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					Development of a Sector Related Qualification Framework (SRQF)
            Practical Example: Car Sensitive Sector




                       CarEasyVet Project
                         December 2009




                          Georg Spöttl
                         Susanne Kühn
                           Gert Loose




                               1
Table of Contents




                    2
1 Introduction1
As already its long title (European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning)
shows, the purpose of the EQF is not limited to creating a Europe-wide usable basis
for assessing learning outcomes achieved in various learning environments in vari-
ous countries of the European Union, thereby delivering people responsible for per-
sonnel recruiting a tool for translating unknown certificates from foreign countries into
qualifications they are familiar with. Properly used, the EQF should help to promote
lifelong learning which is far from being a reality at the moment, regardless the need
to create conditions enabling people to learn during their whole lifetime and to trans-
fer the results of this learning into steps on their career path which is accepted by all
stakeholders in the field.

If the EQF shall be an instrument to support activities intended to achieve the
abovementioned purpose, it has to deliver a structure for describing what a person
really is able to do after he/she has finished a (set of) learning process(es). It is obvi-
ous that there have to be categories of description which allow for describing learning
outcomes not as a mere summary of skills to be considered isolated from each other
and without reflection of the conditions under which they are applied, but as an en-
semble of abilities which become meaningful first and utmost by the relation to the
context in which work takes place: It can be more or it can be less necessary to have
this relation in mind in order to successfully apply the above mentioned skills, and the
degree of necessary reflection on this delivers criteria for the assignment of acquired
abilities to levels.2




1
  Based but modified on the report of the ―LEONARDO-Project European Automotive Sector Compe-
tence MetaFramework‖ (2008), Final Report and on several publications of Georg Spöttl.
2
   See Georg Spöttl/Peter Gerds, The Car Mechatronic, A European Occupational Profile, p.21. where
this context orientation is described by means of an example which is quoted her in detail in order to
enable a better understanding of the argumentation delivered in the introduction at hand : ―A qualified
expert is distinguishable from the layman in that he or she is able to complete the tasks set with exper-
tise and within a specific period of time. In accordance with this a vehicle expert is, for example, able
to remove a clutch in a set time, check and replace the necessary worn parts, and adjust the vehicle
accordingly. These activities constitute the core tasks in the repair of the clutch of a passenger car.
However, the essential wear and tear of the vehicle, and ways of eliminating this, is disregarded when
tasks are formulated in such a way.
                                                   3
It is also understood that descriptors used at the EQF level are necessarily abstract
and have to be concretised at sectoral level in order to deliver a clear picture of the
work potential an individual possesses, and – as far as correspondence to EQF lev-
els is required – to describe this correspondence in sectoral terms. This means that
EQF descriptors are considered as generic terms to which the more specific sectoral
descriptors are assignable, and it is one of the tasks of the project at hand to find out
how far the EQF achieves this objective.

Since it is assumed that descriptions of national occupational profiles deliver informa-
tion about the abilities required for work, they are taken as material for testing the
EQF descriptors, i.e. finding out how far these descriptions allow for setting up sec-
toral terms derived from EQF descriptors, thereby demonstrating the degree of their
validity.

When the project started, it was supposed that it would be easy to select some rele-
vant material for exemplary EQF assignment, in order to provide for empirical evi-
dence to be tried out for recognised profiles, emerging profiles, and curricula. It
turned out that the distinction between profile and qualification cannot help to achieve
higher plausibility: As a rule, relevant qualifications are related to profiles and con-
texts and, in terms of abilities (for work) to be investigated, do not deliver additional
features. To achieve a deeper knowledge on abilities of work means to open up the
context of work and to point out functional requirements of work-related tasks.

It turned also out that emerging profiles could not be used for experimental EQF as-
signment since they could not be identified. This was a pity since this would have



Therefore, the design/formulation of tasks should not only take into account the purely technical or
functional aspect of the service (such as fault diagnosis and repair), but also the coherence and capa-
bilities of the workshop as a whole in order to improve the service available to the customer. When a
defective clutch is repaired, as well as its technical function being restored, other potential causes of
faults should be identified and alternative remedies taken into consideration…… Close analyses of the
state of the clutch disk,(combustion or oil on the lining), the state of the compression springs or the
patterns and surface structure of the clutch-plate are the responsibilities of the experts. The other con-
sideration of the question is ‘why’ the fault has occurred at all. In order to answer this question visible,
perceptible and audible evidence should be ignored. A clutch disk can be burned, for example, be-
cause the user constantly allowed the clutch to slip. However, it can also burn if the lining is made of
unsuitable material, or because there is no clutch clearance available. However, errors in installation
during a previous repair can also be made: the mechanic could possibly overlook the fact that the
compression springs had hardened or that an incorrect part was fitted. It is also possible that the
manufacturer has used a relatively weak clutch in order to save costs.‖
                                                     4
demonstrated how a competence framework could work in the future, formulating the
demand of the industry, distinguished from the supply formulated by a sectoral quali-
fication framework (both working on the basis of EQF related descriptors). But there
were no criteria available which would have enabled the partners’ consortium clearly
to define if we are really talking about an upcoming new profile, or if changes in work
processes have only led to a modification of already existing profiles. On an empirical
basis, this can only be decided if a majority of experts is convinced that it is right or
not right to speak about an ―emerging profile‖. On a theoretical basis, this can be de-
cided with the help of criteria which are indicated under The EQF Category ‘Compe-
tence’ and its Concretisation by Relations to Sectoral Needs as it is the target in the
CareasyVet-project. It is obvious that also on this basis there might be a lot of cases
where it can be doubted if we should talk about a new profile or not. At the very end,
it is a pragmatic decision of stakeholders in the field how these things should be han-
dled. But agreements on these subjects can only achieved in a framework for which
the project CareasyVet intended to create the conditions.

Therefore attempts to assign EQF categories to profiles had to be limited to recog-
nised ones. In order to make sure that the results of this work are as representative
as possible, it was decided to choose another approach as originally foreseen: not to
achieve plausibility by a relatively big number of subjects to be investigated (two rec-
ognised profiles, two emerging profiles, to be supplemented by qualifications to be
investigated), but to achieve the same aim by means of another approach: Based on
the criteria of work-process analysis advanced occupational standards were created
for different profiles as a basis of establishing a sector related framework. In other
words: It seems that same kinds of work processes have led to similar descriptions of
abilities needed to carry out this work which does not surprise in the light of the
transnational character of the automotive industry requiring, of course, more or less
the same abilities of employees to perform work processes in the same sectoral
area.3




3
  The development of the European core profile quoted above is based on this experience. This profile
is taken as provisional reference for investigation: If in this introduction is talked about ―the car mecha-
                                                     5
In spite of this commonality it is not a trivial work to derive from national descriptions
a core profile which delivers the essence of abilities required to be available for the
performance of work. This cannot be achieved by merely identifying the smallest
common denominator of a set of national profile descriptions which obviously con-
cern the same work area. There is, of course, a set of skills (in the EQF-related
sense of the word) which after a comparison of national profile descriptions turns out
as being indispensible for work since it reflects directly the stages of the work-
process as steps to be taken in order to achieve the aim of a product or service. But
this delivers only a one-dimensional view on the abilities required for fulfilling tasks
resulting from the nature of the work process. Although standardised to a certain ex-
tent, this work process has to be performed on the basis of differing contexts in which
the work takes place, thereby causing different conditions for successfully carrying
out these tasks.

This context is only partially covered by the available profile descriptions, and not to
the same extent in every country. But this does not necessarily mean that it only
plays a minor role. It can also be that it is not explicitly mentioned and that the devel-
opment of context oriented abilities is expected without being clearly defined. In order
to ensure that abilities developed within a learning process assessed and certified
under reference of an occupational profile are really identified, it seems therefore to
be necessary not only to investigate descriptions of occupational profiles, but also
material which could implicitly comprehend information about these abilities: prereq-
uisites of access to training, curricula, methods of training, learning locations, exami-
nation regulations.

This work-process based approach does not conflict with the outcome orientation of
the EQF. The abovementioned material should not be investigated in order to com-
pare learning processes and the conditions under which they take place, it should be
considered since this could shed light on learning results which are not formulated
within the description of publicly recognised professional profiles. This could help to
resume more optimistically a discussion which started when the EQF consultation



tronic‖, this profile is referred to. Details of the approach of work-process analysis will not be discussed
in this paper. A number of publications by Spöttl and other authors are available on this topic .
                                                     6
process begun and ―oozed away‖ when it became clear that the EQF would become
the grid against which in the future results of learning processes having taken place
somewhere in Europe will be measured in order to be understandable elsewhere in
Europe: the debate about a possible contradiction of the concept of profession (which
was assumed to be mainly process oriented) and the outcome orientation of the
EQF. It can even be concluded that a Europe-wide comparable outcome orientation
is only possible via a work-process orientation as the latter provides a comparable
level.

The discussion around the EQF can benefit from the above mentioned approach if it
can be shown that all learning outcomes are considered by the sectoral descriptors
to be defined on the basis of the EQF, including the abilities not presentable by mere
skills descriptions, but by means of an orientation to the context in which work proc-
esses take place. Under these circumstances, the confrontation of process orienta-
tion and result orientation would lose its importance as it could not be claimed any
more that the EQF description of professions misses important issues of the concept
of profession.

Nevertheless, it is not by chance that the specific features of this concept have up to
now not been considered in terms of a structured description of learning outcomes. It
is obvious that gradual integration into work processes (as it is foreseen in the dual
system of initial training) initiates professional experience which produces and en-
hances abilities in the field, and for this purpose it is not necessary to have a clear
idea of all the abilities resulting from this experience. It can be expected that the
more professional experience grows, the more professional abilities will increase,
and this is sufficient since at the very end of this process the learner will act as a pro-
fessional, for he/she has not only learned how to do something, but proves that
he/she is able to do it by just doing it. There are, of course, examinations which are
used as tools of assessment from outside, but the most important part of these ex-
aminations are practical tests which simulate an environment comparable to the
place where the candidate has learnt and worked up to now. Therefore the whole
training can be considered as a process of integration of learning and working, guar-
anteeing that abilities developed within this process will at the very end match the
needs of the work process.
                                             7
Against this background, it can be understood why in the EQF debate of countries
like Austria or Germany the apprehension arose that important learning outcomes
might not be considered: Professional experience introduced by initial training in
these countries delivers the guarantee that a maximum of required abilities will be
developed, including those which are not immediately visible and as such are not
always subject of specific reflection: They are normally comprehended under the
term professional competence [berufliche Handlungsfähigkeit]. Learning by doing,
underpinned by theoretical measures and carried out for a longer period, normally
makes sure that the development of all relevant abilities takes place as also the flexi-
bility of dealing with unforeseen situations should be trained. Important abilities of this
kind might remain unconsidered if a catalogue of necessary abilities has to be pro-
duced as, at least at first sight, some of these abilities elude systematic description –
and why encumber the hard and possibly not successful task to define them com-
pletely if the method of initial training within the dual system of apprenticeship en-
sures that a maximum of these abilities will be developed?

Due to various reasons, it cannot be expected that the dual system of initial training
will become an export article bought in all European countries, and it should not be
concealed that also in the strongholds of the dual system it is no longer self-evident
that this system is applied without curtailments. Against the background of rapidly
ongoing technological changes, social partners get more and more and more difficul-
ties to agree on a context in which professional activities have to take place: Does
technical progress reduce professional activities to a performance which needs no
reflection on the ―environment‖ in which these activities take place (or even: Is this
reflection a disadvantage in a competition for which increase of velocity plays a cen-
tral role?), or does complexity of work processes, on the contrary, call for a profes-
sional who is able to deal with problems of non-standard situations which only arise
from time to time, but have nevertheless to be solved? In the first case, this would
deliver arguments for minimising the length of vocational training (thereby undermin-
ing the traditional concept of profession), in the latter case this would require efforts
for enriching descriptions of professional profiles by ―professional actions‖ which
cover new dimensions of work opened by technological changes.


                                            8
It can be assumed that there is no clear answer on the question above, probably
there are more than one, depending on the perspectives of work organisation to be
expected for the automotive sector and its domains in the near future. At any rate,
the above described uncertainty delivers strong reasons for defining categories rele-
vant for the description of context-oriented abilities as precisely as possible since this
should help to deliver criteria for discussing the questions above.

But there is, of course, another reason for fulfilling this task which concerns mobility
on the European labour market: Learning results achieved in one country have to be
compared with learning outcomes achieved in other contexts, i.e. within other tradi-
tions of vocational training. In a debate which deals with comparability of totally differ-
ing national systems of training and education, there is only one way to prove that it
is worth while considering them beside obvious skills required by work processes: To
describe these abilities in terms of learning outcomes, as near as possible to the
EQF descriptors.


2 Implications of a qualification framework
A qualifications framework is understood as structures for the development, the de-
scription, and the systematisation of the relations between qualifications which inter-
link all formally recognized qualifications of an educational system as well as the
relevant world of work. In this process, qualifications are structured as scrutinized
and/or verified bundles of competencies that are not confined to a certain way of
learning (cf. Bohlinger 2006, p. 1; Sloane 2007, p. 25).

The requirements named so far come to effect within the current European Qualifica-
tions Framework (EQF) which is to be used as a means for transfer and as a catego-
rization scheme for the classification of learning outcomes.

―A European Qualifications Framework should help to relate national and sectoral
qualifications frameworks and systems. Thus the transfer and the recognition of the
qualifications of individual citizens will be facilitated.‖ (Commission of the European
Community 2005, p. 4).



                                            9
The EQF must thus be understood as a meta-framework with the intention to serve
as a link between sectors. However, as this is a meta-framework, it is applicable as
an orientation and reference system, albeit without a concrete validity for sectors.
The qualifications embedded in the sectors must therefore be identified provided that
it is agreed upon that the qualification framework should serve as a transnational ―or-
ganisation system‖, as a framework of references.

By additionally taking note that the enhanced objectives of the EQF include

   an increase of transparency in order to improve the work mobility,

   an increase of recognition and permeability in order to improve the educational
    mobility and

   a recognition/ certification of competencies (also of the informally required ones)
    (cf. Hanf 2006, p. 54-57)

the question must be clarified how this must be shaped with respect to a sector in
order to become practicable. It must be clarified how qualifications and competencies
with a relation to sectors – and here especially to the automotive sector – should be
described4. There is a clear procedure regarding the description process of qualifica-
tions related to a sector with focus towards a qualification framework.

Regardless whether the European Qualifications Framework is rather considered a
reference framework, a means of transfer, an instrument for quality assurance, as a
determination of common reference issues or an instrument for life-long learning, it
may be assumed that competency profiles or even complete study courses can be
assigned to the matrix of the qualification framework. It is also assumed that the as-
signment of levels can be clarified in any case. Eventually this means a clarification
of which qualificational profile corresponds to which level.

Within the eight-level hierarchy of the EQF, each level must be characterized with the
three descriptors (sub-categories) knowledge, skills and competencies. This corre-
sponds to a scaling based on competency orientation. The descriptions should be



4
  A neutralized description, a description without context relation, is likely to be obsolete as it would
remain meaningless for the coping of tasks with regard to necessary competencies.
                                                   10
outcome-oriented. This means, learning outcomes should be utilized in a sense of
product orientation. Thus it should be pointed out what a student knows, understands
and is able to do. Learning as a process and learning environments do not play any
role. The described learning outcomes, on the other hand, are the prerequisites for a
certification and orientation for the expected quality.

The risk of this direction is that the workplace demand perspective does not play the
role as it should play. This we will take into consideration within the discussion of a
sectoral framework.




                                            11
3 Background for developing sector related qualification
    frameworks
The core idea behind the design of an education and training system must be the
following: “Education and training is preparation for successful performance at
the workplace and the society”.

This ―performance‖ can be fairly simple and repetitive in the necessary know-how for
its execution. It can be strictly practical and hands-on or it can be highly demanding
regarding the knowledge and know-how and the behaviour needed to participate in
the shaping of a society.

These different specifications have to be achieved by entities of training which are
different in their substance and in the scope and depth of knowledge and skills con-
veyed. Finally these entities have to reflect the actual skill requirements at the work-
place in a complimentary way. Consequently the sequence of these entities should
spell out levels of competence which should be meaningful in themselves and which
should be in a complementary way covering all actual skill requirements at the work-
place and the requirements for (skilled) work and technology.

In reality levels of training emerge out of the interplay of what is actually needed at
the workplace and the potential of the feeder systems regarding the qualifications
they can provide. Ideally these levels will form a ―LABOR QUEUE‖ of accepted and
recognized qualification-entry points into employment.

As a result of this interplay between what can be provided and what is actually re-
quired, systems of training are usually formed over time by attempts from both sides
to improve the system and by making it more responsive to the requirements at the
workplace.

Most commonly in this process the driving force for reform comes from within the or-
ganisation responsible for education and training i.e. from the providing side. Yet, it
should not be overlooked that the value and acceptance of various skill levels lies in
their acceptance as an answer to the demand-structure at the workplace.


                                          12
In order to explore the definition of (skill) levels it has to be kept in mind there are ba-
sically two different perspectives in going about it to define these levels.

      a)      Which different skills, programmes and levels can be offered by the train-
              ing system?
               Training supply perspective

      b)      Which different skills and qualification levels are required at the work-
              place?
               Workplace demand perspective

Most commonly approach (a) is pursued, because it is based on the perspective of
the education and training providers and they are more likely to reflect on levels of
skills offered. The demand side, the employers (b), usually do not reflect on skill lev-
els, they are mainly concerned with running their business profitably. Hence, ap-
proach (a) is likely to dominate. However in many cases these attempts have failed
for a very simple reason: the decision regarding the acceptance of education
training and training levels offered is made at the workplace by the employers.

What we really need is the expertise which can be offered in education and training
which comes along with approach (a), yet it should observe the workplace perspec-
tive of approach (b) in order to find out which skill levels are really accepted as de-
fined entry levels into employment.

That means that the work requirements and their implications have to be described.


3.1        Sector relation and Qualification levels in the employment systems

As a first approach to the notion of qualification levels it is sensible to draw on the
results of labour market and qualification research. Accordingly one can distinguish
three to four different levels in nearly all sectors of the employment system:

       unskilled and semi-skilled workers
       skilled workers (employees with intermediate qualifications)
       highly qualified employees (employees with a university degree)
In SME research (SME: small and medium sized enterprises) it is quite common to
draw a distinction within the intermediate sector between skilled workers and em-
                                            13
ployees on the one hand and professionals with management responsibilities such
as masters, technicians and similar positions like Fachwirte on the other. In most of
the craft trades as well as in other parts of the SME sectors there exist in fact only
two levels of qualifications, namely, skilled workers and masters/technicians. Impor-
tant examples for this situation are the car service and repair sector, the construction
sector and large parts of the mechanical engineering industry.

During the past two decades considerable changes have occurred on the level of
unskilled and semi-skilled workers. The proportion of unskilled and semi-skilled
workers has continuously declined in central Europe. It is expected by labour market
research that in the long run a figure will be reached that is considerably below 10 %
for semi-skilled workers. However, there is a huge variance between different eco-
nomic sectors and enterprises. The skill requirements for semi-skilled workers in the
mechanical engineering sector, for instance, have clearly increased. The proportion
of semi-skilled workers in highly developed national economies has declined a) due
to an ongoing process of automation and b) due to the relocation of strongly assem-
bly-based enterprises into countries with lower wage levels. In general the employ-
ees affected perform highly specialised and quite demanding tasks that cannot sim-
ply be located within existing occupational profiles and formal curricula. These work-
ers qualify for their jobs exclusively via in-company training, and there is no alterna-
tive to the established practice of ―training on the job‖. Therefore the integration of
semi-skilled workers into a European Qualifications Framework is hardly possible.

Conclusion
The results of labour market and qualification research suggest a vertical differentia-
tion into three to four qualification levels:

    Unskilled and semi-skilled workers

    Intermediate level
       (eventually intermediate level 2)

    Highly qualified employees.




                                                14
3.2        Vocational qualification and competence

The notion of qualification denotes all those skills that are objectively necessary to
master the tasks inherent in the work process. This is why the term ―skill require-
ments” is frequently used. Competences, on the other hand, denote the subjective
prerequisites that employees possess and that enable them to meet the objective
skill requirements. The demands put on the skills of the workforce by the work proc-
esses can be investigated by means of work process analyses. What is decisive as
an intervening variable is the social organisation of work, i. e. the definition of tasks
and thus the organisation of the work process. This means that it is not so much
technology that serves as a criterion for the definition of skill requirements, but the
interplay between work organisation, subject of work, work methods, use of technol-
ogy and the occupational competence of the employees. With regard to the definition
of vocational qualifications in the context of occupational profiles there is thus a con-
siderably broad scope of discretion. The development of occupations in different
countries shows that the introduction of new models of organisation in enterprises,
which is oriented towards work and business processes of the company, goes in line
with a clear reversal of the horizontal division of labour and thus to a reduction of oc-
cupational profiles. In accordance with the goal of ―more and better [sic!] jobs‖ stipu-
lated in the Lisbon strategy (European Council 2000), this observation suggests the
introduction of comprehensive occupational core profiles [Kernberufe], which would
provide opportunities for further development, as a primary goal with regard to the
establishment of a common European framework.


3.3        Domain-specific competence

The hypothesis of the priority of formal strategies of thought in the successful appli-
cation of knowledge has been refuted by expertise research in the last decade. One
becomes an expert by reflected practice in a specific domain, e. g. in an occupation.5
Many of the competences acquired in one occupation cannot be transferred to an-
other domain. In a new domain one starts therefore anew as a novice and has to de-



5
    In expertise research this is labelled ―deliberate practice‖.
                                                       15
velop into an expert step by step. The foundations of occupational competence are
domain-specific knowledge and skills. Even in societies characterised by an increas-
ing discontinuity of occupational careers with multiple career patterns there is the ne-
cessity of educational processes that combine skills with well-organised domain-
specific knowledge‖ (cf. Gerstenmaier 1999, p. 67). Learning in work contexts struc-
tured   by   work   process    is   therefore   of   crucial   importance   (cf.   Bore-
ham/Samurcay/Fischer 2002).

Domains can most easily be conceived of as areas of occupations. In this respect it
is of no importance whether the occupation in question is an academic profession or
a non-academic occupation.


3.4     Domain-specific employability and occupational competence

The primary feature of vocational education and training is the goal of achieving do-
main-specific employability (Berufsfähigkeit) in the occupation one was trained for.
This distinguishes vocational training in a fundamental way from any kind of school-
based and academic education. Vocational education and domain-specific employ-
ability therefore by necessity include reflected work experience and thus learning in
the work process. On all levels of qualified work this is either explicitly and formally
regulated or at least a common informal practice. At the level of skilled workers and
employees the acquisition of employability, the integration into the relevant commu-
nity of practice and the accompanying development of occupational competence is
linked to a dual organisation of vocational education which is based on reflected work
experience. In a modern comprehensive occupation the acquisition of occupational
competence takes between three and four years. To be sure, the development of
occupational competence on the basis of work experience is a process extending
beyond this period, which above all ensures that the attained level of qualification can
be maintained.

If the phases of school-based and practical or work-based learning are arranged in a
sequential order, the training period usually is extended. The same is true for univer-
sity studies. These are, by definition, not on par with vocational education and train-
ing. An academic degree does not lead to domain-specific employability. It is only

                                          16
after a period of practical training following graduation, e. g. in the shape of a two-
year preparatory service (Referendariat) or some years of professional experience,
that graduates attain domain-specific employability. Traineeship programmes for uni-
versity graduates in bigger enterprises are another example.

Conclusion
The criterion of domain-specific employability offers the opportunity to develop a
qualifications framework and to relate the different levels of vocational qualifications
to each other. Without this criterion competences acquired in dual courses of voca-
tional education and training cannot be compared with competences that emerge
from school-based vocational education or university studies. The concept of
Berufsfähigkeit corresponds to the findings on professional competence of expertise
and qualification research. According to these occupational skills are the result of a
process of competence development, which in turn requires domain-specific, re-
flected work experience (cf. Schön 1983; Röben 2004; Fischer/Rauner 2002;
Chi/Glaser/Farr 1988; Gruber 1999).6

The structure of qualification levels as it is being suggested by labour market re-
search can now be formulated more precisely. According to the concept described
above, a highly qualified person is somebody whose university degree is followed by
an approximately two-year period of practical training or work experience in the re-
spective domain. The British tradition of the Chartered Engineer or the second Staat-
sexamen (upon completion of a preparatory service after university studies) in Ger-
many are examples that put this insight into practice. Moreover, from the perspective
of expertise and qualification research it appears reasonable to divide the qualifica-
tions at the intermediate level into two, namely the levels of skilled workers and op-
erative professionals.

The differences between the qualification levels do not result from the degree of ex-
pertise, but from the range and depth of the professional knowledge and skills char-
acteristic for a particular domain or occupation. This is what the extent of qualifica-

6
   As the criterion of ―learning outcomes‖ does not differentiate between competences acquired in
school or university settings and those that are decisive for occupational competence or employability,
it is not appropriate for the definition or foundation of qualification levels.
                                                  17
tions is based on, and this extent manifests above all in the amount of time spent on
the training.


4 A framework for qualifications
Occupational competence is defined as the ability to perform

       within a specific (occupational) domain, and

       requirements related to working tasks that are considered typical or character-
         istic for the respective occupation.

In each occupational domain there is the possibility of becoming an expert. From the
point of view of examinations and assessment procedures this provision is an advan-
tage in that all across Europe occupational competences could be assessed accord-
ing to the criterion of domain-specific employability (Berufsfähigkeit). Assessment
methods can be based on two general rules:

      1. Evaluation of the competences which are indispensable or mandatory for the
         exercise of a particular occupation.
         This criterion is of crucial importance for professional tasks and occupations
         where security-related, health-related and environmental competences are
         parts of the occupational profile. In case that a trainee is not in possession of
         the competences defined as necessary, the respective qualification level has
         not been achieved.

      2. Evaluation of the competence level that has to be attained for a specific (oc-
         cupational) domain.

Considering the novice-expert concept it would be sensible to assess whether be-
sides the acquisition of mandatory competences at least the fourth competence level
have been attained.


4.1      Descriptors for a sector related framework

In order to overcome this dilemma it is necessary to look for suitable categories to
identify common work related contents within a certain context. These categories
should
                                                18
 keep the link to the context of work,

 describe competencies developed at school and during company training,

 define and characterize core work processes for which the identified competences
    are developed and needed – this would result in a ―competency bundle‖,

 describe the subjects of skilled work, the methods and tools used, the work or-
    ganization and the requirements for work and technology (ensures the context
    link)7.

Categories which safeguard the work orientation are called „work related categories―.
They describe the most important core work processes necessary for an occupation.
Core work processes are comprehensive tasks which consider the entire context of
work and are dealt with by persons working in the respective occupational profile.
Thus they are always related to

   work processes rather than to individual work tasks,

   competencies necessary for the mastering of such work processes rather than to
    de-contextualised competencies which would still have to be transferred to the
    concrete core work task.

These explanations underline that the term of „competency― play a central role for the
„work related categories―. The multilingual glossary of CEDEFOP on ―Terminolgy of
vocational policy‖ states the following definition for competency (Tissot 2004, p. 48)

       Competence: "Ability to apply knowledge, know-how and skills in an habitual or
       changing situation"

This definition should be amended by the following statement:

       A qualitative new organisation of thinking from a “rule oriented ‘know-that’ to a
       ‘experience based’ know-how (Dreyfus/Dreyfus 1987, p. 41) explicitly promotes
       the development of competencies.




7
 This category includes explicit and implicit statements on knowledge, skills, self-competency, social
competency (the four columns of the German qualifications framework).
                                                 19
We pledge for the link to the complex world of work and the development of a highly
complex, dynamic expertise for the setting up of effective competency structures.
These structures excel by the fact that persons perceive coherent situations in a ho-
listic way (cf. Neuweg 1999, p. 298). The target-oriented processing of isolated ele-
ments and rules which undoubtedly describe the first learning phases are abandoned
in favour of a ―situative comprehension‖.

Therefore it is most important that the competency development process

     includes the application, i.e. the mastering of and the coping with the work tasks
      or the solution of a problem in occupational training,

     imparts correlations where competency development is developed in a multi-
      dimensional way. It is always linked to a context and does not have to be trans-
      ferred into a contents. This would mean that it is ―just‖ knowledge, know-how, or
      ability.


4.2       “Work-related categories”

Work related categories – and not just technology or skills – must support this di-
mension crucial for vocational education and training. They must therefore always be
formulated in a process-oriented way and must focus on the work context. At the
same time these categories facilitate a description of educational objectives inde-
pendent from the cultural characteristics of occupational educational systems in the
individual countries.

The following structure (Figure 1) might be helpful for the idea to create such ―work
related categories‖. Basis for this structure are work-process based occupational
standards.




                                             20
 Work related cate-                               Description of the context
            gories




  ―Core work tasks‖          Objects of (skilled)        Tools, methods, or-    Requirements for
                                     work             ganisation of (skilled)   (skilled) work and
  better: ―core work
                                                                work               technology
      processes‖

Figure 1:       Work related categories with descriptions of the context


The meaning of these categories is as follows:

 Core work tasks / core work processes as work related categories
   In the sense of an open and dynamic occupational profile it is necessary to deter-
   mine fields of tasks for skilled work accessing dimensions of skilled work. Work
   tasks and work processes can be empirically identified within the fields of tasks of
   skilled work. These are referred to as tasks and processes rather than jobs and
   they require a substantial element of work coherence. The task and working
   scopes extend beyond an occupational description. They establish the systematic
   arrangement of the process, with reference points indicating the allocation of the
   education contents for the entire duration of a training course. As the requirements
   as such are dominated by the work-processes (where tasks are always playing a
   role), the term ―core work processes‖ is given preference here.

 Objects of skilled work
   The objects of skilled work are the technical products, processes, phenomena,
   persons and their mutual interrelationships. The ways in which objects represent
   part of the content of skilled work and learning are specified in each case. These
   can also be modes of operation, costs, conversations with customers, etc. The ob-
   jects depend on the tasks of skilled work and are allocated to them.

 Tools, methods and organisation of skilled work
   Expert selection and use of tools, technology in its function as a tool, work meth-
   ods to attain certain objectives as well as the work organisation itself form part of
                                                    21
  the contents of vocational education in this context category. For the first time
  these issues become an explicit contents of vocational education and represent
  one of the original shaping fields of professional skilled work. The command of
  tools, knowledge of work and shaping methods and of forms of work organisation
  is part of professional competency and is just as important as the control of tech-
  nology for guaranteeing high quality work and the mastering of technology.

 Requirements for skilled work and technology
  Requirements for skilled work and technology are presented in the form of stan-
  dards, rules and laws. In addition they are influenced by company interests and by
  the requirements of individuals in their role as customers. Last but not least the re-
  quirements of the skilled workers themselves play an important role.

The interrelation of the three dimensions which help to describe the context is dem-
onstrated in Figure 2. It shows the holistic concept of work in real life and on which
the development of competences is connected.

The formulation of the context with the mentioned requirements is a comparatively
demanding task. Open questions with regard to missing context descriptions in the
proposal below should be clarified by case studies and work process analyses in
companies for each individual occupational profile.

The work related categories could be helpful to reach the long term aim and the fo-
cus of the project: The development of a model – of a systematic procedure – to fa-
cilitate the international transfer of vocational qualifications in order to increase mobil-
ity in VET. Reaching this goal is highly important as we have to accept the different
approaches in the countries and the different education and training systems. How-
ever, we must also to ensure that the recognized, transferred and accredited qualifi-
cations have a comparable quality and applicability in the world of work. This is a pre-
requisite for ―mutual trust‖ (see Coles/Oates 2004), e.g. the f the outcomes must be
accepted by employers, social partners and ―responsible‖ institutions involved for ac-
creditation of qualifications in the different European countries.

Due to the requirements identified above it is not sufficient to just rely on a curriculum
analysis. This step only contributes to the fact that formal knowledge mentioned in
the curricula is named. This often just results in just stating task lists or a list of tech-
                                           22
nological products. The work related, experience based knowledge which plays an
outstanding role in skilled work is thus completely neglected. Additional surveys in
companies carried through within the framework of the project underpinned this
statement.




                                                                   Requirements
                                                                   for (skilled) work and
                                                                   technology from:
                                            Tools
      Tools, methods                  Material                              Customer
      and organisation   Workorganisation
                         Instruments
      of skilled Work:                                                      Society
                         Teams

                                                                            Company


                                                                            Government


                                                                            Worker

                                                                            Family
                                        en



                                                          y


                                                         ts
                                         k




                                                      log




               Objects of
                                       or




                                                      en
                                      om
                                      W




                                                   no


                                                   on
                                    en




               skilled work:
                                                ch


                                                mp
                                 Ph



                                              Te


                                             Co




Figure 2: Interrelation of the three dimensions of the work-processes


4.3   Work-process based occupational standards

Work-process based occupational standards are explicitly designed within occupa-
tional profiles which follow the work-process concept.

Set-up of occupational profiles is just the objective of work-process analysis the sec-
toral experts’ committee to be established, and if it is expected that they become real
standards, they have to be established at national level, notwithstanding the fact that
the planned workshop shall provide for Europe-wide identical solutions to a maximum
extent since the work requirements to be met by qualified personnel are the same in
every country. This makes it sensible to consider both aspects in the guideline at



                                                              23
hand: the actual identification of abilities required to carry out specific work, and the
way how these abilities can become the content of occupational profiles.

Delivering state-of-the-art descriptions of professional work, occupational standards
have been used in a lot of countries for a long time, sometimes they go back to pre-
industrial periods when guilds defined criteria for becoming recognised as craftsmen
or merchants in a specific area. According to country-specific historical develop-
ments, various characters of these standards can be observed, and also instruments
created to realize these standards (as training, testing, organisational procedures)
differ considerably from country to country, but, nevertheless, the overall aim of these
standards is the same: They shall ensure the quality of professional work. Since this
quality cannot be described in universal terms, but is dependent upon the concrete
character of work and the conditions under which work takes place, effective occupa-
tional standards reflect the current status of industrial development. At the moment
(and this will certainly remain the same for an unforeseeable period), there are two
main features of this status, closely linked to each other:

   1. Globalisation of markets, leading to global requirements for industrial produc-
       tion, supply, and services
   2. Immense acceleration of technological change, continuously modifying pro-
       duction and all processes related to it (as supply and services).
As a consequence, for the design of an occupational standard a description of work
is required which makes this standard flexible enough to enable frequent updates
according to the changing needs of business processes. This is only possible if work
is not described as a set of duties more or less summarily assigned to an occupa-
tional profile, but as a chain of tasks to be fulfilled in the framework of a work process
which results from the necessities of production and of processes related to it: If
changes in work have to be introduced, they follow the logic of the whole business
process.

Therefore a work process analysis is a crucial element of setting up modern occupa-
tional standards. Based on investigations within representative companies of a sector
(in terms of size, specialization, etc.), it delivers information about the current status
of industrial production, supply and service. Thus it should be easy to transform

                                            24
changes in these fields into changes of work requirements, as the former are visible
as modified units of a process which as a whole has to be adapted to technological
change.

Occupational standards as described in the above mentioned sense should be de-
signed by people who have experience in terms of knowing the current scenarios of
work in a specific area as well as being aware of vocational training needs (e.g. draft-
ing a curriculum). The members of the planned sectoral experts’ committee should
be able to cover all requirements, as they would be a team of experts coming from
the educational as well as from the sectoral side.

The guideline at hand is meant to support their work describing the process of setting
up a modern occupational profile step by step8. At the same time, this paper should
help all appliers of standards (as trainers and foremen in companies, skilled workers,
trainers, teachers in vocational centres) to develop an appropriate common under-
standing of occupational standards.


4.4       The Development of Occupational Standards Step by Step

Modern work processes do not take place isolated from each other and are not
unique in a way that they only appear in the framework of only one business process.

Embedded in various contexts, they also overlap each other thereby constituting core
work processes relevant for various occupations. Therefore defining the scope of an
occupational standard is not a trivial task, but has to be carried out in the framework
of a sector overview which should deliver a provisional list of work processes occur-
ring within a sector as well as criteria for setting up clusters of occupations based on
common core work processes.9

After the sectoral work structure thus has been described provisionally, companies
(varying in size and profile) should be selected which employ workers who must have
the skills enabling them to carry out the work processes identified within the sector


8
    A very advanced paper on work-process analysis will be published soon under Spöttl/Davies (2009).
9
  To define sub-sectors (domains) of the automotive sector clearly is one of the most important issues
of workshop work, to be tackled at the very beginning of all activities.
                                                  25
overview, in order to get a representative basis for defining the occupational stan-
dard. This diversification is necessary in order to identify all differentiations of the
skills concerned.

4.4.1 The Work Process Analysis
For conducting the work process analysis (WPA) a company questionnaire should be
followed. This questionnaire is designed to serve as a guideline for understanding the
structure and the operations of a company. It should help to find out how a company
provides her products and services, which knowledge, skills, and competences are
needed to provide them which implies that it is found out how the substantial parts of
these abilities can be determined, and that – as a definition of the EQF category
competence in sectoral terms of the occupation is identified to which knowledge and
skills can be linked to. Assumptions made in the preliminary phase will thereby be
confirmed or modified.

It is important to draw all conclusions from first hand experience directly at the work-
place with the necessary involvement of the shop-floor level management of the
company. The WPA in this respect is carried out in the form of an intensive commu-
nication process between the personnel of the shop-floor level in the companies and
the team of experts established for setting up a standard for an occupation or cluster
of occupations.

The main issue of the WPA is to define core work processes which are broken down
into more operational terms, following three levels of differentiation (cf. Figure 3):

   1. A brief description of the core work process, presented as a narrative, com-
       prehensive portrait.
   2. A definition of the core competencies is required for carrying out the core
       work process, to be assigned to EQF descriptors in the course of WPA
       evaluation.
   3. A link to the EQF related reference objective of the occupation showing the
       context of the core work process which includes a detailed description of the
       objects related to skilled work (as tools, methods, organisation of skilled work).
All together, these descriptions deliver an EQF-related occupational profile.

                                             26
4.4.2 Verification and Implementation
Draft versions of occupational standards resp. occupational profiles should be dis-
cussed with stakeholders of investigated enterprises and members of the planned
sectoral experts’ committee in order to produce an amended version which can be
presented to the concerned national bodies. Enriched with the comments and sug-
gestions of these bodies, the standard should then be again discussed within the
sectoral workshop in order to produce a final version of the profile which then can be
transferred to national authorities for further action.

At this stage, it is of course not possible to describe in detail the whole future process
of developing and implementing EQF related occupational profiles under the um-
brella of an experts’ workshop of the automotive sector. Nevertheless, an overview of
possible process is given on the next page (Figure 3).




                                             27
 Flowchart: Development of Occupational Standards


                                1. Selection of cluster for Work-Process-Analysis according to
   A. Planning and              Priority Plan. The Cluster should be based on an economic sectors.
   Preparing Work-Process-
   Analysis (WPA) for
   Development of new           2. Selection of approximately 5 - 8 leading companies of the sectors
                                and preparing field visits for WPA
   Occupational Standards




                                3. Paying field visit to all companies for Work-Process-Analysis and
   B. Visiting Companies        for definition of core work-processes
   and Carrying-out WPA
   for new Occupational
                                4. Evaluation of all Information and Results from the Work-Process-
   Standards                    Analysis in companies




                                5. Development of a WPA-report and draft versions of Advanced
   C. Development of            Occupational Standard(s)
   Advanced Occupational
   Standards in Cooperation
   with Companies               6. Presentation of the draft Advanced Occupational Standards to
                                sector experts and to the companies visited for review
   Concerned

                                7. Feedback from expert and companies or from an expert workshop,
                                and amendments to the draft occupational standards accordingly


                                8. Final version of Advanced Occupational Standards




   D. Endorsement of new        9. Presentation of the new occupational standards to the relevant
   Occupational Standards       Sectoral Committee and to the relevant committees of the Chamber
   and Commissioning for
   Further Action (e.g.         10. Endorsement of the new occupational standards by the concerned
   Curriculum Development,      Sectoral Committee or the specialized committees of the Chamber
   Testing)
                                11. Commissioning of the new Advanced Occupational Standard and
                                implementation in Curriculum Development, Vocational Training, and
                                Skill Testing




Figure 3: Flowchart: Development of Occupational Standards



                                           28
5 ECVET Credit model

5.1      Ideas for a Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET)

5.1.1 Credits without recourse to national educational systems10
The proposals developed so far are rather abstract and rely on the development of
comprehensive ideas rather than on the shaping of manageable concepts. We think
that these results do not clearly state how the characteristics of different vocational
training systems could be tackled. Above all there is the open question of how a
credit system can be concretely used as an accreditation system.

Nevertheless we do not intend to open another parallel discussion. We would rather
like to develop a concrete proposal which – according to our findings – takes into
consideration the requirements for vocational educational systems rather than ab-
stracting them. The work related competences to be developed are in the centre of
interest. We do not rely on an existing system (cf. e.g. Tait 2003, SCQF 2003; QCA
2004), neither on the German Dual System nor on the English or Scottish Qualifica-
tion Frameworks.

5.1.2 Competency demands for “work related categories” as a basis for the
         assessment of performance credits
The Table contains the ―work related categories‖ in the form of work tasks and work
processes which form an occupation and/or an occupational profile. On the other
hand it states the relevant description of the competency demands for these tasks by
naming and characterisation of three dimensions such as:

     Object of work

     Tools, methods and organisation of work and




10
  The Technical Working Group (TWG) identifies two different kinds of Zones of Mutual Trust (TWG
2003, 13):
 Horizontal orientation: between different learning areas;
 Vertical orientation: between different levels.
This paper refers to the work results of the TWG and the existing ECVET-models (cf. Coles/ Oates
2004; Thiele 2004; NGA 2002a) in a very limited way.
                                              29
   Requirements for work and for technology.

The competency demands for the individual person are thus implicitly formulated by
the description of the context of skilled work. As for an accreditation process of train-
ing performances which are linked to work tasks, a well-formulated description of the
competency demands can be more easily handled and understood. It represents a
statement on what the individual can and should be able to perform with the aid of
the work task.

The transformation of the context description into a coherent description of compe-
tency demands (cf. Figure 4) which was carried through for the car mechatronic must
take various steps:

   It must lead to a comparability of the training performance of the student with the
    demands for a work task.
   It must link the work task (work related category) with the description of contents.
   It must reflect the demands for the three dimensions of the description of con-
    tents.
   It must allow a statement on credits to the assigned by a comparison with the
    state of development of the student.
   It must include the range of occupational work tasks as extensively as possible.

It is above all the last point which can be only rudimentarily realized due to the re-
stricted length of the description. Therefore a consultation of the dimensions given in
Figure 2 are necessary as soon as there are doubts emerging with a comparison be-
tween training performance and the description of the demands of competency.




                                           30
          Work processes                           Description of context
       (work related categories)

                                                            Objects




                                                          Skilled work




                                    Tools, Methods,                        Requirements
                                     Organisation




          Work processes                  Occupational competencies demand
       (work related categories)

                                     Description of the demand for competencies for
                                     the individual; if applicable in levels of different
                                     competency levels.

Figure 4: Transformation of the description of contents into a demand for competencies


Apart from the workload, the correspondence between the training performance of
the individual and the competency demand is decisive for the allocation of credits. A
levelling of the competency demand is only possible in rare cases. Only competen-
cies utilizable for the occupational work task can be stated and the description of the
competency demand in Figure 1, 2 and 3 is related to the level of a fully trained
mechatronic (skilled worker level) or comparable levels.

If a downwards grading is possible, at least real competencies must be named which
lead to the mastering of partial tasks in the field of work processes (relation to the
world of work) and which are linked to the context. Thus e.g. a ―safeguarding of the
operation of mechatronic systems‖ calls for a knowledge of maintenance plans. An
isolation of this knowledge – i.e. the reading of maintenance plans – as a compe-
                                          31
tency demand would, however, not be adequate to the named demands. Therefore a
grading of competencies carried through with the aid of hierarchically structured tax-
onomies can be considered as very problematical11. A grading with regard to the con-
tents of the occupational work processes should be possible instead. In the broadest
sense, competency levels can be defined by different grades of complexity of the
mastering of a work processes. Thus a holistic rather than a segmented approach is
behind the proposed characterization of competencies in order to cope with the world
of work.

It is also very important that competencies can only be developed for certain work
tasks if other tasks are mastered before. Thus e.g. the mastering of the work process
―planning and monitoring of the production process, control and assessment of the
work results‖ of a mechatronic is only possible if the student has beforehand learned
to operate and master mechatronic plants. The task can therefore not be learned
starting from a beginner’s level but requires an intermediate competency in the field
of mechatronics.

We assume that the occupational competency is gradually developing according to
the work on processes characteristic for the individual occupation. Therefore there
are existing work processes which are especially suitable for the further development
of the competencies of the student. This includes work processes which are suitable
for beginners and whose mastering is the basis for the acquisition of intermediate
work tasks. The result is a vertical, hierarchical structure of work processes whose
sequential processing eventually leads to full employment (vertical grading) as a per-
son has developed a comprehensive competency profile by considering a domain.
Some of these processes can be learned without the mastering of other certain
tasks; others, however, can only be learned when based on already acquired compe-
tencies. Work process types with the same competency demands which can partially


11
   Taxonomies for the operationalisation of learning objectives such as the Bloom Taxonomy for cogni-
tive (e.g. recognition, judgement, giving reasons), affective, and psycho-motoric learning objectives
are not suitable for competency gradings as they inevitably lead to an analytical fractioning of the work
interrelation. The use of descriptors (cf. NQA 2003; ZDH 2005) allows a characterization of different
fields of competency. Nevertheless it inevitably leads to analytical descriptions which allow the as-
sessment of the level with regard to the individual descriptor, however, not with regard to a context-
related competency for the work task in question.
                                                  32
learned parallelly, mark a certain competency level for an occupation. These levels
will be described according to the levels developed by Dreyfus/ Dreyfus (cf. Dreyfus/
Dreyfus 1987). The development of discriminable competencies for a single work
process (horizontal grading) is, however, only possible under certain circumstances
and is of a pure analytical nature.


5.2    Summary

A comprehensive view on the relation of the dimensions of the work related catego-
ries, levels and the competences demonstrates Figure 4.

The holistic of the model is designed and shows that the outcome in form of compe-
tences is clearly related the categories of work which includes all dimensions of cul-
ture and society.


6 Draft of a sector-oriented qualification framework for
      automotive service and car production

6.1    Outcome-based sector requirements

A sector-related qualification framework should follow the same rules as discussed in
the European context. With other words: a sector-related qualification framework
should be outcome-based.

Tuck (2007, p.51) summarises outcome-based as follows:




                                         33
For identifications of outcomes within the CareasyVet project work-process based
requirements will be identified and used for the definitions. Based on work-process
analysis core work processes and their detailing will be documented.

As for the description of the core work processes, a format will be chosen which will
help with the detailing in three steps:

   1. Short description of the core work process,
   2. Identification of the core competences and the learning environment ade-
       quate for their acquisition (vocational school and/or company), and
   3. Detailing of the core work process according to the object of work, the tools
       and methods of work as well as the work organisation and the special re-
       quirements for work and the use of modern technologies.
The overview below – Figure 5 – on (1) a short outline of the core work process, (2)
the identification of core competences and (3) the detailing of the core work process
gives an example of which of the various formats was chosen for the standards.
The ranking of the sequence of core work processes is determined by the progress
starting from the simple tasks to the more complex ones.




                                          34
       Abb.4: An Advanced Occupational Standard is based on
       about 8 to 12 Core Work Processes (CWPs). The CWPs are
       described in three steps as follows:


   1


                                                 3

   2




Figure 5



Occupational standards describe the required qualificational profile for an occupation.
Vocational educational curricula then describe the way the necessary qualifications
can be imparted. Thus standards do not replace curricula and should not be
mistaken for them. (This has been a long-standing problem with the use of the Na-
tional Vocational Qualifications (NVQ).)

Occupational standards should form a basic platform for the development of both
curricula and tests for the testing of the respective qualifications. However, the format
and the presentation of the standards play a crucial factor in order to determine the
path to be followed – up to the development of the vocational curriculum on the one
hand and up to the development of skill testing on the other hand.

The core of the occupational standards are the occupational competencies. The oc-
cupational competencies are outcome based. They define very clearly about what
and how people should be able to fix a care for the satisfaction of the customer (see
the example car mechatronic in Annex)

                                           35
There are three columns of EQF categories (called descriptors) to be used for the
description of learning outcomes: knowledge, skills, and competences. For the pur-
pose of describing context oriented abilities, competence seems to deliver the right
classification scheme. In the EQF, competence is described in terms of responsibility
and autonomy.12 These complementary categories both imply relationship to others:

     Responsibility can be understood in a way that an individual has insight in the
      requirements for fulfilling a task and that he/she is able to launch all processes
      necessary to achieve this goal, as far as her/his position within the organisation
      of work allows it. This includes the possibility that the activities of other individu-
      als play a role for successfully carrying out a work process, and that responsibil-
      ity can encompass the ability to steer (resp. supervise) the actions of others,
      thereby limiting their autonomy, and it is understood that also the own autonomy
      can be restricted by the responsibility of others.
     Thus autonomy is defined by the space in which responsibility is applicable; this
      space is limited by the responsibility of others according to their above men-
      tioned position within the organisation of work.
If we look on occupational profiles describing a car mechatronic’s work with regard to
the level to which her/his competence has to be assigned, we find out that there can-
not be identified items derived from supervision categories. In terms of autonomy is-
sues, it therefore appears to be sensible to consider level 3 as the appropriate basis
for describing learning outcomes of car mechatronic related training as far it concerns
competence. With regard to responsibility, this level seems also to meet best the re-
quirements; this category is explicitly mentioned in the EQF table at this place:

―take responsibility for completion of tasks in work or study, adapt own behaviour to
circumstances in solving problems‖. But we consider this description only as appro-
priate since we exclude other descriptions lower or higher as level 3: These descrip-
tions contain information about supervision which obviously cannot be related to the
profile of a car mechatronic. In order to deliver information valuable for the assess-



12
   See RECOMMENDATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the
establishment of the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning, Annex II, Descriptors
defining levels in the European Qualifications Framework (EQF).
                                                 36
ment of abilities beyond the borders of the country where these abilities were devel-
oped, descriptions as the quoted one have to be concretised by sectoral terms which
means that it is crucial to define a reference point which replaces the abstract term
―work or study‖ and is typical for the car mechatronic as a profession.
It is therefore suggested to consider as a reference point the objective of delivering a
car which works to the optimum satisfaction of the customer, at the same time meet-
ing the requirements of the enterprise. This requires a holistic view on the work proc-
ess (which can cover, among others, service and dealing with clients’ wishes), orient-
ing also specific knowledge and skills (to be assigned to the two other EQF columns)
to be used for reaching the above described goal.

As remarks in the deliverable Description of recognised profiles in EQF terms (An-
nexe 2) will show, this sector-specified orientation of the EQF category competence
to an overall objective of professional work is also valid for distinction of levels: This
reference objective can be also applied at EQF level 2 and 4, thus enabling a table of
reference objective classification

    Organize and supervise work required to achieve the objective of delivering a
     car which works to the optimum satisfaction of the customer, at the same time
     meeting the requirements of the enterprise. (level 4)
    Work autonomously with the objective of delivering a car which works to the
     optimum satisfaction of the customer, at the same time meeting the require-
     ments of the enterprise (level 3)
    Contribute to work required to achieve the objective of delivering a car which
     works to the optimum satisfaction of the customer, at the same time meeting the
     requirements of the enterprise (level 2)
On this reference objective basis, it is also possible to judge better if changes of work
processes should be considered in a way that they cause fundamental changes of
the abilities required to carry out this new kind of work, thereby indicating that new
professions are arising, or if – based on the holistic view mentioned above – it can be




                                            37
assumed that dealing with these technological changes can be expected within the
set of abilities identified to be typical for a profession.13

The description of occupational profiles follows the requirements of a sector related
framework. The following characteristics are in use for the description of the frame-
work:
    Core work processes: comprises various forms of competences necessary for
     completing work tasks in a certain work field of a sector.

    Context-related descriptions: related to the work-process (work tasks) as well
     as to actions that can be carried out (―can do, can perform, is able to‖)

    Work-related categories as context characteristics (detailing of core work
     process): objects of skilled work; tools, methods and organisation of skilled work;
     requirements for (skilled) work and technology

    Occupational standards - dimensions for the description of the develop-
     ment of competencies – e.g. ability to perform independent work tasks, to deal
     with complex situations, to deal with quality standard demands, to deal with dy-
     namic situations.

With the help of this empirical driven structure the sector related qualification frame-
work
    is linked to the context of work-processes based occupational competencies,
    is useable for the description multiple occupational competencies,
    consists of domain specifically identified competencies,
    allows the accreditation of competencies within the system of occupational career
     paths,
    offers possibilities of a transit from one qualification level to another and from one
     occupational domain to another if there is no contradiction with context relation.
The description of the core work processes shows how each level becomes increas-
ingly demanding by changes to factors such as


13
   The answer on the above mentioned question Are the abilities required for carrying out an already
established profession sufficient to cover the needs of the new work processes could just deliver
arguments for debates which are mainly driven by interests.
                                                 38
     complexity,
     depth of knowledge,
     links to the electrical car network,
     degree of autonomy of work,
     degree of responsibility of work.
The occupational competencies consist of several characteristics, e.g.:
     Knowledge and understanding – mainly subject-based,
     Practical applied knowledge and understanding,
     Generic cognitive skills, e.g. evaluation, critical analysis etc.,
     Communication, numeracy and IT skills,
     Autonomy, accountability and working with others,
     Responsibility.
All the characteristics are based on the objects of skilled work, tools, methods, or-
ganisation of skilled work, requirements for skilled work and technology. On this plat-
form competences are developed finally for the workplace.
But finally no sector qualification framework does demonstrate equivalence or inter-
changeability of qualification because of the domain relation.


6.2      A proposed level structure

The statements so far have underlined that a focus on the „practical― work level, i.e.
the shop-floor-level of the car service and repair and car production, reveals a maxi-
mum of three work levels which differ in terms of quality. The levels are compared
with the EQF and start with level number 3. Level 1 and 2 are below the normal re-
quirements in the car sector. This was underpinned by a study of the Italian partner.

Level 3: Standardized work tasks along with co-shaping (e.g. skilled worker):

On this level, all work assignments with strong practical aspects must be coped with
autonomously to a large extent. The work assignments themselves are linked to re-
quirements with an average degree of difficulty. They call for specialist expertise and
a high degree of cooperation and communication with vertical and horizontal corpo-
rate structures.


                                               39
A successful qualification phase for these requirements encompasses a minimum of
2.5 years, preferably more.

A semi-skilled worker is as a rule not capable to master the prerequisites for this level
– which are the standard level of the European industry. An entry level on Level 1
could be created for this kind of workers, albeit connected to a compulsory further
qualification for Level 2. Level 3 must be the minimum for professional work other-
wise the quality of work will be unacceptable.

Level 4: Difficult work tasks calling for a fundamental reflection and co-shaping
(e.g. Technician)

Level 2 expresses that the coping with difficult tasks requires a sound reflection and
co-shaping. The tasks on this level do not only cover the solution of difficult technical
problems but also the shaping of the work organisation in a way that a successful
and efficient coping of tasks will be possible. This means that the persons working on
this level have to be able to cooperate with staff working on Level 1 and 2. Further-
more the design of the work tasks has to be done in order to allow an efficient cop-
ing.

The profile of Level 4 is above all oriented to technical and – to a minor extent – to
organisational tasks.

Level 4 includes skilled workers and qualified employees whose levels of qualification
are comparable bur who remarkably differ from each other in respect of their compe-
tence profiles and educational careers. Level 4 ensures domain specific employabil-
ity.

Level 5: Management tasks with reference to technical and organisational chal-
lenges (e.g. Assistant Engineer/ Master Craftsman/Technologist).

On this level the capability of carrying out all tasks of a skilled worker – including all
implications which may arise from this work – are relevant. Combined with technical
work, the responsibility for the organisation of selected sections and human resource
development are important factors.



                                           40
An Assistant Engineer/ Master Craftsman/Technologist typically possesses excellent
skills regarding the whole portfolio of required skills in an occupation. This level en-
sures domain-specific employability. Yet, on top of this excellence in the skilled
worker qualification, what actually distinguishes the ―master‖ level from the skilled
level is a number of additional qualifications which place the ―master‖ in a particular
position catering to the following shop-floor needs:

 Educational qualification which is needed to perform the function of the refer-
    ence person for the trainees in a section and to define the further training needs
    for the semi-skilled and skilled workers,

 Accountancy-qualification which is needed to understand the cost and benefit
    considerations for the operation of a section,

 Personnel-affairs-qualification which is needed for the ―master‖ to serve as an
    on-site reference for the other employees of the section,

 Entrepreneurial qualification which is needed for the ―master‖ to understand the
    business development implications of the operational procedures of the section,
    enabling him to pass his insight on to the company’s management.

The weighting of different kinds of education takes place in accordance with the ex-
periences from the academic sector. In general phases of practical training are given
the same weight as phases of theoretical instruction or studies.

Positions above the three levels of the present framework are characterised by the
fulfilment of functions with

     higher responsibility

     higher risk

     higher added value.

This goes along with competences that emerge from the professional career, ambi-
tion and motivation of the individual and cannot be covered by formal vocational and
academic education. Accordingly they are not represented in the present framework.

Domain-specific work experience cannot be replaced with theoretical studies or
school-based learning. Competences acquired at the level of skilled work can be
                                     41
taken into account for the qualification of operative or strategic professionals only to a
limited extent. The recognition of qualifications therefore takes place with reference
to the context of the respective (occupational) domains.


6.3     Consequences and Concretisation

According to the statements so far the question may be asked how the occupational
profiles and curricula have to be designed in order to cater for the work oriented, out-
put-oriented needs of a sectoral qualification framework.

Without further clarifying explanations, this will be illustrated with the aid of the ex-
ample of the automotive service by implementing the concept of standards.

Example for Levels 3 to 5:




                            (Work)processes and their Implications

                                                   Level 8
                                                                                                         Competences
                                                  Level 7

                                                 Level 6

                                               Level 5
                                                                                                            Ability to fullfill
          Frame of car                                                                                      requirements of
          service & repair                    Level 4                                                       the labour market
                                             Level 3

                                           Level 2

                                          Level 1                                            Hu
                                                   wo
                                                       rk                                  (so man
                                                d)             on                  Fu          cia com
                                            ille           ati                        nc          l- a
                                                                                                      nd pete
                                         (sk            nis                 Su          tio
                                                                                            na
                                      of           r ga              rk    (kn bje            lc          sel nce
                                  ts             ,o                wo             ct                         f- c              Workplace
        Work related        Ob
                              jec            ds
                                          tho ork           ille
                                                                d)            ow ma
                                                                                 led tte
                                                                                                 om
                                                                                                     pe
                                                                                                        ten
                                                                                                                 om
                                                                                                                    pe
                                      me w               (sk                         ge r co                          ten
         categories             ols ed)              or                                 ski     mp          ce
                                                                                                               s         ce)    demand
                             To skill             sf                                       lls)     ete
                                  (         m  ent gy                                                  nc                      perspective
                               of        ire nolo                                                         es
                                      qu
                                  Re tech
                                    and




Legende: Level 1 to 8 is identical with the EQF

Figure 6: Structure of the sector related qualification framework:

                                                                      42
Obviously from the skilled workers to the (level 4 & 5) Master Craftsman/ Technolo-
gist to the B.A. of Technology, the level of skill competence is increasing, yet, this is
not only a question of being in command of just ―more‖ or ―more complicated‖ skills
but there is a unique concept of the quality of vocational interaction at the workplace
behind each of those levels. These concepts attempt to address supplementary func-
tions at the workplace.

They can be described as follows. Under the skilled level 1 is necessary to deal with
semi-skilled workers if they are available.

Semi-skilled workers are capable of carrying out a restricted number of work tasks in
an occupational area. These tasks have to be regarded as part of the complete port-
folio of work of skilled worker. Yet, on top of their restricted scope of skills semi-
skilled workers lack the vocational autonomy of being fully aware of all the implica-
tions of their work and in particular of the possible interdependencies between differ-
ent work activities (as described in the occupational profile). Since the standards fol-
low a rank-order of proceeding from the not so difficult to the more complicated ones,
standard 1 and 2 are here recommended to constitute an area of skill requirements
which may be mastered by semi-skilled workers.


6.4   Occupational Standards – Basis for Sector Framework

As already described in general, the work processes identified in a sector form the
basis for the design of the sector framework. The related dimensions and implica-
tions have already been explained above. The core of an identification of work proc-
esses are work process analyses whose methodological features will not be dis-
cussed in detail here. Nevertheless their structure becomes clearly visible in the at-
tached PowerPoint-Presentation.

The results of the work process analyses will be worked into occupational standards,
each encompassing core work processes, occupational competencies and a detailing
of the respective work processes.

The core work processes are the basis for the structurization in levels within the sec-
tor framework as they comprise holistic dimensions and the respective qualitative,


                                              43
factual requirements. The work process analyses carried through in around 20 enter-
prises form the basis for the work processes.

6.4.1 Level structure
Level 1 to 2

Semi-skilled workers
Levels 1 to 2 describe simple skills and tasks. With reference to the automotive sec-
tor, these are the very simple requirements.

Level – 1 to 2:                             Demonstrates mastery of:
Semi-Skilled Worker                         Standard1: standard service
                                            Standard 2: wear and tear repair


Level 3:

Skilled Worker
Skilled workers are capable of carrying out all skill requirements of an occupational
area. Beyond the mere coverage of all the skill requirements which underlie the com-
plete sequence of standards, a skilled worker/craftsman is in command of the voca-
tional autonomy to assess, appraise and handle not only the obvious work to be per-
formed but also the implications which it may have and the interdependencies which
may occur. Consequently he has the ability to asses the nature of the work to be
done, to plan it all its aspects, to carry it out and to hand over or pass on the com-
pleted work wherever relevant.

With regard to the occupational standards (example: car mechatronic) the skilled
worker must be able to master all work regarding the standards from 1to 7 including
all technical implications which may arise from this work.




                                          44
Level 3 – Skilled Workers                   Demonstrates mastery of:
                                            Standard 1: standard service
(Standards 1 to 7)                          Standard 2: wear and tear repair
                                            Standard 3: standard diagnosis, diag-
                                                        nostic procedures, trouble
                                                        shooting and minor repair
                                            Standard 4: general inspection
                                            Standard 5: undercarriage and suspen-
                                                        sion repair
                                            Standard 6: electrical and electronic re-
                                                        pair
                                            Standard 7: advanced diagnosis and
                                                       repair of aggregates, com-
                                                       ponent groups and elements




Level 4:
Technician

Technicians are technical specialists who are able to deal with the whole car and to
solve very difficult faults. They are able to master the work regarding all 9 standards
including all technical implications which may arise from the work.

Level 2: Technician                         Demonstrates mastery of:

(Standards 8 to 9)                          Standard 8: repair and overhauling of
                                                        aggregates: engine, gearbox
                                                        and automatic transmission
                                            Standard 9: standard extensions and
                                                        accessory installation



Level 5+
Assistant Engineer/ Master Craftsman/ Technologist




                                          45
Assistant Engineer/ Master Craftsman/ Technologists are capable of carrying out all
the tasks of a skilled worker, also including all implications which may arise from this
work. Typically Bachelor of Technology possesses excellent skills regarding the
whole portfolio of required skills in an occupation.

Yet, this excellence in qualification is not necessarily information of which needs to
be assessed respectively tested. The proof of being competent for the full range of
standards should be sufficient. However, what actually distinguishes the ―Bachelor of
Technology‖ level form the skilled level is a number of additional qualifications which
place the ―master‖ in a particular position catering the following shop floor needs:

   -   educational qualification which is needed to be the reference person for the
       trainees in a section and to define the further training needs for the semi-
       skilled and skilled workers,

   -   accountancy-qualification which is needed to understand the cost and bene-
       fit considerations for the operation of a section,

   -   personnel-affairs-qualification which is needed for the ―master‖ to serve as
       an on-site reference for the other employees of the section,

   -   entrepreneurial qualification which is needed for the ―master‖ to understand
       the business development implications of the operational procedures of the
       section, enabling him to pass this insight on to the company’s management.

With regard to the occupational standards (example: car mechatronic) the Bachelor
of Technology must be able to master the work regarding all 9 standards including all
technical implications which may arise form this work plus the additional qualifica-
tions which have been outlined above.




                                            46
Level 5 +              Demonstrates mastery of:
Assistant Engineer/
                        Standard 1: standard service
Master Craftsman/
                        Standard 2: wear and tear repair
Technologist
                        Standard 3: standard diagnosis, diagnostic procedures,
                                    trouble shooting and minor repair
                        Standard 4: general inspection
                        Standard 5: undercarriage and suspension repair
                        Standard 6: electrical and electronic repair
                        Standard 7: advanced diagnosis and repair of aggregates,
                                    component and groups and elements
                        Standard 8: repair and overhauling of automatic transmission
                        Standard 9: standard extensions and accessory installation
                                    plus at least two of the following four additional
                                    qualifications:
                            educational qualification,
                            accountancy qualification,
                            personnel qualification,
                            entrepreneurial qualification.
                        Regarding testing procedures a separate testing part will ex-
                        plore a ―master’s‖ additional qualifications.




Occupational standards describe the qualification profile which is required for a suc-
cessful performance of an occupation during the work process. The design of occu-
pational standards needs a procedure which may be called ―Work process analy-
sis” (Spöttl et al., ITB). The description of work process analyses is laid down in a
guideline which elaborates both the procedure itself and the personnel resources
necessary for carrying through the procedure. The predominant objective of work
process analyses is the identification of core work processes. A sequence of 8 to
12 of these core work processes describes the qualificational profile for an occupa-
tion on the skilled-worker level. Core work processes accordingly describe the spe-
cific knowledge and skills for a partial area of the respective occupation.



                                           47
6.4.2 Basic structure of a sector framework
In Table 1, the work-process based occupational standards are assigned to Levels 1
to 5+. This classification is based on the occupational competencies outlined in the
standards. Sector experts from the shop-floor have assigned the standards to the
individual levels according to

 Their knowledge of the work task structures,

 The estimated requirements for the execution of tasks,

 The safeguarding of the coping with coherent work tasks,

 The coping with sub-tasks necessary to master the main tasks,

 The expected requirements of the customers,

 The safety requirements,

 The technical equipment of the work places,

 The necessary exchange of information,

 The technical complexity of the work tasks,

 The diagnostic qualities to be attained.

The experts have identified three crucial levels which correspond to Levels 3 to 5 of
the EQF.

The ranking of the standards is oriented to the development model of Dreyfus/ Drey-
fus which describes the tasks for novices up to experts.

Levels 1 and 2 were not deemed necessary for automotive workshops as they would
require a sufficient number of simple tasks per work order. This was questioned by
the experts. At least they may be excluded as work tasks to be coped with sepa-
rately. The tasks according to standards 8 and 9 have been rated as especially chal-
lenging and were therefore assigned to an own level – Level 4.

Standards 10, 11, and 12 can rather be assigned to the management level of an
automotive workshop. However, they cannot be separated to the more technically
oriented work tasks. These standards rather focus on the management of and the

                                          48
responsibility for a company or a company branch. Sector experts and social part-
ners have assigned these standards to Level 5+. The designation 5+ means that it
may be possible to assign Level 6 in certain cases, i.e. equalling the academic de-
gree of a Bachelor. In case a certain task demands a high degree of responsibility
and autonomy, this should be possible. Thus an academic graduation (BA) and oc-
cupational career paths (e.g. Master Craftsmen) are graded at the same level.

The classification of levels by the sector experts was coordinated with the definitions
of the EQF by the researchers (cf. Table 1, right column). This preliminary coordina-
tion has not revealed any significant deviations in terms of levels. A more precise ad-
justment is, however, still to be carried through. In the light of a critical view to the
descriptors of the German (DQF) and the European (EQF) qualification framework it
can already be stated that e.g. the ―functional competences‖ as an important dimen-
sion of specialist work tasks are still inexistent (cf. Table 2).

A simple comparison clearly shows that work process oriented categories such as
e.g. work-organisational challenges or the application of certain working methods are
inexistent both in the EQF and in the NQF/DQF (cf. Table 2). Tools are not directly
mentioned. However, these issues play an important role in the world of work. It is
therefore crucial to take this into consideration when discussing qualifications frame-
works. This is another reason for the importance of sector frameworks as they con-
sider these dimensions. By adhering to the following steps (Chapter 6.4.3) it is evi-
dent that the world of work can thus be accessed and the basis of the sector frame-
work can be designed.




                                             49
               No.   Mastery of Occupational Standards   Recognized by EQF terms
Level 1 to 2   1     Standard Service                    C:   Basic skills required for sim-
Semi-skilled                                                  ple tasks and work under
                     Wear and tear repair
level                                                         supervision
               2                                         K/S: Basic knowledge/ skills
                                                              solve routine problems
                                                              basic factual knowledge
Level     3    1     Standard Service                    C:   responsibility for completion
Skilled                                                       of tasks; adapt own behav-
               2     Wear and tear repair
worker                                                        iour
                     Standard diagnosis, diagnostic      K/S: Knowledge of facts, princi-
               3     procedure, trouble shooting and          ples, processes in a field of
                     minor repair                             work;
               4     General inspection                       Range of cognitive/ practical
                                                              skills required to accomplish
                     Undercarriage and suspension             tasks and solve problems by
               5
                     repair                                   applying basic methods,
               6     Electrical and electronic repair         tools, materials
                     Advanced diagnosis and repair of
               7     aggregates, component groups
                     and elements
Level     4          Repair and overhauling of aggre-    C:   Responsibility for supervi-
Technician     8     gates: engine, gearbox and auto-         sion of work; self-
                     matic transmission                       responsibility for service and
                                                              repair; following work guide-
                     Standard extensions and acces-
                                                              lines;
                     sory installation
                                                         K/S: factual and theoretical
               9                                              knowledge of aggregates;
                                                              generate solutions for effi-
                                                              cient repair.
Level 5 (+)    10    Personnel affaires                  C:   Taking over management
Assistant                                                     and supervision tasks in the
               11    Qualification for accountancy
Engineer                                                      context of work.
Master               Entrepreneurial qualification       K/S: Specialised and theoretical
Craftsman      12                                             knowledge for management
Technologic                                                   and practical skills


Table 1: Level structure of a sector related qualification framework.




                                               50
Parameters of        Work related com-       Relation to the       Relation to the EQF
“work related        petences                German NQF
categories
Objects of skilled   Human competence        Personnel compe-      Competence
work                 (social and own com-    tences                autonomy
                     petence)                 own competence      responsibility
                                              social compe-
                                                tence


Tools, methods,      Functional compe-
organisation of      tence
(skilled) work


Requirements for     Subject matter com-     Knowledge             Knowledge
(skilled) work and   petences (knowledge,    Skills                Skills
technology           skills)


Table 2: Interrelation of ―Work related categories‖ with the description of the qualifi-
cation frameworks

6.4.3 The path towards a sector oriented qualificational framework – gener-
       ated in an empirical way
The following chapter summarizes the work steps up to a sector framework. These
eight steps must be adhered to in order to shape a sector-oriented framework. The
biggest and most important step is the identification of the core work-processes. This
has to be thoroughly discussed in the light of the corporate challenges in the enter-
prises and cannot be achieved without a deeper investigation into the implications on
the shop-floor. Instruments for this theoretical part are available and had already
been used in the CarEasyVet project. Steps 2 to 8 underpin the detailed and logical
shaping of a sector-related qualifications framework. These steps have to be tackled
and require a thorough reflection of the contents. At the same time the shaping of the
sector framework will be legitimized by the use of high expertise. A detailed descrip-
tion of the individual steps cannot be made here.




                                            51
1. Identification of core work processes on the shop-floor level (researchers);

2. Structuring of the core work processes according to their ―degree of difficulty‖
      with shop-floor experts;

3. Grouping of the core work processes according to indivisible tasks (shop-floor
      experts);

4. Assignment of the grouped core work processes according to the level of re-
      quirements (shop-floor experts and researchers);

5. Make use of results of points 3 and 4 in order to determine the level hierarchy
      (shop-floor experts and sector experts / Social partners);

6. Determine sector related qualificational framework;

7. Assignment of the level hierarchy to the EQF (researchers, sector experts/ social
      partners);

8. Determination of credit points awarded for the levels (clarify procedure).


6.5      Justification of a level assignments according to the DQR

The level assignments according to Table 1 have above all been underpinned by the
descriptors of the DQF. Even if the structure of the descriptors of EQF and DQR
clearly differ from each other, the question has to be asked whether an assignment
according to the DQF could lead to the same results. In principle we would like to
underline that due to the descriptive-hermeneutical character of the descriptors, nei-
ther an assignment procedure nor a real assignment can be especially valid. Esti-
mates on the basis of an expertise play a certain role in all assignments. However,
this does not lead to a provable validity.

A closer look at individual core work-processes shows that a comparison with the
description of the requirement structure of the individual levels reveals the following:

       Standard Service (1) and repair of spare parts (2) can be assigned to Levels 1
         and 2 as these are structured and clear work areas. As a rule, the coping with
         the tasks takes place by adhering to preset regulations.



                                             52
    Standard Diagnosis (3), Inspection (4), Repair of drive train and suspension
       (5), electrical and electronical repair tasks (6) as well as extended diagnosis
       (7) can be assigned to Level 3. The skilled work tasks are carried out autono-
       mously, but they are clear-cut apart from an extended diagnosis. The latter
       could also be assigned to Level 4.

    Repair and maintenance (8) and Standard extension and installation of acces-
       sories (9) can be assigned to Level 4. The tasks are carried out autonomously,
       albeit in connection with comprehensive specialized requirements.

    Personnel management (10), bookkeeping (11) and corporate management
       (12) can be characterized as leadership tasks which encompass a great num-
       ber of requirements and their autonomous execution. Therefore it could be
       justified to assign these tasks to at least Level 5, sometimes even to a higher
       level.



The level assignments based on the DQR do not substantially differ from the as-
signment according to the EQR. Nevertheless it is recommended to delve deeper
into the issue in order to determine mutual interrelationships.




                                            53
Annex 0:

Occupational Standard: STANDARD SERVICE                                                                     001


CORE WORK PROCESS

The purpose of standard service is to maintain the safety of the vehicle in terms of roadworthy opera-
tions and functions and therefore maintaining also the utility/ resale value of vehicles and systems. All
service tasks required for preparations, execution and commissioning are to be carried out. The fo-
cus is on functional checks including the identification of wear and tear using methods of standar-
dized and individual service concepts, routine diagnosis as well as the service-relevant interaction of
compound groups and elements. The operational and functional safety with a view on manufacturing
service plans, customer requirements, and the state of the vehicle has to be ensured.

OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES

In order to master “standard service” as a core work process the following occupational standards are
required:

      Handling of vehicle reception and identification
      Practical application of rules for customer relations and customer care
      Knowledge of various service concepts and service standards
      Carrying through the standard service/inspection with the aid of service plans
      Able to carry through the ordering process of material / spare parts
      Use and reading of service plans, service documentations, work / repair order sheets
      Acquisition and use of information with diagnostic tools and information systems
      Conduct routine diagnosis and procedures of integrated diagnoses
      Documentation of work with the aid of work order sheets and part lists
      Know how of and making use of electronically controlled service instructions
      Safeguarding of driving safety, operational reliability and function of the automobile through service
      Knowledge and confident application of different forms of communication with clients/ customers and
        colleagues in relation to preparing, servicing and commissioning of vehicles
Occupational Standard: WEAR AND TEAR REPAIR                                                            002


CORE WORK PROCESS

Wear and tear repair encompasses the preventive exchange of wear parts (drive belt, brake linings,
tires, silencer) to ensure the function and the standardized control of vehicle systems prone to wear.
The traffic and operational safety must be assessed; the parts subject to wear must be exchanged.
Standard checking methods to identify the state of wear in brake and exhaust systems, wheel sus-
pension and steering, drive belts, seals, sleeves and pipes have to be applied. The wear parts are
exchanged according to the stipulations of the manufacturer. Quality requirements (parts quality, as-
sembly directives, identification and prevention of wear causes) are in the focus of interest.

OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES

In order to master “WEAR AND TEAR REPAIR” as a core work process the following occupational standards
are required:

   Describe measures for preventive wear repair
   Know theoretical principles of preventive exchange of wear parts
   Planning of preventive exchange of spare parts by adhering to the requirements of the car manufacturer
   Carrying through the preventive exchange of wear parts to preserve the functions of the car systems
   Select appropriate spare parts in consideration of customer requests, company prerequisites, quotation and
    availability
   Exchange of spare parts with limited functions by following the instructions of the manufacturer
   Know how of limits of wear repair, trouble shooting and fault repair
   Assessment of wear components with regard to age, mileage and workload
   Record service works in vehicle-specific and system-specific documents for both, customer and workshop
   Examine tools, methods and diagnostic devices for wear checks and repair with regard to their adequacy
    under technical/ functional, ergonomic and work process oriented aspects
   Compare and assess forms of organisation for the processing of wear repair orders including availability of
    spare parts Knowledge and confident application of different forms of communication with clients/customers
    and colleagues in relation to preparing, servicing and commissioning of vehicles.




                                                     - 55 -
Occupational Standard           Standard diagnosis, diagnostic procedures, trouble shooting & minor repair
                                No. 003


CORE WORK PROCESS

Based on the description of faults by the customer, standardized diagnosis procedures are used with the
aid of diagnosis flow plans and diagnostic systems. Usage of diagnostic equipment, following the manu-
facturer’s rules/standards is the core of work.

The components of the diagnostic equipment have to be selected and connected to the vehicle; hereby
safety regulations have to be observed. The diagnostic tools have to be activated and set up according to
the type of vehicle and manufacturer’s specifications.

A standard diagnosis has to be carried out, following the different methods possible. The fault memory of
the PLCs has to be read out and if necessary re-adjusted. The reading and resetting of fault memories as
well as the determination of the faults and their repair in systems such as engine, drive train, chassis,
electrical system have to be carried through. Simple repairs are carried out. The overall aim is the repair
and the full functional efficiency of all vehicle functions. The amount of repair necessary is determined and
basic repairs (repair of leakages, faults in electrical systems or in wheels, repair of worn-out joints) are
carried through.

OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES

In order to master “standard diagnosis, diagnostic procedures & trouble shooting” as a core work process
the following occupational standards are required:

      Knowing the procedures of using the various components of diagnostic equipment
      Application of manufacturer’s instructions for standard diagnosis
      Selection of the specific diagnostic hard- and software for the model of vehicle to be tested
      Selection of the relevant electrical circuit diagram (via manual or diagnostic equipment)
      Reading and understanding the electrical circuit diagram in order to point out possible faults
      Rectification of minor faults
      Re-adjustment of PLC memories
      Use of diagnostic systems for trouble shooting including the selection of diagnostic strategies
      Status inquiry of the condition of electrical systems of the vehicle
      Carry through minor repairs of vehicle systems (engine, chassis, drive train, electrical and elec-
       tronic systems)
      Knowledge and confident application of different forms of communication with clients/customers
       and colleagues in relation to preparing, servicing and commissioning of vehicles




                                                     - 56 -
OCCUPATIONAL STANDARD: GENERAL INSPECTION                                                                   004


CORE WORK PROCESS

The inspection of vehicles required by the manufacturer is carried out. Individual customer require-
ments, safety precautions and special service actions are taken into consideration. The amount of in-
spection and service tasks is assessed and determined. Necessary spare parts are provided. The task
comprises safety inspections concerning functions, operations, and road worthiness according to legal,
manufacturer specific and individual requirements. Vehicle systems are identified by means of technic-
al information systems. Fault finding methods including visual inspection, noise and function tests, in-
tegrated and rule oriented diagnosis are applied and documented. Defects are repaired by tuning, ad-
justment and repair works. Replacements during inspections such as toothed belts and checks (e.g.
brake and hydraulic fluids; basic settings) are mastered confidently.

All systems of a vehicle are checked on their flawless functioning. Environmental and safety aspects
(perfect exhaust gas composition, tightness of exhaust system, engine, gear box, brake systems, cool-
ing system, air conditioning) are adhered to.



OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES



In order to master “GENERAL INSPECTION ” as a core work process the following occupational standards
are required:

   Apply inspection procedures and tools to test road worthiness, operational and functional safety and vehicle
    systems
   Prepare and carry out inspection tasks according to manufacturers` specifications
   Handle workshop- and customer-specific service documents and information systems
   Ensure the function of vehicle and system conditions
   Repair of existing defects through tuning and adjustment works, repair of wear and damages upon determi-
    nation of required work
   Prepare for operational safety and environmental compliance on behalf of the customer
   Servicing and preparation of the components and systems of the car such as the engine and engine system,
    the drive train, the chassis and electrical system
   Assess the function of the entire car
   Cooperation with the manufacturer to get all the data necessary for an efficient service
   Knowledge and confident application of different forms of communication with clients/customers and col-
    leagues in relation to preparing, servicing and commissioning of vehicles




                                                     - 57 -
Occupational Standard: Undercarriage and suspension repair                                           005

CORE WORK PROCESS

This work task encompasses the repair of undercarriage and suspension elements such as brake and
steering support systems, undercarriage control and steering geometry as well as parts of the suspension
and shock absorber systems for restoration of their functions and effectiveness. The task concentrates on
using, describing, comparing and assessing the various trouble shooting and diagnosis processes in ag-
gregates and components as well as on the application of repair methods and procedures.



OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES




In order to master “undercarriage and suspension repair” as a core work process the following occupational
standards are required:

   Narrow down, identify and find the reasons of defects and malfunctions with the aid of specific trouble shooting
    and diagnosis procedures and documenting the results for customers and the company/ the manufacturer.
   Determine the amount of repair to be carried through, time and cost calculations, resource planning and customer
    advisory tasks for an efficient and customer-friendly repair.
   Repair of aggregates, components and elements according to manufacturer’s standards by using special tools
    and the required technical information.
   Adjustment and check of repaired functions and documentation of the repairs carried through and the status of
    functions.
   Dispose of/ reuse exchanged parts and materials according to work safety, health and environmental stipulations
    by taking into consideration procedures for manufacturer’s damage evaluation.
   Compile damage symptoms, specify order, and determine repair method.




                                                      - 58 -
Occupational Standard: Electrical and electronical repair                                                       006

CORE WORK PROCESS

This task encompasses the damage repair in system components and elements such as electrical and
electronical systems, chassis in order to restore the system functions. Focus is on diagnostic procedures,
standardized diagnosis and their evaluation. Special tools have to be applied.



OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES



In order to master “electrical and electronical repair” as a core work process the following occupational
standards are required:

   Compile damage system, specify order, efficiently plan workshop resources and spare parts, calculate expendi-
    ture of time and costs, customer advice with regard to alternative/ individual modes and procedures of repair.
   Selection and use of adequate tools, transparent documentation of diagnosis and results for customers, company
    and manufacturer.
   Repair of electronical and electrical components and aggregates with adequate methods and procedures by mak-
    ing use of the required technical information systems and transparent documentation for customers.
   Selection and use of circuit diagrams for trouble shooting and repair.
   Applying expert aids for repair of malfunctions.
   Making use of methods and procedures for measuring, testing and adjustment of repaired components and ele-
    ments and transparent documentation.
   Dispose of exchanged parts and replaced materials according to the stipulations of work safety, health protection
    and environmental standards and taking into consideration procedures for manufacturer’s damage evaluation




                                                      - 59 -
OCCUPATIONAL STANDARD: ADVANCED DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR OF AGGREGATES, COMPO-                                   007

NENT GROUPS AND ELEMENTS




CORE WORK PROCESS

The repair of aggregates is carried through and causes for trouble in complex vehicle systems are re-
paired.

The task comprises the repair of aggregates, component groups and –elements, e.g. parts of the engine,
differential, brake and steering system, chassis control and steering geometry for the re-establishment of
functions and mode of operation. Apart from methods of repair, focus is on the application, description,
comparison and assessment of different aggregate and component group oriented trouble shooting and
diagnosis procedures especially in networked electronic vehicle systems.



OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES


In order to master “Advanced Diagnosis and repair of aggregates, component groups and elements” as a
core work process the following occupational standards are required:


   Determination of defects by analyzing the fault characteristic of components
   Analyzing the effects of occurred component defects on the networked vehicle
   Overhauling of engine components (cylinder head, …)
   Maintenance/ repairs of component assemblies and component elements using appropriate methods and proce-
    dures by applying relevant technical information systems, transparent documentation for customer, workshop and
    manufacturer
   Repair and replacement of add-on aggregates, clutch, brake systems
   Repair and adjustment of components in the steering system and chassis
   Apply appropriate methods and procedures for checking, testing and tuning of restored component assembly and
    elements respectively and document in a transparent way
   Knowledge and confident application of different forms of communication with clients/ customers and colleagues in
    relation to preparing, servicing and commissioning of vehicles




                                                        - 60 -
OCCUPATIONAL STANDARD: REPAIR AND OVERHAULING OF AGGREGATES: ENGINE, GEARBOX                                      008

AND AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION


CORE WORK PROCESS

Engines, gear boxes and complex aggregates are completely overhauled and the functioning of the en-
tire vehicle is restored. Apart from the mounting and removal of the aggregates, this includes the follow-
ing tasks: dismantling of components, failure investigation of spare parts and determination of the
amount of repair necessary. Prior to this, adequate checks and measurements (compression check,
pressure loss check, noise analysis, determination of faults, especially in automatic transmissions) have
to be carried out for trouble shooting. Fault tables are applied. Assembly and disassembly techniques are
applied with the aid of adequate special tools. The determination of wear limits and tolerances (crank-
shaft drive, gear wheels, hydraulic units) as well as the adjustment of required tolerances and alignments
play a special role.

OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES

In order to master “REPAIR AND OVERHAULING OF AGGREGATES” as a core work process the following oc-
cupational standards are required:

       Handling of databases, manuals and information systems for damage identification, cost estimates and repair
        planning
       Carrying through assembly and disassembly of whole aggregates
       Dismantling of engines, gearboxes and complex mechatronic aggregates
       Determination of damages in dismantled engines, gearboxes and complex mechatronic aggregates
       Making use of special tools for determination of axial and radial clearance in crankshaft drive and cylinder/ pis-
        ton systems / tooth backlash
       Compare and assess repair methods and replacement procedures with regard to cost reduction and efficiency
       Handling of measurement tools and diagnosis of damages with different methods like noise analysis, com-
        pression check, test drives on the road
       Managing and carrying through special overhauling processes (regrinding of valves, fit in of pistons)
       Knowledge about impact of damages and malfunctions caused by inadequate work, material and parts quality,
        lubricant shortages etc
.




                                                       - 61 -
Occupational Standard: STANDARD EXTENSIONS AND ACCESSORY INSTALLATIONS                                         009

CORE WORK PROCESS

Accessories for the individualization and the special use of a vehicle are carried out. Priority should be
given to the safeguarding of traffic and operational safety by adhering to stipulations for the operating
license and traffic safety. In addition order configurations (customer requirements, customer advising,
definition of order, adaptation of order to vehicle, offer for order process) are most important and their
implications on the function of the entire vehicle must be considered.

Standard accessories and installations serve to individualize vehicles or to facilitate their utilization for
special purposes. Retrofitting of accessories often has an impact on the architecture, performance and
system behavior and thus on road worthiness, operational and functional safety. Legislation and speci-
fications of the manufacturer must be observed.



OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES



In order to master “STANDARD EXTENSIONS AND ACCESSORY INSTALLATIONS” as a core work process the fol-
lowing occupational standards are required:

     Plan adequate standard and optional accessory installations. Determine cost and time required and advise
      customers on respective effects and consequences.
      Analyze the customer’s extension order and the manufacturer’s data to ensure optimal customer advice
      and operational reliability of the vehicle

     Planning of the installation process
      Selection of necessary tools, special tools, auxiliaries and methods to ensure efficient installation process
      and optimal tuning results

     Carrying through the accessory installations and standard extensions
      Strictly adhere to technical specifications and relevant legislation, when connect and testing accessories,
      and make the necessary arrangements for compulsory technical inspection/ approval and registration

     Compare and assess different technical solutions for optical and technical performance tuning
     Knowledge and confident application of different forms of communication with clients/ customers and col-
      leagues in relation to preparing, servicing and commissioning of vehicles




                                                   - 62 -
Literature
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                                         - 63 -

				
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