Cradle
   (5) Thomas Pynchon                        e. The Sot-Weed Factor

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   (6) Carson McCullers                     f. A Thousand Acers
   (7) Truman Capote                        g. Unholy Loves
   (8) Philip Roth                         h. The Heat is a Lonely Hunter
   (9) Jane Smiley                        i. Lolita
   (10) John Barth                        j. A Good Man Is Hard to Find
   (11) Kurt Vonnegut                     k. From Here to Eternity
   (12) Vladimir Nabokov                   l. Other Voices, Other Rooms
3. Match the quotations with the figures of speech.

  (1) ―My love is like a red, red rose.‖                    a. Onomatopoeia

  (2) ―One could do worse than be a swinger of birches.‖       b. Assonance

  (3) ―The yellow leaves flaunted their color gaily in the breeze.‖ c. Hyperbole

  (4) ―When Ajax strives some rock‘s vast weight to throw,
      The line too labors, and the words move slow.‖       d. Metonymy

  (5) ―We have always remained loyal to the crown.‖            e. Personification

  (6) ―Go and Catch a Falling Star.‖                            f. Simile

  (7) ―How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick, /
      Till rising and gliding out I wander‘d off by myself.‖      g. Alliteration

  (8) ―Fetched fresh, as I suppose, off some sweet wood.‖       h. Understatement

4. Match the following novel by William Faulkner with the families characterized in
   them.
           Novels                         Families
(1) The Sound and the Fury               a. the Sutpens
(2) Go Down, Moses                        b. the Compsons
(3) Absalom, Absalom                      c. the Bundren
(4) The Town                              d. the McCaslins
(5) As I Lay Dying                        e. the Snopes
(6) Sartoris                               f. the Sartorises
III. Multiple Choice.
1. Which of the following works is NOT written by Willa Cather?
   A. The Song of the Lark       B.O Pioneers
   C. House of Mirth              D. Shadows on the rock
2. Of the following American writers, who has NOT been an expatriate in Paris?
   A. Ernest Hemingway           B. Sherwood Anderson
   C. F.S. Fitzgerald            D .Emily Dickinson
3. Which of the following techniques is NOT typical of Gertrude Stein‘s?

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   A. Automatic writing
   B. minimalist style
   C. frequent use of repetition and reiteration
   D. Circular movement in story-telling
4. Which of the following works by Willa Cather shows Thea Kronberg finding
   spiritual renewal in the American Southwest?
   A.O Pioneer!                               B. The Song of the Lark
   C. Death comes for the Archbishop           D. Shadows on the rock
5. Which of the following statements concerning Willa Cather is NOT true?
   A. Estrangement from conventional sexuality and sex roles is typical of Cather‘s
      main characters.
   B. O Pioneers represents the first stage of Cather‘s literary life centering around the
      theme of manhood
   C. Books from her middle period include A Lost Lady (1923) and The Professor’s
     House (1925); both deal with spiritual and cultural crises in the lives of their
     main characters.
   D. Death comes for the Archbishop, a work that initiates her third stage and is set in
      nineteenth-century New Mexico, evokes the solidity of a vanished past.
6. In which of the works of Hemingway does the character Santiago occur?
   A. In Our Time                     B. The Old Man and the sea
   C. For whom the Bell Tolls          D. The Sun Also Rises
7. Which of the following statements concerning the role of the sea in Hemingway‘s
   novella The Old Man and the Sea is NOT correct?
   A. Through the protagonist‘s interactions with the sea, his character emerges.
   B. The sea provides glimpses of the depth of the protagonist‘s knowledge.
   C. His strength, resolve and pride are measured in terms of how far out into the gulf
      he sails.
   D. The sea symbolizes the benevolent side of nature.
8. The Hemingway code heroes are best remembered for their ____.
   A. indestructible spirit         B. pessimistic view of life
   C. war experiences                D. masculinity
9. Which of the following statements concerning Ernest Hemingway is NOT true?
   A. War, hunting, human dignity and triumph have been recurring motifs in
      Hemingway‘s works.
   B. His work is preoccupied with the cultural and psychological meanings of
      femininity
   C. Hemingway identified the rapid change in women‘s status after WWI and the
      general blurring of sex roles that accompanied the new sexual freedom
   D. As Hemingway aged, his interest in exclusively masculine forms of
      self-assertion and self-definition became more pronounced.
10. Which of the following is Hemingway‘s Spanish Civil War novel?
   A. A Farewell to Arms            B. The Sun Also Rises
   C. For whom the Bell Tolls       D. The Old Man and the sea
11. Who has made the statement that all modern American literature comes from a

                                            14
  single book called The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn?
  A. Ernest Hemingway              B. William Faulkner
  C. F Scott Fitzgerald            D. T.S. Eliot
12. Who was the first American author that won the Nobel Prize in 1930?
  A. Toni Morrison                B. Ernest Hemingway
  C. Sinclair Lewis               D. John Steinbeck
13. Which of the following statements concerning Sherwood Anderson is NOT true?
  A. His longer fiction is well known for its complex unity.
  B. He embraced simplicity and directness of style.
  C. He made attractive the use of the point of view of outsider characters as a way of
     criticizing conventional society.
  D. He presents in his short stories a slice of life or a significant moment as opposed
     to panorama and summary.
14. Which of the following statements concerning which of the following statements
  concerning Winesburg, Ohio is NOT true?
  A. The book consists of many individual tales with a loose but coherent structure.
  B. The lives of a number of people living in the town are observed by the naïve
     adolescent George Willard.
  C. The book ends with the death of George‘s mother and his departure from
     Winesburg.
  D. Through first person point of view, the book enables the reader to see how the
     lives of the characters have been profoundly distorted by the frustration and
     suppression of so many of their desires.
15. ―There was music from my neighbor‘s house through the summer nights. In his
  blue gardens men and girls came and went like moths among the whisperings and
  the champagne and the stars…‖ This quotation is taken from ______.
  A. Moby Dick by Herman Melville
  B. Daisy Miller by Henry James
  C. Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser
  D. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald
16. Strong affinity to the Chinese and oriental literature can be found in the works of
  ______.
  A. Mark Twain                     B. Ezra Pound
  C. Henry James                   D. Arthur Miller
17. Which of the following statements is NOT true in describing American
  naturalists?
  A. they used more serious and sympathetic tone in writing than realists.
  B. they were deeply influenced by Darwinism.
  C. they were identified with French novelist and theorist Emile Zola.
  D. they chose their subjects from lower ranks of society.
18. F. Scott Fitzgerald is NOT the author of _____.
  A. Tender is the Night                    B. This Side of Paradise
  C. The Beautiful and Damned               D. In Our Time
19. Among the following writers, who is often acclaimed literary spokesman of the

                                           15
  Jazz Age?
  A. William Faulkner             B. F. Scott Fitzgerald
  C. Henry James                   D. Eugene O‘Neill
20. ―Nick Adams‖ is a character who frequently appears in _______‘s stories.
  A. William Faulkner             B. Theodore Dreiser
  C. Mark Twain                   D. Ernest Hemingway
21. Nick‘s night trip to the Indian village and his experience inside the hut can be
  taken as _____.
  A. an initiation to pain and suffering
  B. a confrontation with evil and sin
  C. an essential lesson about Indian Tribes
  D .a learning process of human connections
22. _______ is a school of modern painting, whose emphasis is on the formal
  structure of work of art and especially on the multiple perspective viewpoints.
  A. expressionism              B. impressionism
  C. cubism                      D. imagism
23. Which of the following works by Katherine Anne Porter is a novel?
  A. Pale Horse, Pale Rider          B. The Learning Tower
  C. Ship of Fools                   D. The Big Tree
24. The author of Flowering Judas is ______.
  A. Susan Glaspell                 B. Katherine Anne Porter
  C. Willa Cather                   D. Edith Wharton
25. Which of the following American writers has NOT been a Nobel Prize winner?
  A. F. Scott Fitzgerald             B. Ernest Hemingway
  C. William Faulkner                D. John Steinbeck
26. Which of the following is NOT a southern writer in the USA?
  A. Saul Bellow                   B. Tennessee Williams
  C. Eudora Welty                  D. Flannery O‘Connor
27. It was The Viking Portable Faulkner edited by ______in 1946 that first brought
  Faulkner to critical attention.
  A. Malcolm Cowley                 B. Phil Stone
  C. Sherwood Anderson              D. Gertrude Stein
28. ______was the foremost American southern writer of the 20th century with
  nineteen novels, four collections of about seventy short stories, and two volumes of
  poetry under his name.
  A. Katherine Ann Porter            B. Eudora Welty
  C. Flannery O‘Connor                D. William Faulkner
29. Faulkner‘s prose varies from _____, regional to ______diction and cadences of
  American speech.
  A. colloquial                       B. flowery
  C. formal                            D. grammatical
30. The fictional place that bears marked similarities to the town where _______had
  been raised was called by himself his ―little postage stamp of native soil‖.
  A. William Styron                    B. Mark Twain

                                          16
   C. William Faulkner                  D. John Barth
31. William Faulkner, a preeminent figure in 20th-century American literature, is
   known for his novels about the conflict between the old, pre-Civil War South and
   ______.
   A. the industrial North                B. the new South
   C. the post-Civil War North            D. the country as a whole
32. Of all Faulkner‘s novels, The Sound and the Fury, _______and Go Down, Moses
   are masterpieces by any literary standards.
   A. The Wrath of the Grapes              B. The old man and the sea
   C. Absalom, Absalom!                    D. The Great Gatsby
33. Which of the following is NOT Faulkner‘s works?
   A. The Marble Faun                        B. Sanctuary
   C. Mosquitoes                             D. Death of a Salesman
34. Which of the following is NOT a theme of The Sound and the Fury?
   A. The decline of a family               B. The South vs. the North
   C. The past vs. the present             D. racial problems
35. Faulkner once said that The Sound and the Fury is the tragedy of two women. He
   was referring to _____
   A. Caddy and her daughter
   B. Caroline Compson and her daughter
   C. Dilsey and her daughter
   D. Caddy and Dilsey
36. The major themes of As I Lay Dying are _____and ______.
   A. the uselessness of words when separated from action
   B. the control the living have over the dead
   C. the individual‘s isolation from others within a community
   D. racial hatred
37. In As I Lay Dying, Anse wants to go to Jefferson to _____and _____.
   A. fulfill his promise to Addie
   B. look for a new wife
   C. get some false teeth
   D. send his second son to the asylum
38. In writing Absalom, Absalom!, Williams Faulkner was inspired by many things.
   But one of his inspirations was the story of King David and his son Absalom in the
   ______.
   A. Greek mythology                     B. Roman mythology
   C. the Bible                            D. American history
39. ________is about Thomas Sutpen‘s attempt to found a southern dynasty.
   A. Soldier’s Pay                       B. Absalom, Absalom!
   C. The Sound and the Fury               D. Light in August
IV. Literary Terms.
1. Camera eye                                     7.Collage
2. Expressionism                                  8. The lost Generation
3. Free association                                9. Modernism

                                         17
4. Free indirect discourse                            10. Interior monologue
5. Scream of consciousness                             11. Multiple point of view
6. Avant-garde
V. Identification.
1. 1. Identify the genre of each of the following works and gives the full names of
     the author.
(1) In Dubious Battle
(2) Arrowsmith
(3) The Golden Apples
(4) Herzog
(5) The naked and the Dead
(6) Rabbit Redux
2. Indentify the sources of the following quotations. Give the names of the books and
   their authors.
(1)‖ I had seen nothing sacred, and the things that were glorious had no glory and the
   sacrifices were like the stockyards at Chicago if nothing was done with the meat
   except to bury it. There were many words that you could not stand to hear and
   finally only the names of places had dignity. Certain numbers were the same way
   and certain dates and these with the names of the places were all you could say and
   have them mean anything. Abstract words such as glory, honor, courage, or hallow
   were obscene beside the concrete of villages, the numbers of roads, the names of
   rivers, the numbers of regiments and the dates.‖
(2) ―You did not kill the fish only to keep alive and to sell for food, he thought. You
   killed him for pride and because you are a fisherman. You loved him when he was
   alive and you him after, it is not a sin to kill him. Or is it more?‖
(3) ―When it came to concealing his troubles, Tommy Wilhelm was not less capable
   than the next fellow. So at least he thought and there is a certain amount of
   evidence to back him up. He had once been an actor---no, not quite, an extra----and
   he knew what acting should be.‖
(4) ―…I‘m standing on the edge of some crazy cliff. What I have to do, I have to catch
   everybody if they start to go over the cliff----I mean if they‘re running and they
   don‘t look where they‘re going I have to come out from somewhere and catch them.
   That‘s all I‘d do all day. I‘d just be the catcher in the rye and all.‖
(5) George Willard, the Ohio village boy, was fast growing into manhood and new
   thoughts had been coming into his mind. All that day, amid the jam of people at the
   Fair, he had gone about feeling lonely. He was about to leave Winesburg to go
   away to some city where he hoped to get to work on a city newspaper and he felt
   grown-up. The mood that had taken possession of him as a thing known to men and
   unknown to boys. He felt old and a little tired. Memories awoke in him. To his
   mind his new sense of maturity set him apart, made of him a half-tragic figure. H e
   wanted someone to understand the feeling that had taken possession of him after
   his mother‘s death.
(6) ―‗Do ladies always have such a hard time having babies?‘ Nick asked. ‗No, that
   was very, very exceptional.‘ ‗Why did he kill himself, Daddy?‘ ‗I don‘t know, Nick.

                                          18
   He couldn‘t stand things, I guess‘.‖
(7) ―If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was
   something gorgeous about him, some extraordinary gift for hope, a romantic
   readiness such as I have never found in any other person and which it is not likely I
   shall ever find again.‖
3. Identify the following passages and answer the questions.
Passage 1
       Then we noticed that in the second pillow was the indentation of a head. One of
us lifted something from it, and leaning forward, that faint and invisible dust dry and
acrid in the nostrils, we saw a long strand of iron-gray hair.
Question:
(1) Which short story is this passage taken from?
(2) What is the identity of the narrator is?
(3) Whose is the iron-gray hair?
(4) What causes the indentation in the pillow?
(5) Is the story a tragedy or a comedy?
Passage2
       We went along the fence and came to the garden fence, where our shadows
were. My shadow was higher than luster‘s on the fence. We came to the broken place
and went through it.
       ―Wait a minute.‖ Luster said. ―You snagged on that nail again. Can‘t you never
crawl through here without snagging on that nail.‖
       Caddy uncaught me and we crawled through. Uncle Maury said to not let
anybody see us, so we better stoop over, Caddy said. Stoop over. Benjy. Like this, see.
We stooped over and crossed the garden, where the flowers rasped and rattled against
us…
       ―It‘s too cold out there.‖ Versh said. ―You don‘t want to go out doors.‖
Questions:
(6) Which novel is this passage taken from?
(7) Who is the narrator?
(8) What is the relationship between Benjy and Caddy?
(9) What technique is used in this passage?
VI. Questions and answer.
1. What is the type of heroes in Hemingway‘s novels?
2. ―He pulled back the blanket from the Indian‘s head. His hand came away wet. He
   mounted on the edge of the lower bunk with the lamp in one hand and looked in.
   the Indian lay with his face toward the wall. His throat had been cut from ear to ear.
   The blood had flowed down into a pool where his body sagged the bunk. His head
   rested on his left arm. The open razor lay, edge up, in the blankets.‖
          The passage is taken from _______written by _____-. And what does‖ where
   his body sagged the bunk‖ mean? Who is ―he‖ mentioned in the quoted passage?
3. ―The caterwauling horns had reached a crescendo and I turned away and cut across
   the lawn toward home. I glanced back once. A wafer of a moon was shining over
   Gatsby‘s house, making the night fine as before, and surviving the laughter and the

                                           19
   sound of his still glowing garden. A sudden emptiness seemed to flow the windows
   and the great doors, endowing with complete isolation the figure of the host, who
   stood on the porch, his hand up in a formal gesture of farewell.‖
           The author is ____-, and the title of the novel is ____.
   What is the setting of the novel? What implied meaning can you get from this
   passage?
4. Why was Fitzgerald regarded as spokesman of the ―Jazz Age‖?
5. ―I hope she‘ll be a fool-that‘s the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful
   little fool.‖
           Who is the speaker in the quotation? What does the quote reveal about
   his/her character?
6. ―He had one of those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you
   may come across four or five times in life. It faced, or seemed to face, the whole
   external world for an instant and then concentrated on you with an irresistible
   prejudice in your favor. It understood you just as far as you wanted to be
   understood, believed in you as you would like to believe in yourself.‖
           The author is ____and the title of the novel is _____.
   Who is ―he‖? What does his smile reveal about ―his‖ character?
7. What is Wilhelm‘s basic struggle in Saul Bellow‘s Seize the day?
8. Where did William Faulkner usually locate his stories? What does the place stand
   for?
9. List at least three William Faulkner‘s themes.
10. List at least three writing technique that William Faulkner applied to full
   advantage.
11. Name at least three American Southern writers.
VII. Essay Questions.
1. Discuss Hemingway‘s ―iceberg principle‖ of writing.
2. Compared with earlier writings, especially those of the 19th century, what are the
   characteristics of modern American writings?
3. Discuss Gatsby‘s character as Nick perceives him throughout the novel. What
   makes Gatsby ―great‖?
4. In what way is William Faulkner called a southern writer?
5. Why William Faulkner is considered by critics a great avant-garde experimenter?
6. Discuss how Benjy, Jason, and Quentin differ as narrators in The Sound and the
   Fury?

6.3 20th Century American Drama
I. Fill in the blanks.
1. Of all the plays that O‘Neill wrote, most of them are _____, dealing with the basic
   issues of human existence and predicament as life and death.
2. _____is the American playwright who won the Nobel Prize in 1936.
3. A type of comedy which depends upon ridiculous situations, exaggerated character
   types, coarse humour, and horseplay for its comic effects is called_____.
4. The final outcome of the main complication in a play or story is called_______.

                                            20
5. A kind of drama representing some action in which serious and comic scenes are
   blended is called_______.
II. Multiple Choice.
1. Eugene O‘Neill‘s The Hairy Ape explores the problem of ____in the early twentieth
   century.
   A. human disillusionment                           B. the corruption of human desire
   C. the loss of human identity                      D. human responsibility
2. O‘Neill‘s inventiveness seemingly knew no limits. He was constantly
   experimenting when new styles and forms for his plays, especially during the
   twenties when _____was in full swing.
   A. symbolism                             B. expressionism
   C. romanticism                            D. realism
3. ―He got me, aw right. I‘m trou. Even him didn‘t tink I belonged.‖ In these
   sentences taken from The Hairy Ape, the words ―he‖ and ―him‖ both refer to _____
   A. Yank                                    B. God
   C. The ape in the zoo                       D. A person unnamed
4. The founder of the American drama is _____
   A. Arthur Miller                           B. Clifford Odets
   C. Tennessee William                       D. Eugene O‘Neill
5. The author of Desire under the Elms (1924) is______
   A. Eugene O‘Neill                        B. Tennessee William
   C. Theodore Dreiser                     D. Lorraine Hansberry
6. Which of the following statements concerning Eugene O‘Neill is NOT correct?
   A. He was influenced by the ideas of Freud
   B. He is interested in the world of the mind, of intense inner emotions, memories
      and fears
   C. He found inspiration and confirmation for his approach in writing centering on
      family relationship in classical Greek drama.
   D. The unity of his work lies in its controlling intellectual idea.
7. Which of the following statements concerning O‘Neill‘s Long Day‘s Journey into
   Night is NOT true?
   A. The author focuses on the person, rather than the family in the play as the
      fundamental human unit.
   B. The play is designed as a series of encounters-each character is placed with one,
      two or three of the others, until every combination is worked through.
   C. The Tyrone is followed through one day. Thus it is a literal day in the lives of the
      Tyrones.
   D. It is also the Tyrones‘ journey through life toward death that readers witness.
8. Which of the following works is NOT written by Tennessee Williams?
   A. The Glass Menagerie                        B. A Streetcar Named Desire
   C. Cat on a hot Tin Roof                      D. A Moon for the Misbegotten
9. Which of the following statements concerning Tennessee Williams is NOT correct?
   A. He has been influenced by Anton Chekhov, D.H. Lawrence and Hart Crane.
   B. His last Broadway play is named Clothes for a Summer Hotel.

                                            21
   C. The recurrent themes in many of his plays are loneliness and desire
   D. He was awarded Nobel Prize for his brilliance as a dramatist.
III. Literary Terms.
1. Drama                                              2. Comedy
3. Tragedy                                             9. Comic relief
4. Soliloquy                                           10. Catharsis
5. Aside                                               11. Monodrama
6. Pathos                                             12. Persona
7. Parody                                              13. Tragic hero
8. Irony
IV. Identification
1. Identify the genre of each of the following works and give the full names of the
   author.
(1) The Iceman Cometh
(2) Fences
(3) A Raisin in the Sun
(4) The Death of a Salesman
2. Identify the sources if the following quotations. Give the names of the books and
   their authors.
(1) ―You‘re so like your mother in some ways. Your face is the dead image of hers.
   And look at your hair. You won‘t meet hair like yours and hers again in a month of
   Sundays. I know of one other woman who had it. You‘ll think it strange when I tell
   you. It was my mother.‖
(2) ―The gigantic animal himself is seen squatting on hi9s haunches on a bench in
   much the same attitude as Rodin‘s ‗Thinker.‘ Yank enters from the left.
   Immediately a chorus of angry chattering and screeching breaks out. The gorilla
   turns his eyes but makes no sound or move.‖
V. Questions and Answers.
   What is Yank struggling for in Eugene O‘Neill‘s The Hairy Ape? And how does his
   struggle reflect the universal dilemma of the modern man?

6.4 Black American Literature
I. Fill in the blanks
1. As spokesman for Harlem artists, _____published an article ―The Negro Artist and
   the Racial mountain‖ in 1925, which can be viewed as his public declaration of
   their intent to break from their literary heritage and to initiate anew trend in black
   literature.
2. The Harlem Renaissance took from and the focal date for the movement would be
   _____when the black scholar Alain Locke published an anthology of current work
   entitled The New Negro: An Interpretation.
3. Discovered by Vachel Lindsay, Langston Hughes published the poem________
   which later became the title poem of his first book of poetry The Weary Blues.
4. _______ was well-known for his protest fiction and was a father figure to modern
   African American writers such as James Baldwin.

                                           22
5. Remarkable in both thematic and technical terms, the novel entitled ______ by
   James Baldwin tells how an African American boy comes to terms with his father,
   defines himself, achieves faith in religion and grows to maturity.
6. African American literature attained to a higher degree of maturity in 1952 when
   Ralph Ellison‘s ______ appeared in print, which tells an archetypal existential story
   of a slave mother killing her own children just for them to avoid slavery.
7. Toni Morrison is best known for her fifth novel______, which is based on the true
   story of a slave mother killing her own children just for them to avoid slavery.
8. The publication of _____ established Toni Morrison‘s place in contemporary
   American literature. Winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award, the novel is
   seen as another milestone in African American literature after Native son and
   Invisible Man.
9. The Color Purple by ____ is an epistolary novel which is mainly about African
   American women‘s growth against the backdrop of social and familial oppression.
10. ________ is the second American woman writer to receive the Nobel Prize for
   literature. She is no doubt the best and most representative of the contemporary
   African American writers.
11. The central character of Sula is ________.
II. Multiple Choice.
1._________, Booker T. Washington, and Frederick Douglass are generally regarded
   as the three greatest African American writers in the 19th century.
   A. Ralph Ellison                   B. Langston Hughes
   C. Toni Morrison                    D. W. E. B. Du Bois
2. Which of the following is not said of W. E. B. Du Bois?
   A. The intellectual leader African American writers of African American protest in
      the second half of the 19th century.
   B. Founder of the National Association for the Advantage of Colored People.
   C. The first African American to receive a Ph. D.
   D. Pulitzer Prize winner
3. Before Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s, ______ can be deemed as the best poet
   and novelist with his widely acclaimed novel, Cane.
   A. Phyllis Wheatly                           B. Jean Toomer
   C. Jupiter Hammon                             D. Countee Cullen
4. One of the most noticeable elements of Harlem Renaissance writing is its use of
   dialect and folklore and its identification with the spirit of ______.
   A. rap                                       B. jazz
   C. blues                                    D. R&B
5. Among the African American writers of the fist half the 20th century, _______ was
   the most durable and versatile: he was a poet, playwright, novelist, song writer,
   biographer, editor, newspaper columnist, translator and lecturer.
   A. Countee Cullen                             B. Claude Mckay
   C. Jean Toomer                               D. Langston Hughes
6. Which of the following is not said of Langston Hughes?
   A. The first African American to support himself as a professional writer.

                                           23
   B. National Book award winner
   C. Poet laureate of Harlem
   D. O. Henry of Harlem
7. Two basic themes of James Baldwin‘s are______.
   A. race and death                          B. race and fate
   C. race and homosexuality                  D. race and love between family members
8. Toni Morrison‘s first novel ______ came out in 1970. It deals with a young black
   girl who wishes to have a pair of big and beautiful eyes but is raped by her own
   father and is finally driven to insanity.
   A. Paradise
   B. The Bluest Eye
   C. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination
   D. Tar Baby
9. The novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937) is written by _____, one of the
   important authors in the first half of 20th century.
   A. Zora Neale Hurston                             B. Amiri Baraka
   C. Arna Bontemps                                 D. Gwendolyn Brooks
10. The main character Jesse B. Simple created by ______ in the books like Simple
   Speaks His Mind, The Best of Simple, and Simple’s Uncle Sam was one of American
   literature‘s most endearing fictional figures.
   A. Ralph Ellison                                  B. W. E. B. Du Bois
   C. Richard Wright                                 D. Langston Hughes
11. ______ is multi-talented genius: she is an actress, dancer, singer, professor, writer,
   poet educator, director and civil rights activist. In 1993she became President
   Clinton‘s inaugural poet.
   A. Toni Morrison                                B. Alex Haley
   C. Alice Walker                                   D. Maya Angelou
12. Roots was authored by ________.
   A. Alex Haley                                        B. Maya Angelou
   C. Gloria Naylor                                   D. Toni Morrison
III. Identification.
Passage1
I‘ve known rivers:
I‘ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the
Flow of human blood in human veins

My soul has grown deep like the rivers.

I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young.
I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep.
I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it.
I heard the singing of Mississippi when Abe Lincoln
Went down to New Orleans, and I‘ve seen its muddy bosom turn
All golden in the sunset.

                                            24
I‘ve known rivers.
Ancient, dusky rivers.

  My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
Questions:
1. What is the title of the poem?
2. What is the name of the poet?
3. What does ―I‖ stand for in the poem?
4. What is the theme of the poem?
Passage2
       I am an invisible …..I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to
see me. Like the bodiless heads you see sometimes in circus sideshows, it is as though
I have been surrounded by mirrors of hard, distorting glass. When they approach me
they see only my surroundings, themselves. Or figments of their imagination-indeed,
everything except…. You often doubt if you really exist… You ache with the need to
convince yourself that you do exist in the real world.
Questions:
5. Which novel is this passage taken from?
6. What is the name of the author?
7. At the end of the novel, the author writes ―even an invisible man has a socially
   responsible role to play…who knows but that, on the lower frequencies, I speak for
   you?‘. What does ―you ―refer to here? What does the author want to convey by
   applying this pronoun?
IV. Literary Terms.
Harlem Renaissance
V. Questions and Answers
1. What are the major themes of Native Son by Richard Wright (Give at least three)?
2. List at least three novels by Toni Morrison
VI. Essay Questions.
1. Make a summary of African American literature.
2. Toni Morrison is considered the best and the most representative of the
   contemporary African American writers. Discuss her art of fiction.
VII. Poem Analysis
   Read the following poem by the African American woman poet Maya Angelou and
   answer the questions.

                                   Still I Rise
  You may write me down in history
  With your bitter, twisted lines,
  You may trod me in the very dirt
  But still, like dust, I‘ll rise.

  Does my sassiness upset you?

                                           25
Why are you beset with gloom?
‘Cause I walk like I got oil wells
Pumping in my living room.

Just like moons and like suns,
With the certainty of tides,
Just like hopes springing high,
Still I‘ll rise.

Did you want to see me broken?
Bowed head and lowered eyes?
Shoulders falling down like tear drops,
Weakened by my soulful cries.

Does my haughtiness offend you?
Don‘t you take awful hard
‘Cause I laugh like I‘ve got gold mines
Digging in my own back yard.

You may shoot me with your words,
You may cut with your eyes,
You may kill me with our hatefulness,
But still, like air, I‘ll rise.

Does my sexiness upset you?
Does it come as a surprise
That I dance like I‘ve got diamonds
At the meeting of my thighs?

Out of the huts of history‘s shame
I rise
Up from a past that‘s rooted in pain
I rise
I‘m a black ocean, leaping and wide,
Welling and swelling I bear in the tide.

Leaving behind nights of terror and fear
I rise
Into a daybreak that‘s wondrous clear
I rise
Bringing the gifts that my ancestors gave,
I am the dream and the hope of the slave.
I rise
I rise

                                           26
   I rise
Questions:
1. What kinds of person is the speaker in the poem?
2. Similarly, what does ―you ―in the poem represent? Why is this person so envious
   and afraid of the speaker?
3. In the line ―Bringing the gifts that my ancestors gave,‖ what do the ―gifts‖ refer to?
   List some of them.

6.5 Asian American Literature
I. Fill in the blanks.
   The joy Luck Club by Chinese American woman writer ______ examines the
   relationships between four Chinese –born women and their American-born
   daughters.
II. Multiple Choice.
   _________by Maxine Hong Kingston is one of the earliest works produced by
   Chinese American. It won the National book Critics Award for nonfiction for 1976.
   A. Making more waves: New writing by Asian American Women
   B. Asian American Authors
   C. The Woman Warrior: Memories of a childhood among ghosts
   D. Love Medicine
III. Matching.
1. Chinamen                             a. Gish Jen
2. The Joy Luck Club                    b. Maxine Hong Kingston
3. Fifth Chinese Daughter               c. Jade Snow Wong
4. Mrs. Spring Fragrance               d. Edith Wharton
5. Typical American                     e. Frank Chin
6. Donald Duk                          f. Amy Tan

6.6 Postmodern Literature
I. Fill in the blanks.
1. Joseph Heller provided an excellent example of ______ novel in Catch-22, which
   explodes the absurdity of World War II and protests against the absurdity of modern
   America.
2. _______ by Donald Barthelme is a parody of Walt Disney‘s film version of the
   fairy tale by Jacob Grimm. In the novel the innocent Snow White becomes a vulgar
   housewife who keeps promiscuous relations with seven dwarfs.
3. A great postmodern writer, ____ became the cult figure of the counterculture
   generation at that time, known as ―a guru for the youth‖ in supporting the student in
   their anti-war movements.
4. ______ is basically a science fiction writer. He wrote in obscurity until the
   publication of his sixth novel _____ in 1969, which is essentially autobiographical.
5. Ken Kesey is best known for his novel______, which examines the conflicts
   between free will and social conformity that became an important issue during the
   1960s.

                                           27
6. Humbert Humbert is the narrator and character of _____by Vladimir Nabokov.
   Dealing with a twelve-year old girl‘s abnormal love affair with her stepfather aged
   forty, the novel established the writer‘s reputation as one of the major
   postmodernist writers.
7. The American postmodern writer who wrote in both Russian and English is _____.
II. Multiple Choice.
1. In the history of the American novel, traditional realistic narrative techniques
   designed to produce an illusion of reality and the related suspension of disbelief
   were widely felt in the ____.
   A. 1930s and 1940s                       B. 1940s and 1950s
   C. 1950s and 1960s                      D. 1960s and 1970s
2. ______ wrote the essay ―The literature of Exhaustion‖ and was the first to
   announce that the traditional novel is dead, and that traditional novelistic resources
   have been exhausted.
   A. Donald Barthelme                      B. John Barth
   C. Kurt Vonnegut                         D. Vladimir Nabokov
3. Although postmodern fiction is often identified as peculiarly American and Larry
   shot –as he beginning of postmodernism, it owed much of the founding influence to
   _____, Vladimir Nabokov, and Jorge Luis Borges who were born outside the U. S. .
   A. William Burroughs                      B. Donald Barthelme
   C. John Barth                             D. Samuel Beckett
4. ________by John Barth is a parody of Henry Fielding‘s Tom Jones> It is generally
   regarded as Barth‘s masterpiece.
   A. Chimera                                  B. Donald Barthelme
   C. The Sot-Weed Factor                      D. Giles Goat-boy
5. Traditional realists try to make their fiction look like reality, but _______ writers
   hold that all writing is a fabricated text manipulated by the author in keeping with
   his values.
   A. Postmodern                                B. poststructuralist
   C. modernist                                 D. black humor
6. Out of the fifty-two paragraphs that make up the story of Lost in the Funhouse by
   John Barth, five consist wholly of the author‘s chat about fiction writing, which is
   the typical feature of ______.
   A. metafiction                                 B. poststructuralist fiction
   C. dystopian fiction                           D. black humor fiction
7. Which of the following is not Thomas Pynchon‘s works?
   A. V.                                          B. The crying of Lot 49
   C. Gravity’s Rainbow                            D. Letters
8. Pynchon borrowed theories from science and technology and employed them as
   some informing principle in his writings. These include ________.
   A. the enropy theory and the law of gravity
   B. the law of gravity and the quantum theory
   C. law and action and reaction and the law of gravity
   D. the enropy theory and the quantum theory

                                           28
9. Which of the following is not a postmodern writer?
   A. John Hawkes                                   B. Thomas Pynchon
   C. John Updike                                    D. John Barth
III. Identification.
Passage 1
       Yossarian ripped open the snaps of Snowden‘s flak suit and heard himself
scream wildly as Snowden‘s insides slithered down to the floor in a soggy pile and
just kept dripping out… He forced himself to look again. Here was God‘s plenty, all
right, he thought bitterly as he stared---liver, lungs, kidneys, ribs, stomach, and bits of
the stewed potatoes Snowden had eaten that day for lunch.
Questions:
1. Which novel is this passage taken from?
2. What is the name of the author?
3. What do think of the description of a person‘s insides? What is the author‘s intent
   in making such a description?
Passage 2
       Listen ----- on the tenth night the peg was pull out of the hasp o Billy‘s boxcar
door, and the door was opened. Billy Pilgrim was lying at an angel on the
corner-brace, holding himself there with a blue and ivory claw hooked over the sill of
the ventilator. Billy coughed when the door was opened, and when he coughed he shit
thin gruel. This was in accordance with the Third Law of Motion according to Sir
Isaac Newton. This law tells us that for every action there is a reaction which is equal
and opposite in direction.
Questions:
4. Which novel is this passage taken from?
5. What is the name of the author?
6. Why does the author mention Isaac Newton? Is it funny?
Passage 3
       Lolita, light of my life, fire of my loins. My sin, my soul. Lo-lee-ta: the tip of
the tongue taking a trip of three steps down the palate to tap, at three, on the teeth. Lo.
Lee. Ta.
       She was Lo, plain Lo, in the morning, standing four feet ten in one sock. She
was Lola in slacks. She was Dolly at school. She was Dolores on the dotted line. But
in my arms she was always Lolita.
Questions:
7. Which novel is this passage taken from?
8. What is the name of the author?
9. Tell in a few sentences what the novel is about.
IV. Literary Terms
1. Postmodernism
2. Literary college
3. Black humor
4. Parody
5. Metafiction

                                            29
V. Question and Answers.
1. What are the formal characteristics of postmodern writings (list at least three)?
2. What is the style of Donald Barthelme‘s fiction?
3. Make brief comment on Kurt Vonnegut‘s themes and writing style.
4. Explain the absurdity of ―Catch -22‖ in the novel Catch -22.
5. List at least three postmodern writes and one of their most important postmodern
   works.
6. What idea does Thomas Pynchon want to express by the obscure identity of V in
   the novel V.?
VI. Essay Questions
   What is the metaphorical significance of the story in One Flew over the Cuckoo’s
   Nest?

6.7 Post-colonialism
I. Literary Terms
1. Colonialism
2. Postcolonialism
3. Postcolonial literature
4. Canonization
5. Orientalism
6. Mimicry
7. Diaspora
II. Questions and Answers.
1. What is the function of postcolonial theory in literature study?
2. What is ―hybrid‖ in postcolonialism?
III. Essay Questions.
   Explain the term ―otherness‖ in a postcolonial sense and give an example.


Keys
6.1 20th century American Poetry
I. Fill in the blanks.
1. 1908
2. Ezra Pound
3. The Waste Land
4. The love song of J. Alfred Prufrock
5. British
6. Hilda Doolittle
7. William Carlos Williams
8. Carl Sandburg
9. Wallace Stevens
10. Murder in the Cathedral
11. Robert Penn Warren

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12. Theodore Roethke
13. Allen Ginsberg
14. Sylvia Plath
15. Adrienne Rich
II. Multiple Choice.
1. B           2 .A        3 .C          4 .C          5 .C
6. D           7 .B         8. A         9.D          10.D
11. B          12.D        13. C         14.D          15.A
16. B          17. A       18.C         19. D           20.B
21. C          22.B         23. A         24. C
III. Matching.
1——h; 2——d; 3——b; 4——c; 5——c; 6——e; 7——g; 8——a
IV. Identification.
1. The title of the poem is In a station of the Metro.
2. The poet is Ezra Pound.
3. ―Petals‖ are the beautiful faces in the crowd who are waiting for the train. ―Bough‖
   stands for the subway station.
4. The title of the poem is Fire and Ice.
5. The poet is Robert Frost.
6. Fire symbolizes human desires while ice symbolizes hatred between people.
7. The poet think desires are more dangerous than hatred because he says ―I hold with
   those who favor fire.‖ though he admits that hatred is also very destructive.
8. The title of the poem is The Red Wheelbarrow.
9. The name of the poet is William Carlos Williams.
10. The most visually compelling words in the last three pair of lines are respectively
   ―red‖, ―glazed‖ and ―white‖.
11. Yes. Because it reflects the imagists‘ poetic principle of ―no ideas but thing ―,
   direct treatment, Economy of expression and free verse.
12. The title of the poem is Anecdote of Jar.
13. The poet‘s name is Wallace Stevens.
14. The jar symbolizes artistic imagination of artists and poets.
15. The jar brings order to the wild surroundings
16. The title of poem is The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
17. The name of the poet is T. S. Eliot.
18. The speaker‘s name is J. Alfred Prufrock. He represents the ineffectual, sorrowful,
   tragic modern man in the West who is divided between passion and timidity,
   between desire and impotence. Knowing everything, but able to do nothing, he
   lives in a dilemma between life and death.
19. The women are most likely to belong to upper class because what they are talking
   about (Michelangelo the Italian painter, sculptor, architect, and poet) reveals their
   tastes or rather they choose to talk about Michelangelo to show that they have
   exquisite tastes.
20. Dramatic monologue is applied in the whole poem.
21. The passage is taken from Minister Cheevy

                                           31
22. The poet is E. A. Robinson.
23. Miniver Cheevy regrets that he was born too late because he is a loser in the
   modern world and he can only console himself by dreaming of being able to find
   success and happiness as a knight in the Middle Ages.
24. He indulges himself in drinking to escape from the reality in which he can never
   succeed.
25. Those Winter Sundays by Robert Hayden
26. Adrienne Rich
27. The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner by Randall Jarrell
28. Howl by Allen Ginsberg
29. Villanelle: it is a poem of nineteen lines divided into tercets (three-line stanzas)
   and a final quatrain, using only two thymes throughout .It wad a favorite verse from
   of French poets four hundred years ago, some modern poets such Auden, Roethke
   have accepted its challenge in our century. The most unusual characteristic of the
   villanelle is its use of refrains, or repeated lines. The first line of poem becomes the
   final line of second and forth stanzas, and the third line becomes the final line of
   the line two lines .Roethke has also varied the form slightly to avoid stiffness .He
   uses some slant rhymes: ―slow‖ is made to rhyme with ―you‖ and ―how‖; ―fear‖ is
   made to rhyme with ―there‖, ―stair‖ and ―air‖.
V. Literary Terms
1. Imagism: Imagism is a school of poetry that flourished in North America and
   England, but especially in the United States, at the beginning of the Twentieth
   century. Imagists rejected the sentimentalism of late 19th century verse in favor of a
   poetry that relied on concrete imagery. Ezra Pound originally led the movement,
   which drew upon T. E. Hulme‘s poetic theory, but Amy Lowell soon became its
   most famous proponent; ―Amygism‖ was first used by the displaced Pound to refer
   derogatorily to the movement. In a collection of imagist poems that Lowell edited
   called Some Imagist Poets, she formally outlined the major objectives of criteria of
   criteria of the Imagists, who believed that poetry should: a. regularly use everyday
   speech, but avoid clichés; b. create new rhythms; c. address ant subject matter the
   poet desired; d. depict its subject through precise, clear images. Imagist poems,
   which are typically written in free verse, are generally short since Imagists seek
   above all else to write concentrated poetry. They seek to render the poet‘s response
   to a visual impression as concisely and precisely as possible. Those taking part in
   the Imagist movement included Hilda Doolittle, Carl Sandburg, William Carlos
   Williams, D. H. Lawrence and others. Imagist itself, although comparatively short-
   lived as a movement, had a wide-ranging influence on subsequent poetry of the 20th
   century which continues to employ and juxtapose precise images.
2. Free verse: Free verse is poetry that lacks a regular meter, does not rhyme, and
   uses irregular line lengths. Writers of fee verse disregard traditional poetic
   conventions of rhyme and meter, relying instead on parallelism, repetition, and the
   ordinary cadences and stresses of everyday discourse. In English, notable use of
   free verse dates back to the King James translation of the biblical Psalms and Song
   of Solomon, but it was not really recognized as an important new form until Walt

                                            32
   Whitman‘s Leaves of Grass. Since World War I, nonrhyming and nonmetrical
   forms of verse have been used by most poets.
3. Confessional poetry: an autobiographical mode of verse that reveals the poet‘s
   personal problems with unusual frankness. The term is usually applied to certain
   poets of the United States from the late 1950s to the late 1960s, notably Robert
   Lowell, whose Life Studies and For the Union Dead deal with his divorce and
   mental breakdowns. Other important examples of confessional poetry are Anne
   Sexton‘s To Bedlam and Part Way Back and All My Pretty Ones, Including poems
   on abortion and life in mental hospitals; John Berryman‘s Dream Songs on
   alcoholism and insanity; Sylvia Plath‘s poems on suicide in Ariel and W. D.
   Snodgrass‘s Heart’s Needle is on divorce.
4. Black Mountain poets: a loosely associated group of poets that formed an
   important part of the avant-garde of American poetry in the 1950s, publishing
   innovative yet disciplined verse in the Black Mountain Review (1954-57), which
   became a leading forum of experimental verse. Their experimental yet disciplined
   style took its impetus from the essay ―Projective Verse‖ (1950) by Charles Olson.
   The Black Mountain School is linked with Charles Olson‘s theory of ―Projective
   Verse‖ which insisted on an open form based on the spontaneity of the breath pause
   around the poets Robert Creeley, Robert Duncan, and Charles Olson while they
   were teaching at Black Mountain.
5. The Beat Generation: The term Beat Generation was introduced by Jack Kerouac
   in approximately 1948 to describe his social circle to the novelist John Clellon
   Holmes (who published an early novel about the beat generation, titled Go, in 1952,
   along with a manifesto of sorts in the New York Times Magazine:‖ This is the beat
   generation‖). The members of the beat generation were new bohemian libertines,
   who engaged in a spontaneous, sometimes messy, creativity. The beat writers
   produced a body of written work controversial both for its advocacy of
   non-conformity and for its non-conforming style. The major beat writings are Jack
   Kerouac‘s On the Road, Allen Ginsberg‘s Howl, and William Burroughs‘ Naked
   Lunch.
6. The New York School: Unlike the Beat and San Francisco poets, the poets of the
   New York School are not interested in overtly moral question, and, in general, they
   steer clear of political issues. They have the best formal educations of any group.
   The major figures of the New York School---John Ashbery, Frank O‘ Hara, and
   Kenneth Koch--- met while they while undergraduates at Harvard University. They
   are quintessentially urban, cool, nonreligious, witty with a poignant, pastel
   sophistication. Their poems are fast moving, full of urban detail, incongruity, and
   an almost palpable sense of suspended belief. New York City is the fine arts center
   of America and the birthplace of Abstract Expressionism, a major inspiration of this
   poetry. Most of the poets worked as art reviewers or museum curators, or
   collaborated with painters. Perhaps because of their feeling for abstract art, which
   distrusts figurative shapes and obvious meaning, their work is often difficult to
   comprehend, as in the later work of John Ashbery (1927- ), perhaps the most
   influential poet writing today.

                                          33
VI. Questions and Answers
1. Ezra Pound, Hilda Doolittle, William Carlos Williams, and E. E. Cummings are all
   imagist poets.
2. The major characteristics of imagist poetry are:
   (1) Direct treatment of objects, concreteness of imagery
   (2) No ideas or insight but things or images
   (3) Free verse without imposing a rhythmical pattern
   (4) Common speech, economy of expressions
3. The theme of The Waste Land is modern spiritual barrenness, the despair and
   depression that followed the First World War, the sterility and turbulence of the
   modern world, and the decline and break-down of western culture. It also shows the
   search for regeneration by people by people living in a chaotic world.
4. Delta by Adrienne Rich
   (1) She describes herself and her past as ungraspable. The ―rubble‖ symbolizes the
      male imagination of the female experience and history, which is rather biased.
      The speaker of the poem believes that what men have written does not truthfully
      represent a woman‘s place and identity. Women need to rewrite their own history,
      which has been devalued in the past.
   (2) Like the delta that spreads in more than one direction, the life and history of
      women are dynamic and multi-dimensional, refusing a stereotyped definition that
      men have imaged.
5. Cinderella by Anne Sexton
   (1) The catalogue of human-interest stories from the press, punctuated with the
      sardonic tolling of the commentary ― that story‖, all represent the mundane
      version of the Cinderella story, the unlikely rise from poverty to wealth, stories
      that readers read with a kind pleasurable envy.
   (2) By repeating the refrain, the speaker raises questions about the difference
      between the literary representations of reality and the experience of the people
      who read those versions with such avidity. The tone of the poem is sardonic and
      anti-sentimental.
6. The Unknown Citizen by W. H. Auden
   (1) He lived a very conventional life. He worked in a factory. He was for peace
      during peace-time, and went to war at war-time. He was married, a family man,
      and followed the main stream.
   (2) Only when something disastrous happens on him, can he be known. Otherwise,
      he remains a nobody.
   (3) The poem criticizes the dehumanizing force of the modern bureaucratic state.
      Auden meticulously selects his words to express the obsessive inanity of this
      mindless, mechanized State which knows its citizens only by letters and numbers,
      evaluates their worth with statics, and has a formulaic standard for virtuous
      living. The state wants the people to cease to be individuals with their originality
      in actions and thought, their pride for their work, and become a unit in the
      Greater Community, or the bureaucracy. This bureaucracy is unlike others

                                           34
      because it revolves around technology. It could not ―live‖ without technology,
      because it is technology that has allowed the government to become so powerful
      and almighty. Thus, technology has taken over the lives of individuals; reducing
      them to mere numbers that is part of the Machine, or the bureaucracy.
7. Lady Lazarus by Sylvia Plath
   (1) Severe disintegration and dislocation. Men are reduced to parts of bodies and to
      piles of things.
   (2) In confessional poems, the historical background and private life of the poet are
      confused and inseparable. In this poem, the public horrors of the Nazi
      concentration camps and the personal horrors of fragmented identities become
      interchangeable.
8. Maximus, to Himself
   In Olson‘s proposed ―open form,‖ ordinary lineation, straight left-handed margin,
   regular meters, and verse forms are to be discarded in favor of a free placement of
   lines and phrases over the page. This ―composition by field‖ would allow, through
   typographical adjustments, for something like a musical score in which the length
   of pauses, the degree of emphasis, even changes of speed could be indicted. The
   unit of poetic expression was not a predetermined metrical foot, but the length of
   breath of the particular poet. The arrangement of words on the page would convey
   individuality of a poet by making the poem a graph of the process through which it
   was produced.
VII. Essay Question.
   Frost used simple language, a graceful style and traditional forms of poetry. He
   achieved an internal dynamics in his poetry by playing the rhythms of ordinary
   speech against the formal pattern of line and stanza. He often used regular iambic
   meter. Something he used blank verse. He was often deceptively simple, exploring
   complexity through triviality. He used symbols form everyday life to express
   profound ideas. He made his poems deem effortless by using colloquial and direct
   expression and conversational rhythms. His success mainly lies in two aspects: he
   combined traditional individual poems into a larger unity by presenting in them a
   recurrent ―persona‖ in the image of a wise country folk.

6.2 Modernism and 20th century Fiction
I. Fill in the blanks.
1. Gertrude Stein                                11. four; four; Caddy
2. John Steinbeck                               12. the Nobel Prize
3. naturalism                                   13. The Mansion
4. Motif                                        14. Faulkner
5. Dramatic monologue                            15. Macbeth
6. Antagonist                                    16. Absalom, Absalom1; Quentin
7. Allusion                                      17. William Faulkner
8. Foreshadowing                                18. As I Lay Dying
9. Sinclair Lewis                                19. Sherwood Anderson; James Joyce
10. jean-Paul Sartre                             20. Light in August

                                           35
II. Matching.
1. (1)----I; (2)---m; (3)---k;        (4)---f;  (5)---c; (6)---a; (7)---l; (8)---b;
   (9)---e; (10)---d; (11)---g; (12)---h; (13)---j
2. (1)---k;    (2)---g; (3)---j;     (4)---a;   (5)---e; (6)---h; (7)---l; (8)---b
   (9)---f; (10)---e; (11)---d; (12)---i
3. (1)---f; (2)---h;      (3)---e; (4)---a;     (5)---d; (6)---c; (7)---b; (8)---g
4. (1)---b; (2)---d;     (3)---a;     (4)---e;   (5)---c; (6)---f
III. Multiple Choice.
1. C             2. D             3. B             4. B            5. B
6. B             7. D             8. A               9. B          10.C
11. A            12. C           13. A              14. D          15. D
16. B            17. A            18. D              19. B         20. D
21. A            22. C            23. C             24. B          25. A
26. A            27. A           28. D              29. A; C       30.C
31. B            32. C            33. D              34.D           35. A
36. A; C          37. A; C       38. C              39. B
IV. Literary Terms.
1. Camera eye: A literary device developed by Dos Passos, which provides an
   autobiographical account of his life corresponding to time of the fictional narrative.
   Written usually in a stream-of-consciousness style, they record the author‘s
   activities and reflections at roughly the same time that events in the fictional
   narratives are taking place. These impressionistic accounts recreate his changing
   moods in a turbulent age, showing that his private life is part of a greater culture
   complexity.
2. Expressionism: The term refers to a movement in Germany early in the 20th
   century, in which a number of painters sought to avoid the representation of
   external reality and instead, to project a highly personal vision of the world. The
   main principle involved is that expression determines form, and therefore imagery,
   punctuation, syntax, and so on. In belief, any of the formal rules and elements of
   writing can be bent or disjointed to suit the purpose. Theatrically, expressionism
   was a reaction against realism in that it tends to show inner psychological realities.
   O‘Neill‘s plays are some of the best examples.
3. Free association: A term commonly used in psychology but which has achieved
   some currency in literary and theory. The point involved is that a word or ideas
   which may not have some logical relationship. Some writing that looks like it is
   probably the result of carefully thought out and contrived arrangement. This
   technique is often adopted in modernist works, such as James Joyce‘s Ulysses
   (1922).
4. Free indirect style/discourse: the presentation of thoughts or speech of fictional
   characters which seems by various devices to combine the character‘s sentiments
   with those of a narrator. The free indirect style can produce more complex effects in
   what has been called ―the commitment and abstentions of the authorial voice‖.
   Sometimes ambiguity is created as to whether it is the voice of the character or that
   of the author.

                                           36
5. Stream of consciousness: Stream of consciousness was first used in the late 19th
   century, by William James, the American philosopher and psychologist, in his book
   The Principles of Psychology (1890). As a literary technique that novelists
   experiment with in the 20th century, it is employed to evince subjective as well as
   objective reality. It reveals the character‘s feelings, thoughts, and actions, often
   following an associative rather than a logical sequence, without commentary by the
   author. It is a literary technique in which authors represent the flow of sensations
   and ideas, added to the depth of character portrayal. The British writer Dorothy
   Richardson is considered by some actually to be the pioneer in use of the device in
   her novel Pilgrimage. Widely used in narrative fiction, the technique was perhaps
   brought to its highest point of development in Ulysses (1922) and Finnegans Wake
   (1939) by the Irish and poet James Joyce. Other exponents of the form were
   American novelist William Faulkner and British novelist Virginia Woolf.
6. Avant-garde: The French military and political term for the vanguard of an army
   or political movement, extended since the late 19th century to that body of artists
   and writers who are dedicated to the idea of art as experiment and revolt against
   tradition. Ezra Pound‘s view, that ―artists are the antennae of the race‖, implies a
   duty to stay ahead of one‘s time through constant innovation in forms and subjects.
7. Collage: A term adopted from the vocabulary of painters to denote a work which
   contains a mixture of allusions, references, quotations, and foreign expressions. It is
   common in work of James Joyce, Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot.
8. Lost Generation: Also termed the Sad Young Men, which was created by F.S.
   Fitzgerald in his book All the Sad Young Men, the term in general refers to the
   post-World War I generation, but specifically a group of US writers who came of
   age during the war and established their literary reputation in the 1920th. It stems
   from a remark made by Gertrude Stein to Ernest Hemingway, ―You are a lost
   generation.‖ Hemingway used it as an epigraph to The Sun Also Rises (1926), a
   novel that captures the attitudes of a hard-drinking, fast-lining set of disillusioned
   young expatriates in postwar Paris. The generation was ―lost‖ in the sense that its
   inherited values were no longer relevant in the postwar world and because of its
   spiritual alienation from a US, basking under President Harding‘s ―back to
   normalcy‖ policy, seemed to its members to be hopelessly provincial, materialistic,
   and emotionally barren. The term embraces Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John
   Dos Passos, E. E. Cummings, Archibald MacLeish, Hart, Crane, and many other
   writers who made Paris the center of their literary activities in the 20s. They were
   never a literary school. In the 1930s, as these writers turned in different directions,
   their works lost the distinctive stamp of the post war period.
9. Modernism: a general term applied to the wide range of experimental and
   avant-garde trends in literature of the early 20th century, including symbolism,
   futurism, expressionism, imagism, vorticism, data, and surrealism. Modernist
   literature is characterized chiefly by a rejection of 19th century traditions: the
   conventions of realism, for instance, were abandoned by Franz Kafka and other
   novelists, and by expressionist drama, while several poets rejected traditional
   meters in favor of free verse. Modernist writers tended to see themselves as an

                                            37
   avant-garde disengaged from bourgeois values, and disturbed their readers by
   adopting complex and difficult new forms and styles. In fiction, the accepted
   continuity of chronological development was upset by Joseph Conrad, and William
   Faulkner, while James Joyce and Virginia Woolf attempted new ways of tracing the
   flow of characters‘ thoughts in their stream- of consciousness styles. In poetry, Ezra
   Pound and T.S. Eliot replaced the logical exposition of thoughts with collages of
   fragmentary images and complex allusions. Modernist writing is predominantly
   cosmopolitan, and expresses a sense of urban cultural dislocation, along with an
   awareness of new anthropological and psychological theories. Its favored
   techniques of juxtaposition and multiple point of view challenge the reader to
   reestablish a coherence of meaning from fragmentary forms.
10. Interior monologue: Interior monologue is a mode of narrative intended to reveal
   to the reader the subjective thoughts, emotions, and fleeting sensations experienced
   by a character. Interior monologue is a type of stream of consciousness, in which a
   character‘s subjective and ever-flowing mental commentary and observation are
   presented, usually through free indirect discourse. The ebb and flow of the revealed
   by interior monologue typically exists at a per- or sublinguistic level; this interior
   life is expressed more powerfully through images and the connotations they evoke
   than through straightforward, denotative narrative.
11. Multiple point of view: Point of view is the vantage point from which a narrative
   is told. Novels sometimes, but infrequently, mix point of views. The American
   writers William Faulkner is a master at presenting multiple point of view, showing
   within the same story how characters react differently to the same person or the
   same events. The use of this technique gives the story a circular from with one
   event as the center and various points of view radiating from it. This technique
   makes it difficult for the reader to see the truth of the story.
V. Identification.
 1.
 (1) In Dubious Battle (1936) (novel, by John Steinbeck)
 (2) Arrowsmith (novel, by Sinclair Lewis)
 (3) The Golden Apples (novel, by Eudora Welty)
 (4) Herzog (novel, by Saul Bellow)
 (5) The Naked and the Dead (novel, by Norman Mailer)
 (6) Rabbit Redux (1971) (novel, by John Updike)
 2.
 (1) A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway
 (2) The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway
 (3) Seize the Day by Saul Bellow
 (4) The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger
 (5) Sophistication in Winesburg, Ohio by Sherwood Anderson
 (6) Indian Camp by Hemingway
 (7) The Great Gatsby F. S. Fitzgerald
 3.
 (1) The passage is taken from A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner.

                                           38
 (2) ―Us‖ in this passage refers to the townspeople in Jefferson
(3) The iron-gray hair is Emily‘s.
(4) Emily sleeps every night besides Homer—her lover‘s corpse. It is her head that
   causes the indentation in the pillow.
(5) The story is tragedy
(6) The passage is taken from The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner.
(7) Benjy is the narrator.
(8) Caddy is Benjy‘s sister.
(9) The technique of stream of consciousness is used.
VI. Questions and Answers.
1. Reading Hemingway, one may find that some of its heroes live in a disorderly and
   immoral life, wide with alcohol. It is true that some of them are mentally wounded
   and hold a nihilistic or cynical view toward life. But deep at the bottom of their
   hearts, they are never really lost. Nor they ever cease to search for the meaning and
   ultimate truth of life. They may be physically destroyed by l\fate, but they can
   never be spiritually defeated. The Hemingway code hero is brave and unyielding.
   They have seen the cold world, but they boldly and courageously face the reality.
   Though suffering from physical pains and psychological alienations from their
   surrounding, they can always possess the quality of ―grace under pressure‖.
2. Indian Camp, Ernest Hemingway, It means that the bunk under the weight of his
   body. Nick Adams.
3. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby. The novel is set against the end of WWI.
   This passage hints at the meaninglessness, spiritual emptiness and vanity of such a
   life of pleasure seeking. There is a tragic sense that the party will be over.
4. Fitzgerald was a representative figure of the 1920s. He never failed to remain
   detached and foresee the tragedy of the ―Dollar Decade.‖ His works mirror the
   exciting age in almost every way. Through the glittering world of his fiction run the
   themes of moral waste and decay and necessity of personal responsibility. The
   Great Gatsby, a book about the Jazz Age, is a case study in people‘s pursuit of an
   elusive American Dream. It is also a powerful criticism of American society. Thus
   he is often acclaimed literary spokesman of the Jazz Age.
5. Daisy speaks these words in Chapter I of The Great Gatsby as she describes to Nick
   and Jordan her hopes for her infant daughter. While not directly relevant to the
   novel‘s main themes, this quote offers a revealing glimpse into Daisy‘s character.
   Daisy is not a fool herself but is the product of a social environment that, to a great
   extent, does not value intelligence in women. The older generation values
   thoughtless giddiness and pleasure-seeking. Daisy‘s remark is somewhat sardonic:
   while she refers to the social values of her era, she does not seem to challenge them.
   Instead, she describes her own boredom with life and seems to imply that a girl can
   have more fun if she is beautiful and simplistic. Daisy herself often tries to act such
   a part. She conforms to the social standard of American femininity in the 1920s in
   order to avoid such tension-filled issues as her undying love for Gatsby.
6. F. Scott Fitzgerald. The Great Gatsby. One of the main facets of Gatsby‘s persona
   is that he acts out a role that he defined for himself when he was seventeen years

                                           39
   old. His smile seems to be both an important part of the role and a result of the
   singular combination of hope and imagination that enables him to play it so
   effectively.
7. Wilhelm‘s basic struggle is internal. Or, rather, it is that of his internal self
   combating the external world, since the internal and external worlds are opposites.
   For instance, some of the opposing forces at work that create a struggle in Wilhelm
   are the choices posed to him by his father and his father‘s way of thinking vs. those
   ―alternative‖ choices posed by Dr. Tamkin, his surrogate father. Tommy is
   struggling with the demands of the world around him. However, his problems seem
   amplified and larger than most peoples because he is not aware of who he is and so
   the problems of his everyday life lie heavy upon him. Tommy Wilhelm lives in the
   America of the 1950‘s which means that the backdrop of his life consists of a newly
   made, strong American economy, and of a country at ―war‖ with the Soviet Union
   that uses the tools of science and technology as weapons. Psychology and science
   appear over and over in the novella, as does the new urban experience-the big city
   at its economic height. With all of this in mind, Bellow has decided to place the
   protagonist of his novel at odds with the world around him. Tommy‘s ―inner‖ world,
   his feeling and his human needs, are in constant battle with the external world of
   money and business.
8. Faulkner usually located his stories in a fictional town called Jefferson in the
   fictional Yoknapatawpha Country. With his imagination, Faulkner turned the land,
   the people and the history of the place into a literary creation and a mythical
   kingdom, which stands for the American South. The Yoknapatawpha Country
   fiction has overall pattern in which Faulkner‘s protagonists collide with the
   twentieth century society. Most of the major themes are directly related to this
   confrontation in Faulkner‘s fiction.
9. Faulkner‘s themes covers (a) the pre-civil War Southern values vs. the post-civil
   War Southern values (b) the decline of the old aristocratic families of he South (c)
   the past vs. the present (social changes) (d) racial problem in the Old South and the
   good trait of the Black (e) love, death, justice, isolation, violence, doom, morality,
   etc.
10. The most remarkable writing technique of Faulkner‘s include multiple point of
   view, inversions of time, and stream of consciousness, interior monologues and so
   on.
11. The most famous American Southern writers are William Faulkner, Flannery
   O‘Connor, Eudora Welty, and William Styron.
VII. Essay Questions.
1. Hemingway‘s style: his aim and achievement as a novelist and short-story writer
   were to convey his concerns in a prose style built from what was left after
   eliminating all the words one‖ could not stand to hear.‖ ―I always try to write on the
   principle of the ice-berg,‖ he told an interviewer.‖ There is seven-eighths of it under
   water for every part that shows.‖ He believes that a good writer does not need to
   reveal every detail of a character or action; the one-eighth that is present will
   suggest all other meaningful dimensions of the story. According to him, good

                                           40
   literary writing should be able to make readers feel the emotion of the characters
   directly and the best way to produce the effect is to set down exactly every
   particular kind of feeling without any authorial comments, with a bare minimum of
   adjectives and adverbs. His language is simple, symbolic and suggestive, implying
   more than what is actually said.
2. The modern work seems to begin arbitrarily, to advance without explanation, and to
   end without resolution. The book is no longer a record of sequence and coherence
   but a juxtaposition of the past and the present, of the history and the memory. There
   are shifts in perspective, voice and tone, but the biggest shift is from the external to
   the internal, from the public to the private, from the chronological to the
   psychological, from the objective description to the subjective projection. The
   traditional educated literary voice, conveying truth and culture, has lost its authority
   to a more detached and ironic tone.
3. In one sense, the title of the novel is ironic; the title character is neither ―great‖ nor
   named Gatsby. He is criminal whose real name is James Gatz, and the life he has
   created for himself is an illusion. Nick is particular taken with Gatsby and considers
   him a great figure. He sees both the extraordinary quality of hope that Gatsby
   possesses and his idealistic dream of loving Daisy in a perfect world. Though Nick
   recognizes Gatsby‘s flaws the first time he meets him, he cannot help but admire
   Gatsby‘s brilliant smile, his romantic idealization of Daisy, and his yearning for the
   future. The private Gatsby who stretches his arms out toward the green light on
   Daisy‘s dock seems somehow more real than the vulgar, social Gatsby who wears a
   pink suit to his party and calls everyone ―old Sport.‖ Nick alone among the novel‘s
   characters recognizes that Gatsby‘s love for Daisy has less to do with Daisy‘s inner
   qualities than with Gatsby‘s own. That is, Gatsby makes Daisy his dream because
   his heart demands a dream, not because Daisy truly deserves the passion that
   Gatsby feels for her. Further, Gatsby impresses Nick with his power to make his
   dreams come true as a child he dreamed of wealth and luxury, and he has attained
   them, albeit through criminal means. As a man, he dreams of Daisy, and for a while
   he wins her, too. In a world without a moral center, in which attempting to fulfill
   one‘s dreams is like rowing a boat against the current, Gatsby‘s power to dream
   lifts him above the meaningless and amoral pleasure-seeking of New York society.
   In Nick‘s view, Gatsby‘s capacity to dream makes him ―great‖ despite his flaws and
   eventual undoing.
4. Faulkner is called a Southern writer in that a. most of Faulkner‘s works are set in
   the South. b. His works have managed successfully to show a panorama of the
   experience and consciousness of the whole Southern society both before and after
   the Civil War. Though Faulkner set his works in the South, his concern was always
   with the general human situation.
5. William Faulkner is considered a great avant-garde experimenter because he
   successfully advanced some modern literary techniques.
   (a) He used the device of stream of consciousness. Action and plot are less
      important than the reactions and inner musings of the narrator. Time sequences
      are often dislocated. In this way, he went deep into the mind and memory of his

                                             41
      characters.
   (b) He used multiple points of view and a circular instead of a linear structure
      which makes the reader see the difficulty of arriving at a true judgment.
   (c) He stressed authorial transcendence.
   (d) He used an original narrative method which often withholds or gives confusing
      information. His sentences are not clearly indicated with words running together
      from time to time without proper punctuation. For him, the long sentence is a
      technique for compressing the greatest possible amount of time.
   (e) The violation of chronology in the narrative structure is matched by a violation
      of everyday language habits in Faulkner‘s prose style.
   (f) His prose varies from colloquial regional, to formal diction and cadences of
      American speech.
6. Benjy, Jason, and Quentin all serve as narrators in the Sound and the Fury. But they
   are different due to their differences in personality and in the ability to observe
   things.
          Benjy functions as a camera eye, recording what he sees and hears. His
   section contains simple sentences and a basic vocabulary. He focuses on the distant
   past, the event of the Compson children‘s childhood. He is limited by his lack of
   understanding and by the fact that he was left out of some events.
          Quentin‘s section contains many sentence fragments and a more complicated
   and abstract vocabulary. He switches between past and present more often than
   Benjy. He focuses on the events of 1909~1910---Caddy‘s loss of Virginity, her
   marriage, and the forces leading up to his own suicide. He is limited by his
   obsession with Caddy‘s Sexuality and by his extreme emotional agitation.
          Jason‘s section is written in everyday speech, although it is slangy, whiny,
   and a little vulgar. He concentrates on the present, although he also narrates the
   events of Quentin‘s and Mr. Compson deaths. Jason‘s limitation is his personality.
   He is mean and dishonest, and sees everything through the lens of how he is taken
   advantage of (although he usually brings it on himself).

6.3 20th Century American Drama
I. Fill in the blanks.
1. tragedies
2. Eugene O‘Neil
3. farce
4. denouement
5. tragicomedy
II. Multiple Choice.
1. C        2. B      3. B    4.D       5.A       6.D     7.A       8.D      9.D
III. Literary Terms
1. Drama: the general term for performance in which actors impersonate the actions
   and speech of fictional or historical character (or non-human entities) for the
   entertainment of an audience, either on a stage or by means of a broadcast; or a
   particular example of this art, i.e. a play. Drama is characters, although the

                                          42
   monodrama is a special case in which only one performer speaks.
2. Comedy: Comedy depicts humorous incidents in which protagonists are faces with
   moderate difficulties but overcome them and the play ends happily. Instead of being
   isolated like tragic heroes, comic protagonists are comfortable with their society, or
   become so; and their success is brought about through cooperation with others.
   Traditional comedy often culminates in marriages. In ―high‖ comedy, human folly
   arouses intellectual amusement as well as engaging the emotions; whereas ―low‖
   comedy arouses laughter through jokes and clowning that have more appeal to the
   emotions than the intellect.
3. Tragedy: A type of drama in which the characters experience reversals of fortune,
   usually for the worse. In tragedy, catastrophe and suffering await many of the
   characters, especially the hero. Examples include Shakespeare‘s Othello and
   Hamlet; Sophocles‘ Antigone and Oedipus the King, and Arthur Miller‘s Death of a
   Salesman.
4. Soliloquy: A speech in a play that is meant to be heard by the audience but not by
   other characters on the stage. If there are not other characters present, the soliloquy
   represents the character thinking aloud. Hamlet‘s ―To be or not to be‖ speech is an
   example.
5. Aside: Words spoken by an actor directly to the audience, which are not ―heard‖ by
   the other characters on stage during a play. In Shakespeare‘s Othello, Iago voices
   his inner thoughts a number of times as ―asides‖ for the play‘s audience.
6. Pathos: A quality of a play‘s action that stimulates the audience to feel pity for a
   character. Pathos is always an aspect of tragedy, and may be present in comedy as
   well.
7. Parody: A humorous, mocking imitation of a literary work, sometimes sarcastic,
   but often playful and even respectful in its playful imitation. Examples include Bob
   McKenty‘s parody of Frost‘s ―Dust of Snow‖ and Kenneth Koch‘s parody of
   Williams‘ ―This is Just to Say.‖
8. Irony: A contrast or discrepancy between what is said and what is meant or
   between what happens and what is expected to happen I life and in literature. In
   verbal irony, characters say the opposite of what they mean. In irony of
   circumstance or situation, the opposite of what is expected occurs. In dramatic
   irony, a character speaks in ignorance of a situation or event known to the audience
   or to the other characters. Flannery O‘Connor‘s short stories employ all these forms
   of irony, as does Poe‘s ―Cask of Amontillado.‖
9. Comic relief: The use of a comic scene to interrupt a succession of intensely tragic
   dramatic moments. The comedy of scenes offering comic relief typically parallels
   the tragic action that the scenes interrupt. Comic relief is lacking in Greek tragedy,
   but occurs regularly in Shakespeare‘s tragedies. One example is the opening scene
   of Act V of Hamlet in which a gravedigger banters with Hamlet.
10. Catharsis: The purging of the feeling of pity and fear that, according to Aristotle,
   occur in the audience of tragic drama. The audience experiences catharsis at the end
   of the play, following the catastrophe.
11. Monodrama: a drama acted or designed to be acted by a single person. A number

                                            43
   of plays by Samuel Beckett, including Krapp‘s Last Tape (first performed 1958)
   and Happy Days (1961), are monodramas. The term may also refer to a dramatic
   representation of what passes in an individual mind, as well as to a musical drama
   for a solo performance.
12. Persona: the assumed identity or fictional ―I‖ assumed by a writer in a literary
   work; thus the speaker in a lyric poem, or the narrator in a fictional narrative. In a
   dramatic monologue, the speaker is evidently not the real author but an invented or
   historical character. Many modern critics, though, insist further that the speaker in
   any poem should be referred to as the persona, to avoid the unreliable assumption
   that we are listening to the true voice of the poet. One reason for this is that a given
   poet may write different poems in which the speakers are of distinct kinds; another
   is that our identification of the speaking voice with that of the real poet would
   confuse imaginative composition with autobiography. Some theorists of narrative
   fiction have preferred to distinguish between the narrator and the persona, making
   the persona equivalent to the implied author.
13. Tragic hero: Tragic Hero is a privileged, exalted character of high repute, who, by
   virtue of a tragic flaw and fate, suffers a fall from glory into suffering. Sophocles‘
   Oedipus is an example.
IV. Identification
1.
(1) The Iceman Cometh (play, by Eugene O‘Neil)
(2) Fences (drama, by August Wilson)
(3) A Raisin in the Sun (play, by Lorraine Hansberry)
(4) The Death of a Salesman (play, by Arthur Miller)
2.
(1) Mourning Becomes Electra by Eugene O‘Neil
(2) The Hairy Ape by Eugene O‘Neil
V. Question and Answers.
   Throughout the play, Yank is struggling to find the place where he belongs.
   However, he is rejected by all facets of society. He attempts to befriend the ape and
   calls him brother. However, he is crushed by the gorillas and dies in the cage.
   Yank‘s struggle is the struggle for identity. In a sense in Yank we see the modern
   man desperately in search of his identity. However he finds himself an outsider, a
   freak.

6.4 Black American Literature
I. Fill in the blanks.
1. Langston Hughes
2. 1925
3. The Weary Blues
4. Richard Wright
5. Go Tell it on the Mountain
6. Invisible Man
7. Beloved

                                            44
8. Song of Solomon
9. Alice Walker
10. Toni Morrison
11. Sula
II. Multiple Choice.
1. D         2.D         3.B         4.B         5.D       6.B
7. C         8.B         9.A        10.D        11.D       12.A
III. Identification.
Passage 1
1. The poem is entitled The Negro Speaks of Rivers
2. The poet is Langston Hughes.
3. ―I‖ stands for the Blacks throughout history.
4. The poem writes about the wisdom, courage and the power of a race suffering
   mistreatment and injustice throughout history.
Passage2
5. Invisible Man
6. Ralph Ellison
7. By using the pronoun ―you‖, the author is addressing his readers. By doing so, he
   transcends… physical limits of an African American individuality. ―You‖ refer to
   all the modern people, be them Black or White. The author wanted his readers to
   realize that all the modern people with their aspirations for self-identity are
   suffering from alienation and frustration in a dehumanized society.
IV. Literary Terms.
   Harlem Renaissance: A literary movement that began in the 1920s in the almost
   exclusively African area of Harlem in New York City. Harlem had grown
   tremendously following World War I, when a mass migration of black Americans
   out of the South and into northern cities had taken place. Thanks to the Harlem
   renaissance, African American culture was for the first time deliberately highlighted
   for a multiracial, multiethnic national audience. The Harlem area became not only
   the nexus of black literature, theater, music, and dance but also, for a time, an
   intellectual and artistic nerve center for the entire nation. Distinguished writers who
   were part of the movement included the poets Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes
   (who also wrote novels and plays), Claude McKay, and Sterling Brown; the
   novelist Jean Toomer (whose remarkably inventive Cane, 1923, included verse and
   drama as well as prose fiction), Jessie Fauset and so on; and many essayists,
   memoirists and writers in divers e modes such as James Weldon Johnson and Arna
   Bontemps. The Great Depression of 1929 and the early 1930s brought the period of
   buoyant Harlem culture----which had been fostered by prosperity in the publishing
   industry and the art world-----effectively to an end. Zora Nearle Hurston‘s novel
   Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937), and other works, however, are widely
   accounted as late products of the Harlem Renaissance.
V. Questions and Answers.
1. The major themes of Native Son by Richard Wright are racism, protest, alienation,
   frustration, and the mentality of African Americans.

                                            45
2. Toni Morrison‘s novels include The Bluest Eye, Sula, Song of Solomon, Tar Baby,
Beloved, Jazz, and Paradise.
VI. Essay Questions.
1. Unlike White American literature which has a biblical origin, African American
   literature is inspired to a large extent by different myths, that of deliverance from
   slavery. In history African American literature was once a neglected area of
   American literacy scholarship .Due to racist discrimination, African American were
   segregated and denied the right to read and write during the 19th century. As a result,
   African American literature remained for a long time in the form of songs, ballads
   and spiritual. However, written literature found its way in the 18th and especially
   the 19th century when some African American writes appeared on the scene.
   Frederick Douglass with his Bondage and My Freedom, Booker Taliaferro
   Washington with his UP from Slavery and W.E.B. Du Bois with The Soul of Black
   Folk: Essays and sketches are the greatest African American writers in the 19th
   century, though more politically than artistically. The Harlem Renaissance in the
   1920s brought great prosperity of African American literature with Harlem area in
   New York City as a center of African American culture. Important literary figures
   of this time include Langston Hughes (author of The Weary Blues), Countee Cullen,
   Claude Mckay, Jean Toomer and Zora Nearle Hurston. The Great Depression of
   1929 and the early 1930s brought the period of buoyant Harlem culture-which had
   been fostered by prosperity in the publishing industry and the art world-effectively
   to an end.
          From 1930s onward eminent African American writers have emerged on after
   another in great numbers. Some of the writers are winners of famous literary
   awards home and abroad. Their works powerfully depict the brutality of racist
   oppression and its traumatic effects on African Americans. There work aims to
   empower the African American community to act for themselves to recognize their
   own worthy, their own history, and their own reality. African American can be said
   to have come to relative maturity in the 1940s with the publication of the protect
   novel Native son by Richard Wright who had great influence over later writers,
   among whom James Baldwin is the most famous one. Invisible man by Ralph
   Ellison, with the universality of its profound theme and exquisite style, marked a
   higher degree of maturity of African American literature. Contemporary African
   American writer include Alice Walker (author of The Color Purple),Toni Morrison,
   (Author of a number of novels, of which Song of Solomon and Beloved are
   considered the best), Maya Angelou (author of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings),
   Alex Haley (author of Roots) and so on ,among whom Toni Morrison is the most
   outstanding of all. Winner of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1993, she is the best
   and the most representative of the contemporary African American writers.
          The rising interest in African American literature has come about mainly for
   two reasons: African American have made significant contributions to all aspects of
   American life, especially during and after World War II, and African American
   writers have produced literature of impressive scope ad quality. They provide the
   most striking example of alienation in American literature. African American

                                           46
   literature constitutes a major force changing the earlier American literary monolith
   of the white middle class. It has become an indispensable part of American
   literature now.
2. Toni Morrison is a great contemporary American writer.
          Toni Morrison is known foe ―magical realism‖ in that she uses magic,
   folktales, and the supernatural in her novels. Her style combines
   unrealistic/supernatural elements with a realistic presentation of life and characters.
          For Morrison, ―all good art has been political‖ and the black artist has a
   responsibility to the black community. She aims at capturing ―the something‖ that
   defines what makes a book ―black.‖ All her fiction ―bear witness‖ to the experience
   of the black community. Sense of loss, roots, community, and identity of the Black
   are usual themes of her works. Her sympathy is especially given to the Black
   women who suffer from both the Whites and Black men.
          Morrison‘s prose has the equality of speech. She deliberately strives for this
   effect, which she calls ―aural literature.‖ Morrison wants readers to participate in
   her novels, to be involved actively. Readers are encouraged to crate the novel with
   her and to help construct meaning.
VII. Poem Analysis.
1. The speaker is the African American.
2. ―You‖ represents the White American who is envious and afraid of the African
   American because the latter is doing a very good even a better job as time passes on
   in all walks of life of American society. Some African Americans are having higher
   social statuses and higher pays than his/her White colleagues. This aroused the
   jealousy of the Whites.
3. The ―gifts‖ refer to the genius of the Black people such as their genius in music,
   sports, and literature among others.

6.5 Asian American Literature
I. Fill in the blanks.
   Amy Tan
II. Multiple Choice.
   A
III. Matching.
1 —b;            2—f;      3—c;                  4—d;            5—a;             6—e

6.6 Postmodern Literature
I. Filling in the blanks.
1. black humor
2. Snow White
3. Kurt Vonnegut
4. Kurt Vonnegut; Slaughterhouse Five
5. One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest
6. Lolita
7. Vladimir Nabokov

                                            47
II. Multiple Choice.
1. D                 2. B               3. D                4. C                 5. A
6. A                 7. D               8. D               9. C
III. Identification.
1. The passage is taken from Catch-22.
2. The author is Joseph Heller.
3. The description is sickening and saddening. Reader may at first interpret the scene
   as absurd and laughable, but their laughter ends in tears when they become aware
   of the pathetic situation of the bomber pilots and the fact that death and absurdity
   dominate the latter‘s world. The author makes the readers but to bring them to the
   awareness that their laughter is based on the suffering and misfortunes of
   Slaughterhouse Five.
4. The passage is taken from Slaughterhouse Five
5. The author is Kurt Vonnegut.
6. The author mentions Isaac Newton and Third Law of Motion to show that Billy is
   in a very dangerous position: he could have died so easily. So it is pathetic rather
   than funny. The mention of Newton and descriptions such as ―self-crucified‖ and
   ―shit thin gruel‖ is a rather sad humor.
7. Lolia
8. Vlaimir Nabokov
9. The novel deal with the abnormal love of Humbert Hunmbert, a man at his forties,
   for a teenaged girl named Lolita. In order to seduce Lolita, Humbert marries her
   mother who is killed when running frantically out of the house after learning his
   secret design. Humbert then takes Lolita to run off across US. But the latter is not
   happy with his possessiveness so she runs with Clare Quilty, a playwright slightly
   younger than Humbert. When Quilty turns out to be impotent, Lolita, now sixteen,
   marries a poor mechanic and becomes pregnant. Humbert finds Lolita sad, poor,
   and big-bellied in her house and gives her money after receiving Lolita‘s letter for
   help. Then he goes and kills Quilty. It is in a prison cell awaiting trial for murder
   that Humbert ―writes‖ the book as his confession and then dies shortly before the
   trial. The book is then ―edited‖ by John Ray, Jr., some professor of psychology.
IV. Literary Terms
1. Postmodernism: A term referring to certain radically experimental works of
   literature and art produced after World War Ⅱ. Postmodernism is distinguished
   from modernism, which generally refer to the revolution in art and literature that
   occurred during the period 1910-1930, particularly following the disillusioning
   experience of World War II. The postmodern era, with its potential for mass
   destruction similar to that widely experienced during the alienation of individuals
   and the meaninglessness of human existence. Postmodernists try to break away
   from traditions through experimentation with new literary device, forms, and styles.
   Postmodernists reject the order that some modernists attempted to instill in their
   work through patterns of allusion, symbol, and myth. They also take some of the
   meaning and methods found in modernist works to extremes, for instance, they tend
   to produce extremely fragmented texts. So they can be difficult to classify as far as

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   genres are concerned. Postmodernist, revolting against a certain modernist
   tendency toward elitists ―high art,‖ have also generally made a concerted effort to
   appeal to popular culture. Cartoon, music, ―pop art,‖ and television have thus
   become acceptable and even common media for postmodernist artistic expression.
   Postmodernist literary developments include such genres as the Absurd, the
   antinovel, concrete poetry, and other forms of avant-garde poetry written in free
   verse and challenging the ideological assumptions of contemporary society. What
   postmodernist theater, fiction and poetry have in common is the view that literary
   language is its own reality, not a means of representing reality.
2. Literary collage: Collage originally refers to a method in the art of painting where
   artists paste the scraps of newspaper, pieces of cloth and wallpaper into their
   painting boards. This king of method is widely used by artists of Dadaism,
   Surrealism, and other school. Later, it spread out to the field of literature. Literary
   collage is a strategy to various fragments like news reports, advertisements,
   allusions, foreign language pictures into the literary text. Both modernists and
   postmodernists employ literary collage in their writings. But due to their
   differences in literary theories, collage in their writings does not achieve the same
   aesthetic effect and postmodernists tend to apply collage more frequently than
   modernists. In general, the components of modernist collage are interrelated to one
   author. While looking at the collage from different perspectives, the viewer, that is,
   the reader can get an impression of ―synchrony ―, which can not be acquired
   from postmodernist collage at all .postmodernists simply paste fragments of all
   sorts onto the ―painting board‖/ that is, narrative texts. The fragments are inserted
   as what they are in real life. Each suggests something. All of them together indicate
   a king of complexity which is on the whole featured by disorder. Literary collage is
   considered by postmodernist writers as a way to decrease plots in narrative texts.
3. Black humor: Black humor refers to the use of the morbid and the absurd for
   darkly comic purposes. It carries the tone of anger and bitterness in the grotesque
   situations of suffering, anxiety and death. Black humor usually goes hand in hand
   with a pessimistic worldview. It manages to express a sense of hopelessness in a
   wry, sardonic way that is grimly humorous.
4. Parody: Parody is a literary form popular since ancient times that imitates a
   specific literary work or the style of an author for comic effect, usually to ridicule
   or criticize that work, author, to style. The literary counterpart to caricature, which
   is also designed to ridicule through an exaggerated depiction of an individual‘s
   features of characteristics, parody is often used to make a satiric point.
   Postmodernist writers tend to use paradise, for example, The Sot-Weed Factor by
   John Barth is a parody of Henry Fielding‘s Tom Jones.
5. Metafiction: Metafiction is a literary term popularized by Robert Scholes to
   describe novels that specifically and self-consciously examine the nature and status
   of fiction itself and that often contain experiments to test fiction as a form in one
   way or author. Postmodernist writers tend to apply metafiction in their works, for
   instance, John Barth‘s Lost in the Funhouse and John Fowles‘s The French
   Lieutenant’s Woman.

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V. Questions and Answers
1. Postmodern writers tend to (1) apply metafictional; (2) use parody; (3) employ
   literary collage; (4) aim at the deconstruction of genres; (5) have fragmented
   narratives;(6) discontinuity, uncertainty, and disorder in time and plot, etc.
2. Generally speaking, Barthelme‘s fiction is deconstructive in nature. His fiction is
   characteristic of puzzles, fragmented narrative, the abuse of clichés and the
   burlesque enunciation of social and historical events, which gives a sense that one
   must accept the limits of language its trashy condition. His characteristic fiction
   often seems to be constructed as collage. Barthelme is known primarily as a
   surrealist and black humorist.
3. Kurt Vonnegut‘s fiction displays his interest in science fiction, his hatred of war, his
   insistence on the need to resist the dehumanizing pressure of technological society.
   In his     fiction, he often applies the collage technique. Recurring symbols and
   phrases reiterate his point in different parts of the story and the same characters
   often appear in different books. He is also well known for his satire and black
   humor. He uses black humor as a tent to cover his literary creation which plays fast
   loose with ordinary values and standard, frequently employing elements of cruelty
   and choose to make the reader see the awful, the ugly, and the ―sick‖ in a new way,
   for what it is.
4. Cath-22 is self-contradictory, illogic, and absurd. It stipulates that a bombardier can
   return to the U.S. as long as he finishes the prescribed number of flights, but he has
   to fly if the commander wants him to do so. Cath-22 also stipulates that crazy
   bombardier can be grounded, but anyone who wants to get out of combat duty is
   not really crazy. There, no one can ever escape the war that they hate so much. In
   this sense, the hopeful parts of the rule are literally nonexistent.
5. John Barth: The Sot-Weed Factor, Giles Goat-Boy, Lost in the Funhouse, Chimera,
                 etc.
   Donald Barthelme: Snow White, The Dead Father, Paradise, etc.
   Kurt Vonnegut: Slaughterhouse Five, Cat’s Cradle, Mother Night, etc.
   Thomas Pynchon: Ⅴ. , Gravity’s Rainbow, Vineyard, The Crying of Lot 49, etc.
   Joseph Heller: Catch-22
   Ken Kesey: One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest
6. Ⅴ. is the person/thing that the protagonist wants to seek in the story. Ⅴ. seems to
   have many identities, which puzzles the protagonist. The author wants to show that
   the world is full of uncertainties and that it is impossible to gain access to the truth.
VI. Essay Questions
   The mental hospital ward in the novel is symbolic of a microcosm of the world at
   large. Nurse Ratched, or Big Nurse, is a tyrant who represents total control. She
   allows no music or laughter and crushes any hint of disobedience. She enjoys all
   this with full relish. The cost of uniformity and forced peace in her ward is the
   denial of human worth and human rights. In contrast, McMurphy represents total
   freedom. He introduces smiles and laughter into the live of the inmates and arouses
   their interest in living and behaving with dignity. They follow McMurphy and
   become his fellow rebels. Chief Bromden represents people who have lost their

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  dignity as human beings in a dehumanized world but are awakened and have gone
  on a spiritual progress toward recovering the wholeness of their humanity. The
  author shows that self-assertion and preservation of one‘s individuality is necessary
  for        survival        in        the        overall        repressive         and
  conformist milieu of society.

6.7 Post-colonialism
I. Literary Terms.
1. Colonialism: Colonialism is a Military, economic, cultural oppression/domination
   of one country over another
2. Postcolonialism: Postcolonialism is the social, economic, and cultural practices
   which arise in response and resistance to colonialism.
3. Postcolonial Literature: Literature of the settle colony and invade colony. We use
   the term post-colonial to cover all the culture affected by the imperial process from
   the moment of colonization to the present day. What each of these literatures has in
   common beyond their special and distinctive regional characteristics is that they
   emerged in their present form out of the experience of colonization and asserted
   themselves by foregrounding the tension with the imperial power.
4. Canonization: Literature was made as central to the cultural enterprise of Empire
   as the monarchy was to its political formation. So when elements of the periphery
   and margin threatened the exclusive claim of the centre they were rapidly
   incorporated. This process is a mimicry of the center proceeding from a desire not
   to be accepted but to be adopted and absorbed.
5. Orientalism: Orientalism is ―a manner of regularized (or orientalized) writing,
   vision, and study, dominated by imperative, perspectives, and ideological biases
   ostensibly suited to the Orient.‖ It is the image of the ―Orient‖ expressed as an
   entire system of thought and scholarship.
6. Mimicry: Mimicry is, then, the sign of a double articulation; a complex strategy of
   reform, regulation and discipline, which ―appropriates‖ the other as it visualizes
   power. Mimicry is also the sign of the inappropriate; however, a difference or
   recalcitrance which coheres the dominant strategic function of colonial power,
   intensifies surveillance, and poses an immanent threat to both ―normalized‖
   knowledges and disciplinary powers.
7. Diaspora: The word ―diaspora‖ is derived from the Greek verb speiro (to sow) and
   the preposition dia (over). When applied to humans, the ancient Greek thought of
   diaspora as migration and colonization. By contrast, for Jew, Africans, Palestinians
   and Americans the expression acquired a more sinister and brutal meaning.
   Diaspora signified a collective trauma, a banishment, where one dreamed of home
   but lived in exile. Other peoples abroad who have also maintained strong identities
   have, in recent years, defined themselves as diasporas, though they were neither
   active agents of colonization nor passive victims of persecution,
II. Questions and Answers.
1. Post-colonial theory deals with the reading and writing of literature written in
   previously or currently colonized countries, or literature written in colonizing

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   countries which deals with colonization or colonized peoples. It focuses
   particularly on the way in which literature by the colonizing culture distorts the
   experience and realities, and inscribes the inferiority, of the colonized people on
   literature by colonized peoples which attempts to articulate their identity and
   reclaim their past in the face of that past‘s inevitable otherness. It can also deal with
   the way in which literature in colonizing countries appropriates the language,
   images, scenes, traditions and so firth of colonized countries.
2. The term ―hybrid‖ used above refer to the concept of hybridity, an important
   concept in post-colonial theory, referring to the integration (or, mingling) of
   cultural signs and practices from the colonizing and the colonized cultures
   (―integration‖ may be too orderly a word to represent the variety of stratagems,
   desperate or cunning or good-willed, by which people adapt themselves to the
   necessities and the opportunities of more or less oppressive or invasive cultural
   impositions, live into alien cultural patterns through their own structures of
   understanding, thus producing something familiar but new). The assimilation and
   adaptation of cultural practices, the cross-fertilization of cultures, can be seen as
   position, enriching, and dynamic, as well as oppressive. ―Hybridity‖ is also a useful
   concept for helping to break down the false sense that colonized cultures----or
   colonizing cultures for that matter----are monolithic, or have essential, unchanging
   features.
III. Essay Questions.
   Postcolonial theory is built in large part around the concept of otherness. There are
   however problems with or complexities to the concept of otherness, for instance:
   otherness includes doubleness, both identity and difference, so that every other,
   every different than and excluded by is dialectically created and includes the values
   and meaning of the colonizing culture even as is rejects its power to define; the
   western concept of the oriental is based on the Manichean allegory (seeing the
   world as divided into mutually excluding opposites) : if the west is ordered, rational,
   masculine, good, then the orient is chaotic, irrational, feminine, evil. Simply to
   reverse this polarizing is to be complicit in its totalizing and identity-destroying
   power (all is reduced to a set of dichotomies, black or white, etc.) colonized
   peoples are highly diverse in their nature and in their traditions, and as beings in
   cultures they are both constructed and changing, so that while they may be ― other
   ― from the colonizers, they are also different one from author and from their own
   pasts, and should not be totalized or essentialized---- through such concepts as a
   black consciousness, Indian soul, aboriginal culture and so forth. This totalization
   and essentialization is often a form of nostalgia which has its inspiration more in
   the thought of the colonizers than of the colonized, and it serves to give the
   colonizer a sense of the unity of his culture while mystifying that of others. The
   colonized people will also be other than their pasts, which can be reclaimed but
   never reconstituted, and so must be revisited and realized in partial, fragmented
   ways. You can not go home again. Example of otherness: India read as
   ―intransigent,‖ or India as unreadable, to protect the myth of colonial authority.


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