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          15 March 2007
Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan
The emergency preparation, response and recovery plan for the Organization is based on
principles set forth in the Federal Be Ready Campaign, by the Red Cross, the Center for
Disease Control, by religious organizations, and businesses (see Appendix F for
references and Websites). All preparation and response will be carried out through the
organization, and by utilizing appropriate and available organization, as well as
community/state preparation and emergency response organizations and resources as
needed. The highest priorities are: 1) member preparation for anticipated emergencies—
to include the identification of key preparedness principles leading to capabilities based
planning, and tracking education and training efforts; 2) event / scenario specific
checklists; 3) the organization’s emergency operating structure--clearly identifies
leadership, points of contact and contact information, lines of communication; as well as
member and outside agency capabilities & responsibilities; 4) organization resources and
capabilities to minimize trauma and save lives; and 5) additional emergency preparedness
reference materials.

I. PREPARING FOR EMERGENCIES ......................................................................... 5
   A. Focus on anticipated emergencies.............................................................................. 5
   B. Report Progress to a Regional Level Leader of the Organization.............................. 7
        1. Educational Materials Provided, Training and Associated Metrics.................... 7
        2. Capabilities Based Planning--Capability Metrics ............................................... 9
   C. Emergency Operating and Communications Structure ............................................ 11
   D. Member Preparation for Home Emergencies and Disaster ...................................... 13
II. RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES ..................................................................... 16
   A. Priority Actions for Leaders in an Emergency......................................................... 16
   B. Organization Welfare Committee Actions During an Emergency........................... 16
   C. Selected Services Provided by the Organization...................................................... 17
   D. Community Based Services ..................................................................................... 17
        1. Emergency Assistance – Phone Numbers......................................................... 17
        2. Community Warnings and Guidance ................................................................ 18
   E. Development / Use of CERT Teams ........................................................................ 19
III. ORGANIZATION IMPLEMENTATION PLAN................................................. 20

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements—Capabilities Base Planning. ... 23
 1. Family Plans for Disasters ........................................................................................ 23
    A. Stock Emergency Supplies and Assemble a Disaster Kit (Appendix A.3, 4) ...... 23
    B. Meet with Your Family ........................................................................................ 23
    C. Determine Where to Meet After a Disaster Occurs ............................................. 23
    D. Have an "Out-of-Town" Contact ......................................................................... 23
    E. Emergency Numbers ............................................................................................ 24
    F. Know Your Community Warning Signals ........................................................... 24
    G. Community and Other Plans ................................................................................ 24
    H. School Emergency Plans ...................................................................................... 24
    I. FOR YOUR SAFETY ........................................................................................... 24
    J. What to Do if an Emergency/Disaster Strikes...................................................... 25
    K. Know What to Do In an Evacuation .................................................................... 25
    K. Know How to Turn Off Utilities .......................................................................... 26
    L. Know What to Do If Told to "Shelter-in-Place" or to "Stay Put" ........................ 26
    M. Know What to Do if You Have Special Needs ................................................... 27
    N. Know How to Prepare Pets For Evacuation......................................................... 28
    O. Guidelines for Large Animals. ............................................................................. 29
    P. Recovering from Disaster ..................................................................................... 29
        Health and Safety Guidelines ....................................................................................... 29
        Emergency Sanitation ................................................................................................. 29
        Returning Home ........................................................................................................ 31
        Seeking Disaster Assistance ......................................................................................... 32
        Coping with Disaster .................................................................................................. 32
        Helping Others .......................................................................................................... 34
    Q. Home Security...................................................................................................... 35
    R. Maintain Your Plan .............................................................................................. 36
 2. Family Communications -- HANDOUTS ................................................................ 37
        Organization Communication Chain .................................................................... 38
        Organization Communication Chain .................................................................... 39
 3. Shelter-in-place--Food, Water, Medicine, First Aid Kit, Equipment, Fuel, Etc. ...... 41
 4. Three-day Evacuation Kit-to Include Portable Shelter ............................................. 48
 5. Ability to Administer Health Care or First Aid ........................................................ 49
 6. Possessions, Insurance, Documents, Money............................................................. 49
APPENDIX B. Scenario Specific Checklists—Before, During and After Disasters 51
 1. Pandemic Flu ................................................................................................................. 51
 2. Biological Threats .......................................................................................................... 53
 3. Nuclear Blast. ................................................................................................................ 54
 4. Recession, Depression and / or Economic Collapse ............................................................... 56
 5. Fire .............................................................................................................................. 57
 6. Wildfire ........................................................................................................................ 58
 7. Hazardous Materials (Hazmat) Incidents ............................................................................. 59
 8. Extreme Heat ................................................................................................................. 62
 9. Flood ........................................................................................................................... 62
 10. Extreme Cold ............................................................................................................... 63
 11. Tornadoes ................................................................................................................... 65

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   12. Hurricanes ................................................................................................................... 67
   13. Thunderstorms ............................................................................................................. 70
   14. Earthquakes ................................................................................................................. 70
   15. Explosions. .................................................................................................................. 72
   16. Nuclear Power Plant Emergency. ..................................................................................... 72
   17. Chemical Terrorist Threats ............................................................................................. 74
   18. Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD). ............................................................................ 74
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and Communications Structure ............. 76
 1. Emergency Communications Structure and Equipment ........................................... 76
 2. Emergency Response Radio System ......................................................................... 81
 3. Tutorial on Citizen Radio Systems & Channel Plans ............................................... 83
 4. CERT Organizational Structure & Forms................................................................. 93
      A. CERT Organization.......................................................................................... 93
      B. Documentation & Forms ................................................................................ 101
APPENDIX D. Emergency Lists, Maps and Responsibilities .................................. 110
 1.Organization List Providing Member Names and Contact Information .................. 111
 2. List of Organization Members Outlining Their Preparation for Disaster ............... 113
 3. List and Map of Members in Each Neighborhood.................................................. 115
 4. Families with Special Needs, and Those Assigned to Assist Them ....................... 117
 5. List of Organization or Community Sponsored CERT Teams / Members ............. 119
 6. Emergency Positions and Responsibilities for Members ....................................... 121
      A. Neighborhood, Zone, and District Leaders—Grid Cell Leaders: .................. 121
      B. Organization Emergency Leaders .................................................................. 124
 7. List of Handouts Provided to Each Organization Member ..................................... 129
APPENDIX E. Organization / Other Resources ....................................................... 131
 1. Establish a Shelter Using the Organization Meetinghouse. .................................... 132
      A. Organization Emergency Shelter ................................................................... 132
      B. Essential Shelter Supplies and Equipment ..................................................... 148
      C. Security Guards & Security Officers As Required ........................................ 149
 2. Coordinate Public Information ............................................................................... 152
 3. Volunteer Management / Damage Assessment ...................................................... 153
      A. Volunteer Team Crew Recommendation for Hurricane Relief ..................... 153
      B. Status Report to Organization Leaders and / or EOC .................................... 155
      C. Initial Damage Assessment Report Form....................................................... 156
 4. Liaison with the Organization’s Community Leader Store House ......................... 159
 5. Kershaw County Emergency Shelters, Leaders, Protocols and Contacts ............... 161
      A. Kershaw County Community Shelters ........................................................... 161
      B. County Leaders. ............................................................................................. 162
      C. County Protocols ............................................................................................ 162
      D. Other Contact Information ............................................................................. 162
APPENDIX F. Preparedness Documents and Web Sites ......................................... 163

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan

Where will you or your family be when an emergency or disaster strikes? Emergencies
and disasters strike quickly and without warning and can force you to evacuate your
neighborhood or confine you to your home. What would you do if basic services —
water, gas, electricity or telephones — were cut off? Organization leaders, local officials
and relief workers will be on the scene after a disaster, but they cannot reach everyone
right away. If disaster strikes, you need to know how to take care of yourself and your
family. People can cope with disaster by preparing in advance and with families, and
neighborhoods working together as a team. Preparing for a disaster or emergency is a
responsibility that begins with each individual. We can't control all the emergencies that
will occur in our lives, but we can be ready to face them by knowing what to do and
taking action to prepare. First, we need to consider which emergencies are most likely to
occur in Kershaw County.

A. Focus on anticipated emergencies
Emergencies or catastrophic events that could strike the Organization in Kershaw County
need to be carefully considered and are listed here by type and risk level—based on
University of South Carolina study, Kershaw County assessments, and other sources (See
Section I.C for a quick summary of the capabilities needed to survive these disasters; and
Appendix A for more detailed summaries of capabilities, and Appendix B for checklists
on how to prepare for, respond to and recover from these. See the Table of Contents for
page numbers for each capability and scenario):

Natural Hazards                                      Risk Level1
1. Pandemic Flu                                      High
2. Fires                                             High
3. Wildfires                                         High
4. Extreme Heat                                      Moderate
5. Floods                                            Moderate
6. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold                    Moderate
7. Tornadoes                                         Moderate
8. Hurricanes                                        Moderate
9. Thunderstorms and Lightning                       Moderate
10. Earthquakes                                      Moderate

Technological Hazards
1. Hazardous Materials Incidents                     Moderate
2. Nuclear Power Plants                              Low

    Risk = Threat x Vulnerability x Consequence

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1. Biological Threats                                       High
2. Nuclear Blasts                                           Moderate / High
3. Explosions                                               Moderate
4. Chemical Threats                                         Low
5. Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD)                     Low

1. Economic Collapse                                        Moderate
2. Depression                                               Moderate
3. Recession                                                Low

Note: Community emergency plans are normally based on analysis of potential hazards and serve as a
good foundation for planning by Organization units. Organization members should act under the direction
of civil authorities and public agencies in responding to emergencies. Emergency plans for Organization
units should be coordinated with those of the community. Organization leaders and members should
consider the needs of neighbors and members of other faiths in all emergency response planning.

These events have much in common:
    All these events: 1) Require family and organizational pre-event planning—
underlining the need to develop family and organizational scenario specific plans. 2)
Require communications between leaders and members of families and the
organization—implying the establishment of reporting chains and clear communications
plans. 3) Threaten the health and well being of individuals and families. So, medical
preparations and the ability to administer or obtain health care / first aid are key, as well
as appropriate health and life insurance policies.
    Twelve or thirteen of these events could result in significant damage to infrastructure
(downed telephone lines, power failures, etc.), significant debris, and damage to personal
property—justifying alternate communications plans and equipment; sources of power;
having equipment to remove debris; requirement to shut off utilities (gas, water, power);
alternate heat and light sources; as well as maintaining appropriate insurance on property.
Eleven of these events could disrupt the food, water and fuel supply, and pandemic flu or
a bio-event could require the quarantine of families in the home for weeks—requiring
significant at home stores of food, water, medicine, and fuel. Eight of these events could
require a quick exodus of the scene for a few days—justifying the development of ―3 or
more-day kits‖ and a means to easily transport important documents. Two of these
events involve fire and the possible loss of life and destruction of property—leading one
to ensure fire alarms work, and other preparations for fire. Universal preparedness
elements / capabilities based planning will be presented in more detail in Appendix A.
Event specific guidance and detailed scenarios for scenario based planning purposes will
be presented in Appendix B.

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B. Report Progress to a Regional Level Leader of the Organization
Review and report annually to the regional level leader of the organization assigned to the
organization what has been done not only to teach members, but what they have done to
prepare--such as: obtain a year's supply of food, clothing, fuel, and be ready for all
hazards. This entails providing metrics associated with training and preparedness
resources / capabilities (See Appendix D.7 for a detailed summary of who has received

1. Educational Materials Provided, Training and Associated Metrics
   a. Instructional materials/handouts. What percentage of the the Organization’s
      families have received:
           DHEC Handout? 78 of 349 families = 22% as of 12 January 2007
           Organization Implementation—Milestones / Timeline? 55 of 349 families
              = 16% as of 12 January 2007
           Focus on Anticipated Emergencies Handout? 57 of 349 families = 16% as
              of 12 January 2007
           Capabilities Handout (Emergency Preparedness Supplies, Equipment, and
              Expertise)? 57 of 349 families = 16% as of 12 January
           Community Based Services Handout? 57 of 349 families = 16 % as of 12
              January 2007
           Communications Handout? 55 of 349 families = 16% as of 12 January
           Organization assignment and responsibilities in writing?
                                            45 of 55 families = 84% as of 12 January
           Neighborhood assignments and responsibilities in writing?
                                            58 of 349 families = 17% as of 12 January
           Zone assignment and responsibilities in writing?
                                            58 of 349 families = 17% as of 12 January
           District assignment and responsibilities in writing?
                                            58 of 349 families = 17% as of 12 January
           Preparation for Home Emergencies and Disasters? 0 of 349 families = 0%
              as of 12 January 2007

   b. Sacrament meeting talks by members of the organization welfare committee
           List talk topic, date

   c. Melchizedek Priesthood quorum emphasis by the spiritual and temporal welfare
      committee in lessons and in home teaching messages.
          List lesson/HT messages and date
                   Joint Meeting--Sep, 2006 Home Storage and 3-day Kit
                   Joint Meeting—26 Nov, 2006 Organization Neighborhoods
                   Joint Meeting—31 Dec, 2006 Preparedness Kickoff

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   d. Relief Society lessons and homemaking meetings.
          List lesson/meeting and date
                    Joint Meeting--Sep, 2006 Home Storage and 3-day Kit
                    Joint Meeting—26 Nov, 2006 Organization Neighborhoods
                    Joint Meeting—31 Dec, 2006 Preparedness Kickoff

   e. Annual Young Men and Young Women lessons, experiences, and scouting
      emphasis on the First Aid and Preparedness merit badges.
          List experiences/lessons and dates

   f. Dry pack canning—list % of Organization families that can dry pack can: 0 of
      349 families = 0% as of 12 January.

   g. Organization involvement in training, and exercises:
          List training (CPR, CERT, First Aid)
          Exercises this year with date

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2. Capabilities Based Planning--Capability Metrics
See Appendix A and D.2 & D.4 for details.

                                                                                 All in Organization

                                                                                                       All in Organization
                                                              for Organization
                                                              % Complete for


                                                              # Needed for

                                                                                 Family for

                                                                                                                             % Complete
                                                              # Available

                                                                                                                             # Available


                                                                                 # Needed

                                                                                                                             for All in

                                                                                                                             for All in
Family Emergency Readiness, Preparedness


Training, Item, Equipment, or Skill (Note: Unless
otherwise indicated, each person is assumed to need
3-day kit for each family x 349 families                      349    9     3              20,188
Years supply for each family                                  349    12    3              20,188
Access to Alternate shelter (tents, tarps, etc.)              349    12    3              20,188
Sleeping gear (sleeping bags and/or blanket, etc.)            349    11    3              20,188
Warm clothing                                                 349    12    3              20,188
Prescription medicine (2 mo)—As needed                        349    4     1              20,188
Access to First Aid Kit (1 / family)                          349    11    2              20,188
Trained in First Aid                                          349    6     2              20,188
Trained in CPR                                                349    6     2              20,188
Financially secure (out of debt)                              349    0                    20,188
Know how to turn off utilities                                349    11    3              20,188
Have plans for various disasters                              349    2     1              20,188
Have family communications plan                               349    3     1              20,188
Emergency / weather radio                                     349    6     2              20,188
MURS or CB radio or FRS radio                                 349    3     1              20,188
Have emergency family meeting place                           349    5     2              20,188
Have neighborhood meeting place                               349    0                    20,188
Have out of town emergency contact                            349    3     1              20,188
Know your neighborhood leader                                 349    4     1              20,188
Flashlight with extra batteries; Waterproof matches, and      349    7     2              20,188
either long-burning candles or a kerosene-type lamp
with extra fuel, all properly stored; Fire extinguisher,
ABC or dry-chemical type for all classes of fires, rope,
Bug repellant; Mess kits, or paper cups, plates, and          349    4     1              20,188
plastic utensils; Cash or traveler's checks, change; Paper,
pencil; Sufficient fuel for vehicles, generator, cooking,
etc; roadside reflectors or flares; moleskin to prevent and
treat blisters
Cook stove; Non-electric can opener, utility knife;           349    7     2              20,188
Pliers; Screw driver; Shovel; Ax or saw; Hammer; Rake,
hoe, mattox; Tape; Compass; Needles, thread; Shut-off
wrench, to turn off household gas and water; Plastic
sheeting; Map of the area (for locating shelters)

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan

                                                                           All in Organization

                                                                                                 All in Organization
                                                        for Organization
                                                        % Complete for


                                                        # Needed for

                                                                           Family for

                                                                                                                       % Complete
                                                        # Available

                                                                                                                       # Available


                                                                           # Needed

                                                                                                                       for All in

                                                                                                                       for All in
Organization Emergency Readiness, Preparedness


Training, Item, Equipment, or Skill (Note: Unless
otherwise indicated, each person is assumed to need
Family will open home to evacuees                       120    1     1              6000
Family will take care of special needs individual       120    1     1              6000
Have CERT training                                      50     1     2              3000
Medical doctor                                          1                           300
Registered Nurse                                        2                           600
LPN (1 per District)                                    4                           1200
Generator (1 per Neighborhood)                          39     4     10             2019
Chain saw (1 per Neighborhood)                          39     10    25             2019
Backhoe                                                 3      2     66             900
Psychiatrist                                            1                           300
Dentist                                                 1                           300
Chiropractor                                            1                           300
Bulldozer                                               1                           50
Dump truck (1 per district)                             4                           200
Heavy trucks                                            4      1     25             200
Trailers                                                4      3     75
Construction equipment (ladders, hammers, tape          4      2     50             200
measures, generators, nail guns, sawsall, skill saws,
drills, blowers, pressure washers, …)
Light trucks                                            39     10    25             2019
Licensed Contractor or Significant Construction         7      3     45             300
Fireman (1 per zone)                                    7                           300
Licensed electrician                                    7                           300
Licensed plumber                                        1                           300
Licensed in heating and air conditioning                1      1     100            300
Engineer                                                1      3     300            300
Lawyer                                                  1      1     100            300
Teacher, below age 12                                   7      2     29             2100
Teacher, age 12-21                                      7      2     29             2100
                                                        H11,   2     18             FRS
                                                        M350                        20188
                                                        or                          GMRS
Ham (H) radio or GMRS (G), MURS (M), FRS (F), CB        CB35                        2019
radio                                                   0
Licensed Ham (H) operator and/or GMRS (G) operator,     H11    2     18             H250
Firearms (one per family)                               349    10    3              20,188
Trained security officer                                7      1     14             2019
Dirt bikes, ATV or horses                               7      2     29             2019
*349 Households in the Organization (667 members)
**In 2000, there were 20,188 households in Kershaw County (52,647 people).

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan

C. Emergency Operating and Communications Structure
The organization has been broken up into a grid with 3 to about 10 families (5 optimum)
in each grid cell (or cells)—―neighborhood‖. The families in each neighborhood are
within walking / biking distance. Each neighborhood has a neighborhood leader
responsible for those within it (See Appendices D.3 & D.6.A). The organization will
assign someone to assist those who may be unable to care for themselves by
neighborhood (See Appendix D.4). A list of those with special skills and equipment is
available for each neighborhood and the organization as a whole in Appendix D.2.

If your phone, and /or cell phones are working, report emergencies by dialing 911. You
should also report your status to your neighborhood leader and an out of town contact—
that all in your family can report to. Thereafter, minimize your use of the telephone to
free up the phone service for emergency calls—which increase significantly during a
disaster. If you do not have a life threatening emergency, and you simply need to report
your status to your neighborhood leader or on up the chain, try the internet. The internet
may work well, even when you can’t place a call using a telephone. The organization has
a website registry for organization members (address TBD)—to sign in to if you get
separated from your family.

If telephonic, cell phone, and / or e-mail communications are not available (due to a
catastrophe), it is important that organization leaders still to communicate with members,
their leadership, and with emergency responders. In addition, during a disaster
emergency assistance may be hours, days or weeks away—neighbors will need to take
care of themselves until help arrives. To this end, it is recommended that members be
organized for the worst case scenarios; are able to communicate their needs; and care for
one another. The ―neighborhood leader‖ has responsibility for determining the status of
all members (or others) in the neighborhood (members within walking or biking
distance—not more than a few miles apart), and then report it up their organizational
chain. They will report their status to the Zone leader (responsible for determining the
status of 3 to 10 neighborhoods--seeking help as needed for the zone). If no help is found
for an individual with a life threatening emergency, the zone leader reports (using HAM
radio if feasible) to the Kershaw County Emergency Operations Center or the Amateur
Radio Emergency Service or Radio Civil Amateur Emergency Service (ARES/RACES)--
who report life threatening or significant property damage emergencies to the appropriate
Emergency Responder Organization. Failing that, the zone leader could look to
Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) leaders (see Section II.E) to address the
emergency with local resources. CERTs would also communicate with emergency
management organizations (State or County Emergency Operations Centers) to apprise
them of the members’ status and needed resources. Once emergencies are resolved, the
Zone leader will report member status to the District Leader who will report to the the
Organization’s Community Leader (or designee). The the Organization’s Community
Leader or his designee will report to the Stake, the Stake will report to the the
Organization’s Community Leaders’ Store House, and so on (see Figure 1).

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan
The Emergency Preparedness Organization Welfare Specialist (Bob Connell), with the
organization ERCS Communication Coordinator as backup (Robin Mooneyhan), are
assigned to organize communication systems before an emergency, and coordinate
communications in the Organization after an event occurs (See Appendix C). They are
also to work collaboratively with Organization, Stake and community leaders to set the
time(s) and method(s) of follow-up communications between members, and leaders. The
Organization membership clerk and assistant are to provide up-to-date family
information: names, addresses, home and/or cell phones, and e-mail addresses.

The Organization’s Community Leader has selected who is responsible for each
neighborhood (organizational grid cell)—for the organization. If the the Organization’s
Community Leader is not available, they have designated the following individuals to
take charge for the organization. In rank order these are:____________________. If
these individuals are not available the first district leader available will be in charge. See
Appendix D for member lists and maps, and for the assignments and responsibilities
associated with each of the position named above, as well as all other emergency

    Figure 1. Basic County District Level Citizen Preparedness
             Organization / Communications Structure

                                                                    Ham-                            Ham
                           County                                                                         Responder
                                                                 ARES/RACES                               Medical, Fire, Law
                                                                  Emergency Operators                     Enforcement, EMD

                                                              MURS,                               Ham
                 County Districts                             CB            Ham

                                                                 Leader 1
                            HAM, GMRS, MURS, CB                                     Leader

                                       Neighbor     Neighbor     Neighbor     Neighbor       Neighbor
                                       Leader 1     Leader 2     Leader 3     Leader 4       Leader 5
           HAM, FRS, MURS, CB

                  Family      Family   Family        Family       Family
                    1           2        3             4            5

      Emergency communications as required from indicated level to ARES/RACES
      Inter-organizational Communications         CERT to CERT / Responders

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan

D. Member Preparation for Home Emergencies and Disaster
NOTE: This guidance is provided here as an overview to members of what they need to
do to prepare for home emergencies and disasters. The following could be turned into a
handout as an introduction to the key concepts. Detailed guidance in each of these areas
is provided and / or referenced in Appendices A, B and F.

If there was a power outage in your home and someone fell and scraped a knee in the
dark, would you know where to quickly find first aid supplies in your home? Would you
know how to treat the wound? It is important that you and your family have certain basic
emergency and first aid supplies available at your home so that you can respond to home
emergencies and to disasters. Your emergency supplies should be organized and kept all
in one place where you can access them easily and quickly. Each family member should
know where these supplies are and have a basic knowledge of how to use them.

Recommended Emergency Supplies: Here is a general list of the supplies you should
have for home emergencies and natural disasters: Supply of prescription and other
necessary medications; Flashlight with extra batteries; Portable, battery-powered radio
for receiving emergency communications; Waterproof matches, and either long-burning
candles or a kerosene-type lamp with extra fuel, all properly stored; Fire extinguisher,
ABC or dry-chemical type for all classes of fires. Check the expiration date and be sure
you practice and know how to use it; Electrical fuses, if needed for your home; Rope
ladder to hold your weight if you need to exit upper floors of your home to ground level,
and some additional length of rope for multipurpose use; First aid instruction book;
Blankets and sheets. These can be used for warmth, for splints, and for transport of
injured persons (See for more information).

First aid supplies: Medical-grade vinyl gloves; Poison ivy relief cream; Burn relief
cream; Sunscreen, SPF of 30 or greater; Antibiotic ointment, Polysporin® or similar;
Sting relief lotion or ointment, calamine or similar; Box of sterile gauze pads, either 3" x
3" or 4" x 4"; Abdominal (ABD) or combine sterile pad, 5" x 9"; Rolled gauze of 2 sizes,
2" x 4 yards and 4" x 4 yards; Bandages of assorted types: finger, knuckle, plastic,
Telfa®, and general adhesive; Sterile oval eye pad; Small sharp scissors; Tweezers with
pointed tip; Thermometers, oral and rectal (for babies); Elastic bandage, 3" x 6"; Instant
ice pack; Roll of adhesive tape, 1" wide, may use plastic type if preferred; Triangular
bandages, 2; Package of safety pins, assorted sizes; Absorbent cotton balls, 1 box;
Diarrhea remedy, Pepto-Bismol® or Kaopectate® or similar; Popsicle® (craft) sticks or
finger splints; Antibacterial soap, liquid or bar; Medicine dropper ; Water purification
tablets; Small bottle of bleach; Sharp knife or multipurpose knife/tool; Bottles of aspirin,
ibuprofen, and acetaminophen (children’s or liquid if needed); Splint materials: thin
boards 2-3' long; Cough syrup and throat lozenges; Large plastic trash bag and several
smaller, zip-closure bags

You may need to add other items that are particular to your climate and to the types of
natural disasters that you have in your area. If mosquitoes are a problem or could become

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan
one (after a hurricane, for example), you may wish to add mosquito repellent to your

Include consecrated oil with your supplies so priesthood blessings can be given if needed.
Also be sure to include the scriptures and some favorite toys, games, songs, or books so
that your family will be able to have some degree of normalcy if a time of emergency

Other activities and situations may call for additional types of supplies. For example, for
a car trip you may need to add roadside reflectors or flares. For camping, you may need
to add a small saw, signal mirror, compass, multipurpose knife/tool, whistle, and other
pertinent items. For hiking kits include moleskin to prevent and treat blisters. For both
camping and boating kits be sure to include aloe vera gel for treatment of sunburn.
Hiking kits can be more compact and include only very essential items that can be easily
carried in your daypack.

These emergency items need to be stored in a waterproof, durable container and protected
from the access of small children. Be sure to check the dates on medications at least
annually to make sure medications are current. If you dispose of any medications, do so
safely so that children will not find and eat them.

Assembling the supplies listed above may take you some time and money if you have not
yet begun. The important thing is to begin now to plan for an emergency. Start by
gathering a few of the most important emergency items, then add to your supplies as
quickly as your time and money allow. Some packaged first aid kits can be used as a
baseline and then additional supplies added as you can afford to do so. A few of the local
Red Cross chapters even have facilities for assembling your own first aid kits.

A Family Emergency Plan: Besides emergency supplies, your family should have a
plan for how to respond to an emergency. Take time regularly to discuss and practice for
emergency situations with your family. Have fire, tornado, or earthquake drills so that
children will all know how to safely exit your home and where to gather.

In planning for emergencies, consider what would happen if a parent or another family
member were not at home during an emergency. Would the family members at home be
able to respond to the emergency? Responsibilities for emergency response should be
divided and often duplicated among family members so that regardless of who is at
home, the family will still be able to respond properly. You should have a plan for how
family members will contact one another if the family is scattered during the emergency.
This may include having a prearranged meeting place, a code word, or a relative’s phone

Knowledge of first aid procedures will be invaluable for your family during any type of
emergency situation. Younger children can learn most of these procedures, even CPR.
First aid classes are offered at many locations within most communities. The Red Cross
chapter in your community generally will offer a good basic first aid course, several types

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan
of first aid handbooks including a wilderness- and boating-specific types, and even first
aid kits for purchase or occasionally that you can assemble yourself. The Community
Emergency Response Training (CERT) classes are very good for emergency preparation.
Neighbors can participate in emergency training together to share their skills.

In preparing your children for emergencies, consider the effect that exposure to repetitive
media and news reports of real disasters may have on your children. You may wish to
limit such exposure to reduce stress and anxiety. The Federal Emergency Management
Agency website ( has some wonderful material to assist children in
learning more about disaster preparedness. They have a program on the website called
becoming a ―Disaster Action Kid‖.

Finally, help your family to know that if they are prepared, they need not fear emergency

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan

(See Appendix D for member lists)

A. Priority Actions for Leaders in an Emergency
     1. Initiate scenario specific response plans (see Appendix B). Insure your own
     2. Establish lines of communication—via personal contact, phone, radio, or runners
         (Appendix C).
     3. Account for all family members/families you are responsible for—determine
         status (see Appendix D).
     4. Assist those who are injured or in danger and call for help as appropriate. Realize
         that 911 services may not be working (see Appendix C for CERT guidance).
     5. Assess damage to property and take steps to protect it as necessary (damage
         assessment form (Appendices C.4 and E).
     6. Neighborhood, Zone and District Leaders report status up organizational lines
         periodically (Appendix C; Appendices E.4 &E.3.B for forms)—if no time has
         been specified for you, report as soon as you can after the event, at 6am, 9am,
         12noon, 3pm, 6pm, 9pm, 12pm, 3am (if possible) until status is acknowledged.
         Realize that others will be trying to report their status as well. After you report is
         acknowledged, report as directed thereafter.2
     7. Follow instructions from civil (tune in to emergency radio channel, 162.400MHz
         on the FM dial for Kershaw County) or organization authorities.
     8. Arrange for shelter and other selected services (food, water, child care, first aid,
         etc.) as necessary. For the Organization’s Community Leader, if necessary,
         establish a shelter using the Organization meetingplace (see Appendix E.1).
     9. Determine ways members can assist one another (See CERT, Appendix C.4).
     10. Assist separated families reunite as soon as possible—to include setting up a web
         page allowing family members to register and find one another.
     11. Organize / participate in recovery operations (Appendix E.3).

B. Organization Welfare Committee Actions During an Emergency
   After ensuring that there are no immediate life threatening emergencies in the
organization, organization welfare committee’s members should convene to:
   1. Determine next steps and courses of action—identify and resolve problems.
   2. Confirm overall responsibilities making sure that the bishop and others, as he
       directs, are available to minister to the people and that others, as assigned, focus
       on the physical arrangements needed at the time. Recommend changes as

 Report to the next higher organizational level provide: 1) Name (title, unit and contact info if applicable);
2) Description, location, and emergency status; 3) Names of injured, missing or dead; 4) Exact location and
extent of property damage; 5) Number of persons needed to provide assistance and specific tasks to be
done; 6) Number of people who need skilled medical help. 7) Actions being taken to help those in distress;
8) Numbers of quorum and family members available to provide assistance; 9) Assistance needed—
medicine, food, water, clothing, shelter, fuel, and/or funds; 10) Media spokesperson if applicable.

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan
   3. Implement previously developed plans to relieve fathers or mothers with special
      skills of their family duties so they can use their skills to help others.
   4. Determine if outside resources from the the Organization’s Community Leader’s
      storehouse or other agencies are needed, and request as appropriate.
   5. Adjust the time and method for follow-up communications as needed.

C. Selected Services Provided by the Organization
   (see Appendix E):
   1. The organization as a shelter—see Appendix E.1
   2. For coordinating and providing information to the public—see Appendix E.2
   3. For volunteer management—see Appendices E.3 and/or C.4
   4. For more information on first aid assistance, food preparation, housing,
       recreation, sanitation, child supervision—see Appendix E.1
   5. For the the Organization’s Community Leaders’ Storehouse see Appendix E.4.
   6. For all Organization emergency positions and responsibilities see Appendix D.6.
   7. Emergency Numbers
       a. See Appendices D.1, 3 for Organization members, Neighborhood, Zone,
           District, and Organization Leaders’ numbers
       b. General Organization Headquarters          800-453-3860         Emergency
       c. Atlanta the Organization’s Community Leaders’ Storehouse 770-493-7788
               John Hopkins
       d. SC the Organization’s Community Leaders’ Storehouse             803-736-0324
               Charles Woodrow
       e. Stake President                      803-776-8460        Brad Holt
       f. the Organization’s Community Leader                             803-408-9696
               Wayne Joyner

D. Community Based Services
    1. Emergency Assistance – Phone Numbers
Community emergency assistance can be obtained by calling 911. These services
include provision of police security, fire control, medical assistance, as available.
        a. Emergencies                                     911
        b. Kershaw County Fire Departments
                   i. Antioch, 432-8533; Baron Dekalb, 432-7154
                  ii. Blaney, 438-9371; Camden, 425-6040
                 iii. Cassatt, 432-7171; Charlotte Thompson, 432-8600
                 iv. Doby Mill in Lugoff, 408-0101; Pine Grove in Lugoff, 438-1000
                  v. Shepard, 432-6352; Westville, 432-9911; Kershaw, 432-9911
        c. Kershaw Co. Sheriff                             425-1512 or 911
        d. Kershaw Co. Medical Center                      432-4311
        e. Kershaw Co. Medical Service                     432-4300 or 911
        f. Kershaw Co. Emergency Preparedness              432-1522, 1534
        g. Red Cross of Kershaw County                     432-3383
        h. Poison Control                                  1-800-922-1117

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan
       i. SC Highway Patrol                              432-6980 or 911
       j. FBI                                            254-3011
       k. National Response Center (Toxic Chemicals)     1-800-424-8802
       l. Highway Department Maintenance                 432-6980, 4358
       m. Carolina Power and Light                       432-6402
       n. Southern Bell                                  611
       See phone book for other local numbers

Other State and National Phone Numbers
    American Red Cross          1-800-922-4469
    Palmetto Poison Center      1-803-922-1117
    DHEC Disease Control        1-800-277-4687
    Spills (Oil & Hazardous)    1-888-481-0125
    Agriculture                 1-803-734-2210
    USDA Inspections            1-803-788-0506
    USDA Farms                  1-803-806-3820
    State Vet                   1-803-788-2260
    Clemson Public Service      1-864-646-2120
    SLED                        1-803-737-9000
    Emergency Management        1-803-737-8500
    Homeland Security           1-800-BE-READY (236-3239)

2. Community Warnings and Guidance
    When disasters occur or bad weather is imminent in Kershaw County, the Emergency
    Alert / Weather System will be activated.

   The Emergency Alert System / NOAA All Hazard Alerts
   The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) designed the Emergency Alert
   System (EAS) so local (Kershaw County) or national level officials can quickly send
   out important emergency information targeted to a specific area. The EAS/ NOAA
   All Hazards Radio broadcasts over transmitters utilizing one of seven frequencies
   (162.400, 162.425, 162.450, 162.475, 162.500, 162.525, 162.550 MHz). For Kershaw
   county, there are two transmitters in range:

   Kershaw           045055 Columbia              162.400 WXJ20        1000
   Kershaw           045055 Florence              162.550 WXJ22        1000
   *Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME).

   NOTE: If you enter the SAME code into your radio – an option on some radios (for
   Kershaw County—045055; 045 designates South Carolina and 055 designates
   Kershaw County) -- the radio will receive emergency messages specific to Kershaw

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan
   County. For more information on SAME codes you should visit:

   Visit to see coverage maps and transmitter frequencies for
   weather / emergency radio transmitters nationwide. New transmitters are added
   frequently so check this website often.

Local Media that will Provide Emergency Information, School Closings, etc.
    KOOL 102.7 438-9002
    WIS-TV 10 803-799-1010
    WLTX           803-783-7309
    WOLO           803-735-9605

E. Development / Use of CERT Teams
Following a disaster, community members may be on their own for a period of time
because of the size of the area affected, lost communications, and impassable roads. The
Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) program supports local response
capability by training volunteers to organize themselves and spontaneous volunteers at
the disaster site, to provide immediate assistance to victims, and to collect disaster
intelligence to support responders’ efforts when they arrive. In the classroom, participants
learn about the hazards they face and ways to prepare for them. CERT members are
taught basic organizational skills that they can use to help themselves, their loved ones,
and their neighbors until help arrives (See Appendix C.4 for CERT organization structure
and Appendix D.5 for list of trained CERT members).

Local government, or one of its representatives, supports CERT training in the
community. CERT teams are typically sponsored by a organization, business, etc. and
associated with a local fire department. Their use in a county is consistent with the
County’s Emergency Management Director’s guidance. Training consists of 20 hours of
instruction on topics that include disaster preparedness, fire safety, disaster medical
operations, light search and rescue, team organization, and disaster psychology. Upon
completion of the training, participants receive a certificate and are officially recognized,
and are encouraged to continue their involvement by participating in training activities
and volunteering for projects that support their community’s disaster preparedness

For additional information on CERT (see Appendix D.5), contact Bob Connell, 803-360-
8619 or visit, or contact your local Citizen
Corps Council in Kershaw County.

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan


The Organization Implementation Plan lays out the milestones / timeline to accomplish
the previously discussed awareness and preparedness objectives. Here are the major
milestones and a timeline.

Milestones / timeline:
Milestone                                                                    Week of:
Develop awareness and preparedness materials to handout (Summarize           15 Nov
Appendices A, B, parts of other appendices). Update annually.
Provide awareness and preparedness materials to the Organization’s           18 Nov
Community Leader for review. Review annually.
Develop Organization Implementation Plan and provide to the                  18 Nov
Organization’s Community Leader for review. Update annually.
Provide emergency organization and communications structure                  18 Nov
(Appendix C). Update annually.
Provide emergency operating structure and resources (on going).              18 Nov
Update as needed, at least annually.
Organization chain of Command, emergency leadership and their                18 Nov
responsibilities. Update as needed, at least annually.
Map with neighborhood team leader (grid cell), and neighborhood              18 Nov
families specified; with respective zone leader and district leaders
specified. Update annually.
List of community/governmental outside organizations with special            18 Nov
skills/capabilities or equipment that could be called on for help—detail
the skills/capabilities or equipment and terms/conditions of use if any,
with appropriate contact information—to include other community
business, faith based organizations, fire departments, police
departments, Sheriff’s office, etc. contacts. Update annually.
Gain approval for plan. Approve updates annually.                            25 Nov
Present Plan to Organization—Follow-up End of Dec.                           26 Nov
Provide handouts to members. Organization tracks handouts and other          31 Dec
educational material provided—In particular materials provided by/to
Neighborhood, Zone, and District Leaders on behalf of the the
Organization’s Emergency Preparedness Program.
Assign tasks and responsibilities as appropriate—For shelter,                31 Dec
neighborhood teams, zone and district leaders, CERT teams, and all
other necessary emergency positions.
Organization lists providing member names contact info: a) phone             31 Dec
number; b) cell number; c) if phones are out–
FRS/MURS/CB/GMRS/HAM radio frequency to be used; d) address
and directions if all else fails. Update annually.
List of organization members outlining their preparation for disaster,       31 Dec
specification of those with special skills /capabilities or equipment that
could be used for mutual aid—detail the skills/capabilities or equipment

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan
and terms/conditions of use if any. For contact information, see
Organization list or maps. Start 19 November. Update annually.
List of families with special needs, and those assigned to assist them—   31 Dec
all contact information given for both. Update annually.
Present plan to Stake leadership, recommend adoption by other             4 Jan
Learn how to assist those who are injured or in danger.                   7 Jan
Announce Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) classes;
Review and report annually to the regional level leader of the            7 Jan
organization assigned to the organization what has been done to teach
members--to acquire a year's supply of food, clothing, fuel, and to
prepare for all the hazards mentioned above. On going.
Sacrament meeting talks by members of the organization welfare            28 Jan
Assess damage to property and take steps to protect it as necessary       28 Jan
(damage assessment form, and security).
Determine other ways members can assist one another.                      28 Jan
Determine ways to assist separated families reunite as soon as possible   28 Jan
after an event. Internet registry on Organization emergency web site,
Develop appropriate member/resource tracking forms, identification        28 Jan
forms, and structure for recovery operations.
Complete 1st CERT class.                                                  17 Feb 07
Complete 2nd CERT class                                                   24 Feb 07
List of Organization or community sponsored CERT teams/members—           25 Feb 07
CERT teams will typically deploy as feasible to regions most heavily
affected by the incident. Update annually.
Melchizedek Priesthood quorums by Temporal Welfare Committee,             Begin
and home teaching visits via special preparedness messages.               1 Apr 07
Start HAM Training                                                        21 Apr 07
Finish HAM Training                                                       28 Apr 07
Assess levels of preparedness—awareness, plans, logistics (annually).     22 Apr 07
Special presentations to the combined Priesthood and Relief Society.      29 Apr 07
Dry pack canning—member use encouraged. On going as needed.               29 Apr 07
Take HAM Test                                                             5 May 07
Relief Society lessons and homemaking meetings.                           May 07
Provide awareness and preparedness training as needed.                    May 07
CPR & First Aid Class                                                     May 07
Organization exercises communications, organization for specific event    May 07
(Annual exercise).
Update plans, and preparedness materials (annually)                       22 May 07
Learn how to establish a shelter using the Organization meetingplace      26 May 07
(see Appendix E). Make appropriate assignments. Practice.
Annual Young Men and Young Women camp experiences and lessons,            31 May 07
and scouting emphasis on the First Aid and Preparedness merit badges.

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Emergency Preparation, Response and Recovery Plan
Starting January 2007. On going.
Exercise plans for various scenarios—for families…(annually).   31 Aug 07

                              Purposely Left Blank

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements—Capabilities Base Planning.
Content of Appendix A:
   1. Family plans to prepare for, respond to and recover from disasters (see Appendix B for
      scenario specific checklists).
   2. List family and organizational contact information.
   3. Shelter-in-place food, water, medicine and fuel supply; as well as tools, equipment,
      generator, etc.
   4. 3-day evacuation kit--to include portable shelter.
   5. Ability to administer health care or first aid—take the Red Cross course and purchase a
      first-aid manual.
   6. Having sufficient insurance—check with your insurance provider to see what your
      insurance policies cover. Make sure you have insurance to cover all your needs—or
      make plans otherwise.
   Note: Reporting chains and clear communications plans are covered in I.D and Appendix C.

1. Family Plans for Disasters
Organization leaders, local officials and        evacuation. Store these supplies in     real event. The plan includes
relief workers will be on the scene after        sturdy, easy-to-carry containers        information such as your local
a disaster, but they cannot reach                such as backpacks, duffel bags or       Emergency Alert System radio (see
everyone right away. If disaster strikes,        covered trash containers.               II.D.2) or television station, evacuation
you need to know how to take care of            Ask one person to be responsible        assembly centers in your neighborhood
yourself and your family. People can             for replacing water every three         or area, emergency phone numbers
cope with disaster by preparing in               months and food every six months.       (II.D), or alternate communication
advance and with families, and                   Batteries should also be replaced       avenues (Appendix A.2, C) and pet care
neighborhoods working together as a              on a regular basis. Tape the call       arrangements (Appendix A.1.N). The
team. Preparing for a disaster or                letters and frequency numbers of        information should be posted on your
emergency is a responsibility that               your emergency alert radio stations     refrigerator or in some other prominent
begins with each individual. We can't            (EAS) on the radio and make sure        spot as well as included in your disaster
control all the emergencies that will            everyone knows how to work the          kit.
occur in our lives, but we can be ready          radio and put in fresh batteries.
to face them by knowing what to do and           Also tape the channel number of
taking action to prepare. Two things             the television emergency broadcast      C. Determine Where to Meet After a
that will always help you in an                  stations on your TV.                    Disaster Occurs
emergency or disaster are clear thinking
and quick reactions. If you can stay         B. Meet with Your Family                    Determine where to meet after a
calm in a crisis, you'll be better able to
                                                                                         disaster occurs--a place right outside
make the right decisions. Once you
                                             Review the Organization &                   your home in case of a sudden
decide the best action to take in a
                                             Community plans. Discuss the types          emergency, like a fire; a place in your
particular situation, do it! There's no
                                             of disasters and emergencies that are       neighborhood for all neighbors to meet;
room for hesitation in a disaster or
                                             most likely to happen in Kershaw            a location outside your neighborhood in
                                             County (see I.A) and what to do in each     case you can't return home. Make wallet
                                             case (see Appendix B for emergency          cards, so everyone will know the
A. Stock Emergency Supplies and                                                          address and phone number of the place
Assemble a Disaster Kit (Appendix A.3, 4)
                                             specific checklists).. Explain the
                                             dangers to children and plan to share the   where you are to meet. For older
                                             responsibilities, working as a team. If     children, select a "safe house" in areas
   Keep enough supplies in your             you have in-home childcare, include the     they frequent — until it is safe to meet
    home to meet your needs and those        caregiver in your plan. A Personal          (see Appendix A.2 for handouts).
    of each family member for one            Action Plan is an important part of this
    year. Assemble a Disaster Supplies       process because it gives you a chance to
    Kit with items you may need in an        think through what you would do in a        D. Have an "Out-of-Town" Contact
3 February 2007
                                                                                                 Page 23
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
Ask an out-of-town friend or relative to    G. Community and Other Plans
be your contact. After a disaster, it's
often easier to call long distance. Other   Ask local officials the following           I. FOR YOUR SAFETY
family members should call this person      questions about your community’s
and tell them where they are. Everyone      disaster/ emergency plans. Does my              Always shut off all the individual
must know the contact's phone number,       community have a plan? Can I obtain a
and cell phone number if they have one.                                                      circuits before shutting off the main
                                            copy? What does the plan contain? How            circuit breaker.
Note: If telephones are not working, try    often is it updated? What should I know      Fire Extinguisher
e-mail. Sometimes e-mail gets through       about the plan? What hazards does it
when calls cannot. Be aware that cell                                                   Be sure everyone knows how to use
                                            cover? Note, Kershaw County has a           your fire extinguishers (ABC type), and
phones are often overloaded during and      plan and the key threats were covered in
immediately after an emergency, so it is                                                where they are kept.
                                            section I.A and Appendix B.                  Smoke Alarms
important to know "land line" phone
numbers as well.                                                                        Install smoke alarms on each level of
                                            In addition to finding out about your       your home, especially near the
                                            community’s plan, it is important that      bedrooms. Follow local codes and
                                            you know what plans are in place for        manufacturer's instructions about
E. Emergency Numbers                        your workplace and your children’s          installation requirements. Test monthly.
                                            school or day care center.                   Escape Routes and Safe Spots
Post emergency numbers by all your          1. Ask your employer about workplace        Determine the best escape routes out of
phones (fire, police, ambulance, your       policies regarding disasters and            your home. Find two ways out of each
physician, etc.—See II.D). Teach your       emergencies, including understanding        room. Also, find the safe spots in your
children how to call these numbers and      how you will be provided emergency          home for each type of disaster. (For
when it is appropriate to do so. Include    and warning information.                    example, if a tornado approaches, go to
emergency numbers for water/sewer,          2. Contact your children’s school or day    the lowest floor of your home or an
electricity, gas and the National Poison    care center to discuss their disaster       interior room or closet with no
Control Center, 1-800-222-1222.             procedures.                                 windows.)
                                                                                         If Electrical Power is Lost
F. Know Your Community Warning                                                          Check to see if neighbors have power.
Signals                                     H. School Emergency Plans                   If they are also without service, call
                                                                                        your local power company.
                                                                                         Use a flashlight or battery-operated
Determine if your particular community      Know your children’s school
                                            emergency plan:                                  lantern. Do not use candles for
has warning signals. If so, find out what
                                            • Ask how the school will communicate            emergency lighting. Candles and
they sound like and what you should do
                                            with families during a crisis.                   kerosene lanterns are fire hazards.
when you hear them. See Section II.D
                                                                                         Turn off all major appliances. They
for use of the Emergency Alert System       • Ask if the school stores adequate food,
                                            water, and other basic supplies.                 could overload electric lines when
(EAS) and the National Oceanic &
                                            • Find out if the school is prepared to          power is restored, causing a second
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
                                            shelter-in-place if need be, and where           outage.
Weather Radio (NWR) system in
                                                                                         Keep refrigerator and freezer doors
Kershaw County. In 2006, these radios       they plan to go if they must get away.
                                                                                             closed as much as possible. Food
were purchased and provided to schools
                                            In cases where schools institute                 can be kept cold for a day or two if
nationwide for emergency messaging.
                                            procedures to shelter-in-place, you may          the doors are kept closed.
                                                                                         Use portable generators cautiously.
Organization communications systems         not be permitted to drive to the school
                                            to pick up your children. Even if you go         Make sure they are outside in a
are available via your Neighborhood
                                            to the school, the doors will likely be          well-ventilated area. Refuel a
Leader. They will provide a conduit for
                                            locked to keep your children safe.               generator only after it has cooled.
distress calls in the event all
                                                                                         In cold weather, drain pumps,
communications are out and provide          Monitor local media outlets for
                                            announcements about changes in school            supply lines, water heaters and
access to emergency services and
                                            openings and closings, and follow the            boilers - these can freeze when the
organization help.
                                            directions of local emergency officials.         power is lost. So can traps in drains
                                            For more information on developing               of tubs, sinks, commodes, washing
Ask local authorities about methods
                                            emergency preparedness plans for                 machines and dishwashers. In order
used to warn your community.
                                            schools, please log on to the U.S.               to avoid burst pipes, close the main
                                            Department of Education at                       water valve and open the spigots
                                                          and supply lines and drain them.

3 February 2007
                                                                                                Page 24
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
   In advance, provide your power             If telephones and cell phones are       for people to gather even the most basic
    company with a list of all life             out, emergency information can be       necessities, which is why planning
    support equipment required by               passed via previously designated        ahead is essential.
    family members. Develop a                   radios and frequencies to
    contingency plan that includes an           neighborhood leaders, who will          Evacuation: More Common than You
    alternate power source for the              pass the messages up to appropriate     Realize: Evacuations are more common
    equipment or relocating the person.         emergency or organization               than many people realize. Hundreds of
                                                leaders/responders.                     times each year, transportation and
                                               If Children are in School During a      industrial accidents release harmful
J. What to Do if an Emergency/Disaster          Disaster or Emergency                   substances, forcing thousands of people
Strikes                                        Check the local media for               to leave their homes. Fires and floods
                                                announcements about changes in          cause evacuations even more
                                                school openings and closings.           frequently. Almost every year, people
   If the disaster occurs near you, be
                                                Parents can always pick up their        along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts
    prepared to give first aid and get
                                                children during the school day, but     evacuate in the face of approaching
    help for seriously injured people.
                                                sometimes the safest place might        hurricanes. Ask local authorities about
   If the emergency occurs while you
                                                be the school itself. For older         emergency evacuation routes. Record
    are at home, check for damage
                                                children who self-transport, ask        your specific evacuation route
    using a flashlight. Do not light
                                                them to follow the instructions of      directions in the space provided.
    matches or candles or turn on
    electrical switches.
                                               Look to Your Organization /
   Check for fires, electrical and other
    household hazards. Be aware that
                                                Working with neighbors and
    spilled bleaches, gasoline and other
                                                Organization members can save
    liquids may produce deadly fumes
                                                lives and property. Know your
    when chemicals mix, or be a fire
                                                Organization members’/neighbors'
    hazard. If possible, get advice from
                                                skills (i.e., medical, technical) and
    the local fire department on how to
                                                consider how you can help
    clean up spilled liquids, especially
                                                neighbors with special needs, such
    if there are noxious fumes.
                                                as disabled or elderly persons.
   Sniff for gas leaks, starting at the
                                                Make plans for childcare in case
    water heater. If you smell gas or
                                                parents can't get home.
    suspect a leak, turn off the main gas
                                                                                        Evacuation Guidelines
    valve, open windows and get
                                                                                        Always, if time permits:
    everyone outside quickly.
                                            K. Know What to Do In an Evacuation         Keep a full tank of gas in your car if an
   Shut off any other damaged
                                                                                        evacuation seems likely. Gas stations
    utilities. Know in advance how to
                                                                                        may be closed during emergencies and
    shut off all utility valves and the     When community evacuations become           unable to pump gas during power
    electricity.                            necessary, local officials provide          outages. Plan to take one car per family
   Make plans for your pets if you         information to the public through the       to reduce congestion and delay. Gather
    need to evacuate. Do not leave          media. In some circumstances, other         your disaster supplies kit. Make
    them outside. If you do not need to     warning methods, such as sirens or          transportation arrangements with
    evacuate, confine or secure your        telephone calls, also are used.             friends or your local government if you
    pets (they're frightened, too, and      Additionally, there may be                  do not own a car. Wear sturdy shoes
    may run away or bite someone).          circumstances under which you and           and clothing that provides some
   Check on your neighbors,                your family feel threatened or              protection, such as long pants, long-
    especially those who are elderly or     endangered and you need to leave your       sleeved shirts, and a cap. Listen to a
    disabled.                               home, school, or workplace to avoid         battery-powered radio and follow local
   Call your Neighborhood Leader           these situations.                           evacuation instructions.
    and family contact — do not use
    the telephone thereafter unless it is   The amount of time you have to leave           Is there a map available with
    a life-threatening emergency.           will depend on the hazard. If the event         evacuation routes marked?
    Other information sharing within        is a weather condition, such as a              Listen to your battery-powered
    the neighborhood can be done via        hurricane that can be monitored, you            radio and follow the instructions of
    radios (see Appendix C).                might have a day or two to get ready.           local emergency officials or follow
                                            However, many disasters allow no time           directions passed down to your

3 February 2007
                                                                                                Page 25
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
    Neighborhood Leader from                    lines are damaged or if you are         • The effects of gravity may drain the
    organization officials                      instructed to do so.                    water in your hot water heater and toilet
   Wear protective clothing and sturdy        Do not turn off gas unless you          tanks unless you trap it in your house by
    shoes.                                      suspect a leak or local officials       shutting off the main house valve (not
   Take your 3-Day Disaster Supplies           advise to do so. If you turn the gas    the street valve in the cement box at the
    Kit.                                        off, you will need a professional to    curb—this valve is extremely difficult
   Listen to your battery-powered              turn it back on. It might take          to turn and requires a special tool).
    radio or car radio and use travel           several weeks for a professional to     Preparing to Shut Off Water
    routes specified by local authorities       respond. In the meantime, you may       • Locate the shut-off valve for the water
    - don't use shortcuts because certain       be unable to heat your home, make       line that enters your house
    areas may be impassable or                  hot water or cook.                      • Make sure this valve can be
    dangerous.                                 Below is some general guidance for      completely shut off. Your valve may be
   If you do not own a vehicle or              shutting off utility service. Modify    rusted open, or it may only partially
    drive, learn in advance what your           the information provided to reflect     close. Replace it if necessary.
    community's arrangements are for            your shut off requirements as           • Label this valve with a tag for easy
    those without private                       directed by your utility                identification, and make sure all
    transportation.                             company(ies):                           household
                                                                                        members know where it is located.
Secure your home:                           Natural Gas-Natural gas leaks and
• Shut off main gas valve, turn off water   explosions are responsible for a            Electricity-Electrical sparks have the
and pull main power switch before           significant number of fires following       potential of igniting natural gas if it is
leaving home.                               disasters. It is vital that all household   leaking. It is wise to teach all
• Unplug electrical equipment, such as      members know how to shut off                responsible household members where
radios and televisions, and small           natural gas. Because there are different    and how to shut off the electricity.
appliances, such as toasters and micro-     gas shut-off procedures for different gas   Preparing to Shut Off
waves. Leave freezers and refrigerators     meter configurations, it is important to    Electricity
plugged in unless there is a risk of        contact your local gas company for          • Locate your electricity circuit box.
flooding.                                   guidance on preparation and response        • Teach all responsible household
• Close and lock doors and windows.         regarding gas appliances and gas            members how to shut off the electricity
• Gather your family and go if you are      service to your home. When you learn        to the entire house.
instructed to evacuate immediately. Let     the proper shut-off procedure for your
others know where you are going.            meter, share the information with
Leave early enough to avoid being           everyone in your household. Be sure not
trapped by severe weather. Follow           to actually turn off the gas when           L. Know What to Do If Told to "Shelter-
recommended evacuation routes. Do not       practicing the proper gas shut-off          in-Place" or to "Stay Put"
take shortcuts; they may be blocked. Be     procedure. If you smell gas or hear a
alert for washed-out roads and bridges.     blowing or hissing noise, open a               Local officials may ask residents to
Do not drive into flooded areas. Stay       window and get everyone out quickly.            shelter-in-place during a chemical
away from downed power lines.               Turn off the gas, using the outside main        or hazardous materials emergency.
If you are going to a Red Cross or          valve if you can, and call the gas              This means you must remain in
designated shelter, take only clothing,     company from a neighbor’s home.                 your home or office and protect
food, and special medicines. Note:                                                          yourself there.
Pets are not allowed.                       CAUTION – If you turn off the gas for          Lock all windows and exterior
                                            any reason, a qualified professional            doors and close vents and fireplace
                                            must turn it back on. NEVER attempt to          dampers. Turn off all fans and
K. Know How to Turn Off Utilities           turn the gas back on yourself.                  heating and air conditioning
                                            Water-Water quickly becomes a                  Get your disaster supplies kit and
   Know how and when to turn off           precious resource following many                make sure the battery-powered
    water, gas and electricity at the       disasters. It is vital that all household       radio is working.
    main switches or valves and share       members learn how to shut off the water        Go to an interior room without
    this information with each family       at the main house valve.                        windows that is above ground
    member. Keep any tools you will         • Cracked lines may pollute the water           level. Some chemicals are heavier
    need near gas and water shut off        supply to your house. It is wise to shut        than air and may seep into
    valves. Remember, turn off the          off your water until you hear from              basements.
    utilities only if you suspect the       authorities that it is safe for drinking.

3 February 2007
                                                                                                 Page 26
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
   Using duct tape, seal all cracks         Identify safe places to go. If local        Store devices nearby, where you can get
    around the door and any vents into       officials have not told you to leave the    to them easily. This may mean having
    the room. Include spaces around          area, stay upstairs and in the middle of    more than one emergency escape device
    pipes.                                   the building, away from windows.            available.
   Listen to the radio or television        Avoid going to the lowest floor because     Advocate for yourself. Practice how to
    until you are told all is safe or you    hurricanes often cause flooding. If you     quickly explain the best way to guide or
    are told to evacuate—by local            are blind or visually impaired, use a       move you and your adaptive equipment,
    authorities or your Neighborhood         long cane in areas where debris may         safely and rapidly. Be ready to give
    Leader.                                  have fallen or furniture may have           brief, clear, and specific instructions
                                             shifted. This is recommended even if        and directions to rescue personnel,
                                             you do not usually use a cane indoors.      either orally or in writing, such as:
M. Know What to Do if You Have Special       Keep your service animals with you          "Please take my. . .
Needs                                        in a safe place at home or take them         Oxygen tank.
                                             with you to a shelter.                       Wheelchair.
                                             Find the location of main utility            Gamma globulin from the freezer.
People with special needs should
                                             cutoff valves and switches in your           Insulin from the refrigerator.
include those considerations in their
                                             home. Learn how and when to                  Communication device from under
emergency and preparedness planning.
                                             disconnect them during an emergency.             the bed."
It is important to remember that the
                                             Try to do this yourself. (Do not practice    "I am blind/visually impaired.
usual methods of support and assistance
                                             shutting off the gas.) If you cannot             Please let me grasp your arm
may not be available for some time
                                             practice alone, arrange for your network         firmly."
during an evacuation and after the
                                             to help. Turn off utilities only if local    "I am deaf. Please write things
disaster has occurred.
                                             officials tell you to do so or if you            down for me."
                                             believe there is an immediate threat to     When needed, ask for an
Disability/Special Need Additional
                                             life.                                       accommodation from disaster
                                             Identify as many exits as possible          response personnel. For example, let a
Hearing impaired-May need to make
                                             from each room and from your building.      responder or relief worker know if you
special arrangements to receive
                                             Be sure to include the windows as exits.    cannot wait in lines for long periods for
                                             Make a floor plan of your home,             items like water, food and disaster relief
Mobility impaired -May need special
                                             including primary escape routes. (You       assistance.
assistance to get to a shelter.
                                             may want your network to assist you         Keep a small disaster supplies kit in
Single working parent -May need help
                                             with it.) On the floor plan, mark the       your automobile and maintain more
to plan for disasters and emergencies.
                                             rooms where you spend a lot of time.        than a half tank of fuel at all times. If
Non-English speaking -May need
                                             Also, mark where your disaster supplies     you do not drive, talk with your
assistance planning for and responding
                                             kit is located. Give a copy of the floor    network about how you will leave the
to emergencies.
                                             plan to your network to help them find      area if the authorities advise an
Community and cultural groups may be
                                             you and your supplies, if necessary.        evacuation.
able to help keep people informed.
                                             Prepare an evacuation plan                  Become familiar with the emergency
People without vehicles -May need to
                                             beforehand. If you have to leave your       or disaster/evacuation plan for your
make arrangements for transportation.
                                             home or workplace, you may need             office, school or any other location
Special dietary needs -Should take
                                             someone's help to evacuate safely,          where you spend a lot of time. If the
special precautions to have an adequate
                                             especially down stairwells. If you need     current plan does not make
emergency food supply.
                                             assistance during an emergency and          arrangements for people with
                                             your network is not available, find         disabilities, make sure the management
Make a personal disaster plan to help
                                             helpers and tell them about your            at these sites knows your needs.
organize necessary information and
                                             condition. Give them instructions on        Choose an alternate place to stay,
activities during and after a disaster and
                                             what you need and how they can help         such as with friends, family or at a hotel
share your disaster plan with your
                                             you evacuate.                               or motel outside your area if you have
support network. Keep copies of your
                                             Practice using different ways out of a      been told to leave your home. You may
disaster plan in your disaster supplies
                                             building, especially if you are above       have enough early warning time (as
kit, car, wallet (behind driver's license
                                             the first floor in a building with many     with a slow-rising flood or hurricane) to
or primary identification card),
                                             stories. Remember, the elevator may not     leave before the disaster occurs. Find
wheelchair pack or at work, etc. Other
                                             work or should not be used.                 out if there are predesignated shelters in
action steps to prepare for disaster are
                                             If you need devices for an emergency        your area and where they are.
listed below:
                                             escape, think about your physical           Planning for Special Needs (continued)
                                             capabilities before making a purchase.

3 February 2007
                                                                                                 Page 27
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
If you have special needs: Find out          (         Medications, immunization records
about special assistance that may be         abilities.htm)                                    and a first aid kit.
available in your community. Register        Citizen Corps Citizen Preparedness              Sturdy leashes, muzzles, harnesses,
with the office of emergency services or     Publications                                      carriers or cages to transport pets
the local fire department for assistance     (            safely. Carriers should be large
so needed help can be provided.              pubs.shtm)                                        enough for the pet to stand
• Create a network of neighbors,             Employers' Guide to Including                     comfortably, turn around and lie
relatives, friends, and coworkers to aid     Employees with Disabilities in                    down. Include blankets or towels
you in an emergency. Discuss your            Emergency Evacuation Plans                        for bedding and warmth.
needs and make sure everyone knows           (            Current photos of your pets in case
how to operate necessary equipment.          ncy.html)                                         they get lost.
• Discuss your needs with your               U.S. Access Board Emergency                     Food, drinking water, bowls, cat
employer.                                    Evacuation Procedures                             litter/pan and can opener.
• If you are mobility impaired and live      (http://www.access-                             Information on feeding schedules,
or work in a high-rise building, have an                           medical conditions, behavior
escape chair.                                Emergency Preparedness on the Job for             problems and the name and number
• If you live in an apartment building,      People with Disabilities                          of your veterinarian.
ask the management to mark accessible        from the National Center on Emergency           Pet beds and toys, if easily
exits clearly and to make arrangements       Preparedness for People with                      transportable.
to help you leave the building.              Disabilities [114kb PDF]                       Have a Safe Place To Take Your Pets
• Keep specialized items ready,              Removing the Barriers: A Fire Safety            Many public disaster shelters
including extra wheelchair batteries,        Factsheet for People with Disabilities            cannot accept pets because of
oxygen, catheters, medication, food for      and their Caregivers                              health and safety regulations and
service animals, and any other items         (            other considerations. The only
you might need.                              heets/fswy22.shtm)                                animals allowed in some shelters
• Be sure to make provisions for             Special Populations Fire-Safe Checklist:          are service animals that assist
medications that require refrigeration.      A Fire Safety Factsheet for People with           people with disabilities. Research
• Keep a list of the type and model          Special Needs                                     your sheltering options before a
numbers of the medical devices you           (            disaster strikes. Work with your
require.                                     heets/fswy23.shtm)                                local emergency management and
                                                                                               humane organizations to develop
Online Resources                                                                               sheltering alternatives for people
A number of excellent online resources       N. Know How to Prepare Pets For                   with pets.
are available to help people with            Evacuation                                      Contact hotels and motels outside
disabilities and caregivers to prepare for                                                     your immediate area to check
emergency situations. All external site                                                        policies on accepting pets.
                                             The best way to protect your family
links will open in a new window.                                                             Ask friends, relatives or others
                                             from the effects of a disaster is to have a
National Organization on Disabilities                                                          outside your area whether they
                                             disaster plan. If you are a pet owner,
(                                                                           could shelter your animals in an
                                             that plan must include your pets. Being
EPI Guide for Emergency Managers,                                                              emergency.
                                             prepared can save their lives. If you
Planners & Responders                                                                        Prepare a list of animal shelters,
                                             must evacuate, make sure you find a
(                                                         boarding facilities and veterinarians
                                             safe shelter for your pets. If it's not safe
on=page.viewPage&PageID=1034)                                                                  who could shelter animals in an
                                             for you, it's not safe for them. Pets left
American Red Cross                                                                             emergency.
                                             behind can become injured, lost or ill.
(                                                                   Know What To Do As a Disaster
                                             So, prepare now for the day when you
Disaster Preparedness for People with                                                       Approaches
                                             and your pets may have to leave your
Disabilities                                                                                 Call ahead to confirm emergency
                                             home. Don't forget your pet when
(                                                       shelter arrangements for you and
                                             preparing a family disaster plan.
er/0,1082,0_603_,00.html)                                                                      your pets.
                                             Assemble a portable pet disaster
Preparing for Emergencies: A Checklist                                                       Check to be sure your pet disaster
                                             supplies kit.
for People with Mobility Problems                                                              supplies are ready to take at a
                                             Keep items in an accessible place and
(FEMA)                                                                                         moment's notice.
                                             store them in sturdy containers that can
(                                                            Bring all pets into the house so you
                                             be easily carried. Your pet disaster
all.pdf) [124kb PDF]                                                                           won't have to search for them if
                                             supplies kit should include: Disaster Preparedness                                                             you have to leave in a hurry.
Information for People with Disabilities

3 February 2007
                                                                                                    Page 28
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
   Make sure all dogs and cats are         If you have large animals such as            neck and back, then call for help
    wearing collars and up-to-date          horses, cattle, sheep, goats, or pigs on     immediately.
    identification tags.                    your property, be sure to prepare before     • If the victim is not breathing, carefully
 If You Shelter in Place ("Stay Put")      a disaster. Use the following guidelines:    position the victim for artificial
 Identify a safe area of your home         1. Ensure all animals have some form of      respiration, clear the airway, and
    where you can all stay together,        identification.                              commence mouth-to-mouth
    including your pets.                    2. Evacuate animals whenever possible.       resuscitation.
 Keep dogs on leashes and cats in          Map out primary and secondary routes         • Maintain body temperature with
    carriers. Be sure they are wearing      in advance.                                  blankets. Be sure the victim does not
    identification tags.                    3. Make available vehicles and trailers      become overheated.
 Have medications and a supply of          needed for transporting and supporting       • Never try to feed liquids to an
    pet food and water inside               each type of animal. Also make               unconscious person.
    watertight containers.                  available experienced handlers and
In Case You're Not Home                     drivers. Note: It is best to allow animals   Health
 Make arrangements in advance for          a chance to become accustomed to             • Be aware of exhaustion. Don’t try to
    a trusted neighbor to take your pets    vehicular travel so they are less            do too much at once. Set priorities and
    and meet you at a predetermined         frightened and easier to move.               pace yourself. Get enough rest.
    location. Make sure that the person     4. Ensure destinations have food, water,     • Drink plenty of clean water.
    is comfortable around your pets,        veterinary care, and handling                • Eat well.
    knows where they are likely to be,      equipment.                                   • Wear sturdy work boots and gloves.
    knows where your disaster supplies      5. If evacuation is not possible, animal     • Wash your hands thoroughly with
    are kept and has a key to your          owners must decide whether to move           soap and clean water often when
    home.                                   large animals to shelter or turn them        working in debris.
 If you use a pet-sitting service, it      outside.
    may be able to help, but discuss                                                     Safety Issues
    this possibility well in advance.                                                    • Be aware of new safety issues created
                                            P. Recovering from Disaster                  by the disaster. Watch for washed out
After a Disaster                                                                         roads, contaminated buildings,
   Walk pets on a leash until they                                                      contaminated water, gas leaks, broken
    become re-oriented to their home -                                                   glass, damaged electrical wiring, and
    often familiar scents and landmarks                                                  slippery floors.
                                            Health and Safety Guidelines                 • Inform local authorities about health
    may be altered and pets could
                                            Recovering from a disaster is usually a      and safety issues, including chemical
    easily be confused and become lost.
                                            gradual process. Safety is a primary         spills, downed power lines, washed out
    Also, downed power lines, reptiles
                                            issue, as are mental and physical well-      roads, smoldering insulation, and dead
    brought in with high water and
                                            being. If assistance is available,           animals.
    debris can all pose a threat for
                                            knowing how to access it makes the
    animals after a disaster.
                                            process faster and less stressful. This
   If pets cannot be found after a
                                            section offers some general advice on        Emergency Sanitation
    disaster, contact the local animal
                                            steps to take after disaster strikes in
    control office to find out where lost
                                            order to begin getting your home, your       Laundry and Cleaning Supplies
    animals can be reclaimed. Bring
                                            community, and your life back to             During times of emergency it is
    along a picture of your pet if
                                            normal.                                      critical that sanitation be strictly
   Get your pets back into their                                                        observed in the cleaning of
                                            Your first concern after a disaster is       clothing, bedding materials, and all
    normal routines as soon as possible.
                                            your family’s health and safety. You         kitchen and food preparation
    After a disaster, animals can
                                            need to consider possible safety issues      utensils.
    become aggressive or defensive -
                                            and monitor family health and well-
    monitor their behavior. If these
                                            being.                                       Suggested laundry and cleaning
    problems persist or if your pet
    seems to be having any health                                                        storage items are:
                                            Aiding the Injured. Do not attempt to          deodorizer tablets and air
    problems, talk to your veterinarian.
                                            move seriously injured persons unless        fresheners
                                            they are in immediate danger of death          Lysol-type disinfectant
                                            or further injury. If you must move an         toothpaste and toothbrushes
O. Guidelines for Large Animals.            unconscious person, first stabilize the        laundry detergent
                                                                                           liquid chlorine bleach

3 February 2007
                                                                                                  Page 29
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
 dish detergent                        Sewage Disposal                         the bucket is one-third to one-half
 bar soap                              An emergency chemical toilet            full, tie the garbage bag liner shut
 shampoo and conditioner               consisting of a water-tight             and dispose of it appropriately (i.e.,
 hair spray                            container with a snug-fitting cover     burying it, placing it inside a large
 deodorant                             should be an integral part of your      covered metal garbage can for later
 feminine supplies                     preparedness program. It could be a     disposal, or placing it in an
 shaving supplies                      garbage container, a pail, or a 5-      approved disposal location). Put
                                       gallon garbage can (also with a         another liner inside the bucket and
Disposal of Garbage and Rubbish        tight-fitting lid). Another should be   continue as above. Other chemicals
Garbage may sour or decompose,         available to empty the contents into    that can be used in place of liquid
rubbish (trash) will not, but offers   for later disposal. If possible, both   chlorine bleach are: HTH (calcium
disposal problems in an emergency.     containers should be lined with         hypochlorite), which is available at
The following suggestions will         plastic bags or garbage can liners.     swimming pool supply stores and is
make it easier for you to take care    NEVER deposit human waste or            intended to be used in solution.
of the refuse problem. Garbage         garbage on the open ground. If you      Following the directions on the
should be drained before being         have no other alternative for           package it can be mixed and stored.
placed in storage containers. If       disposal, it is safe to bury waste in   Caution: Do not use calcium
liquids are strained away, garbage     trenches 24-30 inches in depth.         hypochlorite to disinfect drinking
may be stored for a longer period      Every time someone uses the             water as it kills all the beneficial
of time without developing an          emergency toilet, he should pour or     bacteria in the intestinal tract and
unpleasant odor. After straining,      sprinkle into it a small amount of      thus causes mild diarrhea. Portable
wrap the garbage in several            regular household disinfectant,         toilet chemicals, both liquid and
thicknesses of old newspapers          such as creosol, Pinesol, chlorine      dry, are available at recreational
before putting it into your            bleach, baking soda, alcohol,           vehicle (RV) supply stores. These
container. This will absorb any        laundry detergent, or insecticide to    chemicals are designed especially
remaining moisture. A tight-fitting    keep down odors and germs. After        for toilets which are not connected
lid is important to keep out flies     each use, the lid should be             to sewer lines. Use according to
and other insects. Final disposal of   replaced.                               package directions. Powdered,
all stored garbage and refuse can be                                           chlorinated lime is available at
accomplished in the following          Emergency Chemical Toilet               building supply stores. It can be
manner, provided there is no           The following items should be           used dry. Be sure to get chlorinated
danger from radioactive fallout:       stored together inside a 5-gallon       lime, not quick lime which is
1. All stored garbage should be        plastic bucket. The bucket will         highly alkaline and corrosive.
buried if collection service is not    serve as the toilet during an           Caution: Chlorinated products
restored and if unpaved yard areas     emergency. To use this toilet           which are intended to be mixed
are available--keep a shovel handy     simply remove the contents from         with water for use can be
for this purpose. Dig a hole deep      the bucket, insert a large plastic      dangerous if used dry. You may
enough to cover it with at least 18-   garbage can liner into the bucket       also use powdered laundry
24 inches of dirt, which will          and fold the edges over the rim of      detergent, Lysol, Pinesol,
prevent insect breeding and            the bucket. Mix one cup of liquid       ammonia, or other household
discourage animals from digging it     chlorine bleach to one-half gallon      cleaning and disinfecting
up.                                    of water (one to ten ratio--do not      products.Where radioactive fallout
2. Other rubbish may be burned in      use dry or powdered bleach as it is     does not present a hazard, a
open yard areas (if permission is      caustic and not safe for this type of   temporary pit privy may be
granted by authorities under           use) and pour this solution into the    constructed in the yard for use by
existing conditions) or left at        bucket. This will kill germs and        several families. This offers a good
dumps established by local             insure adequate coverage. Though        method of waste disposal over
authorities. Can should be flattened   the bucket may be somewhat              extended periods of time. The
to reduce their bulk. Do not deposit   uncomfortable to sit upon, it           structure need not be elaborate, so
ashes or rubbish in streets or alley   certainly beats the alternative. For    long as it provides reasonable
ways without permission. Such          greater comfort you can remove the      privacy and shelter. The pit should
material may interfere with the        seat from the toilet and secure it to   be made fly-proof by means of a
movement and operation of fire-        the top of the bucket. After each       tight-fitting riser, seat, and cover. A
fighting and other emergency           usage replace the lid securely upon     low mound of earth should be
equipment.                             the bucket to keep insects out and      tamped around the base of the privy
                                       to keep the smell contained. When       to divert surface drainage and help

3 February 2007
                                                                                        Page 30
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
keep the pit dry. Accumulated            • Keep a battery-powered radio with          • Sparks, broken or frayed wires. Check
waste should be covered with not         you so you can listen for emergency          the electrical system unless you are wet,
less than 12 inches of earth when        updates and news reports.                    standing in water, or unsure of your
the privy is moved or abandoned.         • Use a battery-powered flash light to       safety. If possible, turn off the
Persons in city apartments, office       inspect a damaged home. Note: The            electricity at the main fuse box or
buildings, or homes without yards        flashlight should be turned on outside       circuit breaker. If the situation is unsafe,
should keep a supply of waterproof       before entering—the battery may              leave the building and call for help. Do
containers on hand for emergency         produce a spark that could ignite            not turn on the lights until you are sure
waste disposal. Homemade soil            leaking gas, if present.                     they’re safe to use. You may want to
bags may also be used and are            • Watch out for animals, especially          have an electrician inspect your wiring.
easily made by putting one large         poisonous snakes. Use a stick to poke        • Roof, foundation, and chimney cracks.
grocery bag inside another, with a       through debris.                              If it looks like the building may
layer of shredded newspaper or           • Use the phone only to report life-         collapse, leave immediately.
other absorbent material between.        threatening emergencies.                     • Appliances. If appliances are wet, turn
Apartment dwellers should have           • Stay off the streets. If you must go       off the electricity at the main fuse box
sufficient grocery bags on hand for      out, watch for fallen objects; downed        or circuit breaker. Then, unplug
possible emergencies. If you have a      electrical                                   appliances and let them dry out. Have
baby in your home, it is best to         wires; and weakened walls, bridges,          appliances checked by a professional
keep an ample supply of disposable       roads, and sidewalks.                        before using them again. Also, have the
diapers on hand for emergency use.                                                    electrical system checked by an
If these are not available,              Before You Enter Your Home                   electrician before turning the power
emergency diaper needs can be met        Walk carefully around the outside and        back on.
by lining rubber pants with              check for loose power lines, gas leaks,      • Water and sewage systems. If pipes
cleansing tissue, toilet paper, scraps   and structural damage. If you have any       are damaged, turn off the main water
of cloth, or other absorbent             doubts about safety, have your               valve. Check with local authorities
materials.                               residence inspected by a qualified           before using any water; the water could
Typhoid fever, amoebic dysentery,        building inspector or structural engineer    be contaminated. Pump out wells and
diarrhea, infectious hepatitis,          before entering. Do not enter if:            have the water tested by authorities
salmonella and giardiasis are            • You smell gas.                             before drinking. Do not flush toilets
diseases that spread rapidly in          • Floodwaters remain around the              until you know that sewage lines are
times of emergency and threaten          building.                                    intact.
all, yet are all diseases that can       • Your home was damaged by fire and          • Food and other supplies. Throw out all
easily be controlled by simply           the authorities have not declared it safe.   food and other supplies that you suspect
following the rules of good                                                           may have become contaminated or
sanitation.                              Going Inside Your Home                       come in to contact with floodwater.
                                         When you go inside your home, there          • Your basement. If your basement has
Emergency Chemical Toilet                are certain things you should and should     flooded, pump it out gradually (about
   5-gallon plastic bucket (with tight   not do. Enter the home carefully and         one third of the water per day) to avoid
fitting lid)                             check for damage. Be aware of loose          damage. The walls may collapse and the
   2 large boxes of garbage can          boards and slippery floors. The              floor may buckle if the basement is
liners (30 gallon size)                  following items are other things to          pumped out while the surrounding
   1 gallon liquid chlorine bleach       check inside your home:                      ground is still waterlogged.
   pinesol                                                                            • Open cabinets. Be alert for objects that
   6-8 rolls toilet paper                • Natural gas. If you smell gas or hear a    may fall.
   feminine sanitary supplies            hissing or blowing sound, open a             • Clean up household chemical spills.
   2 boxes baking soda                   window and leave immediately. Turn           Disinfect items that may have been
   2 boxes trash can liners (8-10        off the main gas valve from the outside,     contaminated by raw sewage, bacteria,
gallon size)                             if you can. Call the gas company from a      or chemicals. Also clean salvageable
   paper towels                          neighbor’s residence. If you shut off the    items.
                                         gas supply at the main valve, you will       • Call your insurance agent. Take
Returning Home                           need a professional to turn it back on.      pictures of damages. Keep good records
Returning home can be both physically    Do not smoke or use oil, gas lanterns,       of repair and cleaning costs.
and mentally challenging. Above all,     candles, or torches for lighting inside a
use caution. General tips:               damaged home until you are sure there
                                         is no leaking gas or other flammable
                                         materials present.

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
Being Wary of Wildlife and Other                    • A first aid station.             • Everyone has different needs and
Animals                                             • Sanitation.                      different ways of coping.
Disaster and life threatening situations            • Mass feeding                     • It is common to want to strike back at
will exacerbate the unpredictable nature            • Work activities                  people who have caused great pain.
of wild animals. To protect yourself and            • Recreation and diversion
your family, learn how to deal with                                                    Children and older adults are of special
wildlife. Guidelines                       The the Organization’s Community            concern in the aftermath of disasters.
• Do not approach or attempt to help an    Leader’s storehouse has food,               Even individuals who experience a
injured or stranded animal. Call your      equipment and communications                disaster ―second hand‖ through
local animal control office or wildlife    capabilities (Appendix E).                  exposure to extensive media coverage
resource office.                           • American Red Cross.                       can be affected.
• Do not corner wild animals or try to     • Salvation Army.
rescue them. Wild animals will likely      • Other volunteer organization.             Contact the the Organization’s
feel threatened and may endanger           These organizations provide food,           Community Leader, voluntary agencies,
themselves by dashing off into             shelter, supplies and assist in clean-up    or professional counselors for
floodwaters, fire, and so forth.           efforts.                                    counseling. Additionally, FEMA and
• Do not approach wild animals that                                                    state and local governments of the
have taken refuge in your home. Wild       The Federal Role In the most severe         affected area may provide crisis
animals such as snakes, opossums, and      disasters, the federal government is also   counseling assistance.
raccoons often seek refuge from            called in to help individuals and
floodwaters on upper levels of homes       families with temporary housing,            When adults have the following signs,
and have been known to remain after        counseling (for post-disaster trauma),      they might need crisis counseling or
water recedes. If you encounter animals    low-interest loans and grants, and other    stress Related Stress management
in this situation, open a window or        assistance. The federal government also     assistance:
provide another escape route and the       has programs that help small businesses     • Difficulty communicating thoughts.
animal will likely leave on its own. Do    and farmers. Most federal assistance        • Difficulty sleeping.
not attempt to capture or handle the       becomes available when the President        • Difficulty maintaining balance in their
animal. Should the animal stay, call       of the United States declares a ―Major      lives.
your local animal control office or        Disaster‖ for the affected area at the      • Low threshold of frustration.
wildlife resource office.                  request of a state governor. FEMA will      • Increased use of drugs/alcohol.
• Do not attempt to move a dead animal.    provide information through the media       • Limited attention span.
Animal carcasses can present serious       and community outreach about federal        • Poor work performance.
health risks. Contact your local           assistance and how to apply.                • Headaches/stomach problems.
emergency management office or health                                                  • Tunnel vision/muffled hearing.
department for help and instructions.                                                  • Colds or flu-like symptoms.
• If bitten by an animal, seek immediate   Coping with Disaster                        • Disorientation or confusion.
medical attention.                         The emotional toll that disaster brings     • Difficulty concentrating.
                                           can sometimes be even more                  • Reluctance to leave home.
                                           devastating than the financial strains of   • Depression, sadness.
Seeking Disaster Assistance                damage and loss of home, business, or       • Feelings of hopelessness.
Throughout the recovery period, it is      personal property.                          • Mood-swings and easy bouts of
important to monitor local radio or                                                    crying.
television reports and other media         Understand Disaster Events                  • Overwhelming guilt and self-doubt.
sources for information about where to     • Everyone who sees or experiences a        • Fear of crowds, strangers, or being
get emergency housing, food, first aid,    disaster is affected by it in some way.     alone.
clothing, and financial assistance. The    • It is normal to feel anxious about your
following section provides general         own safety and that of your family and      Easing Disaster-Related Stress:
information about the kinds of             close friends.                              • Talk with someone about your
assistance that may be available.          • Profound sadness, grief, and anger are    feelings—anger, sorrow, and other
                                           normal reactions to an abnormal event.      emotions—even though it may be
Direct Assistance Direct assistance to     • Acknowledging your feelings helps         difficult.
individuals and families may come from     you recover.                                • Seek help from professional
any number of organizations, including:    • Focusing on your strengths and            counselors who deal with post-disaster
• The Organization--For instance           abilities helps you heal.                   stress.
organization buildings (not temples) can   • Accepting help from community             • Do not hold yourself responsible for
be used as (Appendix E):                   programs and resources is healthy.          the disastrous event or be frustrated be-

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
cause you feel you cannot help directly      • Loss/grief: This relates to the death or   children of this age is how their parents
in the rescue work.                          serious injury of family or friends          cope. As children get older, their play
• Take steps to promote your own             • On-going stress from the secondary         may involve acting out elements of the
physical and emotional healing by            effects of disaster, such as temporarily     traumatic event that occurred several
healthy                                      living elsewhere, loss of friends and        years in the past and was seemingly
eating, rest, exercise, relaxation, and      social networks, loss of personal            forgotten.
meditation.                                  property, parental unemployment, and
• Maintain a normal family and daily         costs incurred during recovery to return     Preschool—3 through 6 years.
routine, limiting demanding                  the family to pre-disaster life and living   Preschool children often feel helpless
responsibilities on yourself and your        conditions.                                  and powerless in the face of an
family.                                                                                   overwhelming event. Because of their
• Spend time with family and friends.        What Creates Vulnerabilities in              age and small size, they lack the ability
• Participate in memorials.                  Children? In most cases, depending on        to protect themselves or others. As a
• Use existing support groups of family,     the risk factors above, distressing          result, they feel intense fear and
friends, and organization.                   responses are temporary. In the absence      insecurity about being separated from
• Ensure you are ready for future events     of severe threat to life, injury, loss of    caregivers. Preschoolers cannot grasp
by restocking your disaster supplies kits    loved ones, or secondary problems such       the concept of permanent loss. They can
and updating your family disaster plan.      as loss of home, moves, etc., symptoms       see consequences as being reversible or
Doing these positive actions can be          usually diminish over time. For those        permanent. In the weeks following a
comforting.                                  that were directly exposed to the            traumatic event, preschoolers’ play
                                             disaster, reminders of the disaster such     activities may reenact the incident or
Helping Children Cope with Disaster.         as high winds, smoke, cloudy skies,          the disaster over and over again.
Disasters can leave children feeling         sirens, or other reminders of the disaster
frightened, confused, and insecure.          may cause upsetting feelings to return.      School age—7 through 10 years. The
Whether a child has personally               Having a prior history of some type of       school-age child has the ability to
experienced trauma, has merely seen          traumatic event or severe stress may         understand the permanence of loss.
the event on television, or has heard it     contribute to these feelings. Childrens’     Some children become intensely
discussed by adults, it is important for     coping with disaster or emergencies is       preoccupied with the details of a
parents and teachers to be informed and      often tied to the way parents cope. They     traumatic event and want to talk about it
ready to help if reactions to stress begin   can detect adults’ fears and sadness.        continually. This preoccupation can
to occur. Children may respond to            Parents and adults can make disasters        interfere with the child’s concentration
disaster by demonstrating fears,             less traumatic for children by taking        at school and academic performance
sadness, or behavioral problems.             steps to manage their own feelings and       may decline. At school, children may
Younger children may return to earlier       plans for coping. Parents are almost         hear inaccurate information from peers.
behavior patterns, such as bed-wetting,      always the best source of support for        They may display a wide range of
sleep problems, and separation anxiety.      children in disasters. One way to            reactions—sadness, generalized fear, or
Older children may also display anger,       establish a sense of control and to build    specific fears of the disaster happening
aggression, school problems, or              confidence in children before a disaster     again, guilt over action or inaction
withdrawal. Some children who have           is to engage and involve them in             during the disaster, anger that the event
only indirect contact with the disaster      preparing a family disaster plan. After a    was not prevented, or fantasies of
but witness it on television may develop     disaster, children can contribute to a       playing rescuer.
distress.                                    family recovery plan.
                                                                                          Pre-adolescence to adolescence—11
Who is at Risk? For many children,           A Child’s Reaction to Disaster by Age.       through 18 years. As children grow
reactions to disasters are brief and         Below are common reactions in                older, they develop a more sophisticated
represent normal reactions to ―abnormal      children after a disaster or traumatic       understanding of the disaster event.
events.‖ A smaller number of children        event.                                       Their responses are more similar to
can be at risk for more enduring             Birth through 2 years. When children         adults. Teenagers may become involved
psychological distress as a function of      are pre-verbal and experience a trauma,      in dangerous, risk-taking behaviors,
three major risk factors:                    they do not have the words to describe       such as reckless driving, or alcohol or
• Direct exposure to the disaster, such as   the event or their feelings. However,        drug use. Others can become fearful of
being evacuated, observing injuries or       they can retain memories of particular       leaving home and avoid previous levels
death of others, or experiencing injury      sights, sounds, or smells. Infants may       of activities. Much of adolescence is
along with fearing one’s life is in          react to trauma by being irritable, crying   focused on moving out into the world.
danger                                       more than usual, or wanting to be held       After a trauma, the view of the world
                                             and cuddled. The biggest influence on        can seem more dangerous and unsafe. A

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
teenager may feel overwhelmed by           • Involve your children by giving them      other resources that work for that
intense emotions and yet feel unable to    specific chores to help them feel they      family. Parents can build their own
discuss them with others.                  are helping to restore family and           unique social support systems so that in
                                           community life.                             an emergency situation or when a
Meeting the Child’s Emotional Needs        • Praise and recognize responsible          disaster strikes, they can be supported
Children’s reactions are influenced by     behavior.                                   and helped to manage their reactions.
the behavior, thoughts, and feelings of    • Understand that your children will        As a result, parents will be more
adults. Adults should encourage            have a range of reactions to disasters.     available to their children and better
children and adolescents to share their    • Encourage your children to help           able to support them. Parents are almost
thoughts and feelings about the            update your a family disaster plan.         always the best source of support for
incident. Clarify misunderstandings                                                    children in difficult times. But to
about risk and danger by listening to      If you have tried to create a reassuring    support their children, parents need to
children’s concerns and answering          environment by following the steps          attend to their own needs and have a
questions. Maintain a sense of calm by     above, but your child continues to          plan for their own support.
validating children’s concerns and         exhibit stress, if the reactions worsen
perceptions and with discussion of         over time, or if they cause interference    Preparing for disaster helps everyone in
concrete plans for safety.                 with daily behavior at school, at home,     the family accept the fact that disasters
                                           or with other relationships, it may be      do happen, and provides an opportunity
Listen to what the child is saying. If a   appropriate to talk to a professional.      to identify and collect the resources
young child is asking questions about      You can get professional help from the      needed to meet basic needs after
the event, answer them simply without      child’s primary care physician, a mental    disaster. Preparation helps; when people
the elaboration needed for an older        health provider specializing in             feel prepared, they cope better and so
child or adult. Some children are          children’s needs, or a member of the        do children.
comforted by knowing more or less          clergy.
information than others; decide what
level of information your particular       Monitor and Limit Your Family’s             Helping Others
child needs. If a child has difficulty     Exposure to the Media
expressing feelings, allow the child to    News coverage related to a disaster may     The compassion and generosity of the
draw a picture or tell a story of what     elicit fear and confusion and arouse        American people is never more evident
happened.                                  anxiety in children. This is particularly   than after a disaster. People want to
                                           true for large-scale disasters or a         help. Here are some general guidelines
Try to understand what is causing          terrorist event where significant           on helping others after a disaster:
anxieties and fears. Be aware that         property damage and loss of life has        • Volunteer! Check with local
following a disaster, children are most    occurred. Particularly for younger          organizations or listen to local news
afraid that:                               children, repeated images of an event       reports for information about where
• The event will happen again.             may cause them to believe the event is      volunteers are needed. Note: Until
• Someone close to them will be killed     recurring over and over.                    volunteers are specifically requested,
or injured.                                                                            stay away from disaster areas.
• They will be left alone or separated     If parents allow children to watch          • Bring your own food, water, and
from the family.                           television or use the Internet where        emergency supplies to a disaster area if
                                           images or news about the disaster are       you are needed there. This is especially
Reassuring Children After a Disaster       shown, parents should be with them to       important in cases where a large area
Suggestions to help reassure children      encourage communication and provide         has been affected and emergency items
include the following:                     explanations. This may also include         are in short supply.
• Personal contact is reassuring. Hug      parent’s monitoring and appropriately       • Give a check or money order to a
and touch your children.                   limiting their own exposure to anxiety-     recognized disaster relief organization.
• Calmly provide factual information       provoking information.                      These groups are organized to process
about the recent disaster and current                                                  checks, purchase what is needed, and
plans for insuring their safety along      Use Support Networks                        get it to the people who need it most.
with recovery plans.                       Parents help their children when they       • Do not drop off food, clothing, or any
• Encourage your children to talk about    take steps to understand and manage         other item to a government agency or
their feelings.                            their own feelings and ways of coping.      disaster relief organization unless a
• Spend extra time with your children      They can do this by building and using      particular item has been requested.
such as at bedtime.                        social support systems of family,           Normally, these organizations do not
• Re-establish your daily routine for      friends, community organizations and        have the resources to sort through the
work, school, play, meals, and rest.       agencies, faith-based institutions, or      donated items.

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
• Donate a quantity of a given item or     Q. Home Security                             What Doesn’t Always Work
class of items (such as nonperishable
food) rather than a mix of different       Having a family and neighborhood             Handguns and pepper spray can provide
items. Determine where your donation       security plan is essential. If you develop   a means of self-defense in a life-
is going, how it’s going to get there,     a home security plan and talk about it       threatening situation—if available and
who is going to unload it, and how it is   with your family and neighbors, the          used appropriately. Homeowners have
going to be distributed. Without           chances of acting appropriately and          successfully defended their families in
sufficient planning, much needed           getting help are greatly improved.           the past from home invaders using such
supplies will be left unused.                                                           weapons. However, sometimes
                                           Prevention works best. Harden your           homeowners have lost their weapons to
If you require more information about                                                   home invaders because they couldn't get
any of these topics, the following are     home or apartment with strong doors
                                           and locks and three-inch screws in the       to them in time to use them. Most
resources that may be helpful. FEMA                                                     chemical sprays are tucked away
Publications Helping Children Cope         lock strike plate and door hinges. Use a
                                           wide-angle peephole and instruct             somewhere and many handguns are
with Disasters. L-196. Provides                                                         kept unloaded or locked up to prevent
information about how to prepare           everyone in your family not to open the
                                           door to strangers. Chain latches are         children from getting their hands on
children for disaster and how to lessen                                                 them. During a home invasion, you
the emotional effects of disaster.         ineffective as a barrier, so use your
                                           peephole to look outside before opening      cannot always count on your ability to
                                           the door. Be suspicious of someone           get to these weapons before being
When Disaster Strikes. L-217. Provides                                                  injured yourself. Ordinary household
information about donations and            claiming to be making a delivery that
                                           you did not order or use other tricks to     products can work in self defense.
volunteer organizations.                                                                Chemical fire extinguishers work great
                                           get you to open the door. Fortification
                                           of rear doors, sliding glass doors, and      to disorient the robber.
Repairing Your Flooded Home. FEMA
234. This 362-page publication provides    garage doors are also important. This
a step-by-step guide to repairing your     gives you the necessary time to phone        Fighting with the intruders sometimes
home and how to get help after a flood     911, sound audible alarms, or arm            works, especially if you have some
disaster. Available online at              yourself. Having a dog or appearing to       training and are physically fit. But for       have a dog will also discourage              most, fighting doesn't work because the
htm                                        criminals.                                   victim was pre-selected for their lack of
                                                                                        fight capability. In a life-threatening
After a Flood: The First Steps. L 198.     Have an Escape Plan                          situation there are no rules for fighting
Tips for staying healthy, cleaning up                                                   in self defense. The idea is not to stand
and repairing, and getting help after a                                                 toe-to-toe and duke it out. All you need
                                           If someone in the household can escape       is one incapacitating blow to the nose,
flood. Available online at                 and call for help, the home invaders will                                                  eyes, or throat to allow time to get out
                                           have lost their advantage of having          of there and call for help. Take a self-
tm                                         privacy and time. To some, running           defense class together with your family
                                           away from your family in crisis is           so all can learn the proper techniques
Additional Resources:                      distasteful, especially to men or women
All links open in a new browser                                                         and can practice the procedures. A
                                           with children. However, the alternative      practiced technique has a better chance
window.                                    might mean being handcuffed or tied-up
Humane Society of the United States:                                                    of being used effectively in a crisis.
                                           or otherwise incapacitated and left to
Disaster Center                            watch in horror as your family is              molested. If you have a plan for             What Not to Do
Find pet-friendly lodging in your area     escaping, make sure you include where                 to run and what to say. Sometimes a          Don’t ever try to pull a weapon on an
Saving The Whole Family - The              radical escape measure pays off, in life     armed perpetrator who has you covered
American Veterinary Medical                and death circumstances, like diving         with a handgun unless you feel it’s your
Association                                through a plate glass window, jumping        last chance. Don’t ever agree to be
Lots of links to disaster preparedness     from a balcony or climbing onto the          transported somewhere else like to an
sites for pets and animals                 roof. Although you might sustain minor       ATM machine or other location unless      injuries you must weigh them against         you feel it's a life or death decision. The
mily.asp                                   your chance of survival with the             second crime scene is almost always
FEMA: Animals and Emergencies              assailants.                                  more violent than in your home. If you                                                     have a choice, never agree to be tied-up,
m                                                                                       handcuffed or be placed in the trunk of

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements
a car because it takes away most of your      Quiz: Review your plan every year        and replace stored water about
self defense options. Don’t ever follow        and quiz your family about what to       every six months.
an intruder once they leave your home.         do.                                     Test: Read the indicator on your
Leave that for the police. Don’t fight        Drill: Conduct fire and emergency        fire extinguisher(s) and have
over property loss, it can be                  evacuation drills with your family       it/them recharged by a professional
replaced…your life cannot.                     on a regular basis.                      according to manufacturer's
                                              Restock: Rotate your food supply,        instructions. Also, test your smoke
R. Maintain Your Plan                          check food supplies for expiration       alarms monthly and change the
                                               dates and discard as appropriate,        batteries at least once a year.

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          APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

          2. Family Communications -- HANDOUTS
          Your family may not be together when disaster strikes, so plan how you will contact one
          another and review what you will do in different situations.
          Out-of-Town Contact Name:                             Telephone Number:
          Email:                                                Telephone Number:
          Fill out the following information for each family member and keep it up to date.

          Where to go in an emergency. Write down where your family spends the most time:
          Work, school and other places you frequent.

Address:                                                 Address:
Phone Number:                                            Phone Number:
Neighborhood Meeting Place:                              Evacuation Location:
Regional Meeting Place:
School                                                   Work
Address:                                                 Address:
Phone Number:                                            Phone Number:
Evacuation Location:                                     Evacuation Location:
School                                                   Other place you frequent:
Address:                                                 Address:
Phone Number:                                            Phone Number:
Evacuation Location:                                     Evacuation Location:
School                                                   Other place you frequent:
Address:                                                 Address:
Phone Number:                                            Phone Number:
Evacuation Location:                                     Evacuation Location:

          3 February 2007
                                                                                              Page 37
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

Organization Communication Chain

You need to know the contact information for your Organization Neighborhood Leader
and their alternate. You may need your Zone, District and / or the Organization’s
Community Leader’s contact information as well depending on your responsibilities and
the situation. Write their information below:

Neighborhood Leader’s Name:
Neighborhood Meeting Place:
Phone Number:
Cell Number:
E-Mail Address:
Type Radio & Radio Frequency (MHz) to Contact Neighborhood Leader:

Alternate Neighborhood Leader’s Name:
Phone Number:
Cell Number:
E-Mail Address:
Type Radio & Radio Frequency (MHz) to Contact Alternate Neighborhood Leader:

Zone Leader’s Name:
Phone Number:
Cell Number:
E-Mail Address
Type Radio & Radio Frequency (MHz):
Ham Radio Frequency (MHz):

District Leader’s Name:
Phone Number:
Cell Number:
E-Mail Address:
Ham Radio Frequency (MHz):

the Organization’s Community Leader
Phone Number:
Cell Number:
E-Mail Address:
Ham Radio Frequency (MHz):

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

3. Shelter-in-place--Food, Water, Medicine, First Aid Kit, Equipment, Fuel, Etc.
Food and Water Storage
Since no single food contains all the nutrients a person needs, it is wise to store items
from each food group. Consider the circumstances of family members when deciding
which foods to store. The amount of basic food a family should store depends on the age,
gender, and activity of the individuals in the family. For food storage to be successful,
dry-pack products need to be low in moisture (10% moisture or less), good quality, and
insect free. The following products are excellent to store because of their ability to retain
flavor and nutritional value. Canned vegetables, fruits and other things you normally eat
will add variety and comfort to you in times of emergency or need.
Suggested Amounts of Basic Foods for Home Storage*
(Per adult for one month. This list may vary according to location.)
Grains            34 pounds Wheat, white rice, brown rice, oatmeal, corn, popcorn,
                               cream of wheat, white/wheat flour, pasta, grits, millet,
                               barley, 6 or 9-grain cereal, quinoa, spelt, buckwheat,
                               kamut, aramanth, etc.
Legumes           5 pounds     Pinto beans, red beans, lima beans, green split peas, lentils,
                               kidney beans, black beans, soy beans, white beans, etc.
                               Legumes are extremely nutritious and contain protein
                               content of 20-25%, except soy beans, which are 40%
                               protein. Grains combined with legumes provide a
                               complete protein.
              1 1/3            This provides one cup of milk a day, so you will need more
Powdered Milk pounds           for children, nursing mothers, or for cooking. Milk
                               contains calcium and is a good source of vitamin A.
Sugar or          5 pounds     Don forget the sweets!
Cooking Oil       1 quart       Oil (fat) is absolutely necessary in our diet.

Salt              2/3 pounds    Iodized salt is recommended. Consider storing other
                               spices as well to add some zip to food—pepper, cinnamon,
                               chili powder, taco seasoning, Italian spices, garlic, etc.
Sprouting         ½ - 1 pound You can sprout almost any edible grain, nut, bean or seed.
Seeds                         Sprouting increases the nutritional value of foods. It is a
                              good way to increase vitamins and minerals.
Water*            30 gallons    1 gallon of water / adult / day. Have chlorine or chlorine
                               tablets on hand to purify water thereafter.

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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

How Long Will Products Last?

It is difficult to predict how long dry-pack products will last. Storage life depends on the
original quality of the product and the temperature of the storage room.
Dry-pack products will slowly lose nutritional value as they are stored. However, the
products do not need to be discarded after they reach the "Best If Used By" date printed
on the label. Most products, if properly stored, will still be safe and have some nutritional
value long after that date.
Rotation Suggestions for Properly Packaged Dry-Pack Foods
(when stored in a cool, dry place under ideal conditions)
Sugar                                               20+ years
Wheat                                               20+ years
Carrots                                             8–10 years
Fruit Drink Mix                                     8–10 years
Dry Pinto Beans                                     6–8 years
Dry Pink Beans                                      6–8 years
Dry White Beans                                     6–8 years
Apple Slices                                        6–8 years
Spaghetti                                           6–8 years
Macaroni                                            6–8 years
Chopped Dry Onions                                  6–8 years
Hot Cocoa                                           3–4 years
Rolled Oats                                         4–5 years
Vanilla Pudding                                     5 years
Chocolate Pudding                                   5 years
White Flour                                         5 years
Soup Mix                                            4–5 years
Rice                                                3–4 years
Nonfat Dry Milk                                     2–3 years
Instant Potatoes                                    1–2 years
Storage Suggestions: Store dry-pack items in a cool, dry location away from sunlight.
Store them on shelves or on raised platforms rather than directly in contact with concrete
floors or walls.
All food storage should be rotated. Oldest products should be used first to maintain
freshness. You can rotate food by using it yourself or by sharing it with others.
Storing Food Safely
All food contains bacteria and mold spores, and most food contains insect eggs. Given
the right environment, these microorganisms will start to grow and destroy the food. The
main conditions that can cause insects and microorganisms to grow are moisture and
heat. If products are not properly packaged, they can absorb moisture out of the air.

3 February 2007
                                                                                     Page 42
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

When the moisture reaches a level of 12% to 18%, product breakdown will accelerate.
Make sure to store food in a dry place. Heat is also a major cause of deterioration in food
quality. Store all products away from heat ducts, clothes dryers, sunlight, chimneys and
other sources of heat.
Food Storage and Children
Determining the appropriate quantities for food storage can be challenging for families
with children of various ages. Because children are still growing, they need more food in
proportion to their size than do adults. It’s helpful to add one year to a child’s current age
when calculating adequate food storage amounts. Then, by knowing the number of
children in a family and their ages, parents can estimate food needs as a percentage of an
adult portion.
Age                 Percentage of Adult Portion
3 and under         50%
4 to 6              70%
7 to 10             90%
11 and up           100%
Infants who are nursing share in their mother’s portion. Keep in mind that young
children, as well as pregnant and nursing mothers, need more milk than other family
members. Food storage needs for large families probably should be reassessed yearly.
Buying Food Storage Items
Local Grocers-Check with your local grocers to see if they can provide items in bulk.
Yellow Pages-Look under headings such as Food Brokers, Food—Dehydrated, Food
Service Distributors, Grocery—Wholesale, Grain Dealers, etc.
Warehouse Outlets-Large outlets such as Sam’s Club or Costco in the United States carry
many items in bulk.
Processors-Identify processors by checking the labels of products that you want to
purchase in bulk.

3 February 2007
                                                                                     Page 43
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

Basic Food Storage Inventory
Suggested amounts per adult for one month. This list may vary according to location.
Item                  Number* Amount             Total Amount Amount on           Additional
                      * in        Needed per Suggested           Hand             Purchases
                      Family      Adult                                           Needed
Grain                             34 lbs.

                                         1 1/3
Milk, Dry
Nonfat, Regular or
Canned (5 cans = 1

Sugar                                    5 lbs

Salt                                     2/3 lbs

Fats                                     1 quarts
Vegetable oil (1
lb.=1/2 q.)

Legumes                                  5 lbs
Pinto beans
Navy beans
Red beans
Split peas or lentils


Fuel and Light

Water *                                  14 gals
*It is impractical for most families to store a year's supply of water. 14 gals./person is a suggested
minimum reserve.

Adapted from: Essentials of Home Production and Storage, "Update on Milk Storage," Ensign March 1997,
and "Food Storage & Children," Ensign March 1998

3 February 2007
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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

First Aid Kit                                 First aid kit for car(s):
Assemble a first aid kit for your home:
                                              (20) adhesive bandages, various sizes.
Supply of prescription and other
                                              (1) 5" x 9" sterile dressing.
necessary medications;
                                              (1) conforming roller gauze bandage.
First aid instruction book;
                                              (2) triangular bandages.
Medical-grade vinyl gloves;
                                              (2) 3 x 3 sterile gauze pads.
Poison ivy relief cream;
                                              (2) 4 x 4 sterile gauze pads.
Burn relief cream;
                                              (1) roll 3" cohesive bandage.
Sunscreen, SPF of 30 or greater;
                                              (2) germicidal hand wipes or waterless
Antibiotic ointment, Polysporin® or
                                              alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
                                              (6) antiseptic wipes.
Sting relief lotion or ointment, calamine
                                              (2) pair large medical grade non-latex
or similar;
Box of sterile gauze pads, either 3" x 3"
                                              Adhesive tape, 2" width.
or 4" x 4";
                                              Anti-bacterial ointment.
Abdominal (ABD) or combine sterile
                                              Cold pack.
pad, 5" x 9"; Rolled gauze of 2 sizes, 2"
                                              Scissors (small, personal).
x 4 yards and 4" x 4 yards;
Bandages of assorted types: finger,
                                              CPR breathing barrier, such as a face
knuckle, plastic, Telfa®, and general
Sterile oval eye pad;
Small sharp scissors;                         Non-Prescription Drugs
Tweezers with pointed tip;                    Aspirin or nonaspirin pain reliever
Thermometers, oral and rectal (for            Anti-diarrhea medication
babies);                                      Antacid (for stomach upset)
Elastic bandage, 3" x 6";                     Syrup of Ipecac (use to induce vomiting
Instant ice pack;                             if advised by the Poison Control Center)
Roll of adhesive tape, 1" wide, may use       Laxative
plastic type if preferred;                    Activated charcoal (use if advised by the
Triangular bandages, 2;                       Poison Control Center)
Package of safety pins, assorted sizes;
Absorbent cotton balls, 1 box;                Tools and Supplies
Diarrhea remedy, Pepto-Bismol® or
                                              Sufficient fuel for vehicles, generator,
Kaopectate® or similar;
                                              cooking, lamps, etc.
Popsicle® (craft) sticks or finger splints;
                                              Cook stove
Antibacterial soap, liquid or bar;
Medicine dropper;
                                              Mess kits, or paper cups, plates, and
Sharp knife or multipurpose knife/tool;
                                              plastic utensils*
Bottles of aspirin, ibuprofen, and
                                              Emergency preparedness manual*
acetaminophen (children’s or liquid if
                                              Battery-operated radio and extra
Splint materials: thin boards 2-3' long;
                                              Flashlight and extra batteries*
Cough syrup and throat lozenges;
                                              Cash or traveler's checks, change*
Large plastic trash bag and several
                                              Non-electric can opener, utility knife*
smaller, zip-closure bags.

3 February 2007
                                                                                Page 45
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

Fire extinguisher: small canister ABC        For both camping and boating kits be
type                                         sure to include aloe vera gel for
Tube tent                                    treatment of sunburn. Hiking kits can be
Tape                                         more compact and include only very
Compass                                      essential items that can be easily carried
Matches in a waterproof container            in your daypack.
Aluminum foil
Plastic storage containers                   Security (Appendix E.1)
Signal flare
Paper, pencil
                                             Shotgun; Rifle;
Needles, thread
                                             Mace; Other.
Medicine dropper
Shut-off wrench, to turn off household
gas and water                                Sanitation
Whistle                                      Toilet paper, towelettes
Plastic sheeting                             Soap, liquid detergent
Map of the area (for locating shelters)      Feminine supplies
Electrical fuses, if needed for your home    Personal hygiene items
Rope ladder to hold your weight if you       Plastic garbage bags, ties (for personal
need to exit upper floors of your home to    sanitation uses)
ground level, and some additional length     Plastic bucket with tight lid
of rope for multipurpose use                 Disinfectant
Blankets and sheets--These can be used       Household chlorine bleach
for warmth, for splints, and for transport
of injured persons                           Clothing and Bedding
                                             Include at least one complete change of
Screw driver
                                             clothing and footwear per person.
                                             Sturdy shoes or work boots
Ax or saw, chainsaw
                                             Rain gear
                                             Blankets, pillows andor sleeping bags
Shut-off wrench, to turn off household
                                             Hat and gloves
gas and water
                                             Thermal underwear
Plastic sheeting; Map of the area (for
locating shelters)
                                             Special Items &
Other items to add:                          Prescription Medicine
Bug repellant;
                                             Remember family members with special
For a car trip you may need to add
                                             requirements, such as infants and elderly
roadside reflectors or flares.
                                             or disabled persons.
For camping, you may also need to add a
small saw, signal mirror, and other
pertinent items.                             For Baby
For hiking kits include moleskin to          Formula
prevent and treat blisters.                  Diapers

3 February 2007
                                                                               Page 46
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

Powdered milk
Medications                                     Important Family
For Adults                                      Documents
                                                Keep these records in a waterproof,
Heart and high blood pressure
                                                portable container:
                                                Will, insurance policies, contracts deeds,
                                                stocks and bonds
Prescription drugs
                                                Family history
Denture needs
                                                Passports, social security cards,
Contact lenses and supplies
                                                immunization records
Extra eye glasses
                                                Bank account numbers
                                                Credit card account numbers and
Entertainment (based on                         companies
the ages of family                              Inventory of valuable household goods,
                                                important telephone numbers
members)                                        Family records (birth, marriage, death
Games (cards) and books                         certificates)
Portable music device

Change your stored water as needed (6 months to 1-year) so it stays fresh. Rotate or
replace your stored food periodically so it stays fresh. Re-think your emergency supply
storage and family needs at least once a year. Replace batteries, update clothes, etc.
Ask your physician or pharmacist about storing prescription medications.

3 February 2007
                                                                                  Page 47
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

4. Three-day Evacuation Kit-to Include Portable Shelter
When preparing for a possible emergency evacuation situation, it's best to think first
about the basics of survival: fresh water, food, clean air and warmth. It is recommended
that individuals have a 3-day kit at work, and in their car. A much more significant
emergency supply kit should be in the home.
Recommended Items to Include in a Portable Basic Emergency Supply Kit Follow. You
should have one kit for each family member, and appropriate supplies in each vehicle in
case the incidents happens while you are on the road or at work (See section ―d‖ above
for details):
     Water, one gallon of water per person per day for at least three days, for drinking
        and sanitation
     Food, at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food
     Battery-powered or hand crank radio and a NOAA Weather Radio with tone alert
        and extra batteries for both
     Flashlight and extra batteries
     First aid kit
     Whistle to signal for help
     Dust mask, to help filter contaminated air and plastic sheeting and duct tape to
     Moist towelettes, garbage bags and plastic ties for personal sanitation
     Wrench or pliers to turn off utilities
     Can opener for food (if kit contains canned food)
     Local maps
     Tent(s) to comfortably accommodate family members for several days
     Additional Items to Consider Adding to an Emergency Supply Kit:
     Prescription medications and glasses
     Infant formula and diapers
     Pet food and extra water for your pet
     Important family documents such as copies of insurance policies, identification
        and bank account records in a waterproof, portable container
     Cash or traveler's checks and change
     Emergency reference material such as a first aid book or information from
     Sleeping bag or warm blanket for each person. Consider additional bedding if you
        live in a cold-weather climate.
     Complete change of clothing including a long sleeved shirt, long pants and sturdy
        shoes. Consider additional clothing if you live in a cold-weather climate.
     Household chlorine bleach and medicine dropper – When diluted nine parts water
        to one part bleach, bleach can be used as a disinfectant. Or in an emergency, you
        can use it to treat water by using 16 drops of regular household liquid bleach per
        gallon of water. Do not use scented, color safe or bleaches with added cleaners.
     Fire Extinguisher
     Matches in a waterproof container
     Feminine supplies and personal hygiene items
     Mess kits, paper cups, plates and plastic utensils, paper towels

3 February 2007
                                                                                  Page 48
APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

        Paper and pencil
        Books, games, puzzles or other activities for children
        Other items from the larger home supply

5. Ability to Administer Health Care or First Aid
Ability to administer health care or first aid—take the appropriate Red Cross courses and
purchase a first-aid manual. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid courses will be
taught on an on-going basis within the organization.

6. Possessions, Insurance, Documents, Money
   Make a visual or written record of your possessions to help you claim losses in the event of damage.
    Include photographs of cars, boats and recreational vehicles. Get professional appraisals of jewelry,
    collectibles, artwork or other items that may be difficult to evaluate. Also, photograph the exterior of
    your home. Include the landscaping that may not be insurable, but does increase the value of your
    property for tax purposes. Make copies of receipts and canceled checks for valuable items.

   Having sufficient insurance—check with your insurance provider to see what your insurance policies
    cover. Make sure you have insurance to cover all your needs—or make plans otherwise.

   Obtain property, health, and life insurance if you do not have them. Review existing policies for the
    amount and extent of coverage to ensure that what you have in place is what is required for you and
    your family for all possible hazards.

   Flood Insurance: If you live in a flood-prone area, consider purchasing flood insurance to reduce your
    risk of flood loss. Buying flood insurance to cover the value of a building and its contents will not only
    provide greater peace of mind, but will speed the recovery if a flood occurs. You can call
    1(888)FLOOD29 to learn more about flood insurance.

Important Documents. Store important documents such as insurance policies, deeds, property records, and
other important papers in a safe place, such as a safety deposit box away from your home. Make copies of
important documents for your disaster supplies kit. (Information about the disaster supplies kit is covered

Money. Consider saving money in an emergency savings account that could be used in any crisis. It is
advisable to keep a small amount of cash or traveler’s checks at home in a safe place where you can
quickly access them in case of evacuation.

3 February 2007
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APPENDIX A. Universal Preparedness Elements

                  Purposely Left Blank

3 February 2007
                                              Page 50
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
                                             2.   To limit the spread of germs and                go in an emergency and how
APPENDIX B. Scenario                              prevent infection:                              they will receive care, in case
                                                  o         Teach your children to                you cannot communicate with
Specific Checklists—Before,                            wash hands frequently with                 them.
During and After Disasters                             soap and water, and model the             In a pandemic, there may be
                                                       correct behavior.                          widespread illness that could
1. Pandemic Flu                                   o         Teach your children to                result in the shut down of local
As you and your family plan for an                     cover coughs and sneezes with              ATMs and banks. Keep a
influenza pandemic, think about the                    tissues, and be sure to model              small amount of cash or
challenges you might face, particularly                that behavior.                             traveler's checks in small
if a pandemic is severe.                          o         Teach your children to                denominations for easy use.
                                                       stay away from others as
                                                       much as possible if they are      Schools and Daycare Centers May Be
1.   You can start to prepare now to
                                                       sick. Stay home from work         Closed for an Extended Period of
     respond to these challenges.
                                                       and school if sick.               Time Schools, and potentially public
     Checklists and other tools have
     been prepared to guide your                                                         and private preschool, childcare, trade
     planning efforts. Checklist of          Essential Services You Depend on            schools, and colleges and universities
     things to obtain and do:                May Be Disrupted                            may be closed to limit the spread of flu
      o        Store a minimum of                                                        in the community and to help prevent
          several weeks supply of water              Plan for the possibility that      children from becoming sick. Other
          and food (a years supply best)              usual services may be              school-related activities and services
          as well as emergency supplies               disrupted. These could include     could also be disrupted or cancelled
          (see Appendix A.3). During a                services provided by hospitals     including: clubs, sports/sporting events,
          pandemic, if you cannot get to              and other healthcare facilities,   music activities, and school meals.
          a store, or if stores are out of            banks, restaurants, government     School closings would likely happen
          supplies, it will be important              offices, telephone and cellular    very early in a pandemic and could
          for you to have extra supplies              phone companies, and post          occur on short notice.
          on hand. This can be useful in              offices.
          other types of emergencies,                Stores may close or have                   Talk to your teachers,
          such as power outages and                   limited supplies. The planning              administrators, and parent-
          disasters.                                  checklists can help you                     teacher organizations about
      o        Periodically check your                determine what items you                    your school's pandemic plan,
          regular prescription drugs to               should stockpile to help you                and offer your help.
          ensure a continuous supply in               manage without these services              Plan now for children staying
          your home.                                 Transportation services may be              at home for extended periods
      o        Have any nonprescription               disrupted and you may not be                of time, as school closings may
          drugs and other health                      able to rely on public                      occur along with restrictions
          supplies on hand, including                 transportation. Plan to take                on public gatherings, such as at
          pain relievers, stomach                     fewer trips and store essential             malls, movie theaters.
          remedies, cough and cold                    supplies.                                  Plan home learning activities
          medicines, fluids with                     Public gatherings, such as                  and exercises that your
          electrolytes, and vitamins.                 volunteer meetings and                      children can do at home. Have
      o        Talk with family members               worship services, may be                    learning materials, such as
          and loved ones about how                    canceled. Prepare contact lists             books, school supplies, and
          they would be cared for if they             including conference calls,                 educational computer activities
          got sick, or what will be                   telephone chains, and email                 and movies on hand.
          needed to care for them in                  distribution lists, to access or           Talk to teachers,
          your home.                                  distribute necessary                        administrators, and parent-
      o        Volunteer with local                   information.                                teacher organizations about
          groups to prepare and assist               Consider that the ability to                possible activities, lesson
          with emergency response.                    travel, even by car if there are            plans, and exercises that
      o        Get involved in your                   fuel shortages, may be limited.             children can do at home if
          community as it works to                   You should also talk to your                schools are closed. This could
          prepare for an influenza                    family about where family                   include continuing courses by
          pandemic.                                   members and loved ones will                 TV or the internet.

3 February 2007                                                                                                 Page 51
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
       Plan entertainment and                       away immediately after you         Antivirals
        recreational activities that your            use it.
        children can do at home. Have               Wash your hands often with         A number of antiviral drugs are
        materials, such as reading                   soap and water, especially after   approved by the U.S. Food and Drug
        books, coloring books, and                   you cough or sneeze. If you are    Administration to treat and prevent
        games, on hand for your                      not near water, use an alcohol-    seasonal influenza. Some of these
        children to use.                             based (60-95%) hand cleaner.       antiviral medications may be effective
       For the "Childcare, School,                 Avoid close contact with           in treating pandemic influenza. These
        and University Checklist,"                   people who are sick. When          drugs may help prevent infection in
        visit:                                       you are sick, keep your            people at risk and shorten the duration                 distance from others to protect    of symptoms in those infected with
        lan/tab5.html                                them from getting sick too.        pandemic influenza. However, it is
                                                    If you get the flu, stay home      unlikely that antiviral medications alone
Medical Care for People with                         from work, school, and social      would effectively contain the spread of
Chronic Illness Could be Disrupted                   gatherings. In this way you        pandemic influenza. The federal
                                                     will help prevent others from      government is stockpiling antiviral
                                                     catching your illness.             medications that would most likely be
       In a severe pandemic, hospitals
        and doctors' offices may be                 Try not to touch your eyes,        used in the early stages of an influenza
        overwhelmed.                                 nose, or mouth. Germs often        pandemic and working to develop new
                                                     spread this way.                   antiviral medications. These drugs are
       If you have a chronic disease,
                                                                                        available by prescription only.
        such as heart disease, high
        blood pressure, diabetes,           Vaccination
        asthma, or depression, you                                                      Stay Informed
                                            Vaccines are used to protect people
        should continue taking
                                            from contracting a virus once a
        medication as prescribed by                                                         Knowing the facts is the best
        your doctor.                        particular threat is identified. After an
                                                                                             preparation. Identify sources you
                                            individual has been infected by a virus,
       Make sure you have necessary                                                         can count on for reliable
                                            a vaccine generally cannot help to
        medical supplies such as                                                             information. If a pandemic occurs,
                                            combat it. Because viruses change over
        glucose and blood-pressure                                                           having accurate and reliable
                                            time, a specific pandemic influenza
        monitoring equipment.                                                                information will be critical.
                                            vaccine cannot be produced until a
       Talk to your healthcare                                                             Reliable, accurate, and timely
                                            pandemic influenza virus emerges and
        provider to ensure adequate                                                          information is available at
                                            is identified. Once a pandemic influenza
        access to your medications.                                                
                                            virus has been identified, it will likely
       If you receive ongoing medical      take 4-6 months to develop, test, and           Another source for information on
        care such as dialysis,              begin producing a vaccine.                       pandemic influenza is the Centers
        chemotherapy, or other                                                               for Disease Control and
        therapies, talk with your health                                                     Prevention (CDC) Hotline at: 1-
        care provider about plans to        While there is currently no human                800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-
        continue care during a              pandemic influenza in the world, the             4636). This line is available in
        pandemic.                           federal government is facilitating               English and Spanish, 24 hours a
                                            production of vaccines for several
       A "Family Emergency Health                                                           day, 7 days a week.
                                            existing avian influenza viruses. These         Look for information on your local
        Information Sheet" is
                                            vaccines may provide some protection
        provided:                                                                            and state government Web sites.
                                            should one of these viruses change and                                                         Links are available to each state
                                            cause an influenza pandemic. The
        languide/familyhealthinfo.html                                                       department of public health at
                                            supply of pandemic vaccine will be
                                            limited, particularly in the early stages
Planning for Pandemic Influenza –                                                           Listen to local and national radio,
                                            of a pandemic. Efforts are being made
Prevention and Treatment                                                                     watch news reports on television,
                                            to increase vaccine-manufacturing
                                                                                             and read your newspaper and other
                                            capacity in the United States so that
Stay Healthy. These steps may help                                                           sources of printed and web-based
                                            supplies of vaccines would be more
prevent the spread of respiratory                                                            information.
                                            readily available. In addition, research
illnesses such as the flu:                                                                  Talk to your local health care
                                            is underway to develop new ways to
      Cover your nose and mouth            produce vaccines more quickly.
                                                                                             providers and public health
          with a tissue when you cough                                                       officials.
          or sneeze-throw the tissue

3 February 2007                                                                                               Page 52
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
2. Biological Threats                       • Consider installing a High Efficiency
Biological agents are organisms or          Particulate Air (HEPA) filter in your         If you become aware of an unusual and
toxins that can kill or incapacitate        furnace return duct. These filters            suspicious substance nearby:
people, livestock, and crops. The three     remove particles in the 0.3 to 10 micron      • Move away quickly.
basic groups of biological agents that      range and will filter out most biological     • Wash with soap and water.
would likely be used as weapons are         agents that may enter your house. If you      • Contact authorities.
bacteria, viruses, and toxins. Most         do not have a central heating or cooling      • Listen to the media for official
biological agents are difficult to grow     system, a stand-alone portable HEPA           instructions.
and maintain. Many break down               filter can be used. Filtration in             • Seek medical attention if you become
quickly when exposed to sunlight and        Buildings -- Building owners and              sick.
other environmental factors, while          managers should determine the type and
others, such as anthrax spores, are very    level of filtration in their structures and   If you are exposed to a biological agent:
long lived. Biological agents can be        the level of protection it provides           • Remove and bag your clothes and
dispersed by spraying them into the air,    against biological agents. The National       personal items. Follow official
by infecting animals that carry the         Institute of Occupational Safety and          instructions for disposal of
disease to humans, and by                   Health (NIOSH) provides technical             contaminated items.
contaminating food and water. Delivery      guidance on this topic in their               • Wash yourself with soap and water
methods include:                            publication Guidance for Filtration and       and put on clean clothes.
                                            Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect               • Seek medical assistance. You may be
• Aerosols—biological agents are            Building Environments from Airborne           advised to stay away from others or
dispersed into the air, forming a fine      Chemical, Biological, or Radiological         even quarantined.
mist that may drift for miles. Inhaling     Attacks. To obtain a copy, call
the agent may cause disease in people       1(800)35NIOSH or visit                        Using HEPA Filters
or animals.                        and            HEPA filters are useful in biological
• Animals—some diseases are spread          request or download NIOSH                     attacks. If you have a central heating
by insects and animals, such as fleas,      Publication 2003-136.                         and cooling system in your home with a
mice, flies, mosquitoes, and livestock.     • Consider installing an ultraviolet light    HEPA filter, leave it on if it is running
• Food and water contamination—some         system on the intake of your air              or turn the fan on if it is not running.
pathogenic organisms and toxins may         conditioning system that will kill even       Moving the air in the house through the
persist in food and water supplies. Most    minute viruses before they enter your         filter will help remove the agents from
microbes can be killed, and toxins          home.                                         the air. If you have a portable HEPA
deactivated, by cooking food and                                                          filter, take it with you to the internal
boiling water. Most microbes are killed     During a Biological Attack                    room where you are seeking shelter and
by boiling water for one minute, but        In the event of a biological attack,          turn it on. If you are in an apartment or
some require longer. Follow official        public health officials may not               office building that has a modern,
instructions.                               immediately be able to provide                central heating and cooling system, the
• Person-to-person—spread of a few          information on what you should do. It         system’s filtration should provide a
infectious agents is also possible.         will take time to determine what the          relatively safe level of protection from
Humans have been the source of              illness is, how it should be treated, and     outside biological contaminants.
infection for smallpox, plague, and the     who is in danger. Watch television,           HEPA filters will not filter chemical
Lassa viruses.                              listen to radio, or check the Internet for    agents. After a Biological Attack In
                                            official news and information including       some situations, such as the case of the
Specific information on biological          signs and symptoms of the disease,            anthrax letters sent in 2001, people may
agents is available at the Centers for      areas in danger, if medications or            be alerted to potential exposure. If this
Disease Control and Prevention’s Web        vaccinations are being distributed, and       is the case, pay close attention to all
site,                       where you should seek medical                 official warnings and instructions on
                                            attention if you become ill.                  how to proceed. The delivery of
Before a Biological Attack. The                                                           medical services for a biological event
following are guidelines for what you       The first evidence of an attack may be        may be handled differently to respond
should do to prepare for a biological       when you notice symptoms of the               to increased demand. The basic public
threat:                                     disease caused by exposure to an agent.       health procedures and medical protocols
• Check with your doctor to ensure all      Be suspicious of any symptoms you             for handling exposure to biological
required or suggested immunizations         notice, but do not assume that any            agents are the same as for any infectious
are up to date. Children and older adults   illness is a result of the attack. Use        disease. It is important for you to pay
are particularly vulnerable to biological   common sense and practice good                attention to official instructions via
agents.                                     hygiene.

3 February 2007                                                                                                 Page 53
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
radio, television, and emergency alert       dirt particles also are drawn into the        pacemakers or other implanted
systems.                                     cloud. As the heat diminishes,                electronic devices. If there were a
                                             radioactive materials that have               significant number of high altitude
3. Nuclear Blast.                            vaporized condense on the particles and       nuclear bursts over the United States,
A nuclear blast is an explosion with         fall back to Earth. The phenomenon is         food delivery to supermarkets would be
intense light and heat, a damaging           called radioactive fallout. This fallout      halted for a time; cars would not run;
pressure wave, and widespread                material decays over a long period of         most forms of communications would
radioactive material that can                time, and is the main source of residual      be out.
contaminate the air, water, and ground       nuclear radiation.
surfaces for miles around. A nuclear                                                       The Electro Magnetic Pulse (EMP)
device can range from a weapon carried       Fallout from a nuclear explosion may          effect was first observed during the
by an intercontinental missile launched      be carried by wind currents for               early testing of high altitude airburst
by a hostile nation or terrorist             hundreds of miles if the right conditions     nuclear weapons. The effect is
organization, to a small portable nuclear    exist. Effects from even a small portable     characterized by the production of a
devise transported by an individual. All     device exploded at ground level can be        very short (hundreds of nanoseconds)
nuclear devices cause deadly effects         potentially deadly.                           but intense electromagnetic pulse,
when exploded, including blinding                                                          which propagates away from its source
light, intense heat (thermal radiation),     Nuclear radiation cannot be seen,             with ever diminishing intensity,
initial nuclear radiation, blast, fires      smelled, or otherwise detected by             governed by the theory of
started by the heat pulse, and secondary     normal senses. Radiation can only be          electromagnetism. The Electro
fires caused by the destruction.             detected by radiation monitoring              Magnetic Pulse is in effect an
                                             devices. This makes radiological              electromagnetic shock wave.
Hazards of Nuclear Devices                   emergencies different from other types
The extent, nature, and arrival time of      of emergencies, such as floods or             This pulse of energy produces a
these hazards are difficult to predict.      hurricanes. Monitoring can project the        powerful electromagnetic field,
The geographical dispersion of hazard        fallout arrival times, which will be          particularly within the vicinity of the
effects will be defined by the following:    announced through official warning            weapon burst. The field can be
• Size of the device. A more powerful        channels. However, any increase in            sufficiently strong to produce short
bomb will produce more distant effects.      surface build-up of gritty dust and dirt      lived transient voltages of thousands of
• Height above the ground the device         should be a warning for taking                Volts (ie kiloVolts) on exposed
was detonated. This will determine the       protective measures.                          electrical conductors, such as wires, or
extent of blast effects.                                                                   conductive tracks on printed circuit
• Nature of the surface beneath the          Electromagnetic Pulse from a                  boards, where exposed. It is this aspect
explosion. Some materials are more           Nuclear (High Altitude) Explosion             of the EMP effect which is of
likely to become radioactive and             In addition to other effects, a nuclear       significance, as it can result in
airborne than others. Flat areas are more    weapon detonated in or above the              irreversible damage to a wide range of
susceptible to blast effects.                earth’s atmosphere can create an              electrical and electronic equipment,
• Existing meteorological conditions.        electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high-          particularly computers and radio or
Wind speed and direction will affect         density electrical field. An EMP acts         radar receivers.
arrival time of fallout; precipitation may   like a stroke of lightning but is stronger,   Commercial computer equipment is
wash fallout from the atmosphere.            faster, and shorter. An EMP can               particularly vulnerable to EMP effects,
                                             seriously damage electronic devices—          as it is largely built up of high density
Radioactive Fallout                          especially those connected to power           Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS)
Even if individuals are not close enough     sources or antennas. This includes            devices, which are very sensitive to
to the nuclear blast to be affected by the   communication systems, computers,             exposure to high voltage transients.
direct impacts, they may be affected by      electrical appliances, and automobile or      What is significant about MOS devices
radioactive fallout. Any nuclear blast       aircraft ignition systems. The damage         is that very little energy is required to
results in some fallout. Blasts that occur   could range from a minor interruption         permanently wound or destroy them,
near the earth’s surface create much         to actual burnout of components. Most         any voltage in typically in excess of
greater amounts of fallout than blasts       electronic equipment within 1,000             tens of Volts can produce an effect
that occur at higher altitudes. This is      miles of a high-altitude nuclear              termed gate breakdown, which
because the tremendous heat produced         detonation could be affected. Battery-        effectively destroys the device. Even if
from a nuclear blast causes an up-draft      powered radios with short antennas            the pulse is not powerful enough to
of air that forms the familiar mushroom      generally would not be affected.              produce thermal damage, the power
cloud. When a blast occurs near the          Although an EMP is unlikely to harm           supply in the equipment will readily
earth’s surface, millions of vaporized       most people, it could harm those with         supply enough energy to complete the

3 February 2007                                                                                                   Page 54
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
destructive process. Wounded devices         • Centers of government such as               workplace, and school. These places
may still function, but their reliability    Washington, DC, and state capitals.           would include basements or the
will be seriously impaired. Shielding        • Important transportation and                windowless center area of middle floors
electronics by equipment chassis             communication centers.                        in high-rise buildings, as well as
provides only limited protection, as any     • Manufacturing, industrial, technology,      subways and tunnels.
cables running in and out of the             and financial centers (Charlotte, NC).        • If you live in an apartment building or
equipment will behave very much like         • Petroleum refineries, electrical power      high-rise, talk to the manager about the
antennae, in effect guiding the high         plants, and chemical plants.                  safest place in the building for
voltage transients into the equipment.       • Major ports (Charleston, SC) and            sheltering and about providing for
However, equipment disconnected from         airfields.                                    building occupants until it is safe to go
external wires and stored in metal boxes     • Or the populace as a whole—which            out.
with small or no holes will be protected.    would be most easily affected by one or       • During periods of increased threat
                                             more high altitude nuclear bursts.            increase your disaster supplies as
Computers used in data processing                                                          appropriate – but not less than for up to
systems, communications systems,             The three factors for protecting oneself      two weeks.
displays, industrial control applications,   from radiation and fallout are distance,      • Protect needed electronics by storing
including road and rail signaling, and       shielding, and time.                          them in metal containers (Faraday
those embedded in military equipment,        • Distance — the more distance                Cages) and where an electrically
such as signal processors, electronic        between you and the fallout particles,        conductive channel must enter the
flight controls and digital engine control   the better. An underground area such as       enclosure, fit electromagnetic arresting
systems, are all vulnerable to the EMP       a home or office building basement            devices.
effect.                                      offers more protection than the first
                                             floor of a building. A floor near the         Taking shelter during a nuclear blast is
Other electronic devices and electrical      middle of a high-rise may be better,          absolutely necessary. There are two
equipment may also be destroyed by the       depending on what is nearby at that           kinds of shelters—blast and fallout. The
EMP effect. Telecommunications               level on which significant fallout            following describes the two kinds of
equipment can be highly vulnerable,          particles would collect. Flat roofs           shelters: Blast shelters are specifically
due to the presence of lengthy copper        collect fallout particles so the top floor    constructed to offer some protection
cables between devices. Receivers of all     is not a good choice, nor is a floor          against blast pressure, initial radiation,
varieties are particularly sensitive to      adjacent to a neighboring flat roof.          heat, and fire. But even a blast shelter
EMP, as the highly sensitive miniature       • Shielding — the heavier and denser          cannot withstand a direct hit from a
high frequency transistors and diodes in     the materials—thick walls, concrete,          nuclear explosion. Fallout shelters do
such equipment are easily destroyed by       bricks, books and earth—between you           not need to be specially constructed for
exposure to high voltage electrical          and the fallout particles, the better.        protecting against fallout. They can be
transients.                                  • Time — fallout radiation loses its          any protected space, provided that the
                                             intensity fairly rapidly. In time, you will   walls and roof are thick and dense
Protection from a Nuclear Blast              be able to leave the fallout shelter.         enough to absorb the radiation given off
The danger of a massive strategic            Radioactive fallout poses the greatest        by fallout particles.
nuclear attack on the United States is       threat to people during the first two
predicted by experts to be less likely       weeks, by which time it has declined to       During a Nuclear Blast. If an attack
today. However, terrorism, by nature, is     about 1 percent of its initial radiation      warning is issued:
unpredictable.                               level.                                        • Take cover as quickly as you can,
                                                                                           below ground if possible, and stay there
If there were threat of an attack, people    Remember that any protection, however         until instructed to do otherwise.
living near potential targets could be       temporary, is better than none at all, and    • Listen for official information and
advised to evacuate or they could            the more shielding, distance, and time        follow instructions.
decide on their own to evacuate to an        you can take advantage of, the better.
area not considered a likely target.                                                       If you are caught outside and unable to
Protection from radioactive fallout          Before a Nuclear Blast. To prepare for        get inside immediately:
would require taking shelter in an           a nuclear blast, you should do the            • Do not look at the flash or fireball—it
underground area or in the middle of a       following:                                    can blind you.
large building.                              • Find out from officials if any public       • Take cover behind anything that might
                                             buildings in your community have been         offer protection.
In general, potential targets include:       designated as fallout shelters. If none       • Lie flat on the ground and cover your
• Strategic missile sites and military       have been designated, make your own           head. If the explosion is some distance
bases (Fort Jackson, Shaw, etc.)             list of potential shelters near your home,

3 February 2007                                                                                                   Page 55
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
away, it could take 30 seconds or more        Follow the instructions for returning
for the blast wave to hit.                    home in Appendix A.1.P above.               These impacts are bound to affect you
• Take shelter as soon as you can, even                                                   and your family in a variety of ways.
if you are many miles from ground zero        4. Recession, Depression and / or           You or a loved one may lose a job; if
where the attack occurred—radioactive         Economic Collapse                           you own a home or land, its value will
fallout can be carried by the winds for                                                   likely decrease; if you have a stock
                                              The increasing economic shakiness
hundreds of miles. Remember the three                                                     portfolio its value could shrink.
                                              necessitates preparing for possible
protective factors: Distance, shielding,
                                              worse case scenarios, notably that the
and time. Decay rates of the radioactive                                                  The lifestyle and economic changes that
                                              global economy could enter a prolonged
fallout are the same for any size nuclear                                                 will help you prepare for an economic
                                              period of recession or depression.3 An
device. However, the amount of fallout                                                    downturn will generally benefit you,
                                              economic depression brings a
will vary based on the size of the device                                                 your family and your community
                                              significant increase in layoffs and
and its proximity to the ground.                                                          regardless of economic ups and downs:
                                              unemployment, dwindling retail sales,
Therefore, it might be necessary for
                                              falling stock values, depressed real
those in the areas with highest radiation                                                 Prepare for tough times. When you
                                              estate prices, and a shrinking tax base.
levels to shelter for up to a month or                                                    feel they are coming, react quickly and
                                              In fact, Brazil and many countries of the
more.                                                                                     appropriately to what is happening and
                                              Third World are already experiencing
• If there is time, unplug electronic                                                     return to a focus on the fundamentals
                                              many of these conditions.
devices and disconnect antennas / shield                                                  (for below Ref. High Council Guide
needed electronics within metal                                                           and Mark Friedman, El Cerrito
containers.                                   A catastrophic event or combination of      Calif.):
                                              events, such as pandemic flu, biological     Stay our of debt
After a Nuclear Blast. The heaviest           or nuclear attacks, large-scale              Live on less than you make
fallout would be limited to the area at or    hurricanes, and / or earthquakes could       Establish financial goals
downwind from the explosion, and 80           precipitate an economic recession,           Practice money management and
percent of the fallout would occur            depression or even economic collapse.            save money (during economic
during the first 24 hours.                                                                     collapse there will likely be run
                                                                                               away inflation and printed money
People in most of the areas that would         A recession is defined as a decline in a        may have greatly reduced value)
be affected could be allowed to come          country's real Gross Domestic Product        Practice food storage (Particularly
out of a shelter within a few days and, if    (GDP) for two or more successive                 important during a depression or
necessary, evacuate to unaffected areas.      quarters of a year. Recessions may be            collapse)
                                              associated with falling prices
                                                                                           Purchase only what you and your
If there is a significant electronic pulse,   (deflation), or, alternatively, sharply
                                                                                               family need. Excess material goods
vehicles will not start, many                 rising prices (inflation) in a process
                                                                                               will burden you and take away
communication systems, and computers          known as stagflation. A severe or long
                                                                                               money you may need.
will not work. Most devices or home           recession is referred to as an economic
                                                                                           Get rid of unused, unwanted, and
systems dependent on semi-conductor           depression.
                                                                                               unnecessary goods. Selling items
chips will not work. Power will likely
                                                                                               you don’t need can help you
be out.                                       An economic collapse is a devastating            accumulate money you can use if
                                              breakdown of a national, regional, or            your job or income is lost.
Remember the following:                       territorial economy. A full or near-full     Emphasize non-material happiness
• Keep listening to the radio and             economic collapse is often quickly               and family togetherness. No lasting
television for news about what to do,         followed by months, years, or even               happiness comes from external
where to go, and places to avoid. If          decades of economic depression, social           objects. Emphasizing the non-
there is a significant EMP, these may         chaos, and civil unrest. During the              material joys of life now, will well
not be available.                             1980s, the Eastern Bloc experienced a            prepare you for a time of scarcity.
• Stay away from damaged areas. Stay          decade-long period of stagnation,
away from areas marked ―radiation             stagflation, and eventual collapse from
hazard‖ or ―HAZMAT.‖ Remember                 which it never would recover,               Look into recession/depression
that radiation cannot be seen, smelled,       culminating with revolutions and the        resistant professions
or otherwise detected by human senses.        fall of communist regimes throughout        In any economic downturn there are
                                              Central and Eastern Europe and              certain areas that have more job and
Returning to Your Home                        eventually in the Soviet Union.             economic security. Job Categories that
                                                                                          may provide more stability include:

3 February 2007                                                                                                  Page 56
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
Medical professions – People will           cooperatives will flourish, as farmers       recent years has been fire. Most of these
continue to get sick and pay what it        seek reasonable prices for their produce     fires have occurred in the home, which
takes to gain relief.                       and people in the cities seek ways to        is a particularly dangerous environment.
                                            decrease the high cost of food. As large     Fire is always a possible danger, and a
Government employment - Although            companies fail, there will be a need for     probable secondary disaster in the event
tax revenues will decline leading to        cooperative consultants to show              of a major earthquake or flood. It is
possible layoffs, there will be a great     employees how to save them through           always important that you follow safety
need for government workers in the          worker management. Community                 measures for fire prevention, detection,
area of health and human services to        organizers, drug rehabilitation              and escape. It is doubly important after
deal with the increased numbers of          programs, crisis centers and other           an earthquake because regular fire
unemployed and impoverished people.         programs that can mend the social            fighters may not be able to get to you in
                                            fabric of neighborhoods and create           time. Floods and other natural disasters
                                            support networks will all be needed.         will also spawn a large number of fires
Repair Shops - Less people will be able
to afford new cars, computers, stereo                                                    because of electrical shorts and severed
equipment, furniture, clothes, and          Diversify your potential sources of          gas lines.
appliances. Shops that repair things will   income
                                            If your primary source of income             Most fires can be extinguished quickly,
flourish as a result. To prepare for that
                                            suffers during an economic downturn,         using tools that are available.
time think about investing in learning
                                            you will be much better able to weather      Remember the three basic ways to put
how to repair the above consumer
goods and going into the repair             that loss if you have developed other        out a fire:
business.                                   sources of income. Among the                 1. Take away its fuel.
                                            potential additional sources of income       2. Take away its air (smother it).
                                            you can begin to explore are the             3. Take away its heat by cooling it with
                                            following:                                   water.
Second Hand and Consignment Shops -
Stores that sell used goods will do well,
                                            Go back to school to develop
as fewer people can afford to buy new.
                                            marketable skills such as the ability to
Consumers will still need the goods and
                                            repair electronics or automobiles.
you could supply them. Consignment
shops that have people leave their goods
for the store to sell require less money    Look into acquiring rental property or
to start, as you don’t have to pay for      goods you can rent or lease for extra
inventory. You only pay the original        income - But be careful that you choose
owner once the goods are sold.              a property that will be able to generate a
                                            positive cash flow even in an economic
Education - Many people who get laid        downturn.
off will look into going back to school                                                  Before a Fire
to gain more marketable skills. There       Look into acquiring a part-time job - If
                                            you lose your primary job in an              • Install smoke alarms. Properly
will be a need for teachers and trainers                                                 working smoke alarms decrease your
who can help the returning students         economic downturn, your part-time job
                                            could become your primary source of          chances of dying in a fire by half.
gain the skills they seek.                                                               • Place smoke alarms on every level of
                                            income. Particularly if you choose a
                                            profession that is more                      your residence. Place them outside
Security Related Businesses - One of                                                     bedrooms on the ceiling or high on the
                                            recession/depression proof, it could be
the potential negative consequences of                                                   wall (4 to 12 inches from ceiling), at the
                                            an important security blanket for
economic hard times is an increase in                                                    top of open stairways, or at the bottom
                                            maintaining yourself and your family.
crime as those who lose their jobs or                                                    of enclosed stairs and near (but not in)
sources of income, may turn to crime in                                                  the kitchen.
an effort to support themselves or their    Be creative - Think of hobbies or            • Test and clean smoke alarms once a
family. This increase in crime will lead    interests of yours that you may be able      month and replace batteries at least
to an upsurge of demand for home and        to convert into an income producing          once a year. Replace smoke alarms once
personal security including locksmiths,     activity.                                    every 10 years.
electronic security systems, fences, and                                                 • Review escape routes with your
security guards.                            5. Fire                                      family. Practice escaping from each
                                            According to the Red Cross, the third        room.
Cooperatives and Community Services         leading cause of accidental death in         • Make sure windows are not nailed or
– Both producer and consumer food                                                        painted shut. Make sure security gratings on

3 February 2007                                                                                                Page 57
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
windows have a fire safety opening feature      deep, sturdy ashtrays. Douse cigarette     blocked, shut the door immediately and
so they can be easily opened from the inside.   and cigar butts with water before          use an alternate escape route, such as a
• Consider escape ladders if your               disposal.                                  window. If clear, leave immediately
residence has more than one level, and          • Have the electrical wiring in your       through the door and close it behind
ensure that burglar bars and other              residence checked by an electrician.       you. Be prepared to crawl. Smoke and
antitheft mechanisms that block outside         • Inspect extension cords for frayed or    heat rise. The air is clearer and cooler
window entry are easily opened from             exposed wires or loose plugs.              near the floor.
the inside.                                     • Make sure outlets have cover plates      • Crawl low under any smoke to your
• Teach family members to stay low to           and no exposed wiring.                     exit—heavy smoke and poisonous gases
the floor (where the air is safer in a fire)    • Make sure wiring does not run under      collect first along the ceiling.
when escaping from a fire.                      rugs, over nails, or across high-traffic   • Close doors behind you as you escape
• Clean out storage areas. Do not let           areas.                                     to delay the spread of the fire.
trash, such as old newspapers and               • Do not overload extension cords or       • Stay out once you are safely out. Do
magazines accumulate.                           outlets. If you need to plug in two or     not reenter. Call 9-1-1.
• Never use gasoline, benzene, naptha,          three appliances, get a UL-approved
or similar flammable liquids indoors.           unit with built-in circuit breakers to     After a Fire
• Store flammable liquids in approved           prevent sparks and short circuits.         • If you are with burn victims, or are a
containers in well-ventilated storage           • Make sure insulation does not touch      burn victim yourself, call 9-1-1; cool
areas.                                          bare electrical wiring.                    and cover burns to reduce chance of
• Never smoke near flammable liquids.           • Sleep with your door closed.             further injury or infection.
• Discard all rags or materials that have       • Install A-B-C-type fire extinguishers    • If you detect heat or smoke when
been soaked in flammable liquids after          in your residence and teach family         entering a damaged building, evacuate
you have used them. Safely discard              members how to use them.                   immediately.
them outdoors in a metal container.             • Consider installing an automatic fire    • If you are a tenant, contact the
• Insulate chimneys and place spark             sprinkler system in your residence.        landlord.
arresters on top. The chimney should be         • Ask your local fire department to        • If you have a safe or strong box, do
at least three feet higher than the roof.       inspect your residence for fire safety     not try to open it. It can hold intense
Remove branches hanging above and               and prevention.                            heat for several hours. If the door is
around the chimney.                                                                        opened before the box has cooled, the
• Be careful when using alternative             During a Fire                              contents could burst into flames.
heating sources.                                • If your clothes catch on fire, you       • If you must leave your home because
• Check with your local fire department         should: Stop, drop, and roll—until the     a building inspector says the building is
on the legality of using kerosene heaters       fire is extinguished. Running only         unsafe, ask someone you trust to watch
in your community. Be sure to fill              makes the fire burn faster.                the property during your absence.
kerosene heaters outside, and be sure           • To escape a fire, you should: Check      • Follow the instructions for recovering
they have cooled.                               closed doors for heat before you open      from a disaster in Appendix A.1.P
• Place heaters at least three feet away        them. If you are escaping through a        above.
from flammable materials. Make sure             closed door, use the back of your hand
the floor and nearby walls are properly         to feel the top of the door, the           6. Wildfire
insulated.                                      doorknob, and the crack between the        Though forest and brush fires can start
• Use only the type of fuel designated          door and door frame before you open it.    without warning, federal and state
for your unit and follow manufacturer’s         Never use the palm of your hand or         governments maintain a system of
instructions.                                   fingers to test for heat—burning those     watch towers or surveillance aircraft
• Store ashes in a metal container              areas could impair your ability to         manned by the U.S. Forest Service and
outside and away from your residence.           escape a fire (i.e. using ladders and      state forest services to ensure that the
• Keep open flames away from walls,             crawling).                                 location of fires can be determined,
furniture, drapery, and flammable items.                                                   warnings issued, and necessary
• Keep a screen in front of the fireplace.      Hot Door -- Do not open. Escape            emergency actions taken in prompt
• Have heating units inspected and              through a window. If you cannot            fashion.
cleaned annually by a certified                 escape, hang a white or light-colored
specialist.                                     sheet outside the window, alerting fire    Before a Wildfire.
• Keep matches and lighters up high,            fighters to your presence.                 To prepare for wildfires, you should:
away from children, and, if possible, in                                                   • Mark the entrance to your property
a locked cabinet.                               Cool Door -- Open slowly and ensure        with address signs that are clearly
• Never smoke in bed or when drowsy             fire and/or smoke is not blocking your     visible from the road.
or medicated. Provide smokers with              escape route. If your escape route is

3 February 2007                                                                                                   Page 58
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
• Keep lawns trimmed, leaves raked,          • Create at least a 10-foot clearing       After a Wildfire.
and the roof and rain gutters free from      around the incinerator before burning      Follow the instructions for recovering
debris such as dead limbs and leaves.        debris.                                    from a disaster in Appendix A.1.P
• Stack firewood at least 30 feet away       • Have a fire extinguisher or garden       above.
from your residence.                         hose on hand when burning debris.
• Store flammable materials, liquids,        • Follow Local Burning Laws                If you require more information about
and solvents in metal containers outside                                                any of these topics, the following
your residence at least 30 feet away         During a Wildfire.                         resource may be helpful.
from structures and wooden fences.           If a wildfire threatens your home and
• Create defensible space by thinning        time permits, take the following           FEMA Publications Wildfire:Are You
trees and brush within 30 feet around        precautions:                               Prepared? L-203. Wildfire safety tips,
your residence. Beyond 30 feet, remove       • Shut off gas at the meter. Only a        preparedness, and mitigation
dead wood, debris, and low tree              qualified professional can safely turn     techniques.
branches.                                    the gas back on.
• Landscape your property with fire          • Seal attic and ground vents with pre-
resistant plants and vegetation to           cut plywood or commercial seals.           7. Hazardous Materials (Hazmat)
prevent fire from spreading quickly. For     • Turn off propane tanks.                  Incidents
example, hardwood trees are more fire-       • Place combustible patio furniture        Chemicals are found everywhere. They
resistant than pine, evergreen,              inside.                                    purify drinking water, increase crop
eucalyptus, or fir trees.                    • Connect garden hose to outside taps.     production, and simplify household
• Make sure water sources, such as           Place lawn sprinklers on the roof and      chores. But chemicals also can be
hydrants, ponds, swimming pools, and         near above-ground fuel tanks. Wet the      hazardous to humans or the
wells, are accessible to the fire            roof.                                      environment if used or released
department.                                  • Wet or remove shrubs within 15 feet      improperly. Hazards can occur during
• Use fire resistant, protective roofing     of your residence.                         production, storage, transportation, use,
and materials like stone, brick, and         • Gather fire tools such as a rake, axe,   or disposal. You and your community
metal to protect your residence. Avoid       handsaw or chainsaw, bucket, and           are at risk if a chemical is used unsafely
using wood materials. They offer the         shovel.                                    or released in harmful amounts into the
least fire protection.                       • Back your car into the garage or park    environment where you live, work, or
• Cover all exterior vents, attics, and      it in an open space facing the direction   play. Chemical manufacturers are one
eaves with metal mesh screens no larger      of escape. Shut doors and roll up          source of hazardous materials, but there
than 6 millimeters or 1/4 inch to prevent    windows. Leave the key in the ignition     are many others, including service
debris from collecting and to help keep      and the car doors unlocked. Close          stations, hospitals, and hazardous
sparks out.                                  garage windows and doors, but leave        materials waste sites.
• Install multi-pane windows, tempered       them unlocked. Disconnect automatic
safety glass, or fireproof shutters to       garage door openers.                       Before a Hazardous Materials
protect large windows from radiant           • Open fireplace damper. Close             Incident.
heat.                                        fireplace screens.                         Many communities have Local
• Use fire-resistant draperies for added     • Close windows, vents, doors, blinds or   Emergency Planning Committees
window protection.                           noncombustible window coverings, and       (LEPCs) whose responsibilities include
• Have chimneys, wood stoves, and all        heavy drapes. Remove flammable             collecting information about hazardous
home heating systems inspected and           drapes and curtains.                       materials in the community and making
cleaned annually by a certified              • Move flammable furniture into the        this information available to the public
specialist.                                  center of the residence away from          upon request. The LEPCs also are
• Insulate chimneys and place spark          windows and sliding-glass doors.           tasked with developing an emergency
arresters on top. The chimney should be      • Close all interior doors and windows     plan to prepare for and respond to
at least 3 feet above the roof.              to prevent drafts.                         chemical emergencies in the
• Remove branches hanging above and          • Place valuables that will not be         community. Ways the public will be
around the chimney. Before burning           damaged by water in a pool or pond.        notified and actions the public must
debris in a wooded area, make sure you                                                  take in the event of a release are part of
notify local authorities, obtain a burning   If advised to evacuate, do so              the plan. Contact the LEPCs to find out
permit, and follow these guidelines:         immediately. Choose a route away from      more about chemical hazards and what
• Use an approved incinerator with a         the fire hazard. Watch for changes in      needs to be done to minimize the risk to
safety lid or covering with holes no         the speed and direction of the fire and    individuals and the community from
larger than 3/4 inch.                        smoke.                                     these materials. The local emergency

3 February 2007                                                                                                Page 59
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
management office can provide contact        Ten square feet of floor space per           emergency first aid to a victim of a
information on the LEPCs.                    person will provide sufficient air to        chemical accident or to yourself if you
                                             prevent carbon dioxide build-up for up       have been injured.      The treatment
You should insure the following              to five hours, assuming a normal             described in this section is limited to
supplies are part of your disaster           breathing rate while resting. However,       emergency procedures which anyone
supplies kit:                                local officials are unlikely to              can administer.
• Plastic sheeting.                          recommend the public shelter in a
• Duct tape.                                 sealed room for more than 2-3 hours          Chemical and Radiological Accidents
• Scissors.                                  because the effectiveness of such
                                             sheltering diminishes with time as the          Rely heavily on the use of running
During a Hazardous Materials                 contaminated outside air gradually              water since it is usually readily
Incident.                                    seeps into the shelter. At this point,          available and will remove chemicals
Listen to local radio or television          evacuation from the area is the better          by solution, dilution, and mechanical
stations for detailed information and        protective action to take. Also you             action. These measures cover four of
instructions. Follow the instructions        should ventilate the shelter when the           the principal types of chemical
carefully. You should stay away from         emergency has passed to avoid                   threats to people (to include
the area to minimize the risk of             breathing contaminated air still inside         chlorine):
contamination. Remember that some            the shelter.                                        inhalation
toxic chemicals are odorless. If you are:                                                        skin exposure
Asked to evacuate then do so                 After a Hazardous Materials Incident                swallowing
immediately.                                 The following are guidelines for the
                                                                                                 eye exposure
Caught Outside Stay upstream, uphill,        period following a hazardous materials
and upwind! In general, try to go at         incident:
least one-half mile (usually 8-10 city       • Return home only when authorities
blocks) from the danger area. Do not         say it is safe. Open windows and vents
                                                                                                 Remove the person to an
walk into or touch any spilled liquids,      and turn on fans to provide ventilation.
                                                                                                  uncontaminated atmosphere
airborne mists, or condensed solid           • Act quickly if you have come in to
                                                                                                  (most noxious gases are
chemical deposits.                           contact with or have been exposed to
                                                                                                  heavier than air—move away,
In a motor vehicle Stop and seek shelter     hazardous chemicals. Do the following:
                                                                                                  upwind, and uphill. If the
in a permanent building. If you must         - Follow decontamination instructions
                                                                                                  person has been overcome and
remain in your car, keep car windows         from local authorities. You may be
                                                                                                  is unconscious, do not attempt
and vents closed and shut off the air        advised to take a thorough shower, or
                                                                                                  a rescue without the protection
conditioner and heater.                      you may be advised to stay away from
                                                                                                  of proper respiratory
Requested to stay indoors                    water and follow another procedure.
                                                                                                  equipment, preferably some
• Close and lock all exterior doors and      - Seek medical treatment for unusual
                                                                                                  form of self-contained
windows. Close vents, fireplace              symptoms as soon as possible.
                                                                                                  breathing apparatus.
dampers, and as many interior doors as       - Place exposed clothing and shoes in
                                                                                                  Remember, a gas mask does
possible.                                    tightly sealed containers. Do not allow
                                                                                                  not protect against atmospheric
• Turn off air conditioners and              them to contact other materials. Call
                                                                                                  oxygen deficiency, nor is it
ventilation systems. In large buildings,     local authorities to find out about proper
                                                                                                  effective in high
set ventilation systems to 100 percent       disposal.
                                                                                                  concentrations (two percent by
recirculation so that no outside air is      - Advise everyone who comes in to
                                                                                                  volume is the usual limit) of
drawn into the building. If this is not      contact with you that you may have
                                                                                                  chemical vapors. Also, even
possible, ventilation systems should be      been exposed to a toxic substance.
                                                                                                  though a self-contained air
turned off.                                  • Find out from local authorities how to
                                                                                                  supply mask is worn, injury
• Go into the pre-selected shelter room.     clean up your land and property.
                                                                                                  can occur through exposed
This room should be above ground and         • Report any lingering vapors or other
                                                                                                  skin surfaces if the air
have the fewest openings to the outside.     hazards to your local emergency
                                                                                                  contaminant is an irritant or
• Seal the room by covering each             services office.
                                                                                                  can be absorbed through the
window, door, and vent using plastic         • Follow the instructions for recovering
sheeting and duct tape.                      from a disaster in Appendix A.1.P
                                                                                                 Have the person lie down and
• Use material to fill cracks and holes in   above.
                                                                                                  keep him or her warm. If
the room, such as those around pipes.
                                                                                                  breathing is difficult, a sitting
                                             Emergency Treatment of Casualties
                                                                                                  position may be more
Shelter Safety for Sealed Rooms
                                             You may find it necessary to administer              comfortable. If the person is

3 February 2007                                                                                                 Page 60
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
        unconscious, see that the                      and clothing removed while                           quickly as possible. This may be
        tongue does not fall back and                  standing in the shower. The skin                     done by having him/her drink
        obstruct breathing. If vomiting                should be thoroughly washed with                     several glasses of water, then
        starts, turn the person on                     water, followed by gentle                            sticking a finger down the throat.
        his/her side or face                           scrubbing with soap and water.                       Another effective means for
        downorganization to prevent                        Contaminated clothing should                    producing vomiting is to have the
        inhalation of vomited material.                not be worn again until laundered.                   victim drink a glass of warm water
       If breathing has stopped,                                                                                               in which a
        send for help and begin           Condition      Symptoms              First Aid                                        tablespoon of
        artificial respiration.           Sunburn        Skin redness and      • Take a shower using soap to remove             salt has been
        Continue until breathing is                      pain, possible        oils that may block pores, preventing            dissolved.
        restored or a physician                          swelling, blisters,   the body from cooling naturally.                 Caution: If
                                                         fever, headaches      • Apply dry, sterile dressings to any
        arrives to take charge.                                                                                                 strong, caustic
                                                                               blisters, and get medical attention.
        Mouth-to-mouth breathing          Heat           Painful spasms,       • Get the victim to a cooler location.
                                                                                                                                chemicals have
        is the most effective method      Cramps         usually in leg and    • Lightly stretch and gently massage             been swallowed,
        of artificial respiration. The                   abdominal             affected muscles to relieve spasms.              vomiting may
        back pressure-arm lift                           muscles; heavy        • Give sips of up to a half glass of cool        rupture damaged
        method is also very                              sweating              water every 15 minutes. (Do not give             tissue and
        efficient.                                                             liquids with caffeine or alcohol.)               should NOT
       If breathing becomes                                                   • Discontinue liquids, if victim is              occur. Also,
                                                                               nauseated.                                       never give an
        difficult or the color of the
                                          Heat           Heavy sweating        • Get victim to lie down in a cool               unconscious
        victim becomes blue-gray,
                                          Exhaustion     but skin may be       place. • Loosen or remove clothing.
        check for obstructed airway.                                                                                            person anything
                                                         cool, pale, or fl     • Apply cool, wet cloths.
        If the airway is clear,                          ushed. Weak           • Fan or move victim to air-                     by mouth.
        oxygen may be given by                           pulse. Normal         conditioned place.                                   Call a
        face mask, but only by                           body temperature      • Give sips of water if victim is                physician at
        someone familiar with the                        is possible, but      conscious.                                       once.
        use of the equipment and                         temperature will      • Be sure water is consumed slowly.                  Keep the
        authorized to do so.                             likely rise.          • Give half glass of cool water every            victim lying
                                                         Fainting or           15 minutes.
       Call a physician as soon as                                                                                             down and as
                                                         dizziness, nausea,    • Discontinue water if victim is
        possible or send someone to                                                                                             warm and
                                                         vomiting,             nauseated.
        do this. Make sure the                           exhaustion, and       • Seek immediate medical attention if            comfortable as
        physician knows where the                        headaches are         vomiting occurs.                                 possible.
        victim is and what the need                      possible.
        is.                               Heat           High body             • Call 9-1-1 or emergency medical        Eye Exposure
       Never leave an unconscious        Stroke (a      temperature           services,
        person unattended.                severe         (105+); hot, red,     or get the victim to a hospital                  Take the
                                          medical        dry skin; rapid,      immediately. Delay can be fatal.
       Never attempt to give an                                                                                                 victim
                                          emergency)     weak pulse; and       • Move victim to a cooler environment.            immediately
        unconscious person                               rapid, shallow        • Remove clothing.
        anything by mouth.                                                                                                       to the
                                                         breathing. Victim     • Try a cool bath, sponging, or wet
                                                         will probably not     sheet to reduce body temperature.
Skin Exposure                                            sweat unless          • Watch for breathing problems.                   water
                                                         victim was            • Use extreme caution.                            fountain or
        Small exposures of skin                         sweating from         • Use fans and air conditioners.                  other source
    should be promptly flooded with                      recent strenuous                                                        of clean
    water and followed by thorough,                      activity. Possible                                                      running
    gentle scrubbing with soap and                       unconsciousness.                                                        water.
    water.                                                 A physician should be                            Spread the lids with the fingers
        Contaminated clothing should                  consulted in those cases which                         and allow the water to flood
    be removed and the underlying skin                 show skin effects from chemical                        the eye.
    washed with running water,                         exposure or in which symptoms of                      Roll the eye about so that the
    followed by soap and water.                        systemic illness appear.                               water may contact all eye
        If extensive skin or clothing                                                                        surfaces.
    contact occurs, the person should          Swallowing                                                    Continue such emergency
    be hurried to the nearest shower                                                                          washing for 15 minutes.
                                                          Induce the victim to vomit as                     Take the victim to a first aid

3 February 2007                                                                                                             Page 61
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
         station or to a physician as         organs. This results in a form of mild       have a problem with fluid retention
         soon as possible after the           shock. If not treated, the victim’s          should consult a doctor before
         emergency washing period.            condition will worsen. Body                  increasing liquid intake.
                                              temperature will keep rising and the         • Do not drink alcoholic beverages!
                                              victim may suffer heat stroke.               • Dress in loose-fitting, lightweight, and
8. Extreme Heat                               Heat Stroke - A life-threatening             light-colored clothes that cover as much
Heat kills by pushing the human body          condition. The victim’s temperature          skin as possible.
beyond its limits. In extreme heat and        control system, which produces               • Protect face and head by wearing a
high humidity, evaporation is slowed          sweating to cool the body, stops             wide-brimmed hat.
and the body must work extra hard to          working. The body temperature can rise       • Check on family, friends, and
maintain a normal temperature. Most           so high that brain damage and death          neighbors who do not have air
heat disorders occur because the victim       may result if the body is not cooled         conditioning and who spend much of
has been overexposed to heat or has           quickly.                                     their time alone.
over-exercised for his or her age and         Sun Stroke - Another term for heat           • Never leave children or pets alone in
physical condition. Older adults, young       stroke.                                      closed vehicles.
children, and those who are sick or                                                        • Avoid strenuous work during the
overweight are more likely to succumb         Before Extreme Heat. To prepare for          warmest part of the day. Use a buddy
to extreme heat.                              extreme heat, you should:                    system when working in extreme heat,
                                              • Install air conditioners.                  and take frequent breaks.
Conditions that can induce heat-related       • Check air-conditioning ducts for
illnesses include stagnant atmospheric        proper insulation.                           After Extreme Heat. Follow the
conditions and poor air quality.              • Install temporary window reflectors        instructions for recovering from a
Consequently, people living in urban          (for use between windows and                 disaster in Appendix A.1.P above.
areas may be at greater risk from the         drapes),such as aluminum foil-covered
effects of a prolonged heat wave than         cardboard, to reflect heat back outside.     If you require more information about
those living in rural areas. Also, asphalt    • Weather-strip doors and sills to keep      any of these topics, the following
and concrete store heat longer and            cool air in.                                 resource may be helpful. National
gradually release heat at night, which        • Cover windows that receive morning         Weather Service
can produce higher nighttime                  or afternoon sun with drapes, shades,        Heat Wave: A Major Summer Killer.
temperatures known as the ―urban heat         awnings, or louvers. (Outdoor awnings        An online brochure describing the heat
island effect.‖                               or louvers can reduce the heat that          index, heat disorders, and heat wave
                                              enters a home by up to 80 percent.)          safety tips. Available online at:
Know the Terms. Familiarize yourself          • Keep storm windows up all year.  
with these terms to help identify an                                                       /brochures/heat_wave.htm
extreme heat hazard:                          During a Heat Emergency. The
                                              following are guidelines for what you
Heat Wave - Prolonged period of               should do if the weather is extremely        9. Flood
excessive heat, often combined with           hot:
excessive humidity.                           • Stay indoors as much as possible and
                                                                                           During or after a hurricane in Kershaw
Heat Index - A number in degrees              limit exposure to the sun.
                                                                                           County, flooding is likely. Flooding is
Fahrenheit (F) that tells how hot it feels    • Stay on the lowest floor out of the
                                                                                           the nation's most common natural
when relative humidity is added to the        sunshine if air conditioning is not
                                                                                           disaster. Be prepared for flooding no
air temperature. Exposure to full             available.
                                                                                           matter where you live, but particularly
sunshine can increase the heat index by       • Consider spending the warmest part of
                                                                                           if you are in a low-lying area, near
15 degrees.                                   the day in public buildings such as
                                                                                           water or downstream from a dam. Even
Heat Cramps - Muscular pains and              libraries, schools, movie theaters,
                                                                                           a very small stream or dry creek bed
spasms due to heavy exertion. Although        shopping malls, and other community
                                                                                           can overflow and create flooding.
heat cramps are the least severe, they        facilities. Circulating air can cool the
are often the first signal that the body is   body by increasing the perspiration rate
                                              of evaporation.                              The principal cause for flooding in
having trouble with the heat.                                                              Kershaw County is intense rainfall,
Heat Exhaustion - Typically occurs            • Eat well-balanced, light, and regular
                                              meals. Avoid using salt tablets unless       which normally occurs in the period of
when people exercise heavily or work                                                       May through September. A historical
in a hot, humid place where body fluids       directed to do so by a physician.
                                              • Drink plenty of water. Persons who         analysis of rainfall patterns in the
are lost through heavy sweating. Blood                                                     county has shown that probable
flow to the skin increases, causing           have epilepsy or heart, kidney, or liver
                                              disease; are on fluid-restricted diets; or   maximum amounts of 20 inches of
blood flow to decrease to the vital

3 February 2007                                                                                                   Page 62
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
rainfall can occur in a given 24 hour        touch electrical equipment if you are      • Use extreme caution when entering
period.                                      wet or standing in water.                  buildings; there may be hidden damage
                                                                                        particularly in foundations.
Kershaw County has experienced heavy
                                             Flood facts                                • Service damaged septic tanks,
winter rains, frontal thunderstorms,
                                             If you have to leave your home,            cesspools, pits, and leaching systems as
tropical   storms     and    hurricanes.
                                             remember these evacuation tips:            soon as possible. Damaged sewage
Kershaw County experienced severe
                                             • Do not walk through moving water.        systems are serious health hazards.
flooding in 1989 after Hurricane Hugo
                                             Six inches of moving water can make        • Clean and disinfect everything that got
and in 1990 after heavy long-term rains.
                                             you fall. If you have to walk in water,    wet. Mud left from floodwater can
                                             walk where the water is not moving.        contain sewage and chemicals.
The county also has the Wateree Lake
                                             Use a stick to check the firmness of the
Dam and fifteen ―millpond‖ type dams.
                                             ground in front of you.                    Flood Insurance Consider the following
There has been only one dam failure in
                                             • Do not drive into flooded areas. If      facts:
recorded history. The Kendall Mill
                                             floodwaters rise around your car,          • Flood losses are not covered under
Pond Dam failed in 1990 damaging
                                             abandon the car and move to higher         homeowners’ insurance policies.
businesses and caused four fatalities.
                                             ground if you can do so safely. You and    • FEMA manages the National Flood
                                             the vehicle can be quickly swept away.     Insurance Program, which makes
Before a Flood:
                                                                                        federally-backed flood insurance
• Avoid building in a floodplain unless
                                             Driving: Flood Facts                       available in communities that agree to
you elevate and reinforce your home.
                                             The following are important points to      adopt and enforce floodplain
• Elevate the furnace, water heater, and
                                             remember when driving in flood             management ordinances to reduce
electric panel if susceptible to flooding.
                                             conditions:                                future flood damage.
• Install ―check valves‖ in sewer traps
                                             • Six inches of water will reach the       • Flood insurance is available in most
to prevent flood water from backing up
                                             bottom of most passenger cars causing      communities through insurance agents.
into the drains of your home.
                                             loss of control and possible stalling.     • There is a 30-day waiting period
• Construct barriers (levees, beams,
                                             • A foot of water will float many          before flood insurance goes into effect,
floodwalls) to stop floodwater from
                                             vehicles.                                  so don’t delay.
entering the building.
                                             • Two feet of rushing water can carry      • Flood insurance is available whether
• Seal walls in basements with
                                             away most vehicles including sport         the building is in or out of the identified
waterproofing compounds to avoid
                                             utility vehicles (SUV’s) and pick-ups.     flood-prone area.
                                             The following are guidelines for the
                                             period following a flood:
During a Flood:
                                                                                        10. Extreme Cold
• Listen to the radio or television for
                                             After a Flood                              Heavy snowfall and extreme cold can
• Be aware that flash flooding can                                                      immobilize an entire region. Even areas
                                             • Listen for news reports to learn         that normally experience mild winters
occur. If there is any possibility of a
                                             whether the community’s water supply       can be hit with a major snowstorm or
flash flood, move immediately to higher
                                             is safe to drink.                          extreme cold. Winter storms can result
ground. Do not wait for instructions to
                                             • Avoid floodwaters; water may be          in flooding, storm surge, closed
                                             contaminated by oil, gasoline, or raw      highways, blocked roads, downed
• Be aware of streams, drainage
                                             sewage. Water may also be electrically     power lines and hypothermia.
channels, canyons, and other areas
                                             charged from underground or downed
known to flood suddenly. Flash floods
                                             power lines.
can occur in these areas with or without
                                             • Avoid moving water.                      Kershaw County is susceptible to major
such typical warnings as rain clouds or
                                             • Be aware of areas where floodwaters      winter storms. There were drastic snow
heavy rain.                                                                             storms in 1899, 1914, 1973 and 1988.
                                             have receded. Roads may have
                                             weakened and could collapse under the      The ice storms in February 1969 and
If you must prepare to evacuate, you                                                    January    1973     produced     record
                                             weight of a car.
should do the following:
                                             • Stay away from downed power lines,       accumulations of ice. These ice storms
• Secure your home. If you have time,                                                   caused extensive damage to power lines
                                             and report them to the power company.
bring in outdoor furniture. Move
                                             • Return home only when authorities        and delivery systems. Snow, ice, sleet
essential items to an upper floor.                                                      and blizzard conditions will impede the
                                             indicate it is safe.
• Turn off utilities at the main switches
                                             • Stay out of any building if it is        normal quick response the public has
or valves if instructed to do so.                                                       come to expect. Heavy precipitation
                                             surrounded by floodwaters.
Disconnect electrical appliances. Do not                                                will bog down travelers and create
                                                                                        emergency demands on the Public

3 February 2007                                                                                                 Page 63
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
Works       Department       to      clear                                                Dress for the Weather
transportation routes. It is at this time     Before Winter Storms and Extreme            • Wear several layers of loose fitting,
that plans should be activated for            Cold                                        lightweight, warm clothing rather than
auxiliary and special response to             Include the following in your disaster      one layer of heavy clothing. The outer
accommodate identified needs. The             supplies kit:                               garments should be tightly woven and
demands will be met in a timely fashion       • Rock salt to melt ice on walkways         water repellent.
if all agencies are aware of the              • Sand to improve traction                  • Wear mittens, which are warmer than
resources available to them in an             • Snow shovels and other snow removal       gloves.
emergency.                                    equipment.                                  • Wear a hat.
                                                                                          • Cover your mouth with a scarf to
Large scale loss of life or property does
                                              Prepare for possible isolation in your      protect your lungs.
not normally occur as a result of a
                                              home by having sufficient heating fuel;
winter storm, however, any persons
                                              regular fuel sources may be cut off. For    During a Winter Storm. The
caught out in the storm and stranded
                                              example, store a good supply of dry,        following are guidelines for what you
motorists are in extreme danger.
                                              seasoned wood for your fireplace or         should do during a winter storm or
Isolated homes are also a problem due
                                              wood-burning stove.                         under conditions of extreme cold:
to    power     shortages,     lack    of
                                                                                          • Listen to your radio, television, or
communications, and failure of heating
                                              Winterize your home to extend the life      NOAA Weather Radio for weather
sources. Loss of utilities in an urban
                                              of your fuel supply by insulating walls     reports and emergency information.
area can create a critical situation in a
                                              and attics, caulking and weather-           • Eat regularly and drink ample fluids,
short period of time for a large number
                                              stripping doors and windows, and            but avoid caffeine and alcohol.
of people. Medical assistance may
                                              installing storm windows or covering        • Avoid overexertion when shoveling
become critical. The demand for
                                              windows with plastic.                       snow. Overexertion can bring on a heart
emergency services poses the greatest
                                                                                          attack —a major cause of death in the
difficulty, along with locating and
                                              To winterize your car, attend to the        winter. If you must shovel snow, stretch
rescuing stranded motorists. Emergency
                                              following:                                  before going outside.
feeding of livestock may become
                                              • Battery and ignition system should be     • Watch for signs of frostbite. These
                                              in top condition and battery terminals      include loss of feeling and white or pale
                                              clean.                                      appearance in extremities such as
Know the Terms. Familiarize yourself
                                              • Ensure antifreeze levels are sufficient   fingers, toes, ear lobes, and the tip of
with these terms to help identify a
                                              to avoid freezing.                          the nose. If symptoms are detected, get
winter storm hazard:
                                              • Ensure the heater and defroster work      medical help immediately.
Freezing Rain - Rain that freezes when
                                              properly.                                   • Watch for signs of hypothermia.
it hits the ground, creating a coating of
                                              • Check and repair windshield wiper         These include uncontrollable shivering,
ice on roads, walkways, trees, and
                                              equipment; ensure proper washer fluid       memory loss, disorientation,
power lines.
                                              level.                                      incoherence, slurred speech,
Sleet - Rain that turns to ice pellets
                                              • Ensure the thermostat works properly.     drowsiness, and apparent exhaustion. If
before reaching the ground. Sleet also
                                              • Check lights and flashing hazard lights   symptoms of hypothermia are detected,
causes moisture on roads to freeze and
                                              for serviceability.                         get the victim to a warm location,
become slippery.
                                              • Check for leaks and crimped pipes in      remove wet clothing, warm the center
Winter Storm Watch - A winter storm is
                                              the exhaust system; repair or replace as    of the body first, and give warm, non-
possible in your area. Tune in to NOAA
                                              necessary. Carbon monoxide is deadly        alcoholic beverages if the victim is
Weather Radio, commercial radio, or
                                              and usually gives no warning.               conscious. Get medical help as soon as
television for more information.
                                              • Check breaks for wear and fluid           possible.
Winter Storm Warning - A winter storm
                                              levels.                                     • Conserve fuel, if necessary, by
is occurring or will soon occur in your
                                              • Check oil for level and weight.           keeping your residence cooler than
                                              Heavier oils congeal more at low            normal. Temporarily close off heat to
Blizzard Warning - Sustained winds or
                                              temperatures and do not lubricate as        some rooms.
frequent gusts to 35 miles per hour or
                                              well.                                       • Maintain ventilation when using
greater and considerable amounts of
                                              • Consider snow tires, snow tires with      kerosene heaters to avoid build-up of
falling or blowing snow (reducing
                                              studs, or chains.                           toxic fumes. Refuel kerosene heaters
visibility to less than a quarter mile) are
                                              • Replace fuel and air filters. Keep        outside and keep them at least three feet
expected to prevail for a period of three
                                              water out of the system by using            from flammable objects.
hours or longer.
                                              additives and maintaining a full tank of    • Drive only if it is absolutely
Frost/Freeze Warning - Below freezing
                                              gas.                                        necessary. If you must drive, consider
temperatures are expected.
                                                                                          the following:

3 February 2007                                                                                                 Page 64
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
- Travel in the day, don’t travel alone,   If you require more information about      tornadoes move from the west or
and keep others informed of your           any of these topics, the following are     southwest and that the mountains are
schedule                                   resources that may be helpful.             insulated from the hazard.
- Stay on main roads; avoid back road      National Weather Service
shortcuts                                  Winter Storms…The Deceptive Killers.       There have been six reported tornadoes
                                           Brochure packed with useful                between 1950 and 1984. A tornado in
If a blizzard or ice storm traps you in    information including winter storm         March 1984 caused 25 injuries and 10
the car, keep these guidelines in mind:    facts, how to detect frostbite and         people were hospitalized. There was
• Pull off the highway. Turn on hazard     hypothermia, what to do in a winter        approximately four million dollars
lights and hang a distress flag from the   storm, and how to be prepared.             damage to property and timber.
radio antenna or window.                   Available online at:
• Remain in your vehicle where rescuers        Some tornadoes are clearly visible,
are most likely to find you. Do not set    tm.htm                                     while rain or nearby low-hanging
out on foot unless you can see a                                                      clouds obscure others. Occasionally,
building close by where you know you       Centers for Disease Control and            tornadoes develop so rapidly that little,
can take shelter. Be careful; distances    Prevention                                 if any, advance warning is possible.
are distorted by blowing snow. A           Extreme Cold: A Prevention Guide to        Before a tornado hits, the wind may die
building may seem close, but be too far    Promote Your Personal Health and           down and the air may become very still.
to walk to in deep snow.                   Safety. An extensive document              A cloud of debris can mark the location
• Run the engine and heater about 10       providing information about planning       of a tornado even if a funnel is not
minutes each hour to keep warm. When       ahead for cold weather, safety both        visible. Tornadoes generally occur near
the engine is running, open an upwind      indoors and outdoors in cold weather,      the trailing edge of a thunderstorm. It is
window slightly for ventilation. This      and cold weather health conditions.        not uncommon to see clear, sunlit skies
will protect you from possible carbon      Available online at:                       behind a tornado. The following are
monoxide poisoning. Periodically clear                          facts about tornadoes:
snow from the exhaust pipe.
• Exercise to maintain body heat, but                                                 • They may strike quickly, with little or
avoid overexertion. In extreme cold, use   11. Tornadoes                              no warning.
road maps, seat covers, and floor mats     Tornadoes are nature’s most violent        • They may appear nearly transparent
for insulation. Huddle with passengers     storms. Spawned from powerful              until dust and debris are picked up or a
and use your coat for a blanket.           thunderstorms, tornadoes can cause         cloud forms in the funnel.
• Take turns sleeping. One person          fatalities and devastate a neighborhood    • The average tornado moves Southwest
should be awake at all times to look for   in seconds. A tornado appears as a         to Northeast, but tornadoes have been
rescue crews.                              rotating, funnel-shaped cloud that         known to move in any direction.
• Drink fluids to avoid dehydration.       extends from a thunderstorm to the         • The average fororganization speed of
• Be careful not to waste battery power.   ground with whirling winds that can        a tornado is 30 MPH, but may vary
Balance electrical energy needs—the        reach 300 miles per hour. Damage paths     from stationary to 70 MPH.
use of lights, heat, and radio—with        can be in excess of one mile wide and      • Tornadoes can accompany tropical
supply.                                    50 miles long. Every state is at some      storms and hurricanes as they move
• Turn on the inside light at night so     risk from this hazard.                     onto land.
work crews or rescuers can see you.                                                   • Waterspouts are tornadoes that form
• If stranded in a remote area, stomp      The history of tornadic activity, which    over water.
large block letters in an open area        is sufficient to cause notable damage in   • Tornadoes are most frequently
spelling out HELP or SOS and line with     Kershaw County, is minimal. However,       reported east of the Rocky Mountains
rocks or tree limbs to attract the         the occasional exceptions warrant          during spring and summer months.
attention of rescue personnel who may      attention. Each spring to mid summer,      • Peak tornado season in the southern
be surveying the area by airplane.         funnel clouds are sighted primarily in     states is March through May.
• Leave the car and proceed on foot—if     the extreme eastern portion of the         • Tornadoes are most likely to occur
necessary—once the blizzard passes.        county, with an occasional tornado         between 3 p.m. and 9 p.m., but can
                                           developing. These are typically the F0     occur at any time.
After a Winter Storm. Follow the           or F1 variety (on the Fujita Scale of
instructions for recovering from a         tornado intensity of F0-F5). Rarely do     Know the Terms
disaster in Appendix A.1.P above.          these cause problems in excess of          Familiarize yourself with these terms to
                                           taking a roof off a farm shed but their    help identify a tornado hazard:
                                           occurrence must be monitored closely.      Tornado Watch -Tornadoes are
                                           The conventional wisdom is that            possible. Remain alert for approaching

3 February 2007                                                                                              Page 65
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
storms. Watch the sky and stay tuned to      • Atop a concrete slab-on-grade                 room to withstand tornado,
NOAA Weather Radio, commercial               foundation or garage floor.                     hurricane, and other high winds.
radio, or television for information.        • An interior room on the first floor.         Taking Shelter from the Storm:
Tornado Warning-A tornado has been           Safe rooms built below ground level             Building a Safe Room Inside Your
sighted or indicated by weather radar.       provide the greatest protection, but a          House. FEMA-320. Manual with
Take shelter immediately.                    safe room built in a first-floor interior       detailed information about how to
                                             room also can provide the necessary             build a wind-safe room to
Take Protective Measures                     protection. Below-ground safe rooms             withstand tornado, hurricane, and
                                             must be designed to avoid accumulating          other high winds.
Before a Tornado                             water during the heavy rains that often
• Prepare a safe room (see below)            accompany severe windstorms. To             If you see approaching storms or any of
• Be alert to changing weather               protect its occupants, a safe room must     the danger signs, be prepared to take
conditions.                                  be built to withstand high winds and        shelter immediately.
• Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or to         flying debris, even if the rest of the
commercial radio or television               residence is severely damaged or            During a Tornado
newscasts for the latest information.        destroyed. Consider the following when      If you are
• Look for approaching storms.               building a safe room:                       In a structure (e.g. residence, small
• Look for the following danger signs:       • The safe room must be adequately          building, school, nursing home,
   -Dark, often greenish sky                 anchored to resist overturning and          hospital, factory, shopping center, high-
   -Large hail                               uplift.                                     rise building)
   -A large, dark, low-lying cloud           • The walls, ceiling, and door of the        Go to a pre-designated shelter area
   (particularly if rotating)                shelter must withstand wind pressure              such as a safe room, basement,
   -Loud roar, similar to a freight train.   and resist penetration by windborne               storm cellar, or the lowest building
                                             objects and falling debris.                       level. If there is no basement, go to
Preparing a Safe Room                        • The connections between all parts of            the center of an interior room on
Extreme windstorms in many parts of          the safe room must be strong enough to            the lowest level (closet, interior
the country pose a serious threat to         resist the wind.                                  hallway) away from corners,
buildings and their occupants. Your          • Sections of either interior or exterior         windows, doors, and outside walls.
residence may be built ―to code,‖ but        residence walls that are used as walls of         Put as many walls as possible
that does not mean it can withstand          the safe room must be separated from              between you and the outside. Get
winds from extreme events such as            the structure of the residence so that            under a sturdy table and use your
tornadoes and major hurricanes. The          damage to the residence will not cause            arms to protect your head and neck.
purpose of a safe room or a wind shelter     damage to the safe room. Additional               Do not open windows.
is to provide a space where you and          information about Safe Rooms available      In a vehicle, trailer, or mobile home
your family can seek refuge that             from FEMA:                                  Get out immediately and go to the
provides a high level of protection. You      Taking Shelter from the Storm:            lowest floor of a sturdy, nearby building
can build a safe room in one of several           Building a Safe Room Inside Your       or a storm shelter. Mobile homes, even
places in your home:                              House. L-233. Brochure providing       if tied down, offer little protection from
• Your basement.                                  details about obtaining information    tornadoes.
                                                  about how to build a wind-safe         Outside with no shelter

3 February 2007                                                                                                  Page 66
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
Lie flat in a nearby ditch or                                                                              sustained winds of
depression and cover your head                                                                             39-73 MPH (34-63
with your hands. Be aware of the                                                                           knots).
potential for flooding. Do not get                                                                         Hurricane - An
under an overpass or bridge. You                                                                           intense tropical
are safer in a low, fl at location.                                                                        weather system of
Never try to outrun a tornado in                                                                           strong thunderstorms
urban or congested areas in a car or                                                                       with a well-defined
truck. Instead, leave the vehicle                                                                          surface circulation
immediately for safe shelter. Watch                                                                        and maximum
out for flying debris. Flying debris                                                                       sustained winds of
from tornadoes causes most                                                                                 74 MPH (64 knots)
fatalities and injuries.                                                                                   or higher.
                                                                                                           Storm Surge - A
After a Tornado                                                                                            dome of water
Follow the instructions for                                                                                pushed onshore by
recovering from a disaster in                                                                              hurricane and
Appendix A.1.P above. If you                                                                               tropical storm winds.
require more information about any                                                                         Storm surges can
of these topics, the following are                                                                         reach 25 feet high
resources that may be helpful.                                                                             and be 50-100 miles
FEMA Publications Tornado Fact                                                                             Storm Tide - A
Sheet. L-148. Provides safety tips                                                                         combination of storm
for before, during, and after a                                                                            surge and the normal
tornado. Tornado Protection—                                                                               tide (i.e., a 15-foot
Selecting Refuge Areas in                                                                                  storm surge
Buildings. FEMA 431. Intended                                                                              combined with a 2-
primarily to help building                                                                                 foot normal high tide
administrators, architects, and                                                                            over the mean sea
engineers select the best available                                                                        level creates a 17-
refuge areas in existing schools                                                                           foot storm tide).
                                           Kershaw County, is minimal. However,       Hurricane/Tropical Storm Watch -
12. Hurricanes                             the occasional exceptions warrant          Hurricane/tropical storm conditions are
Hurricanes can produce widespread          attention. Few storms reach Kershaw        possible in the specified area, usually
torrential rains. Floods are the deadly    County with hurricane force. The area      within 36 hours. Tune in to NOAA
and destructive result. Slow moving        experienced heavy rain and wind as         Weather Radio, commercial radio, or
storms and tropical storms moving into     secondary effects from hurricanes in the   television for information.
mountainous regions tend to produce        past. Hurricane Hugo took a direct path    Hurricane/Tropical Storm Warning -
especially heavy rain. Excessive rain      through Kershaw County spawning            Hurricane/tropical storm conditions are
can trigger landslides or mud slides,      tornadoes and caused damage to timber      expected in the specified area, usually
especially in mountainous regions.         and property.                              within 24 hours.
Flash flooding can occur due to intense    Know the Terms. Familiarize yourself       Short Term Watches and Warnings -
rainfall. Flooding on rivers and streams   with these terms to help identify a        These warnings provide detailed
may persist for several days or more       hurricane hazard:                          information about specific hurricane
after the storm. Since 1970, more          Tropical Depression - An organized         threats, such as flash floods and
people lost their lives from freshwater    system of clouds and thunderstorms         tornadoes.
inland flooding associated with land       with a defined surface circulation and
falling tropical cyclones than from any    maximum sustained winds of 38 MPH          Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
other weather hazard related to tropical   (33 knots) or less. Sustained winds are
cyclones. South Carolina is prone to       defined as one-minute average wind
hurricanes as can be seen on the           measured at about 33 ft (10 meters)
hurricane tracking map below.              above the surface.
                                           Tropical Storm - An organized system
The history of hurricane activity, which   of strong thunderstorms with a defined
is sufficient to cause notable damage in   surface circulation and maximum

3 February 2007                                                                                              Page 67
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
     Winds       Damage & Storm Surge                 If you have a fuel tank, it needs       Make plans to secure your
     (MPH)                                             to be anchored to resist the force       property. Permanent storm shutters
1    74-95       Minimal: Unanchored                   of floodwaters and flotation.            offer the best protection for
                 mobile homes, vegetation,       Fix-it when building or                        windows.
                 and signs 4-5 feet              remodeling:                                   Consider building a safe room.
2    96-110      Moderate: All mobile             Install tie-downs on any porch
                 homes, roofs, small craft;            and carport columns. (A tie-         Immediately Before
                 flooding 6-8 feet                     down can be a rod or a strap that    • Board up windows with 5/8‖marine
3    111-130     Extensive: Small buildings;           better connects the porch/column     plywood, cut to fit and ready to install.
                 low-lying roads cut off 9-12          and roof to the foundation.)         Tape does not prevent windows from
                 feet                             Secure wall-to-foundation and            breaking.
4    131-155     Extreme: Roofs destroyed,             wall-to-roof connections with        • Install straps or additional clips to
                 trees down, roads cut off,            anchor bolts/rebar or other tie      securely fasten your roof to the frame
                 mobile homes destroyed,               down devices to ensure wind          structure. This will reduce roof damage.
                 beach homes flooded 13-18             uplift resistance.                   • Be sure trees and shrubs around your
                 feet                             Install impact-resistant windows         home are well trimmed.
5    More        Catastrophic: Most                    & sliding glass doors.               • Clear loose and clogged rain gutters
     than        buildings destroyed,             Anchor door frames to wall               and downspouts.
     155         vegetation destroyed, major           framing.                             • Determine how and where to secure
                 roads cut off, homes flooded    If replacing your roof, your               your boat.
                 Greater than 18 feet            contractor should:                         •Keep your AM/FM radio and/or
                                                  Confirm rafters and trusses are          television on and listen for the latest
Before a Hurricane                                  securely connected (tied down) to       weather reports and advisories. If
                                                    the walls.                              power fails, use battery-powered radios
Long Before (Hurricanes, Floods and              Replace damaged sheathing and             (FRS and AM/FM) or your car radio.
Tornadoes)                                          properly refasten existing              Check your battery-powered equipment.
Fix-it yourself:                                    sheathing. This should include a        Your radios may be your most essential
 Fasten exterior items securely to                 certified wood adhesive between         item. Emergency cooking facilities and
    your home to prevent them from                  the sheathing and structure             flashlights should also be checked.
    becoming flying debris. Move                    members.
                                                                                            • Secure outdoor objects that might be
    loose items indoors.                         Install a roof covering designed to
                                                                                            blown away or uprooted. Garbage cans,
 Caulk/install weather stripping to                resist high winds and meet Class A
                                                                                            garden tools, signs, porch furniture, and
    all doors and windows to prevent                fire-resistance specifications.
                                                                                            a number of other harmless items
    wind from entering.                          Consider a double-layer of heavier
                                                                                            become missiles of destruction in gale-
 Install impact-resistant shutters OR              felt roofing paper secured, with
                                                                                            force winds. Anchor them or store them
    have cut-to-fit boards and                      sufficient tin-tabs, to keep it
                                                                                            inside before the storm strikes.
    mountings ready for all windows                 fastened to the roof sheathing.
    and doors.                                   Consider taping the roof sheathing        • Store drinking water in clean, closed
 Make all entry doors impact-                      joints with self-adhering roofing       containers, such as jugs, bottles, etc.;
    resistant by installing head and foot           underlayment. This tape will            these may be needed if water supplies
    bolts with a minimum one-inch bolt              prevent water damage if your roof       become contaminated due to wind
    length into solid material to guard             covering is blown off.                  damage.
    against wind pressure and to                 If your house is more than one
    improve security.                               story, firmly connect upper story       • Keep your car fueled. Service
                                                    wall framing with lower framing.        stations may be inoperable after the
Fix-it with some help:
 Properly brace garage doors and                Elevate your utilities (e.g. electrical
                                                                                            storm strikes due to interrupted
    tracks to meet impact-resistant                 service panel and disconnect(s), air    electrical power.
    criteria. (Approximately 80% of                 conditioner, water heater, etc.)        • If you live in a mobile home or other
    residential hurricane damage starts             above the base flood elevation          nonpermanent dwelling, prepare to
    with wind entry through garage                  (100-year flood) or higher.             evacuate to a designated shelter.
    doors.)                                      Install sewer backflow valves to
 Brace the roof gable end framing                  prevent sewage entry into your          • Remain indoors during the storm
    with interior horizontal and vertical           home during flooding.                   itself, (staying away from windows) and
    beams to strengthen the gable                Construct or reinforce an interior        in the most reinforced area of the home.
    against strong winds.                           room or reinforced shelter from         Travel can be extremely dangerous
                                                    high winds or tornadoes.                during high winds.

3 February 2007                                                                                                    Page 68
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
During a Hurricane:                            After a Hurricane. Follow the                 when the electric power is restored, turn
• Listen to the radio or TV for                instructions for recovering from a            off the main power switch again, then
information.                                   disaster in Appendix A.1.P above.             inspect for short circuits in your home
• Monitor/ communicate with your                                                             wiring, appliances, and equipment.
neighborhood leader via your FRS radio         Remain at home or in shelters until
                                                                                             Check your food and water supplies
in accord with your Neighborhood plan.         informed by local officials that it is safe
                                                                                             before using them. Foods that require
• Secure your home, close storm                to leave.
                                                                                             refrigeration may be spoiled if electric
shutters, and secure outdoor objects or
                                                                                             power has been off for some time. Also,
bring them indoors.                            Keep tuned to your radio or
                                                                                             do not use fresh food that has come in
• Turn off utilities if instructed to do so.   television for instructions on:
                                                                                             contact with flood waters.
Otherwise, turn the refrigerator               -Where to go to obtain necessary
                                                                                             Stay away from disaster areas.
thermostat to its coldest setting and          medical care in your area.
                                                                                             Sightseeing could interfere with first-
keep its doors closed.                         -Where to go for necessary emergency
                                                                                             aid or rescue work and may be
• Turn off propane tanks.                      assistance for housing, clothing, and
                                                                                             dangerous as well.
• Avoid using the phone, except for            food.
serious emergencies.                                                                         Don't drive unless necessary, but if
• Moor your boat if time permits.              Use extreme caution in entering or            you must, drive with caution. Watch for
• Ensure a supply of water for sanitary        working in buildings that may have            hazards to yourself and others and
purposes such as cleaning and flushing         been damaged or weakened by the               report them to local police or fire
toilets. Fill the bathtub and other large      disaster; they may collapse without           departments.
containers with water.                         warning. Also, there may be gas leaks
                                               or electrical short circuits.                 Report broken sewer or water
You should evacuate under the                  Don't take lanterns, torches, or other        mains to the local water department.
following conditions:                          flame sources into buildings that have
• If you are directed by local authorities     been damaged by wind; there may be            Ways to help yourself and your
to do so. Be sure to follow their              leaking gas lines or flammable material       community recover from the
instructions.                                  present. Use battery-powered                  emergency. If you require more
• If you live in a mobile home or              flashlights, spotlights, etc.                 information about any of these topics,
temporary structure—such shelters are                                                        the following are resources that may be
                                               Stay away from fallen or damaged              helpful.
particularly hazardous during hurricanes
                                               electric wires; these may still be
no matter how well fastened to the
                                               dangerous. Notify the utility company,        FEMA Publications Against the Wind:
                                               the police, or the fire department.           Protecting Your Home from Hurricane
• If you live in a high-rise building—
hurricane winds are stronger at higher                                                       and Wind Damage. FEMA-247. A
                                               Check for leaking gas pipes in your
elevations.                                                                                  guide to hurricane preparedness.
                                               home. Do this by smell--don't use
• If you live on the coast, on a                                                             Available online at
                                               matches or candles. If you smell gas:
floodplain, near a river, or on an inland           Open all windows and doors.
waterway.                                           Turn off the main gas valve at
• If you feel you are in danger.                       the meter. A tool for this            Community Hurricane Preparedness.
                                                       purpose should be stored              IS-324. CD-ROM or Web-based
If you are unable to evacuate, go to your              chained to or near the gas
wind-safe room. If you do not have one,                                                      training course for federal, state, and
                                                       meter.                                local emergency managers. Web-based
follow these guidelines:                            Leave the house immediately.            version available online at
• Stay indoors during the hurricane and             Notify the gas company or the
away from windows and glass doors.                                                 
                                                       police.                               x.htm
• Close all interior doors—secure and               Don't re-enter the house until
brace external doors.                                  you are told it is safe to do so.
• Keep curtains and blinds closed. Do                                                        Safety Tips for Hurricanes. L 105.
not be fooled if there is a lull; it could                                                   Publication for teachers and parents for
                                               If any of your electrical appliances are      presentation to children. To order, call
be the eye of the storm—winds will             wet, first turn off the main power switch
pick up again.                                                                               1(800)480-2520.
                                               in your house, then unplug the wet
• Take refuge in a small interior room,        appliance, dry it out, reconnect it, and
closet, or hallway on the lowest level.                                                      Other Publications Protect Your Home
                                               turn on the main power switch. Do not         against Hurricane Damage, Institute for
• Lie on the floor under a table or            do any of these things while you are wet
another sturdy object.                                                                       Business and Home Safety. 110
                                               or standing in water. If a fuse is blown      William Street, New York, NY 20038

3 February 2007                                                                                                    Page 69
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
13. Thunderstorms                            • Your chances of being struck by             • Avoid showering or bathing.
                                             lightning are estimated to be 1 in            Plumbing and bathroom fixtures can
All thunderstorms are dangerous. Every       600,000, but could be reduced even            conduct electricity.
thunderstorm produces lightning. In the      further by following safety precautions.      • Use a corded telephone only for
United States, an average of 300 people      • Lightning strike victims carry no           emergencies. Cordless and cellular
are injured and 80 people are killed         electrical charge and should be attended      telephones are safe to use.
each year by lightning. Although most        to immediately.                               • Unplug appliances and other electrical
lightning victims survive, people struck                                                   items such as computers and turn off air
by lightning often report a variety of       Know the Terms                                conditioners. Power surges from
long-term, debilitating symptoms. Other      Familiarize yourself with these terms to      lightning can cause serious damage.
associated dangers of thunderstorms          help identify a thunderstorm hazard:          • Use your battery-operated NOAA
include tornadoes, strong winds, hail,       Severe Thunderstorm Watch - Tells you         Weather Radio for updates from local
and flash flooding. Flash flooding is        when and where severe thunderstorms           officials.
responsible for more fatalities—more         are likely to occur. Watch the sky and
than 140 annually—than any other             stay tuned to NOAA Weather Radio,             Avoid the following:
thunderstorm-associated hazard.              commercial radio, or television for           • Natural lightning rods such as a tall,
                                             information.                                  isolated tree in an open area
Dry thunderstorms that do not produce        Severe Thunderstorm Warning - Issued          • Hilltops, open fields, the beach, or a
rain that reaches the ground are most        when severe weather has been reported         boat on the water
prevalent in the western United States.      by spotters or indicated by radar.            • Isolated sheds or other small structures
Falling raindrops evaporate, but             Warnings indicate imminent danger to          in open areas
lightning can still reach the ground and     life and property to those in the path of     • Anything metal—tractors, farm
can start wildfires. The following are       the storm.                                    equipment, motorcycles, golf carts, golf
facts about thunderstorms:                                                                 clubs, and bicycles
• They may occur singly, in clusters, or     Before Thunderstorms and
in lines.                                    Lightning:
• Some of the most severe occur when a       • Remove dead or rotting trees and            14. Earthquakes
single thunderstorm affects one location     branches that could fall and cause injury     The actual movement of the earth in an
for an extended time.                        or damage during a severe                     earthquake is seldom a direct cause of
• Thunderstorms typically produce            thunderstorm.                                 death or injury. However, this
heavy rain for a brief period, anywhere      • Remember the 30/30 lightning safety         movement causes collapse of buildings
from 30 minutes to an hour.                  rule: Go indoors if, after seeing             and other structures. Most casualties
• Warm, humid conditions are highly          lightning, you cannot count to 30 before      result from falling objects and debris,
favorable for thunderstorm                   hearing thunder. Stay indoors for 30          such as falling bricks and plaster,
development.                                 minutes after hearing the last clap of        splintering glass, toppling furniture,
• About 10 percent of thunderstorms are      thunder. The following are guidelines         collapsing walls, falling pictures and
classified as severe—one that produces       for what you should do if a                   mirrors, rock slides on mountains and
hail at least three-quarters of an inch in   thunderstorm is likely in your area:          hillsides, fallen power lines, fire
diameter, has winds of 58 miles per          • Postpone outdoor activities.                resulting from broken gas lines and
hour or higher, or produces a tornado.       • Get inside a home, building, or hard        spillage of flammables--a danger which
                                             top automobile (not a convertible).           may be aggravated by lack of water due
The following are facts about lightning:     Although you may be injured if                to broken water mains, and drastic
• Lightning’s unpredictability increases     lightning strikes your car, you are much      human actions resulting from panic.
the risk to individuals and property.        safer inside a vehicle than outside.
• Lightning often strikes outside of         • Remember, rubber-soled shoes and
                                             rubber tires provide NO protection from       Magnitude (M) is a measure of an
heavy rain and may occur as far as 10
                                             lightning. However, the steel frame of a      earthquake’s size. Most earthquakes M
miles away from any rainfall.
                                             hard-topped vehicle provides increased        <3.9 or below would not cause any
• ―Heat lightning‖ is actually lightning
                                             protection if you are not touching metal.     significant damage and may only be felt
from a thunderstorm too far away for
thunder to be heard. However, the storm      • Secure outdoor objects that could           by a few people in the area of
may be moving in your direction!             blow away or cause damage.                    occurrence. An M 6.0 earthquake is
• Most lightning deaths and injuries         • Shutter windows and secure outside          typically the threshold for causing
                                             doors. If shutters are not available, close   serious damage. Earthquakes
occur when people are caught outdoors
                                             window blinds, shades, or curtains.           magnitude (M) classifications are:
in the summer months during the
afternoon and evening.                                                                     Great (Catastrophic) = M > 8.0+
                                                                                           Major = M 7.0 to 7.9

3 February 2007                                                                                                   Page 70
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
Large = M 6.0 to 6.9                          from less than an inch to more than 10     • Install flexible pipe fittings to avoid
Moderate = M 5.0 to 5.9                       yards in a severe earthquake.              gas or water leaks. Flexible fittings are
Minor = M 4.0 to 4.9                          Epicenter - The place on the earth’s       more resistant to breakage.
General Felt = M 3.0 to 3.9                   surface directly above the point on the    • Locate safe spots in each room under a
Potentially perceptible = M 2.0 to 2.9        fault where the earthquake rupture         sturdy table or against an inside wall.
Imperceptible = M < 2.0                       began. Once fault slippage begins, it      Reinforce this information by moving to
                                              expands along the fault during the         these places during each drill.
Most earthquakes occur along faults or        earthquake and can extend hundreds of      • Hold earthquake drills with your
breaks between the massive continental        miles before stopping.                     family members: Drop, cover, and hold
oceanic/tectonic plates that collide, slide   Seismic Waves - Vibrations that travel     on!
or separate, creating earthquakes. South      outorganization from the earthquake
Carolina, however, is located in the          fault at speeds of several miles per       During an Earthquake. Minimize your
middle of the North American tectonic         second. Although fault slippage directly   movements during an earthquake to a
plate. Consequently, earthquakes occur        under a structure can cause considerable   few steps to a nearby safe place. Stay
less frequently, but more violently over      damage, the vibrations of seismic waves    indoors until the shaking has stopped
a much greater area due to sub-surface        cause most of the destruction during       and you are sure exiting is safe.
geological conditions.                        earthquakes.
                                              Magnitude - The amount of energy           If you are indoors then:
                                              released during an earthquake, which is    • Take cover under a sturdy desk, table,
South Carolina experiences less than
                                              computed from the amplitude of the         or bench or against an inside wall, and
five (5) felt earthquakes annually. These
                                              seismic waves. A magnitude of 7.0 on       hold on. If there isn’t a table or desk
are generally low-level events with
                                              the Richter Scale indicates an extremely   near you, cover your face and head with
magnitudes ranging from less than 1.0
                                              strong earthquake. Each whole number       your arms and crouch in an inside
to approximately 3.0. About 70 percent
                                              on the scale represents an increase of     corner of the building.
of these occur in an area of
                                              about 30 times more energy released        • Stay away from glass, windows,
Charleston/Summerville known as the
                                              than the previous whole number             outside doors and walls, and anything
Middleton Place-Summerville Seismic
                                              represents. Therefore, an earthquake       that could fall, such as lighting fixtures
Zone (MPSSZ). There have been only
                                              measuring 6.0 is about 30 times more       or furniture.
a few minor tremors felt in Kershaw
                                              powerful than one measuring 5.0. The       • Stay in bed—if you are there when the
County since 1886, including an
                                              following are things you can do to         earthquake strikes—hold on and protect
earthquake originating from the
                                              protect yourself, your family, and your    your head with a pillow, unless you are
northeastern portion of the County in
                                              property in the event of an earthquake:    under a heavy light fixture that could
                                                                                         fall. In that case, move to the nearest
The two significant earthquakes in SC         Before an Earthquake                       safe place.
were the 1886 Charleston earthquake           • Repair defective electrical wiring,      • Use a doorway for shelter only if it is
(estimated at M 7.3) and the 1913             leaky gas lines, and inflexible utility    in close proximity to you and if you
Union County earthquake (estimated at         connections. Get appropriate               know it is a strongly supported, load-
M 4.5). The 1886 Charleston                   professional help. Do not work with gas    bearing doorway.
earthquake was the most damaging              or electrical lines yourself.              • Stay inside until the shaking stops and
earthquake to occur in the Eastern             • Bolt down and secure to the wall        it is safe to go outside. Most injuries
United States.                                studs your water heater, refrigerator,     during earthquakes occur when people
                                              furnace, and gas appliances. If            are hit by falling objects when entering
Know the Terms. Familiarize yourself          recommended by your gas company,           into or exiting from buildings.
with these terms to help identify an          have an automatic gas shut-off valve       • Be aware that the electricity may go
earthquake hazard:                            installed that is triggered by strong      out or the sprinkler systems or fire
Earthquake - A sudden slipping or             vibrations.                                alarms may turn on.
movement of a portion of the earth’s          • Place large or heavy objects on lower    • DO NOT use the elevators.
crust, accompanied and followed by a          shelves. Fasten shelves, mirrors, and
series of vibrations.                         large picture frames to walls. Brace       If you are outdoors then:
Aftershock - An earthquake of similar         high and top-heavy objects.                • Stay there.
or lesser intensity that follows the main     • Store bottled foods, glass, china, and   • Move away from buildings,
earthquake.                                   other breakables on low shelves or in      streetlights, and utility wires.
Fault - The fracture across which             cabinets that fasten shut.                 In a moving vehicle
displacement has occurred during an           • Anchor overhead lighting fixtures.       • Stop as quickly as safety permits and
earthquake. The slippage may range            • Be sure the residence is firmly          stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near
                                              anchored to its foundation.

3 February 2007                                                                                                 Page 71
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
or under buildings, trees, overpasses,     financial, political, social, and religious   building, be especially watchful of
and utility wires.                         institutions. Attacks have occurred in        falling debris.
• Proceed cautiously once the              public places and on city streets with        • Leave the building as quickly as
earthquake has stopped, watching for       thousands of people around the world          possible. Do not stop to retrieve
road and bridge damage.                    injured and killed.                           personal possessions or make phone
If your are trapped under debris           Parcels that should make you                  • Do not use elevators.
• Do not light a match.                    suspicious:
• Do not move about or kick up dust.       • Are unexpected or from someone              Once you are out:
• Cover your mouth with a handkerchief     unfamiliar to you.                            • Do not stand in front of windows,
or clothing.                               • Have no return address, or have one         glass doors, or other potentially
• Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can    that can’t be verified as legitimate.         hazardous areas.
locate you. Use a whistle if one is        • Are marked with restrictive                 • Move away from sidewalks or streets
available. Shout only as a last resort—    endorsements such as ―Personal,‖              to be used by emergency officials or
shouting can cause you to inhale           ―Confidential,‖ or ―Do not X-ray.‖            others still exiting the building.
dangerous amounts of dust.                 • Have protruding wires or aluminum
• Be prepared for aftershocks. These       foil, strange odors, or stains.               If you are trapped in debris:
secondary shockwaves are usually less      • Show a city or state in the postmark        • If possible, use a flashlight to signal
violent than the main quake but can be     that doesn’t match the return address.        your location to rescuers. •
strong enough to do additional damage      • Are of unusual weight given their size,     Avoid unnecessary movement so you
to weakened structures.                    or are lopsided or oddly shaped.              don’t kick up dust.
                                           • Are marked with threatening                 • Cover your nose and mouth with
After an Earthquake                        language.                                     anything you have on hand. (Dense-
• Open cabinets cautiously. Beware of      • Have inappropriate or unusual               weave cotton material can act as a good
objects that can fall off shelves.         labeling.                                     filter. Try to breathe through the
• Stay away from damaged areas unless      • Have excessive postage or packaging         material.)
your assistance has been specifically      material, such as masking tape and            • Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can
requested by police, fire, or relief       string.                                       hear where you are.
organizations.                             • Have misspellings of common words.          • If possible, use a whistle to signal
• Be aware of possible tsunamis if you     • Are addressed to someone no longer          rescuers.
live in coastal areas. These are also      with your organization or are otherwise       • Shout only as a last resort. Shouting
known as seismic sea waves                 outdated.                                     can cause a person to inhale dangerous
(mistakenly called ―tidal waves‖).         • Have incorrect titles or titles without a   amounts of dust.
When local authorities issue a tsunami     name.
warning, assume that a series of           • Are not addressed to a specific person.     After an Explosion. Follow the
dangerous waves is on the way. Stay        • Have hand-written or poorly typed           instructions for recovering from a
away from the beach.                       addressees.                                   disaster in Appendix A.1.P above.

                                           Take Protective Measures                      If you require more information about
15. Explosions.                            If you receive a telephoned bomb threat,      any of these topics, the following
Terrorists have frequently used            you should do the following:                  resource may be helpful.
explosive devices as one of their most     • Get as much information from the
common weapons. Terrorists do not          caller as possible.                           American Red Cross:
have to look far to find out how to make   • Keep the caller on the line and record      Terrorism, Preparing for the
explosive devices; the information is      everything that is said.                      Unexpected. Document providing
readily available in books and other       • Notify the police and the building          preparation guidelines for a terrorist
information sources. The materials         management.                                   attack or similar emergency. Available
needed for an explosive device can be                                                    online at
found in many places including variety,    If there is an explosion, you should:         services/disaster/0,1082,0_589_,00.html
hardware, and auto supply stores.          During an Explosion
Explosive devices are highly portable      • Get under a sturdy table or desk if         16. Nuclear Power Plant Emergency.
using vehicles and humans as a means       things are falling around you. When           Nuclear power plants use the heat
of transport. They are easily detonated    they stop falling, leave quickly,             generated from nuclear fission in a
from remote locations or by suicide        watching for obviously weakened floors        contained environment to convert water
bombers. Conventional bombs have           and stairways. As you exit from the           to steam, which powers generators to
been used to damage and destroy                                                          produce electricity. Nuclear power

3 February 2007                                                                                                 Page 72
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
plants operate in most states in the         V.C. Summer.                                cause serious illness or death.
country and produce about 20 percent
of the nation’s power. Nearly 3 million                                                  Minimizing Exposure to Radiation
Americans live within 10 miles of an                                                     • Distance -The more distance between
operating nuclear power plant.               The potential danger from an accident       you and the source of the radiation, the
Although the construction and operation      at a nuclear power plant is exposure to     better. This could be evacuation or
of these facilities are closely monitored    radiation. This exposure could come         remaining indoors to minimize
and regulated by the Nuclear                 from the release of radioactive material    exposure.
Regulatory Commission (NRC),                 from the plant into the environment,        • Shielding -The more heavy, dense
accidents are possible. An accident          usually characterized by a plume            material between you and the source of
could result in dangerous levels of          (cloud-like formation) of radioactive       the radiation, the better.
radiation that could affect the health and   gases and particles. The major hazards      • Time - Most radioactivity loses its
safety of the public living near the         to people in the vicinity of the plume      strength fairly quickly.
nuclear power plant.                         are radiation exposure to the body from
                                             the cloud and particles deposited on the    If an accident at a nuclear power plant
Local and state governments, federal         ground, inhalation of radioactive           were to release radiation in your area,
agencies, and the electric utilities have    materials, and ingestion of radioactive     local authorities would activate warning
emergency response plans in the event        materials.                                  sirens or another approved alert method.
of a nuclear power plant incident. The                                                   They also would instruct you through
plans define two ―emergency planning         Radioactive materials are composed of       the Emergency Alert System (EAS) on
zones.‖ One zone covers an area within       atoms that are unstable. An unstable        local television and radio stations on
a 10 mile radius of the plant, where it is   atom gives off its excess energy until it   how to protect yourself.
possible that people could be harmed by      becomes stable. The energy emitted is
direct radiation exposure. The second        radiation. Each of us is exposed to         Know the Terms. Familiarize yourself
zone covers a broader area, usually up       radiation daily from natural sources,       with these terms to help identify a
to a 50-mile radius from the plant,          including the Sun and the Earth. Small      nuclear power plant emergency:
where radioactive materials could            traces of radiation are present in food     Notification of Unusual Event - A small
contaminate water supplies, food crops,      and water. Radiation also is released       problem has occurred at the plant. No
and livestock. From the map below,           from man-made sources such as X-ray         radiation leak is expected. No action on
you can see that parts of Kershaw            machines, television sets, and              your part will be necessary.
County are within 10 miles of the HB.        microwave ovens. Radiation has a            Alert - A small problem has occurred,
Robinson nuclear facility in Darlington      cumulative effect. The longer a person      and small amounts of radiation could
County, and within 50 miles of three         is exposed to radiation, the greater the    leak inside the plant. This will not affect
plants—HB Robinson, Catawba, and             effect. A high exposure to radiation can    you and no action is required.
                                                                                         Site Area Emergency - Area sirens may
                                                                                         be sounded. Listen to your radio or
                                                                                         television for safety information.
                                                                                         General Emergency - Radiation could
                                                                                         leak outside the plant and off the plant
                                                                                         site. The sirens will sound. Tune to your
                                                                                         local radio or television station for
                                                                                         reports. Be prepared to follow
                                                                                         instructions promptly. Take Protective

                                                                                         Before a Nuclear Power Plant
                                                                                         Emergency. Obtain public emergency
                                                                                         information materials from the power
                                                                                         company that operates your local
                                                                                         nuclear power plant or your local
                                                                                         emergency services office. If you live
                                                                                         within 10 miles of the power plant, you
                                                                                         should receive these materials yearly
                                                                                         from the power company or your state
                                                                                         or local government.

3 February 2007                                                                                                 Page 73
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
During a Nuclear Power Plant                have an immediate effect (a few             • Find shelter as quickly as possible.
Emergency. The following are                seconds to a few minutes) or a delayed      • Decontamination is needed within
guidelines for what you should do if a      effect (2 to 48 hours). While potentially   minutes of exposure to minimize health
nuclear power plant emergency occurs.       lethal, chemical agents are difficult to    con-
Keep a battery-powered radio with you       deliver in lethal concentrations.           Sequences (see below).
at all times and listen to the radio for    Outdoors, the agents often dissipate
specific instructions. Close and lock       rapidly. Chemical agents also are           After a Chemical Attack. Do not leave
doors and windows.                          difficult to produce.                       the safety of a shelter to go outdoors to
                                                                                        help others until authorities announce it
If you are told to evacuate…                A chemical attack could come without        is safe to do so.
• Keep car windows and vents closed;        warning. Signs of a chemical release
use re-circulating air.                     include people having difficulty            A person affected by a chemical agent
• Turn off the air conditioner,             breathing; experiencing eye irritation;     requires immediate medical attention
ventilation fans, furnace, and other air    losing coordination; becoming               from a professional. If medical help is
intakes.                                    nauseated; or having a burning              not immediately available,
                                            sensation in the nose, throat, and lungs.   decontaminate yourself and assist in
If you are advised to remain indoors…       Also, the presence of many dead insects     decontaminating others.
• Go to a basement or other                 or birds may indicate a chemical agent
underground area, if possible.              release.                                    Decontamination guidelines are as
• Do not use the telephone unless                                                       follows:
absolutely necessary.                       Before a Chemical Attack. The               • Use extreme caution when helping
                                            following are guidelines for what you       others who have been exposed to
If you expect you have been exposed to      should do to prepare for a chemical         chemical agents.
nuclear radiation:                          threat:                                     • Remove all clothing and other items in
• Change clothes and shoes.                 • Check your disaster supplies kit to       contact with the body. Contaminated
• Put exposed clothing in a plastic bag.    make sure it includes:                      clothing normally removed over the
• Seal the bag and place it out of the      -A roll of duct tape and scissors.          head should be cut off to avoid contact
way.                                        -Plastic for doors, windows, and vents      with the eyes, nose, and mouth. Put
• Take a thorough shower.                   for the room in which you will shelter      contaminated clothing and items into a
                                            in place. To save critical time during an   plastic bag and seal it. Decontaminate
Keep food in covered containers or in       emergency, pre-measure and cut the          hands using soap and water. Remove
the refrigerator. Food not previously       plastic sheeting for each opening.          eyeglasses or contact lenses. Put glasses
covered should be washed before being       • Choose an internal room to shelter,       in a pan of household bleach to
put in to containers.                       preferably one without windows and on       decontaminate them, and then rinse and
                                            the highest level.                          dry.
After a Nuclear Power Plant                                                             • Flush eyes with water.
Emergency Seek medical treatment for        During a Chemical Attack. The               • Gently wash face and hair with soap
any unusual symptoms, such as nausea,       following are guidelines for what you       and water before thoroughly rinsing
that may be related to radiation            should do in a chemical attack.             with water.
exposure.                                                                               • Decontaminate other body areas likely
                                            If you are instructed to remain in your     to have been contaminated. Blot (do not
Follow the instructions for recovering      home or office building, you should:        swab or scrape) with a cloth soaked in
from a disaster in Appendix A.1.P           • Close doors and windows and turn off      soapy water and rinse with clear water.
above.                                      all ventilation, including furnaces, air    • Change into uncontaminated clothes.
                                            conditioners, vents, and fans.              Clothing stored in drawers or closets is
                                            • Seek shelter in an internal room and      likely to be uncontaminated.
17. Chemical Terrorist Threats
                                            take your disaster supplies kit.            • Proceed to a medical facility for
Chemical agents are poisonous vapors,       • Seal the room with duct tape and          screening and professional treatment.
aerosols, liquids, and solids that have     plastic sheeting.
toxic effects on people, animals, or        • Listen to your radio for instructions
plants. They can be released by bombs       from authorities.                           18. Radiological Dispersion Device
or sprayed from aircraft, boats, and                                                    (RDD).
vehicles. They can be used as a liquid to   If you are caught in or near a
create a hazard to people and the                                                       Terrorist use of an RDD—often called
                                            contaminated area, you should:              ―dirty nuke‖ or ―dirty bomb‖—is
environment. Some chemical agents           • Move away immediately in a direction
may be odorless and tasteless. They can                                                 considered far more likely than use of a
                                            upwind of the source.                       nuclear explosive device. An RDD

3 February 2007                                                                                               Page 74
APPENDIX B. Emergency Checklists—Before, During and After
combines a conventional explosive           not be known until trained personnel        After an RDD Event. After finding
device—such as a bomb—with                  with specialized equipment are on the       safe shelter, those who may have been
radioactive material. It is designed to     scene. Whether you are indoors or           exposed to radioactive material should
scatter dangerous and sub-lethal            outdoors, home or at work, be extra         decontaminate themselves. To do this,
amounts of radioactive material over a      cautious. It would be safer to assume       remove and bag your clothing (and
general area. Such RDDs appeal to           radiological contamination has              isolate the bag away from you and
terrorists because they require limited     occurred—particularly in an urban           others), and shower thoroughly with
technical knowledge to build and            setting or near other likely terrorist      soap and water. Seek medical attention
deploy compared to a nuclear device.        targets—and take the proper                 after officials indicate it is safe to leave
Also, the radioactive materials in RDDs     precautions. As with any radiation, you     shelter. Contamination from an RDD
are widely used in medicine,                want to avoid or limit exposure. This is    event could affect a wide area,
agriculture, industry, and research, and    particularly true of inhaling radioactive   depending on the amount of
are easier to obtain than weapons grade     dust that results from the explosion. As    conventional explosives used, the
uranium or plutonium.                       you seek shelter from any location          quantity and type of radioactive
                                            (indoors or outdoors) and there is visual   material released, and meteorological
The primary purpose of terrorist use of     dust or other contaminants in the air,      conditions. Thus, radiation dissipation
an RDD is to cause psychological fear       breathe though the cloth of your shirt or   rates vary, but radiation from an RDD
and economic disruption. Some devices       coat to limit your exposure. If you         will likely take longer to dissipate due
could cause fatalities from exposure to     manage to avoid breathing radioactive       to a potentially larger localized
radioactive materials. Depending on the     dust, your proximity to the radioactive     concentration of radioactive material.
speed at which the area of the RDD          particles may still result in some
detonation was evacuated or how             radiation exposure.                         Follow these additional guidelines after
successful people were at sheltering-in-    Radiological Dispersion Devices (RDD)       an RDD event:
place, the number of deaths and injuries                                                • Continue listening to your radio or
from an RDD might not be substantially      If the explosion or radiological release    watch the television for instructions
greater than from a conventional bomb       occurs inside, get out immediately and      from local officials, whether you have
explosion.                                  seek safe shelter. Otherwise, if you are:   evacuated or sheltered-in-place.
                                                                                        • Do not return to or visit an RDD
The size of the affected area and the       • Listen for official instructions and
                                                                                            Outdoors     Indoors
level of destruction caused by an RDD       follow directions.
would depend on the sophistication and      • If you have time, turn off ventilation        Seek shelter If appropriate
size of the conventional bomb, the type     and heating systems, close windows,             indoors      shelter is not
of radioactive material used, the quality   vents, fireplace dampers, exhaust fans,         immediately  available, move
and quantity of the radioactive material,   and clothes dryer vents. Retrieve your          in the       as rapidly as is
and the local meteorological                disaster supplies kit and a battery-            nearest      safe upwind and
conditions—primarily wind and               powered radio and take them to your             undamaged    away from the
precipitation. The area affected could be   shelter room.                                   building.    location of the
placed off-limits to the public for         • Seek shelter immediately, preferably                       explosive blast.
several months during cleanup efforts.      underground or in an interior room of a                      Then, seek
                                            building, placing as much distance and                       appropriate
Before an RDD Event. There is no            dense shielding as possible between you                      shelter as soon
way of knowing how much warning             and the outdoors where the radioactive                       as possible.
time there will be before an attack by      material may be.                            incident location for any reason.
terrorists using an RDD, so being           • Seal windows and external doors that
prepared in advance and knowing what        do not fit snugly with duct tape to         • Follow the instructions for recovering
to do and when is important. Take the       reduce infiltration of radioactive          from a disaster in Appendix A.1.P
same protective measures you would for      particles. Plastic sheeting will not        above.
fallout resulting from a nuclear blast.     provide shielding from radioactivity nor
                                            from blast effects of a nearby explosion.
During an RDD Event. While the              • Listen for official instructions and
explosive blast will be immediately         follow directions.                          .
obvious, the presence of radiation will

3 February 2007                                                                                                  Page 75
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure

APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and Communications Structure

1. Emergency Communications Structure and Equipment
If telephonic and cell phone communications are not available (due to a catastrophe, etc.),
it is important that organization leaders still be able to communicate with members, their
leadership, and with emergency responders. To this end, it is recommended that
members be organized for the worst case scenario--neighbors (within walking distance—
not more than a mile or so apart) be able to communicate with each other via short range
radio or by physically driving, riding or walking to check the status of a neighbor. One
individual (with alternates) in each neighborhood group should be designated the
―Neighborhood Leader‖ and have responsibility of determining the status of all members
(or others) in the neighborhood, then report it up their organizational chain—to the Zone
Leader, the Zone Leader to the District Leader, then to the the Organization’s
Community Leader’s Emergency Response Communications Coordinator, then to the
Stake, etc. The Neighborhood Leader would be in communication with his neighborhood
throughout the emergency situation to determine the status of all—see figure C.1.

         Figure C.1. Basic County District Level Citizen
     Preparedness Organization / Communications Structure

                                                                    Ham-                            Ham
                           County                                                                         Responder
                                                                 ARES/RACES                               Medical, Fire, Law
                                                                  Emergency Operators                     Enforcement, EMD

                                                              MURS,                               Ham
                 County Districts                             CB            Ham

                                                                 Leader 1
                            HAM, GMRS, MURS, CB                                     Leader

                                       Neighbor     Neighbor     Neighbor     Neighbor       Neighbor
                                       Leader 1     Leader 2     Leader 3     Leader 4       Leader 5
           HAM, FRS, MURS, CB

                  Family      Family   Family        Family       Family
                    1           2        3             4            5

     Emergency communications as required from indicated level to ARES/RACES
     Inter-organizational Communications         CERT to CERT / Responders

If all forms of communications were out, the neighborhood leader and/or designated
runners would walk or drive to neighbors’ residences to determine their status and then

3 February 2007                                                                                                                Page 76
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
report back. The next level(s) encompass the local community—possibly up to county
size (Organization size in SC). For life threatening emergencies, a zone leader
(responsible for 2 to 10 neighborhoods or others at the neighborhood level) would report
the emergency to the Amateur Radio Emergency Service or Radio Civil Amateur
Emergency Service (ARES/RACES) who would report life threatening or significant
property damage emergencies to the appropriate Emergency Responder Organization.
Another alternative for the zone leader would be to look to Community Emergency
Response Team (CERT) leaders (those trained by the Organization and also other
organizations) to address the emergency with local resources. CERTs would also
communicate with emergency management organizations (State or County Emergency
Operations Centers) to apprise them of status and needed resources (See Appendix C.4
for details on CERT organizational structure, and response documentation). In addition,
emergency calls will be made to appropriate organization leaders as applicable.

For radio communications, where member or ―neighbor‖ density is greater than about 20
people / square mile (range of radio about .25 to .5 miles), Family Radio Service radios--
which are cheap, don’t require a license, and eliminate interference problems--would be
an appropriate vehicle (see Table 1). FRS would be appropriate for many Organization
members in major metropolitan areas; because there, members are much more densely
packed. In such situations, neighbors would talk on FRS radios and report to their
neighborhood leader who could talk to them using a more powerful, and licensed General
Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) radio. The leader would pass reports up to the Zone
Leader using a GMRS radio—and from there the Zone Leader would transmit using a
HAM radio (if necessary—otherwise a GMRS could be used).

To eliminate interference in heavily congested areas the low power FRS radios are ideal--
.5 Watt output power and ¼ to ¾ mile range. If MURS or Citizen Band (CB) or HAM
radios were used to communicate with near neighbors, since they typically have a greater
range, the overlap of interfering signals could be very large. In densely populated areas,
the FRS might experience similar problems, which could be partly eliminated by use of
different channels in adjoining neighborhoods. Neighbors using low power settings on
any radio (HAM, CB, MURS, etc.) would ameliorate the overlap problem; however, this
would require a very disciplined and knowledgeable populace.

FRS radios have 14 channels, CB Radios have 40 channels, MURS have 5 channels, and
HAM radios have 10s of thousands of channels. Neighbors and the neighborhood leader
should get together and determine which radio system they will use, and which families
will talk on which channels, and which channel will be used for communications with the
neighborhood leader—as well as up the chain to the zone leader (See section 3 in this
appendix for channel communication plans). NOTE: On 23 Feb 2007, the HAM code
test requirement was waived, making HAM radio a more desirable option for all.
All status reports would be passed up the organization’s organizational chain (using the
ERC system if phones are out—explained shortly) to stake, SE Region, area, and to
organization leaders in Utah—they will provide assistance as soon as possible. The
―stake or regional leaders‖ also report the overall status of the organization’s members to

3 February 2007                                                                    Page 77
   APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
   Communications Structure
   ARES/RACES. ARES/RACES would contact appropriate State emergency management
   / responder systems designated representative(s), and receive appropriate instructions—
   which they could then relay to organization representatives at the region or stake level,
   and thus back down to members. This organizational structure is depicted for the state of
   South Carolina in figure 2.

                 Figure C.2. Community Preparedness Organization /
                      Comms. for 1,000,000 Families—All of SC
            Below the regional level, only immediate life threatening emergency messages are passed by leaders at the lowest
                            level directly to ARES/RACES or from CERT leaders to Emergency Responders.

                                 Leader                                  Ham
                                                  Ham                                                       Ham-                            Ham
                                   Ham                                                                                                                            Responder
                                                                                        Ham                                                                       Medical, Fire, Law
                                                                                                            Emergency Operators                                   Enforcement, EMD
           SC Region 1                                      SC Region
            Leader 1                                        Leader 10

  Community               Community                         Community                                             GMRS,
   (County)                Leader 2                          Leader 10                                                                               Ham
   Leader 1

                       Ham                                                                                         CB
            District              District                   District
           Leader 1              Leader 2                   Leader 10

                                                                         Ham CERT                                                           CERT                       Zone
                                                              Leader 1              Leader                                                  Leader         Ham       Leader 10

                                                                         HAM, GMRS, MURS,CB                           HAM, GMRS, MURS,CB
                                      Leader 1
                                                 Leader 2
                                                              Leader 3
                                                                             Leader 4   …   Neighbor
                                                                                            Leader 10
                                                                                                                                          Leader 1
                                                                                                                                                       Leader 2
                                                                                                                                                                     Leader 3
                                                                                                                                                                                 Leader 4  …   Neighbor
                                                                                                                                                                                               Leader 10
                                                                                    …                   HAM, FRS, MURS, CB

                                                                6        …     Family
                                                                                                                                                          5               …

             Emergency communications from community to ARES/RACES/CERT
             Inter-organizational Communications       CERT to CERT / Responders

   The minimum number of families in each neighborhood group is two, the maximum is
   ten, and the optimum is five (5). The same applies for each successive level of the
   organizational structure (i.e. in each district the minimum number of zones is two, the
   maximum is ten, the optimum is 5). The organizational structure above would allow the
   organization to address the needs of all South Carolina residents. Multiple organizations
   (other organizationes, civic groups like the Salvation Army, etc.) would allow for smaller
   groups at each level. In the event the above system to include communications does not
   serve a family, the proposed National SOS communications plan using Family Radio
   Service (FRS) radios may be a viable alternative. That citizens may help each other in
   times of disaster or emergency, free of concern about litigation, is addressed in the
   ―Volunteer Protection Act of 1997.‖

   3 February 2007                                                                                                                                                       Page 78
              APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
              Communications Structure
              Table 1 below recommends radio equipment based on the radio’s capabilities (range,
              repeater availability, channels available, etc.), cost, and the probable user.4

            TABLE C.1: Communications Equipment, Range, Cost, and Probable Users
Probable User:    Radio*                           Range                    Cost
Families in
HAM               See Ham radio description below  See below                See below

MURS                     Multi Use Radio Service (MURS)- From ½ to 6 miles                                 $100 to $500 /
                         2 Watt max, 151-154MHz or 2     using handheld; No                                radio (no license
                         meters                          repeaters                                         required)

CB.                    Citizen Band (CB) Radio—5 Watt                    About 1 - 10 miles                $40 to $500 / radio
Interference?          typical. 40 channels; channel 9 is                depending on foliage.             (no license required
                       emergency; 27 Mhz –11 meters                      No repeaters                      for CB)
---------------------- ------------------------------------------        ----------------------------      ------------------------
FRS                    Family Radio Service (FRS)—.5                     About ¼ to ¾ of a mile            $10 to $80 for FRS
                       Watt limit; 14 channels (1-7 for                  for FRS                           / radio--no license
                       emergency use; 8-14 for                                                             required for FRS
                       neighborhood traffic);

GMRS                     General Mobile Radio Service                    2 to 3 miles for GMRS             $20 to $300 for
                         (GMRS)—2 to 5 Watt typical. 15                  2, 5 Watt system –                GMRS--license fee
                         channels (7 overlap with FRS—                   through normal SC                 of $80 required for
                         460MHz range; channel 2                         terrain / foliage. Avoid          GMRS for a 5 year
                         FRS/GMRS used to relay                          repeater use for reports          license. No test
                         emergency messages between                      to neighborhood leader.           required
                         neighbors and leaders; channel 8
                         to RACES). Up to 50 Watt
                         possible ($1000+)

                For the rural setting in much of Kershaw County—due to the large distances between organization members—often
              several miles, it is recommended that members in neighborhoods, neighborhood leaders and zone leaders purchase
              either CB, GMRS, Multi Use Radio Service (MURS), or HAM radios depending on signal congestion. Before deciding
              to purchase radios, check the airways to assess local use—sometimes it is quite heavy near major cities or highways
              and interstates. It is recommended that Zone Leaders, District Leaders and others purchase HAM radios and obtain
              appropriate licenses. HAM radios can monitor GMRS, FRS, MURS or CB channels, but to converse with those using
              these radios, the Zone Leader will need the radio the ―neighborhood‖ is using. In the city, or smaller neighborhoods
              FRS / GMRS radios could be considered. The most powerful and reliable system overall, if operated in a disciplined
              fashion, would be composed of all HAM radios. Careful consideration would need to be given to which frequency
              band the organization would use. The licensing cost and the 35 question test for HAM operations might discourage
              some people. This would all need to be considered when determining which kind of radios to purchase for
              neighborhoods and leaders.

              3 February 2007                                                                                           Page 79
              APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
              Communications Structure

Probable User:                 Radio                          Range                         Cost

Neighborhood Leader

HAM                            Same as HAM below              Same as HAM below             Same as HAM below

MURS. Interference?            Multi Use Radio                See as MURS above             Same as MURS
                               Service (MURS).                                              above

CB. Interference?              Citizen Band (CB)              About 1 - 10 or miles         Same as CB above
                               Radio                          depending on foliage.
----------------------------   ----------------------------   ---------------------------   -------------------------
Receive FRS or GMRS            GMRS-2 to 5 Watts to           2 to several miles for        $50 to $3000. $80
calls (GMRS)                   50 Watt limit                  handheld—if repeater no       license required
Zone/District leader

HAM (Will monitor              Amateur Radio                  For handheld 2 meter          About $100 to $3000
GMRS, MURS, or CB              (HAM)--5 Watt                  wavelength--about 3 or        / radio. FCC license
frequency as                   typical; 1500 Watt limit       more miles through normal     required. Entry
appropriate)                   in US. Different types         SC foliage. If repeater in    license--$10, must
                               of licenses                    range you will get            pass test, no Morse
                                                              nationwide coverage.          code requirement.
                                                              Vehicle mounted antenna
                                                              10 to 100 miles. Longer
                                                              wavelengths will permit
                                                              conversations statewide,
                                                              nationwide or worldwide
                                                              without repeaters.
Regional leader
State Leader

HAM                            Same as above                  Same as above                 Same as above

Radio Amateur Civil
Emergency Services
(RACES); Amateur               Same as above                  Same as above                 Same as above
Radio Emergency
Service (ARES)
Emergency                      On emergency HAM
Responder                      band or 800 MHz
              *Midland and Cobra brand FRS and GMRS recommended as best quality; MURS, CB, HAM – Yaesu,
              ICOM, Motorola recommended as best quality

              3 February 2007                                                                            Page 80
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
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2. Emergency Response Radio System
ERCS is the acronym for the ―Emergency Response Communications System‖. This
Amateur Radio communications network has been organized under the direction of the
LDS Organization Welfare Department to provide a means of reporting the critical
information necessary to provide members and their families the needed emergency
assistance in times of local, regional or national disaster. It is a specialized and dedicated
network for Priesthood communications. The ERCS network is staffed by skilled and
licensed Amateur radio operators, called and set apart by the appropriate authority, at
each level of the network. For questions about procedures for amateur radio equipment
use or frequencies, contact Emergency Response Communications at 1-801-240-3870 or
1-801-240-3494 or 1-800-453-3860.

                          Figure C.3.
               Emergency Response Communications


                                                                                                                           Church HQ




















                                                C S












           Ward ERC

The title given to these communicators is [Unit designation] ERCS Communication
Coordinator. At the Organization level the the Organization’s Community Leader extends
the call to the Organization ERCS Communication Coordinator. At the Stake level the
Stake President extends the call to the Stake ERCS Communication Coordinator. Each
ERCS Communication Coordinator works directly with the associated unit leader at the
level he/she is called to. Thus, at the Organization level, the callings full title is
―Organization ERCS Communication Coordinator‖ and he/she is in essence the the
Organization’s Community Leaders telephone during an emergency when no telephone
service is available. The Diagram to the above will aid you in understanding the structure
of the ERCS.

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
In an actual emergency, when the telephone system is no longer operational or useable,
the ERCS is activated. Each ERCS Communication Coordinator, after securing the
immediate welfare of his/her family, reports to a predetermined location and checks into
the ERCS net as specified by net operating procedures. All emergency as well as
assistance and health and welfare messages from the unit leader are then given a priority
and entered in to a standard message format by the ERCS Communication Coordinator
and transmitted to the next higher level in the network following standard net message
handling protocol. Depending on the severity of the emergency and the priority of the
messages, the messages flow through the network to the appropriate level (Stake,
Regional Storehouse, Area Storehouse and Organization Headquarters in Salt Lake City)
where the needed emergency response is determined and the necessary action taken. See
the gray Supplement to the Welfare Manual, page 14 under the Leadership and Reporting
section for a list of information unit leaders will need to be prepared to report. Some
messages may only require acknowledgement as the response. This acknowledgement (or
any other verbal response) will be sent back through the network to the appropriate unit
ERCS Communication Coordinator originating the message. The ERCS Communication
Coordinator will then relay the response message to the unit leader. All ERCS
Communication Coordinators activated in the emergency will staff their respective posts
until released by the Net Control Operator for their respective net.

In order for the ERCS network to function effectively in time of emergency, there must
be a trained ERCS Communication Coordinator at each level. The Region ERCS
Communication Coordinator establishes training for the Stake ERCS Communication
Coordinators in their region. Stake ERCS Communication Coordinators establish training
for Organization ERCS Communication Coordinators in their Stakes. Training at each
level is patterned after the training at the Area (Storehouse) level. Since this program is
relatively new, many ERCS Communication Coordinator positions remain to be filled,
especially at the Organization level. It is important that these positions be filled as soon
as possible in order for the needed training to take place prior to an emergency.

The type of communication and organization structure needed for organization members
has not been directed by Authorities in Salt Lake. The previously presented plan does
this for our organization. It also shows members how to obtain help from local
emergency responders in the community.

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure

3. Tutorial on Citizen Radio Systems & Channel Plans
Amateur Radio (HAM)
Amateur radio (sometimes called HAM radio) is one of the most versatile options
available to private citizens. It provides tens of thousands of channels for local
communications and thousands more for long distance communications. Using hand held
amateur radios it is possible to communicate hundreds of miles using linked repeater
systems. There are also satellites, amateur television, data networks, and many more
facilities. Hams also volunteer to help community and public safety agencies—as in
ARES/RACES mentioned above. HAM radios using longer wavelengths can
communicate all over the earth. If HAM radios are chosen, the desired wavelength will
need to be selected, which will drive the particular radios to be purchased and the
associated channel plans. The two-meter wavelength band may be the best for
Organization use. For Stake or regional use, the 80 meter band may be more appropriate
(80 meters is currently the band of choice for the Atlanta Storehouse Regional Level).
Cheaper radios provide communications via one wavelength band, whereas more
expensive system allow communications on all HAM wavelength bands.

Local repeaters also have what are called ―autopatch‖ systems, or a telephone
interconnection which allows the amateur radio operator to make telephone calls over the
radio. These repeaters are available to all licensed amateurs. Most repeaters welcome
visitors, but it is common to join with the group which runs the repeater(s), that you most
commonly use, to help defray costs via annual dues (usually $10 or $20/year).
The license to operate these radios does require that you pass a test, but as of 23 Feb
2007, all licenses have been made available with no requirement to know Morse code.
The test is 35 questions long, in two parts and costs $10—The license is aorganizationed
after passing the test. The questions are published so that a student can study the exact
questions that will be asked. Classes are frequently taught to help with this test

Multi-Use Radio Service
MURS (Multi-Use Radio Service) is a private, two-way, short-distance voice or data
communications service for personal or business activities of the general public. It is not
available for the transmission of images. MURS is the only "VHF Citizens Band" in the
United States available for general two-way voice and data communications. It requires
no license at the 2 Watt setting. MURS is one of five Citizens Band Radio Services. (See
95.401.) The others are the (original) Citizens Band Radio Service at 27 MHz, the Low
Power Radio Service (LPRS) at 216-217 MHz, the Medical Implant Communications
Service (MICS), the Family Radio Service (FRS) at 460 MHz, and the Wireless Medical
Telemetry Service (WMTS).

MURS’ Channels (MHz):
    1. 151.820,
    2. 151.880,
    3. 151.940,

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
        4. 154.570,
        5. 154.600

Below is a suggested ―channel plan‖ for neighborhood communications for MURS
radios. A "channel plan" is developed to streamline and limit the amount of
communications for each purpose, based on using 1-2 channels, thus leaving (or
coordinating) channels for use by adjacent neighborhoods for their own communications.

Channel   Use                                                               Frequency
                                                                            in MHZ
1         Primary Emergency Channel for Member Communication to             151.820
          Neighborhood Leader
2         Secondary Emergency Message Channel - Assigned to one side        151.880
          of the neighborhood that is close to another neighborhood using
          Channel 1 as their primary Emergency channel. This should only
          be used when one cannot reach their primary neighborhood
3         Tertiary Emergency Message Channel - Assigned to the other        151.940
          side of the neighborhood that is close to another neighborhood
          using Channel 2 as their primary Emergency channel. This
          should only be used when one cannot reach their primary
          neighborhood leader(s).
4         Primary Communication Channel for Neighborhood Leader             154.570
          Communication to Zone Leader
5         Inter-neighborhood Communications                                 154.600

In general:

       MURS permits the use of a variety of emission modes, but the most common is
        analog voice using FM modulation. Data communications are permitted, but the
        FCC prohibits image transmissions. [95.401]
       Very narrow bandwidth transmissions (maximum 11.25 KHz channel bandwidth,
        with +/- 2.5 KHz deviation) are permissible on all five MURS channels. The older
        +/- 5 KHz deviation signals (with a maximum 20 KHz channel bandwidth) are
        also permitted (but not required) on the two upper channels (in the 154 MHz
        band). [95.631]
       The FCC prohibits continuous transmissions in any mode except by
        "grandfathered" (former Part 90) business-type licensees. [95.631(j)]
       The maximum permissible Transmitter Power Output (TPO) is 2 Watts. There is
        no limit on antenna gain. [95.639(h)]
       MURS is intended for short-range local communications. Antenna height is
        limited to 20 feet above structure or 60 feet above ground, whichever is the
        greater. [95.1315]

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
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      Repeaters (stations that retransmit simultaneously) and store-and-fororganization
       packet stations are not allowed. [95.1311]
      No license is needed. MURS is available for unlicensed business or personal use
       as described in this discussion. [95.1301]
      You do not need to identify your MURS station by any particular callsign or other
       designation. [95.1305]

Radios suitable for use on the MURS channels are now available from dozens of different
manufacturers, and are sold by several online companies and by consumers electronics
store chains

MURS Range:

At the 150 MHz frequencies of MURS, communications range is dependent on antenna
height relative to the surrounding environment. Range between two handheld MURS
radios will vary, but should be between a half mile to perhaps several miles (in open
terrain with no obstacles). If you are using the radios inside a vehicle, the range will be
somewhat less.

An advantage of MURS is that you may connect an external antenna to your radio. Using
an antenna mounted on the vehicle's roof, and communicating with another similar unit,
you should expect to get at least a couple of miles (except in the most harsh conditions),
and possibly up to ten miles or more.

Using a base station-type antenna, you should be able to communicate with a vehicular-
type MURS unit described in the previous paragraph over a range of three to perhaps
ten or fifteen miles. From that same base station, you might get two to six miles
communicating with a MURS handheld radio.

Base-to-base station communications should be possible over at least several miles,
perhaps up to twenty miles or more on a clear channel. However, this kind of operation
is not consistent with the traditional use of these frequencies for short-range base-to-
mobile and mobile-to-mobile communications.

There are other factors that affect communications range. An especially important
consideration is channel occupancy. In most urban areas, some MURS frequencies
(especially the two MURS 154 MHz frequencies) are already heavily populated with
handheld and mobile operations, and (on some channels) base stations as well.

MURS compared with other unlicensed and personal radio services

Compared with FRS (Family Radio Service) at 460 MHz:

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
      MURS (at 150 MHz) permits four times more power (2 Watts TPO instead the
       0.500 Watts ERP limit for FRS).
      At MURS frequencies, signals bend over hills better, but FRS signals are better at
       bouncing off of surfaces and penetrating into/escaping out of buildings.
      You may connect a MURS radio to an external or exterior antenna. FRS radios
       must employ a non-detachable antenna. For vehicle-to-vehicle operation with
       external (roof-mount) antennas, MURS should provide three to ten (or more)
       times the range possible with FRS radios.

Compared with GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) at 460 MHz:

      GMRS handheld radios have typically two to five watts transmitter power. GMRS
       vehicular units transmit typically with ten to 50 watts. There is no limit on the
       ERP of GMRS stations operating on the primary channels. GMRS stations may
       transmit with no more the 5 Watts ERP on the seven "interstitial" frequencies
       (those shared with the FRS).
      GMRS operation requires an FCC license.
      At MURS frequencies, signals bend over hills better, but GMRS signals are better
       at bouncing off of surfaces and penetrating into/escaping out of buildings.
      For vehicle-to-vehicle operation with external (roof-mount) antennas, MURS
       should provide one-and-a-half to four times the range possible with GMRS
       handheld radios also connected to roof-mount antennas. Depending on the
       surrounding terrain, MURS units connected to roof-mounted antennas might even
       outperform full-power (50 watt) GMRS mobile units, although the GMRS units
       should have a greater range in open terrain.
      Many GMRS radios can communicate through repeater stations for extended
       range (typically up to twenty miles or more, sometimes much more). The new
       FCC Rules will prohibit repeaters in MURS.

Compared with CB (Citizens Band Radio) at 27 MHz:

      CB radios may transmit with more power than MURS units may, but
       communications range is highly dependent on channel congestion and
       atmospheric conditions. CB communications can also be significantly degraded
       by noise from vehicle ignition systems and from other man-made sources.
      CB signals bend over hills and around obstacles much better than MURS (at 150
       MHz) or FRS/GMRS (at 460 MHz) signals.
      Vehicle-to-vehicle MURS communications will probably be comparable and
       possibly quite superior to that available in the CB service.
      MURS communications will not suffer from the kind of long-range "skip"
       interference frequently encountered on CB radio at 27 MHz.

How much does a MURS radio cost?

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
The typical price for equipment currently available is $100 to $500. We expect prices to
drop if equipment manufacturers go into mass production of MURS-certificated radio

When and where can I get MURS radios?

Radios suitable and permissible for use in MURS are available now from many mail-
order and on-line radio dealers and retailers. More models are expected in the near future.

However, a problem that you may encounter is that some of these current and older
models may still be labeled as requiring an FCC license. Some models also include an
operating capability on nearby but non-MURS frequencies. (Authority to operate on
those non-MURS frequencies does require an FCC license!)

To determine if a particular radio is permissible to use as a MURS station, you will need
to verify

     1) that it is certificated specifically and exclusively for MURS use under the new
        FCC Rules;


        that it is currently certificated (type-approved) for Part 90 operation, and was
         certificated for this use prior to November 12, 2002;
        that the frequency(ies) on which it will operate are authorized in the MURS;
        that its transmitter power output (TPO) does not exceed a maximum 2 Watts, and
         that the radio has no provision for increasing its TPO above that limit [95.649];
        that the maximum deviation is not greater than +/- 2.5 KHz (or +/- 5.0 KHz and it
         transmits only on the two MURS 154 MHz frequencies); and
        that the transmitter maximum bandwidth does not exceed 11.25 KHz on the three
         151 MHz MURS frequencies, or 20.0 KHz on the two 154 MHz MURS

Citizens Band Radio Service
The Citizens Band Radio Service (CB) is a private, two-way, short-distance voice
communications service for personal or business activities. The CB Radio Service may
also be used for voice paging. One of the nice things about CB Radio is that you do not
need a license to use one. Channel 9 is the Emergency Assistance Frequency- however
you may use any channel to ask for emergency assistance. The 40 CB channels begin at
frequency 26.965 and increase by increments of about .01 MHz up to a frequency of
27.405 (except for the exclusion of a few increments). See breakout in table below:

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure

Channel       Use                                       Frequency
                                                        in MHZ
1                                                       26.965
2                                                       26.975
3             Unofficial Marine Channel                 26.985
4             Camden North 1                            27.005
5             Camden North 2                            27.015
6             Camden North 3                            27.025
7             Camden South 1                            27.035
8             Camden South 2                            27.055
9             Emergency/Traveler Assistance             27.065
10            Camden South 3                            27.075
11            Formerly the Official Calling Channel     27.085
12            Lugoff North 1                            27.015
13            Unofficial Marine Channel                 27.115
14            Common Walkie-Talkie Channel              27.125
15            Lugoff North 2                            27.135
16            Old SSB Channel (23 channel days)         27.155
17            Lugoff North 3                            27.165
18            Old SSB Channel (23 channel days)         27.185
19            Truckers/Highway Channel                  27.185
20            Lugoff South 1                            27.205
21            Lugoff South 2                            27.215
22            Lugoff South 3                            27.225
23            Shared with Remote Control Devices        27.255
24            Elgin North 1                             27.235
25            Elgin North 2                             27.245
26            Elgin North 3                             27.265
27            Elgin South 1                             27.275
28            Elgin South 2                             27.285
29            Elgin South 3                             27.295
30            Bethune-Cassatt-Kershaw 1                 27.305
31            Bethune-Cassatt-Kershaw 2                 27.315
32                                                      27.325
33                                                      27.335
34                                                      27.345
35            SSB Channel (Regional)                    27.355
36            SSB Channel (Regional)                    27.365
37            SSB Channel (Regional)                    27.375
38            SSB Channel (Regional)                    27.385
39            SSB Channel (Regional)                    27.395
40            SSB Channel (Regional)                    27.405

· Common SSB channels by informal agreement. All modes (AM & SSB) are permitted on any
· On January 1, 1977, the FCC expanded the Citizen Band from 23 to 40 channels.
· Maximum RF Output Power - 4 watts Amplitude Modulation - 12 watts peak

3 February 2007                                                                 Page 88
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
envelope power Single Side Band are used in sets. To speak to others they must have a similar
radio or have their radio set to the frequency you are broadcasting on.

Family Radio Service
The Family Radio Service (FRS) is a private, two-way, very short-distance voice
communications service for facilitating family and group activities. FRS is the first and
only "UHF CB" in the United States. FRS is one of eight Citizens Band Radio Services.
FRS channel 1 is monitored by emergency responders in some localities during
emergencies as part of the Nationwide SOS system. What are the FRS
channels/frequencies? Channel (Frequency in MHz): 1. (462.5625), 2. (462.5875), 3.
(462.6125), 4. (462.6375), 5. (462.6625), 6. (462.6875), 7. (462.7125), 8. (467.5625), 9.
(467.5875), 10. (467.6125), 11. (467.6375), 12. (467.6625), 13. (467.6875), 14.

The General Mobile Radio Service
GMRS: The General Mobile Radio Service (formerly known as Class A of the Citizens
Radio Service) is a personal radio service available for the conduct of an individual's
personal and family communications. It requires a license and is regulated by Subpart A
of Part 95 of the FCC Rules and Regulations. GMRS uses commercial grade, UHF-FM
radios identical to those used by public safety agencies, businesses, and other
governmental, commercial and industrial licensees in the Private Land Mobile Radio
Services. Only those radios that have been type-certified by the FCC for use in the GMRS
may be used in this service. Most radios intended for use in the nearby Amateur Radio
band (420-450 MHz) and some older (especially tube-type) commercial radios are not
permissible to use. Otherwise, some UHF-FM radios currently type certified for Part 90
use in the 450-470 MHz band which do not exceed 50 watts transmitter output power,
and which do not include capabilities not permissible for use in GMRS, are also type
certified for use in the GMRS. GMRS radios use repeater stations. A repeater station is a
special kind of base station that receives signals on one frequency (in the 467 MHz band),
and automatically (and usually, nearly simultaneously) retransmits that signal on another
frequency (in the 462 MHz band). A conventional base station can also be set up as a
repeater by receiving a signal in the 462 MHz band, and then retransmitting that same
signal after a slight delay on the same frequency. This requires attaching an inexpensive
"store-and-fororganization" device to the base station, but also requires using another
device to shut the station off if it is operated from a remote location. Repeater stations are
often located on tall buildings or towers, or on hilltops, in order to extend the range for
mobile communications.
The GMRS is comprised of twenty-three individual frequencies, organized into two
groups: the "regular" or "primary" channel pairs (frequency pairs) shown in Table 1, and
the "split" or "interstitial" frequencies shown in Table 2. GMRS radios must be
programmed for each channel position (if there is more than just a single channel). The
"Channel Position 1" on one radio can refer to an entirely different transmit/receive
frequency combination than the "Channel Position 1" on another radio. For this reason,
most GMRS licensees use the "designators" shown in Tables 1 and 2, rather than a
channel letter or number.

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
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                  Designator    Lower Frequency     Upper Frequency

                  "550"         462.550 MHz         467.550 MHz

                  "575"         462.575 MHz         467.575 MHz

                  "600"         462.600 MHz         467.600 MHz

                  "625"         462.625 MHz         467.625 MHz

                  "650"         462.650 MHz         467.650 MHz

                  "675"         462.675 MHz         467.675 MHz

                  "700"         462.700 MHz         467.700 MHz

                  "725"         462.725 MHz         467.725 MHz

                  Table 1.
                  The "Regular" GMRS Channel Pairs.

                          Designator           Frequency

                          "5625" or "FRS 1"    462.5625 MHz

                          "5875" or "FRS 2"    462.5875 MHz

                          "6125" or "FRS 3"    462.6125 MHz

                          "6375" or "FRS 4"    462.6375 MHz

                          "6625" or "FRS 5"    462.6625 MHz

                          "6875" or "FRS 6"    462.6875 MHz

                          "7125" or "FRS 7"    462.7125 MHz

                          Table 2.
                          The GMRS "Split" Frequencies.
                          [NOTE: The "split" frequencies in
                          the 467 MHz band are not
                          available for GMRS use.]

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
FRS Channel Plan

Below is a suggested ―channel plan‖ for neighborhood communications for FRS

A "channel plan" is developed to streamline and limit the amount of communications for
each purpose, based on using 3-4 channels, thus leaving (or coordinating) channels for
use by adjacent neighborhoods for their own communications.
Channel Use                                                                   Frequency
                                                                              in MhZ
   1      Emergency Channel
   2      Emergency messages to be relayed to the neighborhood leader, or
          designated communications leader (there should always be a
          backup leader designated in case the primary assignee is
   5      Secondary Emergency Message Channel - Assigned to one side of
          the neighborhood that is close to another neighborhood using
          Channel 5 as their primary Emergency channel. This should only
          be used when one cannot reach their primary neighborhood
   6      Secondary Emergency Message Channel - Assigned to the other
          side of the neighborhood that is close to another neighborhood
          using Channel 6 as their primary Emergency channel. This should
          only be used when one cannot reach their primary neighborhood
   8      Intra/Inter Family Communications
   9      Neighborhood light search and rescue efforts

  10      Evacuation/Relief/Health/Welfare efforts

Note that whenever possible, channels 1-7 should be used for Emergency
communications that are to be relayed. These channels are universally accessible by
General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS-See Appendix C), so can be accessed by each.
Channel 1 (FRS) should be further reserved as a 'General' emergency channel common to
all areas such that coordinators and/or other emergency services, agencies or
organizations entering a defined neighborhood area can receive information including the
main frequency (channel) assignments for that area. Other internal neighborhood

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
communications can be assigned channels 8-14.

Neighborhood Leaders should be equipped with General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS)
radios when possible. As indicated, these radios can communicate on the first 7 channels
of FRS radio, plus 8 additional frequencies. These radios have a farther effective range
(typically reliable to 2 miles in urban areas; ½ to 1 mile in heavily wooded areas; and
farther using repeater systems). Use of these should be limited so as not to cause undue
frequency congestion. The Neighborhood Leader will receive emergency messages on
channel 2 of their radio, and communicate it to their zone leader via GMRS (see figure

The designated neighborhood leader or emergency coordinator in the city would tune to
channel 2 on his FRS or GMRS to pick up messages from neighbors. He would relay the
neighborhood status via the GMRS to the next level in the chain (zone to district, to
organization, then stake, then regional level)—or directly to ARES or RACES receivers
via channel 8 depending on the plans previously agreed to by the community based
organization. ARES and RACES organization have agreed to tune to GMRS frequency 8
as a primary mode of collecting emergency messages from neighborhoods or
communities reporting using GMRS. Secondarily they will tune to GMRS/FRS channels
1 & 2.

Communication Power
No matter what form of communication equipment you use, they all use some type of
electrical power. Whether it is from a wall plug or small batteries you should prepare so
that in times of emergency you have adequate power to operate you equipment. If your
communications equipment runs off of 110 AC/DC, how are you going to run your
equipment in the case of a power failure? Does your equipment run off a battery? Do you
have backup batteries? Many people use solar power to run their radio equipment and
charge their batteries.

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APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
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4. CERT Organizational Structure & Forms

If available, emergency services personnel are the best trained and equipped to handle
emergencies, and you should use them. However, following a catastrophic disaster, you
and the community may be on your own for a period of time because of the size of the
area affected, lost communications, and unpassable roads.

CERT training is designed to prepare you to help yourself, your family, and your
neighbors in the event of a catastrophic disaster. Because emergency services personnel
will not be able to help everyone immediately, you can make a difference by using CERT
training and organizational structure referenced here to save lives and protect property.
For CERT training contact Bob Connell or

The training covers basic skills that are important to know in a disaster when emergency
services are not available. With training and practice and by working as a team, you will
be able to do the greatest good for the greatest number of victims after a disaster, while
protecting yourself from becoming a victim.

A. CERT Organization
Emergency on-scene management in a disaster situation is needed to:

   Maintain the safety of disaster workers. CERT Incident Commanders must continually
    prioritize response activities based on the team’s capability and training and the principle that
    rescuer safety is the number-one concern. CERT functional leadership assigns activities and
    accounts for team members. CERT team members work in the buddy system and respond
    based on their sizeup of the situations that they encounter.

   Provide clear leadership and organizational structure by developing a chain of command and
    roles that are known by all team members. Each CERT member has only one person that he
    or she takes direction from and responds to.

   Improve the effectiveness of rescue efforts. Disaster information is collected and responses
    are prioritized based on rescuer safety and doing the greatest good for the greatest number
    according to the team’s capabilities and training.

Need For CERT Organization

3 February 2007                                                                      Page 93
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
The specific CERT organizational structure now in use provides:

   Common terminology that contributes to effective communication and shared understanding.

   Effective communication among team members.

CERT Organization (Continued)
 A well-defined management structure (e.g., leadership, functional areas, reporting chain,
  working in teams).

   Accountability.

The CERT organization fulfills these requirements, and also has the advantage of:

   Common terminology that contributes to effective communication and shared understanding.

   Consolidated action plans that coordinate strategic goals, tactical objectives, and support

   Comprehensive resource management that facilitates application of available resources to the
    right incident in a timely manner.

   A manageable span of control that provides for a desirable rescuer/supervisor ratio of
    between three and seven rescuers per supervisor.

Objectives of CERT Organization

In a disaster situation, CERT organization:

   Identifies the scope of the incident. (What is the problem?)

   Determines an overall strategy. (What can we do, and how will we do it?)

   Deploys teams and resources. (Who is going to do what?)

   Documents actions and results.

CERT organizational framework is flexible, so that it can expand or contract depending on the
on-going assessment priorities determined by the IC, and people and resources available. This
expansion and contraction helps ensure rescuer safety, doing the greatest good for the greatest
number, manageable span of control and accountability of CERT members.

3 February 2007                                                                     Page 94
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure

Incident Command System

The Incident Command System (ICS) is the system used by fire, law enforcement, and other
emergency response agencies to manage emergency operations. When CERTs activate for their
neighborhood or workplace they become part of that system. CERTs interrelate with ICS:

     CERTs are part of ICS.

     All CERTs, through their Incident Commanders, report to the first fire or law enforcement
      official at their location and take directions from that person until told that the command
      system has changed, or until relieved.

The basic ICS structure is established by the person who arrives first to the scene, who becomes
the Incident Commander. Initially, the Incident Commander may handle all of the command
positions shown in the visual, but as the incident evolves, may assign personnel as the:

     Operations Section Chief.

     Logistics Section Chief.

     Planning Section Chief.

     Administration Section Chief.

                                              Incident Commander

       Operations                   Logistics                   Planning                 Administration
      Section Chief               Section Chief               Section Chief              Section Chief

                          ICS Command Function Organization Chart

    ICS Command Function Organization Chart, showing the Incident Commander at the top and the
      four Section Chiefs (i.e., Operations, Logistics, Planning, and Admin) reporting to the Incident

As the incident expands, it may be necessary to assign other personnel in each section to
handle specific aspects of the response while maintaining an effective span of control.

CERT Organization (Continued)

3 February 2007                                                                               Page 95
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
CERT Structure

The following points about CERT structure are important:

   Each CERT must establish a command structure.

   A CERT Leader—or, in ICS terms, Incident Commander—is appointed to direct team
    activities. For CERT volunteer activities and training, this person may be appointed.
    However, during activation for a disaster, this person is the first to arrive at a pre-designated
    staging area.

   The location established by the CERT Leader as the central point for command and control
    of the incident is called the Command Post for the CERT. The IC stays in the command
    post. If the IC has to leave, the responsibility of IC must be delegated to someone in the
    command post.

   The CERT Leader may appoint members to assist with managing resources, services, and
    supplies (logistics). CERT Leaders may also appoint members to collect and display
    information (planning/intelligence) and collect and compile documentation. To maintain
    span of control, this delegation occurs as the organization expands.

   The CERT may operate as a single team that performs all activities as required, or may be
    divided into smaller teams (under Operations) of at least three people to achieve specific
    goals developed by the IC (e.g., fire suppression, medical, search and rescue), with a leader
    for each.

   In all situations, each unit assigned must have an identified leader to supervise tasks being
    performed to account for team members, and to report information to his or her designated

CERT personnel should always be assigned to teams consisting of at least three persons:

   One person will serve as a runner and communicate with the Command Post.

   Two people will ―buddy up‖ to respond to the immediate needs.

The Logistics and Planning Sections may be expanded in the same way with:

   Logistics including Service and Support units.

   Planning including Situation and Status units.

3 February 2007                                                                       Page 96
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
CERT Organization (Continued)

                                           Operations Section

     Fire Suppression                      Search and Rescue                       Medical
      Group Leader                           Group Leader                        Group Leader

                                                      S&R                                 Triage
          Fire Suppression                           Team A                               Team
               Team A

                                                      S&R                               Treatment
          Fire Suppression                           Team B                               Team
               Team B

                                                      S&R                                Morgue
          Fire Suppression                           Team C                               Team
               Team C

           Staging Area

CERT Operations Section Structure

CERT Operations Section Structure, showing the Operations Section Chief at the top and the three
Group Leaders underneath (Fire Suppression, Search and Rescue, and Medical). Reporting to the
Fire Suppression Group Leader are all fire suppression teams and the Staging Area. Reporting to
 the Search and Rescue Team Leader are all search and rescue teams. Reporting to the Medical
        Group Leader are the Triage Team, the Treatment Team, and the Morgue Team.

3 February 2007                                                                         Page 97
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure

CERT Decision making
CERT Mobilization

CERT organization proceeds in the following way after an incident:

   Following the incident, CERT members take care of themselves, their families, their homes,
    and their neighbors.

   If the SOP calls for self-activation, CERT members proceed to the pre-designated staging
    area with their disaster supplies. Along the way, they make damage assessments that would
    be helpful for the CERT IC’s decision making.

   The first CERT member at the staging area becomes the initial IC for the response. As other
    CERT members arrive, the CERT IC may pass leadership to someone more qualified.
    Otherwise, the CERT IC develops the organization to ensure effective communication, to
    maintain span of control, maintain accountability, and do the greatest good for the greatest
    number without placing CERT members in harm’s way.

   As intelligence is collected and assessed (from CERT members reporting to the staging area,
    emergency volunteers, and reports from working teams [e.g., search and rescue] by the
    planning function, the IC must prioritize actions and work with the Section Chiefs or
    leaders). The CERT organization is flexible and evolves based on new information.

Following an incident, information—and, therefore, priorities—may be changing rapidly.
Communication between the IC and response teams ensures that CERTs do not overextend their
resources or supplies.

Rescuer Safety

Effective emergency scene management requires the formulation and communication of strategic
goals and tactical objectives that are based primarily on the safety of rescue personnel.

Rescuer safety is paramount. The question, ―Is it safe for the CERT members to attempt the
rescue?‖ is primary. The answer to this question is based mainly on the degree of damage to the

3 February 2007                                                                  Page 98
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure

CERT Decisionmaking (Continued)
CERT Rescue Efforts Based On Degree Of Damage

Degree Of Damage                                            Should Rescue Be Attempted?

Heavy                            No. Too dangerous to enter. Warn people to stay away.

Moderate                         Yes, but perform only quick and safe removals; limit onsite medical care to
                                 checking for breathing, stopping major bleeding, and treating for shock. Minimize
                                 the number of rescuers inside the building.

Light                            Yes. Locate, triage, and prioritize removal of victims to the designated treatment

Strategies For Damaged Structures

Light                                                 Moderate                                   Heavy

Superficial damage, broken               Visible signs of minor structural       Partial or total collapse of walls
windows, fallen plaster, major           damage; decorative work that is         and/or ceilings; obvious structural
damage is to contents of building        damaged or fallen; many visible         instability; tilting; off foundation;
                                         cracks in plaster; building still       heavy smoke or fire; gas leaks;
                                         attached to foundation; major           hazardous materials inside; rising
                                         damage is to contents of building       or moving water
1.   Secure building utilities (as       1.   Secure building utilities (gas,    1.   Communicate the location and
     needed).                                 electrical, water).                     extent of damage to emergency
2.   Establish and coordinate search     2.   Gather information (victim              services personnel.
     and rescue teams with medical            locations).                        2.   Secure building perimeter and
     triage personnel.                   3.   Establish control person at exit        warn untrained and well-
3.   Establish ―I‖ and ―D‖ treatment          and entry points.                       intentioned volunteers about
     areas.                              4.   Establish and coordinate two- to        danger and entry into building.
4.   Primary Mission: Locate, triage,         four-person rescue teams.          3.   From the exterior of the
     and prioritize removal of           5.   Primary Mission: Locate,                building, attempt to shut off gas
     victims to designated treatment          stabilize, and immediately              (if it is possible and safe to do
     area.                                    evacuate victims to a safe area         so).
5.   Continue evacuation process              while minimizing the number of     4.   Gather available information
     until all victims have been              rescuers inside the building.           from survivors or witnesses for
     removed and accounted for.          6.   Perform triage and other                professional rescue teams.
6.   Reassess structural stability and        medical care in a safe area.
     available resources for heavy       7.   Continue rescuing lightly
     rescue problems. Communicate             trapped victims until complete
     and document location of                 or no longer safe.
     trapped and/or missing persons      8.   Continue sizeup.
     to emergency personnel.             9.   Communicate and document the
                                              location of heavily trapped or
                                              deceased victims.

3 February 2007                                                                                     Page 99
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure
CERT Decisionmaking (Continued)
The extent of involvement for the various CERT functional teams varies depending on the level
of damage encountered.

       Light Damage

                Fire                        Search &               Medical                    Treatment
                                             Rescue                                             Area

          -Shut off utilities as needed   -Locate               -Triage again                -Triage
          -Document                       -Triage               -Head-to-toe in place        -Head-to-toe
                                          -Tag                  -Treatment in place          -Treatment
                                          -Continue             -Transport when necessary    -Document
                                          -Document             -Document

       Moderate Damage

                Fire                        Search &               Medical                    Treatment
                                             Rescue                                             Area

          -Shut off utilities             -Locate               -Triage again in safe zone   -Triage
          -Extinguish small fires to      -Stabilize (triage)   -Head-to-toe in safe zone    -Head-to-toe
           save lives                     -Evacuate             -Tag                         -Treatment
          -Document                       -Warn others          -Treatment                   -Document
                                          -Continue sizeup      -Transport
                                          -Document             -Document

       Heavy Damage

                Fire                        Search &

          -Shut off utilities is safe     -Warn others
           to do so                       -Gather information
          -Document                       -Document

Team Tasks Based On Damage Level
  Tasks required of Fire, Search and Rescue, Medical, and Treatment Area teams based on the degree of
                                        damage to the structure.

3 February 2007                                                                                     Page 100
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure

B. Documentation & Forms
It is vital to document and communicate information about the disaster situation and resource
status. Efficient flow of information makes it possible for resources to be deployed effectively
and for professional emergency services to be applied appropriately.

Under the CERT organization, each level of authority has documentation responsibilities:

   Section Chiefs are responsible for providing the Command Post with ongoing information
    about damage assessment, group status, and ongoing needs.

   The Command Post is responsible for documenting the situation status, including:

       Incident locations.
       Access routes.
       Identified hazards.
       Support locations.

Note that support locations include the:

   Staging area.

   Medical treatment and triage area.

   Morgue, if there are fatalities.

This documentation must be provided to the first professional responders on the scene.

This information is vital for tracking the overall situation.

3 February 2007                                                                  Page 101
APPENDIX C. Emergency Organization and
Communications Structure

Forms Used For Response Documentation

Form                                                            Purpose

Damage Assessment Survey          Completed by CERT leaders. Provides a summary of overall hazards in
                                   selected areas, including:
                                    Fires.
                                    Utility hazards.
                                    Structural damage.
                                    Injuries and casualties.
                                    Available access.
                                  Essential for prioritizing and formulating action plans.
Personnel Resources Form          Completed by CERT members as they arrive at the Staging Area.
                                   Provides information about:
                                    Who is on site.
                                    When they arrived.
                                    When they were assigned.
                                    Their special skills.

                                  Used by Staging personnel to track personnel availability.
Equipment Resources Form          Completed by Logistics and Staging Area personnel to track the loan of
                                   equipment to CERT members.
Incident Briefing                 Completed by the Incident Commander (Team Leader) to identify
                                   damage, known hazards, and actions taken.
Message Form                      Used for sending messages between command levels and groups.
                                   Messages should be clear and concise and should focus on such key
                                   issues as:
                                    Assignment completion.
                                    Additional resources required.
                                    Special information.
                                    Status update.
Incident Status Record            Used by the command post for keeping abreast of situation status.
                                   Contains essential information for tracking personnel assignments.
Victim Treatment Area Record      Completed by Medical Treatment Area personnel to record victims
                                   entering the treatment area, their condition, and their status.

3 February 2007                                                                        Page 102
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

                                                          Damage Assessment

Date:                            Person Reporting:                                                                                                           Page #: 1

Time Received:                   Person Receiving:

                                                                                                                                                                           No Access
                                                                      H2O Lead


                                                           Gas Lead





 Time         Location/Address              Fires                     Hazards                          Structures                         People                   Roads               /X

FOR USE BY EVERYONE                                                                                                                                  10/08/01

Summary of all hazards in area - fill out this form on your way to Command Post and give it to Incident Command.
           (* for structure damage: h=heavy, m=moderate, l=light)
Incident Command: Choose an incident, put a slash in the assignment completed column, copy the address/location to
the incident name section on Incident Briefing, and give Incident Briefing and Assignment Status to incident team
leader. Copy address/location to Post-Incident Status and enter start time. When incident is complete, put a backslash in
the assignment completed column and the incident end time on the Post-Incident Status form.

15 March 2007                                                                                                                                                Page 103
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

                                                 Personnel Resources

Date:                              Person Reporting:                                                         Page #:

                                                                                                 Skill Specialty
Print Name and Time In
                                                                               Rank From 1-5 or Print ―No‖

             Name                                                                                                       Other


                                       Time In



FOR USE BY LOGISTICS AND STAGING                                                                         10/08/01

Have people sign in and mark their special skills. When you assign someone to a team, circle that team’s box next to
their name and enter the time assigned. When someone returns from an assignment, draw a line through their name and
all boxes and have the person sign in again. Remember to check how long people have been assigned and who hasn’t
been assigned yet.

15 March 2007                                                                                                          Page 104
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

                                                   Equipment Resources

Date:                        Person Reporting:                                                                                                  Page #:

                                                          Fire Extinguisher

                                                                                                    First Aid Kit


Time:           Loaned To:

FOR USE BY LOGISTICS AND STAGING                                                   


Enter equipment and supplies as they come in and out. Total periodically.
If an item is returned empty (for instance, a fire extinguisher), add it back in and circle the number, so you don’t
include it in your next total.

15 March 2007                                                                                                                               Page 105
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

                                                  Incident Briefing

Prepared By:                                                                           Date:                 Time:

Incident Name:

Map Sketch:

CURRENT ORGANIZATION:                            Incident Commander:                            Battalion:

Summary of Current Actions
Be aware of hazards! Work as a team!


FOR INCIDENT COMMANDER                                                                1

Incident Command: Transfer an incident from Damage Assessment sheet. Sketch a map of the incident area, if known,
          with any hazards. Enter Incident Commander’s name and Battalion number under current organization. Give
          to incident team leader with Assignment Status sheet.
Incident team leader: Sketch a map of the incident area with any hazards, if not done by Incident Command.
          Summarize the actions of your teams. When incident is complete, return this form, along with Assignment
          Status, to Incident Command

15 March 2007                                                                                         Page 106
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

                                                            Message Form

To:                                                                                                    Message Center Use Only

From:                                                                                                  Time:________

                                                                                                               Incoming         Outgoing

Message Text:

Action Taken:

USE CLEAR CONCISE TEXT                                                                                    10/08/01

Examples: assignment completed, additional resources needed, unable to complete, special information/status update.

15 March 2007                                                                                                         Page 107
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

                                              Incident Status

Date:                       Person Reporting:                                                 Page:
Address/Location                             Assignment                        Start Time        End Time

FOR INCIDENT COMMAND                                                          10/08/01
Record incident assignments from Damage Assessment sheets. When incident is complete, enter end time
and make a backslash for that incident on the Damage Assessment.

15 March 2007                                                                               Page 108
                Date: 10/20/01      Person Reporting: Rich Richins                                                                          Page #:

                 Time Time In:             Name or Description
                                            Name or Description               Triage
                                                                          Triage Tag Tag             ConditionCondition      Moved To:           Time Out Out
                                                                                                                                         Moved To:  Time

                   10:19      Rich Richins                                           D          Minor cut on forehead

15 March 2007
                              White male, about 45 years, balding,                              Deep cut on right thigh, unconscious,
                   10:35      overweight                                             I          shock

                   10:52      Willard Scott                                          D          Broken left arm, swollen left ankle       Kaiser      12:08
                                                                                                Unconscious, shallow breathing,
                   11:15      White female, blond, late 20’s, pregnant               I                                                    Kaiser      12:08
                                                                                                Disoriented, large bump on
                  11:20       White female, 60s, “Annie”                             I                                                    Kaiser      12:08
                                                                                                forehead, shock

                  11:47       Jill Johns                                             D          Minor cuts and bruises, shock
                                                                                                                                                                  Victim Treatment Area Record Example

                FOR MEDICAL TREATMENT AREA                                                                                    10/08/01

                Document each person brought to the treatment area.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

Page 109
                If Victim Cannot Give Name, Write a Brief Description (e.g., Sex, Approximate Age, Hair Color, Race, etc).
                Tag color: red=Immediate, yellow=Delayed, green=Minor, Black=Dead
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

APPENDIX D. Emergency Lists, Maps and Responsibilities

Content of Appendix D:

   1. Organization list providing member names, special capabilities and emergency
      role(s) they are to play—to include identification of the neighborhood leader,
      zone leader, and district leader; their grid assignments and contact info: a) phone
      number; b) cell number; c) if phones are out –FRS/GMRS/MURS/CB/HAM radio
      frequency to be used; d) address and/or directions if all else fails.
   2. List of organization members outlining their preparation for disaster, specification
      of those with special skills /capabilities or equipment that could be used for
      mutual aid—detail the skills/capabilities or equipment and terms/conditions of use
      if any. For contact information, see Organization list or map.
   3. Map with neighborhood team leader (grid cell), and neighborhood families
      specified; with respective zone leader and district leaders specified.
   4. List of families with special needs, and those assigned to assist them—all contact
      information given for both.
   5. List of Organization or community sponsored CERT teams/members—CERT
      teams will typically deploy as feasible to regions most heavily affected by the
   6. Emergency Positions and Responsibilities for Members
   7. List of handouts provided to particular organization members.

15 March 2007                                                                   Page 110
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

1.Organization List Providing Member Names and Contact

This list includes: member names; emergency leadership positions; phone number; cell
number; if phones are out – e-mail address; FRS/GMRS/MURS/CB/HAM radio
frequency to be used; address and directions if all else fails.

                    List Included After This Page

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APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

15 March 2007                                 Page 112
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and
2. List of Organization Members Outlining Their Preparation for

This list details the skills/capabilities or equipment and terms/conditions of use if any.
For contact information, see Organization list or map.

                      List Included After This Page

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APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

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APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

3. List and Map of Members in Each Neighborhood

Insert list and map of each neighborhood after this page

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APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

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APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

4. Families with Special Needs, and Those Assigned to Assist Them

                 To be determined by January 2007.

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APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

15 March 2007                                 Page 118
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

5. List of Neighbor Leaders & CERT Members
Trained CERT Members are Highlighted in Yellow
Community Emergency Response Team (CERT)
1. Cassatt CERT-Wayne Thompson
   1.1. Wayne Thompson Neighborhood-Cassatt
   1.2. Jo Ann Barentine Point of Contact-Cassatt
   1.3. Johnny Freeman Neighborhood-Bethune, Kershaw
2. Camden South Zone CERT-Doug White
   2.1. John Joyner Neighborhood
   2.2. Ken Kersey Neighborhood
   2.3. Wilson King Neighborhood
   2.4. Bill Rhodus Neighborhood
   2.5. Lewis Vinson Neighborhood
   2.6. Doug White Neighborhood
       2.6.1. J.C. Connell
       2.6.2. Izzy Connell
3. Camden North Zone CERT – John Luthy
   3.1. James Case Neighborhood
   3.2. Scott Goff Neighborhood
   3.3. Wayne Faulkenberry Neighborhood
   3.4. Stoney Hilton Neighborhood
       3.4.1. Evelyn Monroe
   3.5. Earl Kersey Neighborhood
   3.6. John Luthy Neighborhood
       3.6.1. Valerie Luthy
4. Camden North Zone 2 CERT – Michael Price
   4.1. Steve Parrott Neighborhood
   4.2. Michael Price Neighborhood
   4.3. Reed Carpenter Neighborhood
   4.4. Will Dent Neighborhood
5. Lugoff South Zone CERT – Todd Branham
   5.1. Todd Branham Neighborhood
       5.1.1. the Organization’s Community Leader Joyner
   5.2. Randy Jay Neighborhood
   5.3. Clyde Smith Neighborhood
   5.4. Dean Weems Neighborhood
   5.5. Larry Chavis Neighborhood
       5.5.1. Willette Chavis
6. Lugoff North Zone CERT—Bob Connell
   6.1. Dave Adams Neighborhood
   6.2. Boyd Campbell Neighborhood
       6.2.1. George Furlow
       6.2.2. Bonita Furlow
   6.3. Thad Cobb Neighborhood

15 March 2007                                              Page 119
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and
   6.4. Joe Connell Neighborhood
       6.4.1. Derick Swails
7. Lugoff North Zone 2 CERT—James Dahle
   7.1. Sterling Connell Neighborhood
       7.1.1. Robin Mooneyhan
   7.2. Mark Moore Neighborhood
       7.2.1. James Dahle
       7.2.2. Mathew Moore
   7.3. Arthur Turbyfill Neighborhood
       7.3.1. Ben Ervin
       7.3.2. Becky Jenkinson
   7.4. Tom Wannamaker Neighborhood
8. Elgin South Zone CERT-Jerry Reynolds
   8.1. Mike Chesley Neighborhood
   8.2. Terry Hinson Neighborhood
   8.3. Eric Langen Neighborhood
   8.4. Travis Peake Neighborhood
   8.5. Jerry Reynolds Neighborhood
   8.6. Toby Tart Neighborhood
       8.6.1. DJ Rollins
   8.7. Dennis Moon Neighborhood
9. Elgin North Zone CERT-Mark Miller
   9.1. Billy Britain Neighborhood
   9.2. Kevin Faulkenberry Neighborhood
   9.3. Mark Miller Neighborhood
       9.3.1. Julie Miller
   9.4. David Osteen Neighborhood
       9.4.1. Ruth Osteen
       9.4.2. David Osteen III
       9.4.3. Jimmy Osteen

15 March 2007                                 Page 120
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

6. Emergency Positions and Responsibilities for Members

A. Neighborhood, Zone, and District Leaders—Grid Cell Leaders:
Note: Priority actions for these leaders during an emergency are given in II.A.
Before an emergency, the Neighborhood, Zone, and District Leaders are to search out the
members of their group to confirm contact information, willingness to participate; then
provide awareness and preparedness materials and instruction as needed; determine
awareness and preparedness levels; as well as roles and responsibilities during a disaster.
For instance, if not previously provided, the Neighborhood leader should: 1) Determine
those with special needs in their neighborhood--about 30% of the population has them.
2) Then they should find specific individuals preferably in the neighborhood within
walking or biking distance that will commit to assist them. It is also recommended that
Neighborhood Leaders and Neighborhood members agree on how to communicate with
each other and the outside world during an emergency—in particular when phones are
out (see Appendix C), HAM, CB or other radios may be desirable. This also applies
from Neighborhood to Zone and Zone to District, etc. communications. It is
recommended that Zone and District Leaders be HAM certified—as feasible. It is also
recommended that District, Zone and Neighborhood Leaders take Community
Emergency Response Team Training, First Aid, and CPR if possible.
1. Bethune, Cassatt, Kershaw District Leader-Thompson, Wayne
    1.1. Cassatt Zone Leader-Thompson, Wayne
        1.1.1. Wayne Thompson Neighborhood-Cassatt
        1.1.2. Jo Ann Barentine Point of Contact-Cassatt
        1.1.3. Johnny Freeman Neighborhood-Bethune, Kershaw
2. Camden District Leader-Price, Michael
    2.1. Camden South Zone-White, Doug
        2.1.1. John Joyner Neighborhood
        2.1.2. Ken Kersey Neighborhood
        2.1.3. Wilson King Neighborhood
        2.1.4. Bill Rhodus Neighborhood
        2.1.5. Lewis Vinson Neighborhood
        2.1.6. Doug White Neighborhood
    2.2. Camden North Zone-Luthy, John David
        2.2.1. James Case Neighborhood
        2.2.2. Scott Goff Neighborhood
        2.2.3. Wayne Faulkenberry Neighborhood
        2.2.4. Stoney Hilton Neighborhood
        2.2.5. Ken Graham, Sr Neighborhood
        2.2.6. John Luthy Neighborhood
    2.3. Camden North Zone 2 – Reed, Carpenter
        2.3.1. Steve Parrott Neighborhood
        2.3.2. Michael Price Neighborhood
        2.3.3. Reed Carpenter Neighborhood
        2.3.4. Will Dent Neighborhood

15 March 2007                                                                     Page 121
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and
3. Lugoff District Leader-Connell, Sterling
   3.1. Lugoff South Zone-Branham, Todd
       3.1.1. Todd Branham Neighborhood
       3.1.2. Randy Jay Neighborhood
       3.1.3. Clyde Smith Neighborhood
       3.1.4. Dean Weems Neighborhood
       3.1.5. Larry Chavis Neighborhood
   3.2. Lugoff North Zone-Connell, Bob
       3.2.1. Dave Adams Neighborhood
       3.2.2. Boyd Campbell Neighborhood
       3.2.3. Thad Cobb Neighborhood
       3.2.4. Joe Connell Neighborhood
   3.3. Lugoff North Zone 2-Dahle, James
       3.3.1. Sterling Connell Neighborhood
       3.3.2. Mark Moore Neighborhood
       3.3.3. Arthur Turbyfill Neighborhood
       3.3.4. Tom Wannamaker Neighborhood
4. Elgin District Leader-Osteen, David Allen
   4.1. Elgin South Zone-Jerry Reynolds
       4.1.1. Mike Chesley Neighborhood
       4.1.2. Terry Hinson Neighborhood
       4.1.3. Eric Langen Neighborhood
       4.1.4. Travis Peake Neighborhood
       4.1.5. Jerry Reynolds Neighborhood
       4.1.6. Toby Tart Neighborhood
       4.1.7. Denis Moon Neighborhood
   4.2. Elgin North Zone-Miller, Mark
       4.2.1. Billy Britain Neighborhood
       4.2.2. Kevin Faulkenberry Neighborhood
       4.2.3. Mark Miller Neighborhood
       4.2.4. David Osteen Neighborhood

For tracking purposes the following is given for the:
Organization Geocode5:      #              #*     #*                 #*       #*         #*        #*
                        Store House      Region   Stake    Organization       District   Zone      Neighbor
                                                                     Leader   Leader     Leader
* #s typically range from 0 to 9.

    ―Stake‖ Geocode: LDS45055
         LDS           45                055:
         Organization   FIP State Code   FIP County Code

15 March 2007                                                                                     Page 122
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and
By assigning Store House = 1, Region = 1, Stake = 1, Organization =1 for Kershaw
County, the John Joyner Neighborhood above would be uniquely designated as:

15 March 2007                                                                Page 123
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

B. Organization Emergency Leaders
1. the Organization’s Community Leader Joyner – Obtain and organize every needful
   1.1. First Counselor-David Osteen – Pre-Identify families to assist those with special
        needs. Works with RS President and Neighborhood Leaders.
   1.2. Second Counselor-Organization Emergency Coordinator-Mark Moore
       1.2.1. First Assistant
       1.2.2. Second Assistant
   1.3. Duties
       1.3.1. Preside over and direct all activities as the Spirit directs
       1.3.2. Communicate status to Stake and government emergency organizations as
             needed. Receive messages from Stake and pass to the Organization.
       1.3.3. Open Organization as shelter if needed, with Stake/Region permission
       1.3.4. Request food, water and / or supplies from the Organization’s Community
             Leaders’ Storehouse if needed (Relief Society will determine food, water
             and other Organization shortages)
2. Organization Communications Specialist-Bob Connell (see Appendix C)
   2.1. First Assistant - Robin Mooneyhan -Organization ERCS Communication
        Coordinator –HAM Radio operator- the Organization’s Community Leader’s
        eyes and ears
   2.2. Second Assistant - JC Connell. Recommend equipment for Organization use
   2.3. Third Assistant – Frank Mooneyhan – HAM operator
   2.4. Duties
       2.4.1. Determine optimum communications structure for Organization
       2.4.2. Organize training for members
       2.4.3. Provide Organization ERCS Communications Coordinator (Appendix
       2.4.4. Control Communications equipment; recommend equipment
       2.4.5. Supervise emergency communications—frequencies used, channel plans
       2.4.6. Organize system of ―runners‖ as needed
       2.4.7. Knowledgeable in radio communications (HAM, CB, etc.)
3. Volunteer Management (Appendix E.3) – High Priest Group – James Dahle
   3.1. First Counselor – Ken Kersey
   3.2. Second Counselor
   3.3. Duties
       3.3.1. Track all volunteers and their status--Prepare signup sheets, registry
       3.3.2. Determine what volunteers need to bring with them for each disaster
       3.3.3. Insure compliance with Federal, State and County laws, and policies with
             respect to volunteer management
       3.3.4. Determine needs of the Organization (working with Organization
       3.3.5. Organize, assign and track volunteer work parties
       3.3.6. Assess progress in recovery (with Organization Engineering Group)
4. Media / Public Spokesperson – Sterling Connell (Appendix E.2)

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APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and
   4.1. First Assistant – Joe Connell
   4.2. Second Assistant – John Luthy
   4.3. Duties
       4.3.1. If there is media coverage, and it is necessary for the organization to
             respond, act as organization spokesperson (check with Stake first, if possible
             for guidance)
       4.3.2. Clear all news releases with the Organization’s Community Leader / Stake
             before giving them
       4.3.3. Give daily media briefings
       4.3.4. Keep a history of events
       4.3.5. Identify local and national relief resources
       4.3.6. Attend coordination meetings
5. Organization Engineering Specialist-Doug White
   5.1. First Assistant-Derick Swails
   5.2. Second Assistant-David Osteen
   5.3. Third Assistant-Craig Radvansky
   5.4. Fourth Assistant-Terry Hinson
   5.5. Duties
       5.5.1. Perform damage assessments (Appendix E)
       5.5.2. Prioritize facilities needing repair
       5.5.3. Determine resources required to make repairs
       5.5.4. Oversee /participate in emergency repairs to buildings or homes
       5.5.5. Determine energy needs – lighting, heating, cooling
       5.5.6. Move generators as needed to those most in need / work with Housing
             specialist to move people with needs to homes or shelter where needs can be
6. Organization Relief Society President-L. Campbell – Pre-event-identify families with
   special needs. Work with 1st Counselor in the Organization’s Community Leaderric
   to identify families to help those with special needs.
   6.1. First Counselor – Cindy Parrott
   6.2. Second Counselor – Cookie Adams
   6.3. Duties
       6.3.1. Work with housing specialist to ensure housing for all
       6.3.2. Work with food specialist to ensure food, and water available for all
       6.3.3. Determine member needs for food, water and / or supplies and prepare the
             Organization’s Community Leaders’ store request forms and provide to the
             Organization’s Community Leader
       6.3.4. Plan responses to social and emotional crises
       6.3.5. Identify people and resources to relieve social and emotional trauma
       6.3.6. Organize efforts to rehabilitate those suffering from stress induced trauma
7. Organization Medical Specialist-Dr. Foy Connell
   7.1. First Assistant-RN Becky Jenkinson
   7.2. Second Assistant – Valencia Dinkins
   7.3. Third Assistant – Channel Manigo
   7.4. Duties

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APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and
        7.4.1. Prepare members for emergencies--Schedule First Aid and CPR training
              for members in advance
        7.4.2. Have on hand and be familiar with first-aid, CPR handbooks, disaster
              relief handbooks, and other resource information needed during an
        7.4.3. Determine medical needs and coordinate medical relief
        7.4.4. Know where your medical supplies are and how to get them.
        7.4.5. For shelter operations-
   first aid station
   temporary infirmary
   a temporary morgue if needed
   quarantine area if needed
   emergency immunization if needed
8. Organization Security Specialist – Kenneth Kersey
    8.1. First Assistant – Tracey Popham
    8.2. Second Assistant – Clyde Smith
    8.3. Duties
        8.3.1. Train members in home / neighborhood security
        8.3.2. Protect organization building / homes from destruction and vandalism
        8.3.3. Work to establish neighborhood watches
        8.3.4. Establish positive relationships with Sheriff’s office and police
9. Food Preparation Specialist- Relief Society Homemaking Counselor – Cookie Adams
    9.1. First Assistant – Debbie Evans
    9.2. Second Assistant – Debbie Jay
    9.3. Duties
        9.3.1. Provide information on food storage and preparation to members before
              disaster strikes—So, they can prepare at home (See Appendix A.3)
        9.3.2. For shelter operations
   people who can help plan and prepare meals
   food and water resources
   menu and food preparation, serving and cleanup
10. Shelter Specialist-Steven Parrott (See Appendix E)
    10.1.       First Assistant – Will Dent
    10.2.       Second Assistant – George Furlow
    10.3.       Duties
        10.3.1. Ensure shelter is staffed—coordinate assignments with the Organization’s
              Community Leader and this list
        10.3.2. Ensure shelter staff can perform duties
        10.3.3. Coordinate maintenance of shelter during emergency situation
        10.3.4. Schedule use of building
11. Sanitation Specialist-Elders Quorum President – Travis Peake (See Appendix A.1.P)
    11.1.       First Assistant – Boyd Campbell
    11.2.       Second Assistant – Wayne Medlin

15 March 2007                                                                  Page 126
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and
    11.3.       Duties
        11.3.1. Locate information on sanitation facilities
        11.3.2. Project possible needs under various emergency conditions. Coordinate
             waste (to include human waste) and garbage disposal
        11.3.3. Provide information to members on home sanitation and garbage disposal
        11.3.4. Supervise and participate in water quality control and garbage disposal
             during shelter operations
12. Child Care Specialist-Primary President – Rena Dahle
    12.1.       First Assistant – Jessica Chesley
    12.2.       Second Assistant – Christy Peake
        12.2.1. Train members in advance on how to prepare their children for
             emergencies and care for children during and after emergencies
        12.2.2. For shelters operations
   Plan and supervise the care of young children
   Provide play areas, recreation equipment, and toys
   Supervise feeding and tending of young children
13. Housing Specialist- Education counselor in the Relief Society – Cindy Parrott
    13.1.       First Assistant
    13.2.       Second Assistant
    13.3.       Duties
        13.3.1. Before event, determine members willing to house refugees or other
             members, for what period of time, classified by age, sex, special need,
        13.3.2. Determine other housing sources – shelters (see II.D.3)
        13.3.3. Process housing requests; coordinate and allocate housing
        13.3.4. For shelter operations
   Provide laundry facilities
   Provide infants’ supplies such as disposable diapers, formula, and
14. Recreation Specialists-Activities Committee – Katie Peebles
    14.1.       For shelter operations, recommend appropriate adult recreation
    14.2.       Work with other members to have the indicated activities
15. Organization Welfare Specialists
    15.1.       Adams, Cookie – Awareness and preparedness training (RS, Primary)
    15.2.       Adams, David – Emergency member lists
    15.3.       Connell, Bob – Emergency awareness and preparedness, CERT training
    15.4.       Faulkenberry, Wayne – Awareness and preparedness training
    15.5.       Furlow, George - Security
    15.6.       Jenkinson, Becky – First aid and CPR training
    15.7.       Joyner, Jeff – Awareness and preparedness training (Elders)
    15.8.       Miller, Mark – Food preparations
    15.9.       Miller, Julie – Food preparations, Cannery
    15.10.      Mooneyhan, Robin – Radio communications, Awareness and
         preparedness training
    15.11.      Weirich, Greg – Cannery

15 March 2007                                                                   Page 127
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and
   15.12.     Dent, Will – Organization Shelter and links to Red Cross

 Note: The organization executive secretary, with the organization membership clerk as
          backup, will prepare expanded lists as necessary in an emergency.

15 March 2007                                                                 Page 128
APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and

7. List of Handouts Provided to Each Organization Member

   Instructional materials/handouts. What percentage of the the Organization’s families
   have received?
            DHEC Handout? 78 of 349 families = 22% as of 12 January 2007
            Organization Implementation—Milestones / Timeline? 55 of 349 families
              = 16% as of 12 January 2007
            Focus on Anticipated Emergencies Handout? 57 of 349 families = 16% as
              of 12 January 2007
            Capabilities Handout (Emergency Preparedness Supplies, Equipment, and
              Expertise)? 57 of 349 families = 16% as of 12 January
            Community Based Services Handout? 57 of 349 families = 16 % as of 12
              January 2007
            Communications Handout? 55 of 349 families = 16% as of 12 January
            Organization assignment and responsibilities in writing?
                                            45 of 55 families = 84% as of 12 January
            Neighborhood assignments and responsibilities in writing?
                                            58 of 349 families = 17% as of 12 January
            Zone assignment and responsibilities in writing?
                                            58 of 349 families = 17% as of 12 January
            District assignment and responsibilities in writing?
                                            58 of 349 families = 17% as of 12 January

             Maps for Leadership
                   Neighborhood?        0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Zone?                0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   District?            0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
             Emergency Scenarios Checklists—Before, During and After Handouts?
                   Pandemic Flu         0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Fires                0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Wildfires            0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Extreme Heat         0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Floods               0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Winter Storms and Extreme Cold
                                         0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Tornadoes            0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Hurricanes           0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Thunderstorms and Lightning
                                         0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Earthquakes          0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                   Hazardous Materials Incidents
                                         0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January

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APPENDIX D. Emergency Operating Structure--Lists and
                     Nuclear Power Plants 0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                     Biological Threats 0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                     Nuclear Blasts      0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                     Explosions          0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                     Chemical Threats 0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                     Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD)
                                          0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
                  Economic Collapse / Depression / Recession
                                          0 of 349 families = 0% as of 12 January
            Capability Specific Plans—Handouts 0 of 349 families as of 12 January
                  Family Plans for Disasters
                        1. Stock Emergency Supplies and Assemble a Disaster Kit
                        2. Meet with Your Family
                        3. Determine Where to Meet After a Disaster Occurs
                        4. Have an "Out-of-Town" Contact
                        5. Emergency Numbers
                        6. Know Your Community Warning Signals
                        7. Community and Other Plans
                        8. School Emergency Plans
                  FOR YOUR SAFETY
                        1. What to Do if an Emergency/Disaster Strikes
                        2. Know What to Do In an Evacuation
                        3. Know How to Turn Off Utilities
                        4. Know What to Do If Told to "Shelter-in-Place" or to "Stay
                        5. Know What to Do if You Have Special Needs
                  Know How to Prepare Pets For Evacuation
                  Guidelines for Large Animals.
                  Recovering from Disaster
                        1. Health and Safety Guidelines
                        2. Emergency Sanitation
                        3. Returning Home
                        4. Seeking Disaster Assistance
                        5. Coping with Disaster
                        6. Helping Others
                  Home Security
                  Family Communications
                  Shelter-in-place--Food, Water, Medicine, First Aid Kit,
                      Equipment, Fuel
                  Three-day Evacuation Kit-to Include Portable Shelter
                  Ability to Administer Health Care or First Aid
                  Possessions, Insurance, Documents, Money

15 March 2007                                                               Page 130
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources

APPENDIX E. Organization / Other Resources
Content of Appendix E:
   1. Establish a Shelter Using the Organization Meetinghouse—Responsibilities
   2. Coordinate Public Information
   3. Coordinate Volunteer Services
   4. Liaison with the Organization’s Community Leader’s Storehouse
   5. Kershaw County Emergency Shelters, Leaders, Protocols and Contacts

3 February 2007                                                            Page 131
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources

1. Establish a Shelter Using the Organization Meetinghouse.

For the Organization’s Community Leader, if necessary, establish
a shelter using the Organization meetingplace.
A. Organization Emergency Shelter


Organization Chart
Types of Shelters
       the Organization’s Community Leader
       Disaster Relief Coordinator
       Shelter Manager
       Registration Manager
       Dormitory Manager
       Mental Health Manager
       Physical Health Manager
       Staff Recruitment Manager
       Services Manager
       Logistics Manager
       Feeding Manager

3 February 2007                                               Page 132
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources

                         Organization Disaster Relief Shelter Organization

                                                                                      Dean Branham
                                                  Stake Presidency
                                                                                 Disaster Relief Coordinator

                  1st Counselor Osteen               Bishop Joyner          2nd Counselor Moore

                                                   Bishop Joyner
                                          Ward Welfare Committee Chairman

                                                    Steven Parrott
   Assistant Manager 2nd Shift
                                               Shelter Manager 1st Shift

   Registration Manager (2)              Dormitory Manager (1)              Mental Health Manager (1)

   Staff Recruitment Manager (1)         Physical Health Manager (2)        Services Manager (1)

   Logistics Manager (2)                 Feeding Manager (1)
   * Security                            * Kitchen Supervisor
   * Parking                             * Food Supply Supervisor
   * Garbage, Trash Control              * Lead Cook
   * Cleaning                            * Assistant Cook
   * Food, Equipment Transportation      * Food Prep Workers
                                         * Dishwashers
                                         * Cleanup Crews
                                         * Servers

3 February 2007                                                                                         Page 133
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources

                                TYPES OF SHELTER OPERATIONS

                            WARNING                                        NO WARNING
                  Example: Hurricane Evacuation                   Example: HAZMAT
                  • There is more time for planning.              • There is less opportunity to consider
                  • Residents can be advised to bring site selection.
                  essential items.                                • Clients may arrive before Red Cross

Short-Term • Residents are less likely to need                    staff.
           long-term services.                                    • Residents are less likely to need
                  • There may be fewer supply                     long-term services.
                  requirements.                                   • There may be fewer supply
                  Example: Slow Rising Flood                      Example: Tornado/Flash Flood
                  /Hurricane Aftermath                            • Clients may arrive before Red Cross
                  • There is more time for planning               staff.
                  and establishing logistical support.            • There is a short lead time for
                  • Residents need longer-term                    obtaining supplies.
                  services.                                       • There is a need for longer-term

Long-Term         • There are greater supply needs.               services.
                  • There is a need for longer-term               • There are greater supply needs.
                  staffing (shifts and replacements.)             • There is a need for longer-term
                  • The shelter may become a focal                staffing (shifts and replacements).
                  point for other community relief                • The shelter may become a focal
                  efforts.                                        point for other community relief

Note: As the size or severity of the disaster increases, there is a greater possibility that the shelter will need
to operate independently for a period of time (for example, following a catastrophic earthquake).

3 February 2007                                                                                        Page 134
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources

Duties of the the Organization’s Community Leader (Chairman Organization Welfare
Committee or designated assistants)
1) Obtain permission from Stake President to open the organization building and
   premises as a shelter.
2) Directs Shelter manager to open and close Shelter
3) Provides training and support to Shelter Manager and staff.
4) Assists Shelter Manager in making sure needs of shelter occupants are being met.
5) Co-ordinates with Stake and Area Authorities in making sure shelter manager(s) stays

Duties of Shelter Manager
1) Trains Shelter Staff in Shelter Management.
2) Opens and closes Shelter under direction of Stake President.
3) Ensures that the needs of shelter occupants are being met by:
        Preparing or assigning staff to the following key functions:
        • Registration
        • Dormitory Management
        • Feeding
        • Physical / Mental Health Screening
        • Staff Recruitment from Shelter Occupants
        • Logistics
        • Support Services, i.e. counseling activities
4) Conducts staff meetings and shift change briefing.
5) Ensures occupants receive information on recovery.
6) Reports problems to Stake Disaster Response Coordinator.

3 February 2007                                                               Page 135
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources

Duties of Registration Manager
The registration supervisor and workers are responsible for ensuring that persons entering
or leaving the shelter go through the registration process. Without complete, legible, and
accurate information about the residents of the shelter, our ability to provide needed
services is impaired. Specifically, the registrars should:
• Place the reception desk near the entrance to welcome those entering the shelter, to
answer their questions, and to direct them toorganization the registration tables and
registrars. Allow enough space for a waiting area.
• Use a sufficient number of tables to ensure that everyone entering is registered within a
reasonable period of time.
• Post signs directly persons to the registration area, and post signs clearly marking the
registration desk or tables.
• Recruit volunteers to translate and prepare signs for shelter residents who are non-
English speaking.
• To support effective registration efforts and provide a secure environment, use only one
entrance to the building, if possible. Position shelter staff at other entrances to direct
shelter residents to appropriate areas. However, fire exits should never be blocked.
• Use index cards (3" x 5", 4" x 6", 4" x 6" etc.) or pads of lined paper to record
information about families entering the shelter.
• Use one form, one card or one sheet of paper for each family. A family usually consists
of all persons living in a household.
• Provide a shelter information sheet to each family who registers.
• If registration workers are not available, recruit shelter residents and local volunteers to
do registration.
• Indicate in the margin of the registration form those shelter residents who would like to
volunteer for specific shelter jobs.

3 February 2007                                                                     Page 136
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources

Duties of the Dormitory Manager
Dormitory management includes setting up sleeping areas in dormitory style, assigning
sleeping areas, and coordinating with Logistics staff for cots, blankets, comfort kits, and
other items, if available and necessary. Specific tasks are listed below:

Initial Actions
     When designating space within the dormitory area, consider allocating separate
         space for families with small children, the elderly, night workers who sleep during
         the day, and other situations.
     In an earthquake, consider structural damage and the possibility that residents
         may prefer to remain outdoors in open areas adjacent to the facility. In hurricanes,
         consider that shelter residents may be placed into confined areas of less than 10
         square feet per person until the storm is over.
     Ensure that planning includes access to and movement within the building for
         persons with disabilities.
     When needed, work with the Logistics function to identify a source of cots and
         blankets. Use the West Columbia South Carolina Stake Emergency Preparedness
         Resource list as possible sources for cots and blankets and other supplies.

Ongoing Actions
    Coordinate with the logistics function about issuing and returning dormitory
    Post signs informing residents of times for lights out and quiet hours.
    Coordinate activities with fire and security teams to ensure that patrols circulate
      throughout the shelter during the quiet hours.
    Control all equipment, using standard inventory techniques.
    Recruit volunteers from shelter residents to help keep the dormitory clean.

Closing Actions
    Close the dormitory only after all equipment is properly disposed of, and the area
       is cleaned and returned to pre-disaster condition.

3 February 2007                                                                    Page 137
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources

Duties of the Disaster Mental Health Services Manager:

Initial Actions
     Assess and meet mental health needs of staff members and clients.
     Consult with the shelter manager and Disaster Physical Health Services staff on a
         daily basis, in person or by telephone.

Ongoing Actions
    Recommend alternate accommodations to the shelter manager when the stress of
      communal living would be significantly detrimental to the mental health of a
    Formulate and maintain a daily statistical log of interventions.
    Plan for appropriate referral of DMHS cases to local care providers or agencies.
    Request additional DMHS staff as needed, in consultation with DPHS and the
      shelter manager.
    Be aware of known and potential mental health problems among community

Closing actions
    Make arrangements for debriefing shelter staff.
    Ensure that follow up is available for individual clients and staff as needed.
    Transfer reports and records as instructed by your supervisor.

3 February 2007                                                                  Page 138
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources

Duties of the Physical Health Services Manager
The Physical Health Services Manager assesses the health needs of the shelter occupants

Initial Action:
     Referring seriously ill and injured for health care.
     Treating minor illnesses and injuries.
     Looking for unreported health problems of shelter occupants and taking necessary
         action to care for those problems.

Ongoing Actions
    Arranging health care for infants, the elderly, or physically handicapped persons.
    Arranging for medical coverage by a physician as needed.
    Determining any needs for special diets and ensure that these needs are
      communicated to the Feeding Manager or staff.
    Assess the number and type of injuries and the age of the population affected, and
      plan preventative interventions.
    The Physical Health Services Manager should be aware of any persons who have
      a communicable disease, try to isolate them from the rest of the shelter occupants,
      and report noticeable trends in illness to the local health department.
    Preventing pre-existing health problems from getting worse.
    Establishing communications with other health care providers, if necessary.
    Following up on care that has been provided and on referrals that have been made
      to ensure that needs have been met.
    Ensuring that conditions are sanitary in the shelter. The shelter manager should be
      consulted about these conditions.
    Working with the shelter manager or other administrators to ensure the security of
      all medical supplies and equipment.
    Providing 24-hour medical coverage for the shelter occupants.

Closing Actions
    Transferring medical records as instructed by the shelter manager.
    Following Logistics procedures regarding supplies and equipment.

3 February 2007                                                                 Page 139
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources
Duties of the Staff Recruitment Manager

Initial Actions
      In consultation with the shelter manager and supervisory staff, list the tasks to be
         performed, specific skills needed, and hours required daily for each function with in the
      Prepare a daily schedule for each function that includes the list oft asks to be performed,
         number of staff needed, and schedule of times for tasks to be performed.
      Secure a workspace that is easily accessible, with space for incoming staff to sign in, be
         interviewed, and be given orientation.
      Assess the need for on-the-job training for all shelter functions and determine who can
         provide this training. Make arrangements for such training, including space,
         announcements of training activity, and other logistical needs.
      Assess the need for additional personnel to support the duties of the function.

Ongoing Actions
    Survey the existing shelter population for people with the type of skills and abilities
       needed as a possible source of staff for each shelter function.
    Recruit for unfilled positions from the community or pass on a list of the remaining
       unfilled positions to the disaster headquarters.
    Make provisions for interviewing and assigning spontaneous community volunteers.
    Provide for the orientation and job induction of incoming staff. Brief all new
   personnel on the following subjects:
            o Name and title of their supervisor
            o Shelter organizational structure
            o Their job description
            o Working hours and daily schedule
            o Dress code and need for name badge (ID)
            o Staff meetings
            o Available resources
    Provide the shelter manager with daily statistics, by personnel category, on staff assigned
       and currently working in the shelter. Report on progress in filling staffing requests and on
       any problems encountered the previous day.
    Ensure that workers from outside the area are prepared for vouchering expenses and that,
       if additional travel advances are needed, this need is communicated to the appropriate

Closing Actions
    Arrange for transfer or release of staff from the shelter, ensure that performance
        evaluations are completed, and ensure that transportation is arranged, if needed, to the
        point of out-processing.
    Ensure that names and addresses of all staff who worked in the shelter are submitted to
        the appropriate office for recognition.
    Prepare and submit a narrative report of your unit's activities, noting services provided,
        accomplishments, problems and solutions, and recommendations for future operations.

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Duties of Services Manager
Initial Actions
     Report to shelter manager upon arrival.
     Establish lines of communication with other supervisors in the shelter.
     Consult with the shelter manager and Disaster Physical Health Services to
         identify residents who may need services.
Ongoing Actions
     Work with Disaster Mental Health Services to arrange for any services needed for
     Identify sources for translation services as needed.
     Provide recreational activities for shelter residents, especially children.
     Provide coordination of childcare services as needed.
     Provide information about community resources that might be available to help
         meet disaster-caused needs of shelter residents.

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Duties of Logistics Manager
Initial Actions
     Conduct inspection of the facility using the Self-Inspection Worksheet-Off
         Premises Liability Checklist. Inventory and establish security for supplies and
     Order additional supplies as needed. Discuss with the shelter-feeding manager the
         system for procuring food.
     Prepare the building for operation. Identify areas for reception, registration, health
         services, the dormitory, the cafeteria, child care, recreation, client services, the
         staff restroom and the shelter manager's office
     Arrange for security inside and outside the facility.
     Establish procedures for controlling traffic and parking.
     Arrange for police "drive-bys" and assistance, when conditions permit.
     Ensure that adequate number of shower and bathing facilities are available in the
         shelter. If the water supply is not working, or facilities are inadequate, make
         alternative arrangements as soon as possible.
     Ensure that an adequate number of toilets are available. If the water supply is not
         working or facilities are inadequate, make alternative arrangements such as
         portable or chemical toilets, as soon as possible.
     Consult with the Disaster Health Services supervisor about public health
         inspection of the shelter, as well as other pertinent sanitation issues.
    Ongoing Actions
     Conduct routine security rounds. These rounds should include a perimeter walk
         (When conditions permit) and interior walks, which cover all areas of the facility.
     Conduct daily safety inspections, including the following:
             o Kitchens
             o Food preparation areas
             o Storage areas
             o Serving areas
             o Eating areas
             o Restrooms
             o Shower facilities
             o Entrances and exits
             o Sleeping areas
             o Disaster Health Services area
     Take steps to resolve any facility or supply problems identified. Coordinate
         efforts with other functions.
     Consult with the feeding supervisor about food sanitation arrangements.
     Arrange for proper garbage and trash disposal, even if there is no municipal
     Order necessary supplies and equipment to ensure proper sanitation and personal
     Arrange for regularly cleaning the shelter, including food preparation areas,
         feeding areas, restrooms, and showers.
     Ensure that laundry facilities are available, if possible.

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Closing Actions
    Return all rented or borrowed equipment to owners. Send signed receipts for such
       equipment to your supervisor.
    Arrange for cleaning the facility and having it returned to the pre-disaster
       condition to the extent possible.
    Consult with the supervisor about release of staff

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Duties of Feeding Manager
Initial Actions
     Prepare in advance Menus for Short-Term (l to 3 days) and Long-Term (l to 2
         weeks) shelter operations. For Short-Term feeding secure commitments from
         organizations and branches in advance. Establish and maintain contacts with
         organization and branch volunteers. For Long-Term feeding become familiar with
         storehouse foods and design menus around available storehouse commodities .
     Supervise on-site food preparation and services for the shelter residents and
         workers. Advise the Logistics supervisor of supplies that are needed. Prepare and
         monitor the food service staff work schedule.
     In your initial briefing with the shelter manager, discuss the following:
             - Your specific responsibilities (Short-Term or Long-Term Feeding)
             - Reporting and communication channels
             - Sources of technical guidance
             - Contacts and procedures for acquiring feeding resources
                      Short-Term (members)
                      Long-Term (the Organization’s Community Leaders Storehouse)
     Determine when the first meal will be needed.
     In your initial meeting with the Logistics supervisor or Shelter Manager identify
         supply sources for water
     In your initial meeting with the shelter manager identify food storage, food
         preparation, serving, dining, and garbage disposal areas within the shelter.
     Make sure the receiving area is close to the road and that there is enough room to
         maneuver there.
     The storage area should be between the receiving area and the food preparation
         area. Equip the area with tables, shelves, and off-the floor racks for storage of dry
         food and staples. Provide refrigeration if available.
     If all food is canned or ready to cook, the preparation area can be small. For fresh
         food, you will need work tables, cutting boards, sinks, utensils, cookware, and
         garbage containers.
     The serving area should be near the preparation area. I should be arranged for
         cafeteria-style service or line feeding and should be equipped with several
         counters or tables for speedier service. The serving rate for cafeteria-style systems
         is about eight people per minute.
     The dining area should be near the serving area. Set up enough tables and chairs
         to accommodate the maximum number of persons expected to be served. If tables
         and chairs are scarce, plan for two or more seatings.
     The disposal area should be away from the preparation, serving, and dining areas.
             - Provide containers for disposal of trash, liquid waste, and garbage.
                 Provide cleaning and disinfectant supplies.
     Identify available utilities. If no utilities are currently available, find out when
         supplemental power will be supplied or when utilities will be restored .
     Estimate staffing needs based on Short-Term or Long-Term needs.

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Duties of Feeding Manager Continued
    These are the food service staffing positions: (you will probably be able to use
       shelter residents for most food service tasks)
           o Kitchen supervisor
           o Food supply supervisor
           o Lead Cook
           o Assistant cook
           o Food preparation workers
           o Dishwashers
           o Cleanup crew
           o Food servers

Ongoing Actions
    Establish a work schedule and assign shifts if necessary
    Ensure that your staff are assigned to and briefed on their specific duties.
    When the shelter first opens, there will probably be limited stocks of food
      available. Do what you can with food stocks within the facility and with supplies
      you are able to acquire from the members. If necessary, ration food. Ready -to-eat
      meals may be provided. Once you are receiving food supplies regularly, consider
      the following:
          o Do not duplicate primary (entree) menu items more than once every five
          o Keep menus simple
          o Plan menus around the equipment you have at the building.
          o Listen to shelter residents and staff. Change item not well liked when
          o Be aware of weather conditions. If it's hot, serve more cold foods. If it's
              cold, serve more hot items.
          o Plan for 2,500 calories per day per person, three meals per day, and at
              least one hot meal per day.
          o Coordinate special diet requirements with the Health Services Manager.
          o Determine how many servings should be prepared. Add 10 percent to the
              number of persons expected to be served.
          o If water is in short supply, use it only for drinking and cooking. Plan on I
              gallon of water per day per person for drinking.
          o Use perishable food first.
          o Use these formulas for ordering canned food:
          o A # 10 can yields 13 8oz. servings. There are 6 # 1 0 cans per case. One
              #10 can is equal to the following:
          o 7 #303 (l lb.) cans
          o 4 #2-1/2 (l lb., 13 oz.) cans 5 #2 (1 lb., 40z.) cans
          o 2 #3 (46-50 oz.) cans
    Keep a record of all food and supplies obtained and/or received.
    Ensure that food areas are kept clean and sanitary.
    Provide the shelter manager with daily statistics on the number of meals served.

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Continued ....
    Attend staff meetings and report food service statistics and any accomplishments
       or problems.

Closing Actions
    Determine when the last meal will be served.
    Consult with the shelter manager and your technical supervisor about how excess
       supplies will be disposed of Dispose supplies according to plan, including the
           o Inventory remaining supplies received from vendors. Make arrangements
               for the return of excess supplies.
    Thoroughly clean food service and food preparation areas.
    Provide worker evaluation and debriefing.
    Turn in all records and other documentation to the shelter manager.
    Prepare and submit a narrative report of your unit's activities, noting
       accomplishments, problems and how they were solved, and recommendations for
       future operations

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B. Essential Shelter Supplies and Equipment

The following list is designed to serve as a guide only. Many of these items may not be
needed immediately and should be obtained only as required.

Identification                                           Cleaning
Armbands and badges                                      Mops and Brooms, Buckets
Identification flags                                     Cleansing powder and detergent
Other identification as available and appropriate        Rags, nonpoisonous disinfectant
                                                         Sweeping compound

General                                                  Office Supplies
Cots, blankets, and other bedding                        Tablets or steno pads
Table                                                    3 x 5 file cards for registration
Chairs                                                   File folders
Trash cans                                               Paper clips
Emergency lighting (if required)                         Transparent tape
Candles                                                  Pens and pencils
Loud speaker (if required)                               Stapler and staples
Telephone(s)                                             Carbon paper
Radios                                                   Red Cross forms
Paper cups and towels                                    records, purchasing, etc.
Comfort kits (if available)                              Rubber bands
Toilet paper

Health and Medical Supplies
Adhesive tape                                            Scissors
Adhesive bandages (assorted)                             Thermometers
Prepared bandages or rolls of gauze, compresses          Towelettes (moist)
Cotton balls                                             Alcohol, isopropyl
Disposable diapers                                       Mops and brooms
Baby bottles and commercially prepared formula           Antiseptic or antiseptic wipes
Safety pins                                              Aspirin: 5 grains, 1 1/2 grains
Sanitary napkins                                         Aromatic spirits of ammonia

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C. Security Guards & Security Officers As Required

Besides locking doors, windows, providing appropriate lighting, alarm and / or
surveillance systems for security; some situations may require security guards.

Security guards and security officers assigned to an active post may find themselves in
a situation where they are required to take a criminal into custody or defend themselves.
A training question that always arises is how much force is a security officer allowed use
in a tense and potentially dangerous situation?

Of course, the answer is: it depends on the situation and how the officer is equipped. For
the purpose of this article, assume the security officer is fully equipped with a handgun,
PR-24 baton, pepper spray, and handcuffs. Of course, the security officer would have to
be properly licensed, hold necessary permits, be fully trained, and only carry legal and
authorized weapons.

Reasonable Force

Unlike police officers, security officers are not required to ever make an arrest. Most
security officers merely observe and report and call the police if a crime occurs in their
presence. However, when a security guard or security officer needs to take someone into
custody for a crime, he or she must use reason and common sense. The law varies from
state-to-state, but generally allows citizens to make an arrest and use reasonable force in
doing so. One common definition of reasonable force is simply not to be excessive, under
the circumstances. This means to consider the seriousness of the crime, the risk of harm
for everyone, and the immediacy of the situation. The preference always is to get a law
enforcement response to affect the arrest.

For example, a petty shoplifting suspect might respond to the physical presence of the
officer, their verbal commands, and should require no more than holding force to make a
detention. After verbal commands fail, a violent suspect might require more physical
force to subdue and chemical sprays or the baton might be needed for self-defense. The
choices and variations are endless. You should always consider the use of force as a
measured continuum from no force to deadly force. Choosing just the level of force
necessary to overcome the obstacle is usually judged as reasonable.

Use of Force Continuum

The concept of a force continuum has been around for years and is still taught at most
police academies. The force continuum is broken down into six broad levels. Each level
is designed to have an elastic factor as the need for force changes as the situation evolves.
It is common for the level of force to go from level two, to level three, and back again in
a matter of seconds.

Level One

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Officer Presence. The mere presence of a highly visible uniform security officer or
marked vehicle is often enough to stop a crime in progress or prevent future crime.
Included in officer presence are standing, walking, running, and use of vehicle lights,
horn, or speaker. Without saying a word, an alert officer can deter crime or direct
criminals away from a property by use of body language and gestures. At this level
gestures should be non-threatening and professional.

Level Two

Verbal Communication. Used in combination with a visible presence, the use of the
voice can usually achieve the desired results. Words can be whispered, used normally, or
shouted to be effective. The content of the message is as important as your demeanor. It’s
always best to start out calm but firm and non-threatening. Choice of words and intensity
can be increased as necessary or used in short commands in serious situations. The right
combination of words in combination with officer presence can de-escalate a tense
situation and prevent the need for a physical altercation. Training and experience
improves the ability of a security officer to communicate effectively with everyone
including the police.

Level Three

Control Holds & Restraints. Certain situations may arise where words alone does not
reduce the aggression. Sometimes security guards and security officers will need to get
involved physically. At this level, minimal force would involve the use of bare hands to
guide, hold, and restrain. This does not include offensive moves such as punching,
tackling, and choking. Pain compliance holds could apply here, but only after ordinary
holds fail to control an aggressive suspect.

A baton or PR-24 can only be used at this level as a self-defense mechanism to block
blows or temporarily restrain a suspect. Handcuffs can be used as a restraint devise only
if the security officer has been trained to do so. Not every suspect needs to be handcuffed.
They should only be used on a person who exhibits aggression, poses a real threat or
where flight is a real possibility. Handcuffs should not be applied too tightly and should
be double-locked when safe to do so. Once a suspect is handcuffed the security officer is
responsible to see that they don’t trip or fall. It is also important not to pile on top or
leave the handcuffed suspect face down on the ground too long to avoid "positional
asphyxiation". Hog-ties should not be used by security officers.

Level Four

Chemical Agents. Sometimes when the suspect is violent or threatening, more extreme,
but non-deadly measures must be used in defense to bring the suspect under control or
affect an arrest. Before moving to level four, it is assumed that other less physical
measures had been tried or was deemed inappropriate. When used by surprise, pepper
spray and tear gas is an excellent distraction, allowing the security officer time to get
away, call the police, or subdue the suspect. Contrary to media advertising, pepper spray

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does not have stopping power or cause paralysis. An assailant can still grab you, punch
you, stab you, or shoot you and will definitely be angrier after being sprayed. Also, tear
gas may not be effective on the insane, drug addicts, intoxicated, or hysterical persons.
See my web page on Self-Defense: Tear Gases.

Tear gases (CN, CS, OC) can be hand-held, hand-thrown, or propelled. Security officer’s
usually only get involved with hand-held canisters containing pepper spray. Pepper spray
should not be used to protect property or to enforce business rules. Remember it's a
defensive weapon. Pepper sprays need to be directed in the suspect’s face for maximum
result and not sprayed wildly at groups of people. Even though considered non-deadly,
chemical sprays can cause a severe reaction and even death to a suspect with medical or
allergic conditions. Also, pepper sprays have a blinding effect and care must be used that
spray victims do not fall down stairs or walk into traffic or operate motor vehicles.

Level Five

Temporary Incapacitation. To use force under level five means that the situation was so
extreme, violent, and immediate that it was necessary to temporarily incapacitate a
suspect prior to arrival of the police. This includes the use of all methods of non-deadly
force beginning with the empty hand up through and including impact tools. At level five,
properly used defensive and offensive moves are allowed under the right circumstances.
Choke holds and carotid neck holds can be used, but at great risk. Although still taught at
many police academies, neck compressions are very risky and used only in extreme
situations. Baton blows to the suspect’s head or throat can be deadly and inconsistent
with professional training standards. Temporary incapacitation is used to stop a suspect
from injuring you or others long enough to handcuff and restrain them. Baton blows to
soft tissue and certain joint areas are all consistent with professional security training
standards and POST.

Stun guns are part of level five, but should not be used by security officers except on
special posts and only by those authorized and trained in the use and effects of the device.
Stun guns are held-held devices and some like the Air-Taser propel charged darts on
leads at a suspect.

Level Six

Deadly Force. When you are in immediate fear of death or great bodily injury at the
hands of a perpetrator you are authorized to use deadly force in most states. Check your
state laws to be sure. Deadly force can be applied by your hands, impact tools, or with a
firearm. There are no rules, other than negligence, for applying deadly force when it’s
justified. However, deadly force is the highest standard and must be justified. This force
continuum will be considered in the aftermath as a test to see if other alternatives were
used first or were more appropriate. For security officers, use of the firearm is the most
troublesome because of the range of the bullet. You may be justified is shooting a suspect
standing in front of you, but not justified for wounding innocent bystanders two blocks
away. Similarly, you may have been justified in shooting a suspect charging at you with a

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knife, but not justified after he turns to run away. Handguns should never be pulled and
brandished as a deterrent or be used as a control tool under level three.

Training is Key
To fully understand the force continuum it must be periodically discussed and reviewed
by security supervisors. Practical exercises will help re-enforce the training and cause the
reactions to become more appropriate instead of instinctual. In a crisis situation, fear and
adrenalin have a way of accelerating the force continuum. Practice and ongoing training
exercises will ease the effects of stress and make the safe outcome more predictable.

2. Coordinate Public Information
        If there is media coverage of the emergency, designate one person to answer
         all questions from the media. If a stake’s region public communications
         director is available, he may be the designated spokesman.
        Clear all news releases to be given by the designated spokesman.
        Give daily media briefings.
        Keep a history of events.
        Identify local and national relief resources.
        Serve as a single contact with other agencies.

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3. Volunteer Management / Damage Assessment

A. Volunteer Team Crew Recommendation for Hurricane Relief

      Team crews are to be organized and all volunteers accounted for, before departure
       to the identified disaster areas.
      Stake Presidencies and local the Organization’s Community Leaderrics are to
       assign team leaders for each team crew.
      Each team is to have a team leader capable of readying a map and basic field
       organization skills.
      Team crews should have a range of 5 to 15 volunteers per crew.
      Team crews should have at minimum of 2 vehicles per team. In case of an
       emergency there has to be a transport vehicle.
      Team leaders should have basic First Aid Training and a means of

Each Volunteer Team should be equipped with the following items.
    LDS Emergency Services Signs (To be posted in two location in the vehicle) 1 on
      the dash and 1 behind the driver side window.
    Chainsaw minimum 1 per group.
    cycle oil, bar lube, and mixed gas.( 2 gallons mixed gas)
    Minimum 16-foot extension ladder.
    1 box of simplex nails.
    Trash Bags minimum 1 box 55 gallon construction grade.
    Yard rakes minimum 2 per team.
    30-foot length of rope, or a 20-foot length of chain 5/8 minimum size. 2 coolers
      filled with ice minimum per group.
    maps of the local area.
    Portable air compressor and tire plug kit.
    Road flares.
    Roadside reflector kit.
    1 Fire extinguisher.
    1 five-gallon can of gas per vehicle (Emergency run out).
    1 bottle of finger nail polish (FOR CHIGGERS).
    1 whistle or hand held air horn.

Each Volunteer Team member will be responsible to bring the following items.
    Work gloves.
    Sun Block.
    Personal hygiene kit.
    Water 2 gallons per day per person.
    Food for the amount of days projected to serve, plus two extra days for emergencies.
    Personal medication.

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      Daily change of clothes, and extra socks and under garments.
      Claw Hammer.
      Utility knife.
      Headgear, Hardhat, baseball cap, bandana, etc.
      Personal First Aid Kit.
      1 legal size note pad, 1 highlighter, and 2 pens--1 blue or black ink and 1 red ink.
      Personal scriptures.
      Bedding, LE. sleeping pad, sleeping bag, and pillow.
      Flash light \vith extra batteries.
      Battery powered radio.
      Personal mess kit I.E. Cup Spoon, Fork, and knife.
      2-rolls of toilet paper. (Recommend 1 package of baby wipes per person).

See Red Cross or volunteer management organization guidance.

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B. Status Report to Organization Leaders and / or EOC

Name                                                   Title

Contact Info                                           Time

1. Type and location of Emergency/Disaster

2. Time, or estimated time, of onset

3. Names and / or number of injured, missing or
In Danger:

4. Special assistance, manpower, or equipment which may be needed to save
lives and protect property

5. Location of Disaster Headquarters

6. Person in charge

7.   Media Spokes Person:

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C. Initial Damage Assessment Report Form

1. Reporting Location
                                            (Name of county/city)                                (Date & time)

2. Area affected

3. Cause of damage
                                                           (flood, tornadoes, etc.)

4. Persons (insert numbers in space provided)
A. Killed                       B.   Injured                                  C.      Sick
D.   Displaced                    E.    Missing                               F.      Hospitalized

5. Damage to Essential Facilities (indicate capability lost and estimated $ loss)
A.  Hospitals             %           $             D.    Communications          $                        $
B.   Power Plants            %         $              E.       Drinking Water                %             $
C.   Food Availability       %         $              F.       Other (Specify)               %             $

6. Damage to Public Property
A.  Roads                 %            $              E.       Water Treatment               $             $
B.   Bridges                 %         $              F.       Sewage Plants                 %             $
C.   Schools                 %         $              G.       Distribution Lines            %             $
D.   Irrigation Districts    %         $              H.       Airports                      %             $

7. Damage to Private Property
A.  Dwelling              %            $              C.       Farmers/Ranchers              $             $
B.   Commercial              %         $              D.       Livestock                     %             $

8. Are there large accumulations of debris?            Yes               No        (If yes, explain in remarks)

9. Is the reporting organization intact enough to fulfill its governing functions? Yes                         No

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10. Reporting organization, which have been committed to alleviating damage, loss, hardship, or

                                    PERSONNEL            MATERIAL                EQUIPMENT

CERT (Search & Rescue)
First Aid / CPR
Fire and Rescue
Debris Removal
Emergency Repairs

Estimated $ Value               $                    $                       $

11.   Assistance required to cope with the Emergency or Disaster. (check [] requirement)

      PUBLIC NEEDS                     WATER SUPPLY                    FLOOD FIGHTING

         Restore Power                   Drinking                          Dike Building
         Communications                  Sanitary Sewers, etc.             Sandbagging
         Transportation                  Fire Fighting                     Pumps
         Secure Area                     Other                             Other
         Debris Clearance

        VICTIM NEEDS                                     ADMINISTRATION

        Search and Rescue                                Activate EOC
        Evacuation                                       Public Announcements
        Food                                             Maps Available for:
        Shelter                                          General Disaster Area
        Clothing                                         Specific Damage Sites
        Medical                                          Location of EOC, DAC, field offices
        Other (Specify)                                  Other

                              (Explain items checked in remarks)

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12.   Location of Organization Emergency Operations
      Center (CEOC)
      Telephone Number of
      Other Communications

13.   Amount of local resources available and expected to be appropriated to meet the
needs of this

14.   Remarks

15.   Name and Title of Person Filing Report

      Date and Time

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4. Liaison with the Organization’s Community Leader Store House
Emergency Resources Available through the Organization’s Community Leaders'
The following is a list of some of the equipment and supplies available from
organizations' central storehouses and from organization headquarters:
1. An Initial emergency supply of food
2. Field stoves and cooking utensils
3. Disposable plates, cups, and utensils
4. A 100-gallon water trailer and water purification system
5. A supply tent (for use as a temporary organizations' storehouse)
6. Tents with frames
7. Heating and cooking stoves
8. Latrine screens or tents
9. Wrecking bars, shovels, picks, and wheelbarrows
10. Emergency first aid kits
11. Bleach for water purification
12. A list of emergency supplies stored in each organizations' central storehouse is
    available from Organization headquarters, from the welfare services area director, or
    (outside the United States and Canada) from the director for temporal affairs.

Communications Centers
   Each organizations' central storehouse has a communications center equipped to
communicate with Organization headquarters and other organizations' central storehouses
if normal communication channels are disrupted. Radio communication equipment at the
storehouse can also transmit teletype copies directly to another organizations' central
storehouse or through the storehouse to Organization headquarters in Salt Lake City.
   Each organizations' central storehouse and welfare services area director or director for
temporal affairs outside the United States and Canada also keeps a list of Organization-
service ham radio operators. This list is updated every six months.
   If there is no communications center in your area, you may request an equipped control
center from the organizations' central storehouse. The control center is a trailer that can
be flown or pulled to the disaster area. Radio operators and a disaster advisor will remain
with the center while it provides assistance needed by local members.
The control center contains:
1. Space and pre-wiring for a portable shortwave radio.
2. A base station (two-way radio with antenna).
3. Portable two-way radios with spare batteries and battery chargers.
4. A typewriter.
5. A copy machine.
6. Office supplies.
7. A power generator.
8. A chemical re-circulating toilet (for control center personnel).
9. A water supply for four people and purification equipment.
10. Reference materials for disasters.
Other resources include: Organization Advisor Teams, civil defense plans and facilities,

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first aid training, non-organization agencies—Red Cross and government agencies.

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5. Kershaw County Emergency Shelters, Leaders, Protocols and
A. Kershaw County Community Shelters
These shelters will be opened at the direction of the Sheriff or EOC Director and
announced via the public media.

CAMDEN HIGH SCHOOL                                 LUGGOFF-ELGIN HIGH SCHOOL
1022 Enrenclou Drive, Camden, SC 425-8930               1284 Hwy. 1, South Lugoff, SC 438-3481

Betty Nelson, Team Leader               425-4858          Sharon Cle, Team Leader          438-3493
Dorothy Bloom                          432-6008           Susan Hughes                     438-3493
Elizabeth Maxwell                      713-8927           Lindy Cashion                    408-8544
Evelyn Monroe                          432-4007           Laradine Harrison                438-1411
Pam Company                            424-0612           Gloria Harris                    408-8771
Mary Long                              713-0239           Stacie McGee                     438-1480

2684 Baron DeKalb Road, Camden, SC 432-2483         3000 Lockhart Road, Kershaw, SC 432-9858

Meredith Morris, Team Leader    475-4348            Debbie Thomas, Team Leader       475-7701
Becky Morrison                  432-0773            Jennie Mitchell                   432-2107
Dorothy Atkins                  432-2842/8398       Amanda Snipes                    475-2840
                                                    Sharon O’Donoghue                334-6007
KERSHAW COUNTY MEDICAL CENTER                       Cristy Padgett                   713-8769
Haile & Roberts Street, Camden, SC 432-4311

Terry Robinson, Team Leader        713-1092         PINE TREE ILL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Dana Demeter                       425-6555         938 the Organization’s Community Leaderville
Andrea Walker                      424-0380         Highway, Camden, SC 425-8970
Julia Carlos                       432-2089
                                                    Carol Criminger, Team Leader    432-6356
                                                    Karen Lamoy                     432-4899
LESLIE M. STOVER SCHOOL                             Sherry Davis                    432-4492
1649 Smyrna Road, Elgin, SC 438-7414                Lucy Keys                       432-7196
                                                    Mary Murphy                     432-5249
Jean Catoe, Team Leader            438-2804
Kendra Faile                       438-4744
Edythe Keisler                     438-6791
Tammy Wilson                       699-7258
Wanda Netties                      699-4861
Brenda Blanding                    647-0355

3 February 2007                                                                     Page 161
APPENDIX E. Church / Other Resources

B. County Leaders.
   The statutory responsibility for the management of an emergency or disaster in South
   Carolina rests with the elected leadership of each jurisdiction. For events requiring
   decisions about the commitment of resources beyond those normally available to
   county emergency response agencies, the following line of succession will be
   observed, based on the availability of the senior ranking public official. For Kershaw
   County these officials are, in priority order:
    Kershaw County Administrator- Robert T. Boland, (803) 425-1500; 515 Walnut
   Street, Camden, 29020
    Chairman, Kershaw County Council- Steve S. Kelly, Jr; 432-0446; 827 Pine Oak
   Road, Camden, 29020-9153
    Kershaw County Emergency Preparedness Director-Gene Faulkenberry, 425-
    Kershaw County Sheriff-Sheriff Steve McCaskill, 425-1512

C. County Protocols
   Kershaw County will follow an On-Scene Control System for emergency response.
   The on-scene control system vests the responsibility for the direction and control of
   all response actions with the Incident Commander (IC)—whether Fire Chief, Sheriff
   or other qualified official. Personnel located in the Emergency Operation Center
   (EOC) will provide policy direction and logistic and other support to the Incident
   Commander as appropriate. The Kershaw County EOC is the facility designed as a
   central location with personnel who will compile, analyze, and coordinate overall
   information and planning activities in support of incident command forces in the
   Kershaw County EOC
   515 Walnut Street
   Camden, SC 29020

D. Other Contact Information
   Kershaw County
    Kirk Stropes, Central Comm. Director, (803) 425-7671; 2521 Broad Street,
      Camden, 29020
    Robert Johnson, EMS Director, (803) 432-4311; 1315 Roberts Street, Camden,
    Randy Roberts, GIS Coordinator, (803) 425-1500; 515 Walnut Street, Camden,
    John B. Fellers, III; Coroner; (803) 424-4019; P.O. Box 543, Camden, 29020-
    Red Cross, 432-3383
    Highway Patrol, 775-5357

3 February 2007                                                                 Page 162
APPENDIX F. Preparedness Documents and Sites

APPENDIX F. Preparedness Documents and Web Sites

Preparedness Documents and Sites:
Many of the materials used to build this guide come from the following organizations.
Additional materials can be obtained from them:

Be Ready Campaign

American Red Cross National Headquarters
2025 E Street, NW
Washington, DC 20006
Phone: (202) 303-4498

National Weather Service
1325 East West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, U.S.A
Public Inquiries: (404) 639-3534 / (800) 311-3435

U.S. Geological Survey
Information Services

P.O. Box 25286
Denver, CO 80225
1 (888) 275-8747

The Organization of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
Salt Lake City, Utah

Provided below is a list of recommended sites. The Web address for each site reflects its
home address. Searches conducted from each home site’s page result in the most current
and extensive list of available material for the site.

Government Sites
Be Ready Campaign
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Citizen Corps

3 February 2007                                                                  Page 163
APPENDIX F. Preparedness Documents and Sites

Department of Commerce
Department of Education
Department of Energy
Department of Health and Human Services
Department of Homeland Security
Department of Interior
Department of Justice
Environmental Protection Agency
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Food and Drug Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Weather Service
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
The Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office
The White House
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. Fire Administration
U.S. Fire Administration Kids Page
U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Office of Personnel Management
U.S. Postal Service
USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station

Non-government Sites
American Red Cross
Institute for Business and Home Safety
National Fire Protection Association

National Mass Fatalities Institute
National Safety Compliance
The Middle East Seismological Forum
The Pan American Health Organization

Here you will learn preparedness strategies that are common to all disasters. You plan
only once, and are able to apply your plan to all types of hazards.

• Get informed about hazards and emergencies that may affect you and your family.
• Develop an emergency plan.
• Collect and assemble disaster supplies kit.
• Learn where to seek shelter from all types of hazards.
• Identify the community warning systems and evacuation routes.
• Include in your plan required information from community and school plans.
• Learn what to do for specific hazards.
• Practice and maintain your plan.

3 February 2007                                                                 Page 164

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