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					             Populations

               Chapter 24

http://blue.census.gov/ipc/www/clock.html
            Human Population

• We have seen
  factors that
  influence the growth
  of populations in
  general.
• Next we will apply
  some of these to the
  human population.
Fig. 24.22

Exponential
growth in the
human population
          G=rxN
    World Population: 2002

N = 6,228,394,430
r =          1.18
G =    73,915,261

http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/world.html
Changes in birthrates and death rates in Sri Lanka

             Births - Deaths = r
    World Population Events
 Time unit       Births      Deaths       Growth
-------------------------------------------------
Year       131,571,719   55,001,289    76,570,430
Month       10,964,310    4,583,441     6,380,869
Day            360,470      150,688       209,782
Hour            15,020        6,279         8,741
Minute             250          105           146
Second             4.2          1.7           2.4
-------------------------------------------------
Fig. 24.25
   Examine the population
demographics of these countries.
• Sweden
• Mexico
• United States
  – Determine G, N and r
• http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbsum.html
             Age structures of three nations




Shrinking                 Growing                Stable

  Are these growing, shrinking or stable populations?
            Your assignment
• Create a single powerpoint slide containing
  – Data on your assigned variable for France,
    Tanzania and the United States (be sure to
    include units).
  – Explain the impact of curing heart disease and
    malaria on your variable – OR -
  – Explain the impact of population changes
    predicted for 2050 your variable.
  – The name of your group members.

• Go to D2L and put them in the drop box.
       Pop. Pyramid http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbpyr.html
       N, r, and G   http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbsum.html



      Variable                                      Predict
1.    N, r, and G                                   Impact of curing malaria and heart disease on variable
2.    Life expectancy                               Impact of curing malaria and heart disease on variable
3.    Kids/woman                                    Impact of curing malaria and heart disease on variable
4.    Infant Mortality                              Impact of curing malaria and heart disease on variable
5.    Adult Mortality                               Impact of curing malaria and heart disease on variable
6.    Immigration Emigration                        Impact of curing malaria and heart disease on variable
7.    Ecological footprint                          Change of variable in 2050 vs. today
8.    Water supply amt./quality                     Change of variable in 2050 vs. today
9.    Population density                            Change of variable in 2050 vs. today
10.   Land use                                      Change of variable in 2050 vs. today
11.   Wildness                                      Change of variable in 2050 vs. today
 Heart Disease is the leading cause of
    death in developed countries.
• 50% of all deaths in US and
  Europe, typically >50 years old.
• Caused by obesity, poor diet,
  lack of exercise, diabetes, and
  genetic factors.



                                     Clot in Coronary Artery
Malaria kills 2-3 million humans
annually (90% of malaria deaths are in
Subsaharan Africa)


Caused by Plasmodium parasite and
transmitted by mosquito

Affects primarily children under age
of five and pregnant women
(Malaria kills an African child every 30 sec)
Example:
Life Expectancy for Tanzania, France, and United States
Source: US Census Bureau
                              Tanzania France             USA

            Life              65 yrs       75 yrs         70 yrs
            Expectancy
            Curing            No           Increase Decrease
By:         Malaria           impact

I.M. Smart Curing             Increase     Decrease No
M.E. Too    Heart Disease                           impact

                  NOTE, THESE ARE NOT CORRECT
                    ANSWERS, JUST EXAMPLES
 Next class period we will…
– Present your slides in class and use them for
  discussion.
– Discuss the impact of curing heart disease and
  malaria on some of these variables.
– Discuss the impact of population changes
  predicted for 2050 on the other variables.
– This is worth 5 points on the final exam.
Fig. 24.25
             Age structures of three nations




Shrinking                 Growing                Stable

  Are these growing, shrinking or stable populations?
 Heart Disease is the leading cause of
    death in developed countries.
• 50% of all deaths in US and
  Europe, typically >50 years old.
• Caused by obesity, poor diet,
  lack of exercise, diabetes, and
  genetic factors.



                                     Clot in Coronary Artery
Malaria kills 2-3 million humans
annually (90% of malaria deaths are in
Subsaharan Africa)


Caused by Plasmodium parasite and
transmitted by mosquito

Affects primarily children under age
of five and pregnant women
(Malaria kills an African child every 30 sec)
Examine the data you collected
                                           =                             X


                                       Tanzania                      France                       USA
                          N
                                  36,071,000 60,424,000 293,028,000
                           r      Births/1000 population=41   Births/1000 population=13   Births/1000 population=14
                                  Deaths/1000 population=18   Deaths/1000 population=9    Deaths/1000 population=9
                                      R=23/1000 people            R=4/1000 people             R=5/1000 people

                          G       2000-2010 growth               2000-2010                2000-2010 growth
                                   rate will be 2.0%           growth rate will            rate will be 0.9%
                                                                  be 0.4%
                        Curing       The population                 No impact                   No impact
                        Malaria      would increase           Malaria isn’t common        Malaria isn’t common in
                                  Malaria is common in        in developed countries       developed countries
                                    underdeveloped
 By: Tiffany Tyson,                    countries
Chantelle Pelzer, and
  Emily Brickert
                        Curing          No Impact             Would increase the          Would increase the
                        Heart      Heart Disease effects      population of adults        population of adults
                        Disease     mainly developed           Heart Disease effects       Heart Disease effects
                                        countries               mainly developed            mainly developed
                                                                    countries                   countries
N, r, and G for Tanzania, France, and United States
Source: US Census Bureau
                                     Tanzania     France          USA


                 N (Total Population) 36,071,000 60,424,000       293,028,000

                 R (Growth Rate)     1.1%         -0.3%           0.7%

                 G (Change In)       396,781      (181,272)       2,051,196

By:              Curing              Increase N, No Impact        No Impact
David Feivor     Malaria             r, and G
Tim Molinarolo
Chelsea Enger    Curing              Increase N, Increase N, r,   Increase N, r,
Nathan Tock      Heart Disease       r, and G    and G            and G
G, r and N for Tanzania, France, and United States
Source: US Census Bureau
                             Tanzania      France    USA

            G                864,000       300,000   2.93 MIL
By:         r                2.4%          0.5%      1.0%
Mike        N                36 MIL        60 MIL    293 MIL
Loeffler
            Curing           Increase      No        No Impact
            Malaria                        Impact
Pete
Johnson
            Curing           No Impact Increase      Increase
            Heart
            Disease
2




                   *If a cure for Malaria and heart disease are found, then the
                 populations will increase, and life expectancy will also increase .




By: Brittany Conant, Claire Knoble, Wren Walker
  Life Expectancy for Tanzania, France, and United States &
         Effects of Curing Malaria and Heart Disease

                                Tanzania         France          USA

         Life                   44 yrs           78.8 yrs        76.6 yrs.
         Expectancy
         Curing                 Increase         No Impact No
         Malaria                                           Impact
         Curing Heart           No Impact Increase               Increase
         Disease

By: Andrea Fox, Brett Gullicksrud, Rachel Knutson, Katie Penniston, Pangdra Vang
Source: US Census Bureau
Life Expectancy for Tanzania, France, and United States
Source: US Census Bureau


                              Tanzania       France       USA

                 Life         44.1 yrs       78.8 yrs     76.6 yrs
                 Expectancy
By:              Curing       Increase       Increase     No Impact
Carrie Dietz     Malaria
Kristin Minter
                 Curing       Increase       Increase     Increase
Jenn Moulton
                 Heart
Cassie Huettl
                 Disease
Ryan Meighan
            Fertility Rate Per Woman
                             Source: US Census Bureau
                                                          No impact for curing
                                                               heart disease because
               USA         France              Tanzania        the women are above
                                                               childbearing age.
                                                          No impact for curing
            2000 – 2025   2000 – 2025       2000 – 2025        malaria in the USA
Fertility                                                      or France because
            2.1     2.2   1.9    1.8         5.5    3.4
Rate per                                                       they are developed
woman                                                          countries.
            kids/woman    kids/woman         kids/woman
                                                          Increase in Tanzania
                                                               because less children
             NO            NO               INCREASE
Curing                                                         will be dying and
                                                               pregnant women will
Malaria     IMPACT        IMPACT                               have fewer
                                                               complications.

Curing       NO            NO                NO           By Sara Schlough,
                                                              Kristine Tresemer,
Heart       IMPACT        IMPACT            IMPACT            Abby Biesterveld
Disease
Population of women/children for Tanzania, France, and United States
in the year 2000
Source: US Census Bureau



                              Tanzania    France      USA


                Women/        7,464/      23,076/     104,477/
                Children      18,624      15,066      80,559
By:
                Curing        Increase    No          No
Brittany
Montgomery
                Malaria                   Impact      Impact
And Brittany
                Curing        No          Increase    Increase
Shipman
                Heart Disease Impact
Infant Mortality for Tanzania, France, and United States
Source: US Census Bureau

                                Tanzania France            USA

                 Infant         112 (male)/ 5(male)/  9 (male)/
                 Mortality      92 (female) 4(female) 7 (female)
By:                             per 1000 per 1000 per 1000
Katie McNeely,
                 Curing         Decrease Decrease Decrease
Elissa Bauer,
                 Malaria        Mortality
Amy Calhoun,
Nick Cerwin,     Curing        No            No            No
Becca Long
                 Heart Disease Impact        Impact        impact
Infant Mortality for Tanzania, France, and United States
*Sources: US Census Bureau & World Health Organization

                    Tanzania France     USA

     Infant         109 per    5 per    7 per
     Mortality      1000       1000     1000
     Curing         Decrease No         No
     Malaria                 impact     impact
     Curing        No          No       No
     Heart Disease impact      impact   impact

 By: Emily Noel, Christine Benzschawel, & Karin Mueller
  4. Infant Mortality Rate for Tanzania, France, and United
                             States
      Source: US Census Bureau and MamasHealth.com
                    By Jackie Henry and Lindsie Miller


                    Tanzania               France        USA

Infant Mortality 109 deaths 5 deaths                     7 deaths
Rate per 1000
births
Curing           Decrease No                             No Impact
Malaria                     Impact
Curing              Decrease               No            Decrease
Heart Disease                              Impact
      Source: US Census Bureau
                                             France      Tanzania    USA



              Adult Mortality                133/60      561/512     140/83
              (m/f per 1000)

              Curing Malaria                 No Impact   No Impact   No Impact

              Curing Heart                   Decrease    No Impact   Decrease
              Diseases




By: Katie Kratz, Sara Wanless, Marie Fouts
Adult Mortality for Tanzania, France, USA       By: Casy Dunphy
Source: US Census Bureau                        Meghan Jablonski


                             Tanzania       France       USA

  Adult Mortality            561-M          133-M        140-M
                             512-F          60-F         83-F
  Curing                     Subtle         Subtle       Subtle
  Malaria                    impact         impact       impact

  Curing                     Decrease       Decrease     Decrease
  Heart Disease
                                            Adult Mortality
                                                        France                    Tanzania                USA
                                                     N= 60,424,000 ppl           N= 33,065,000 ppl      N= 293,028,000 ppl
                                                     R= 0.5% growth              R= 2.4% growth         R= 1.0 % growth
                                         N,R,G       G= RN = 302,120 ppl         G= RN= 704,000         G= RN= 2,930,000
                                                                                 ppl                    ppl

                                                                                 Info not available     Males: 140 per 1000
                                                     Males: 133 per 1000         on the WHO             Females: 83 per
                                         Adult                                   website, but the       thousand
                                                     Females: 60 per 1000
                                         Mortality                               death rate is 18 per
                                                                                 thousand in the
                                                                                 population

                                         Curing      Will not have a large       Will slightly lower    Will not have a large
                                                     effect on adult mortality   adult mortality        effect on adult
                                         Malaria     because malaria             because malaria is     mortality because
                                                     primarily effects kids      prevalent in           malaria is not
                                                                                 subsaharan Africa      prevalent in the US
                                         Curing      Will lower adult            Will not               Will lower adult
                                         Heart       mortality because HD is     significantly lower    mortality because HD
                                         Disease     the leading killer of       adult mortality        is the leading killer of
                                                     adults in developed         because it is not a    adults in developed
                                                     countries                   big killer of adults   countries
                                                                                 in Tanzania



                                              Source: US Census Bureau, World Health Organization
By: Pat Kelly, Andrea Keohane, and RAJ
United States ---------12.22 hectares per capita       As the population
                                                       increases over the
France-------------------7.27 hectares per capita      next 45 years, the
                                                       concentration of
Tanzania----------------1.02 hectares per capita       people per hectare will
                                                       increase which results
1.0 hectares =2.471 acres                              in a lower ecological
                                                       footprint per capita.
                                      By:
                     Andrew Trawinski and Sam Callan
Source: Nationmaster.com




                                      Burma         France          Canada

         Water                        21,898        3,349 cubic     94,353 cubic
                                      cubic         meters          meters
         Availability                 meters

         Population                   Increase      Decrease        Decrease
         Changes


  By: Kristina Hertel and Vanessa Keller
                                                 Water Availability for Tanzania,
                                                 France, and United States
  Water Supply Amount/Quality for Tanzania, France, and
                   the United States
Source: nationmaster.com

                             Tanzania                France            United States
 Water Supply Amount*      3.64 thousand cubic   3.26 thousand cubic       7.09 thousand
   (in cubic meters)              meters                meters              cubic meters
  Freshwater pollution*           N/A            2.49 tons per cubic   1.14 tons per cubic km
  (in tons per cubic km)                                 km

 Population from present        Increases             Increases              Increases
     time to 2050




*The increasing populations of France, Tanzania, and the United States in 2050
will cause the water supply to decrease and the fresh water pollution rate to
increase.
 Presentation created by: Ryan Klein, Jackie Rinzel, Kim Skuster, Krista
 Woolever, and Sarah Kleman
Water Supply Amount and Quality for Tanzania, France, and United
                           States
                                Tanzania                 France                     USA

        Water                Water Availability:     Water Availability:     Water Availability:
                             3.64 thousand cubic     3.26 thousand cubic     7.09 thousand cubic
        Supply                      meters                  meters                  meters
      Amount and            Freshwater Pollution:   Freshwater Pollution:   Freshwater Pollution:
                             0.00 tons/cubic km      2.49 tons/cubic km      1.14 tons/cubic km
        Quality
        Today
        Water                Water Availability:     Water Availability:     Water Availability:
                                  Decrease                 Same                   Decrease
        Supply              Freshwater Pollution:   Freshwater Pollution:   Freshwater Pollution:
      Amount and                  Increase                Increase                Increase
                              *POPULATION             *POPULATION              *POPULATION
       Quality in             PREDICTED TO          PREDICTED SAME          PREDICTED TO BE
         2050                DOUBLE BY 2050            SIZE AS NOW          1.5 TIMES LARGER



Sources: www.nationmaster.com/graph-T/env_eco_foo&int=-1; US Census Bureau
By: Dena Shefelbine, Scott Szukalski, Klarissa Czys, Whitney Miller, Erik Haworth
Population Density for Tanzania, France, and United States
Source: US Census Bureau International Data Base



            In persons /      Tanzania France          USA
            sq. km.
            Today             40.7         110.7       32

By: Brian
            2050              81.2         111.8       45.8
Peters,
Alexa
Jaime
Population densities for France, Tanzania, and U.S.
Source: www. Census.gov/ipc/wwwidbagg.html (001 density)

                             France              Tanzania       U.S.



  Population Today         60,424,213           36,071,799   293,028,571
 Density (persons per         110.7                40.7         32.0
       sq. km.)
  Population 2050          61,017,122           71,949,135   420,081,587
 Density (persons per         111.8                81.2         45.8
       sq. km.)


       Impact               Increase             Increase     Increase




Christina Berggren, Jordan Hauser, and Michelle Huhn
Population Density for United States, France and Tanzania
             Source: U.S. Census Brureau

                    United         France         Tanzania
                    States
                    293,027,571    60,424,213     36,070,799
 Population
 2004
                    420,080,587    61,017,122     71,949,135
 Population
 2050
 Population         Increase       Increase       Increase
 Density                           Slightly


 Crystal Svoboda, Amanda Zellner, Tony Caauwe, Natosha Hoffmann
                                   Land Use
 Land Use – percent of total land area available for: cultivated crops (arable land), permanent
crops (Permanent), and other areas (Other) such as prairies, pastures, forests, and built-on lands.
It is predicted that the population in Tanzania and the United States will almost double, while the
                            growth rate of France is not nearly as high.


                           Country       Type of Land        Percent of       Prediction for
                                                             land (%)             2050
                           Tanzania          Arable              4.52              Increase
                                           Permanent             1.08              Decrease
                                              Other              94.4              Increase
                         United States       Arable             19.13              Decrease
                                           Permanent             0.22              No Impact
                                              Other             80.65              Increase
                            France           Arable             33.53              Decrease
                                           Permanent             2.07              Decrease
                                              Other              64.4              Increase

                   By: Breann Sommer, Jens Hogberg, Lindsay Tietz, & James Bodah
         Wildness for Tanzania, France, and
                   United States
       Wildness          Tanzania       France            USA
         Today                9.30%      0.04%           35.89%
                         Decrease      Decrease
         2050                                           Decrease
                       substantially   Slightly

       Tanzania will decrease because they are still a developing
    country. France will decrease slightly because they have used up
    most of their unprotected land. The USA will decrease because
    of our increasing population. Not all of the land will be used
    because the United States has one of the largest masses of
    preserved land. All of the countries will decrease in wildness
    because the world population has not reached its carrying
    capacity.

By: Amy Yoel, Megan Brisch,
Alison Smetana, Ethan Lor                 Source: www.nationmaster.com
                                                 # 11 Wildness
                                                 Michelle Tentis
                                                 Megan Brennan
                                                 Rachael Stanze


               United States     France        Tanzania

  Wildness       35.89%           .04%          9.3%
  Current      290,342,554     60,180,529    35,922,454
 Population
Growth Rate        .92%           .42%          1.72%

Effect of Pop. Because the growth rate is positive in all
On Wildness three countries, the wildness will be depleted
   in 2050        as a result of necessary expansion.
 Examine the data you collected
• For each variable, determine the impact of
  curing malaria and heart disease on that
  variable.
    In developed countries, what
  happens if we cure heart disease?
• Population
        No significant increase

• Consumption
        Increase

• Quality of life
         Increases life expectancy, but will also increase
         heath costs and drain on resources
     In developing countries, what
      happens if we cure malaria?
• Population
        Significant increase

• Consumption
        Increase

• Quality of life
         Increases life expectancy, but will also dramatically
         increase use of already scarce resources
Impact of Disease on Population
• Which would have a greater impact on
  world population, curing heart disease or
  curing malaria?


            MALARIA
      Parasitologist’s Dilemma
• What happens if we don’t cure malaria?
   Death rate stays high, population growth is suppressed

• What happens if we do cure malaria?
   Death rate drops, population grows more rapidly

• What could you do to keep population
  growth low, while still curing malaria?
What could you do to keep population
growth low, while still curing malaria?
  Decrease fertility rate per woman
    Less developed countries          3.05
    More developed countries          1.57
  Spread out the generations
    Start having children at age 30 vs. 15
  Birth-control
    Abstinence, contraception, sterilization
  Other
    Education of women, affluence (wealth)
     Why do we want to keep
     population growth low?
• In many poor countries resources are
  already scarce.
  – Tanzania < 2,000 calories per day
  – France, USA >3,200 calories per day
• If population increases, available food per
  person decreases.
• This leads to increased pressure on the
  environment and ecosystems around the
  world
    Is there a correlation between
   consumption and quality of life?
                  France       Tanzania        USA

Consumption       Average        Low           High

Quality of Life   Highest        Low           High




     Quality
     Of Life




                  Consumption (ecological footprint)
Is the current level of consumption
       in the US sustainable?

                               Tanzania   France   USA
   Footprint (ha/person)         1.0       7.3     12.2
Actual resources (ha/person)     0.6       7.4     8.0
      Net Difference             -0.4     +0.1     -4.2


• No, we must import a third of our resources.
Impact of consumption on the environment

  • Consumption by the average American
    – The US uses 250-300 liters of water/person/day
       • for drinking, cooking, bathing, sanitation, and
         watering yards (the minimum amount needed for
         those things MINUS the yard watering is 50
         liters/person/day).
       • In contrast, a country like Tanzania uses less than 5
         liters of water/person/day.
    – The average American consumed over 200
      pounds of red meat, poultry, and fish in 2000.
    – The average coffee drinker in the United States
      drinks 3.1 cups of coffee/day.
Impact of consumption on the environment
  • Consumption by the average American
    – In 2001, the average American produced 4.4 pounds of
      garbage waste per day
       • (product packaging, clothes, food scraps, bottles, grass
         clippings, etc., before recycling).
       • Compare this to 2.7 pounds of garbage waste/person/day in
         1960.
    – About 91,286 million liters of soda are consumed/year.
      This is over 300 liters/person/year!
    – In 2001, the United States used 341.8 million Btus of
      energy/person and emitted 5.5 metric tons of
      carbon/person.
       • In the same year, France used 177.8 million Btus/person and
         emitted only 1.8 metric tons of carbon.
 What is the impact of consumption
        on the environment?
• To make a single 2 gram computer chip
  requires
  – 1.6 liters of fossil fuel
  – 72 grams of chemicals
  – 32 kilograms (8 gallons) of water
What is the impact of consumption
       on the environment?
       (compare Tanzania with France/USA)

                              Tanzania   France   USA
Pesticide use (kg/hectare)      600      3000     1600

Fertilizer use (kg/hectare)      7        263     112

SO4 produced (tons/km2)         100      1000     1600

Water pollution (tons/km3)      0.1       2.5     1.1

  Wilderness remaining         9.3%      0.04%    36%
   Ecological footprint          1        7.3     12.2
    What is the impact of population
     density on the environment?
              (compare France with the USA)
                                  Tanzania   France   USA
   Pesticide use (kg/hectare)       600      3000     1600

   Fertilizer use (kg/hectare)       7        263     112

   SO4 produced (tons/km2)          100      1000     1600

  Water pollution (tons/km3)        0.1       2.5     1.1

     Wilderness remaining          9.3%      0.04%    36%
Population Density (people/km2)     40        110     31
     Parasitologist’s Dilemma
• Should we try to cure malaria?

• Given your answer, are there other actions
  we should take at the same time?
Is there hope?
    What type of growth is this?




                    Logistic
N
What determines K for humans?
• Adapt our environment to meet our
  needs rather than adapt to our
  environment.
• Predation
  – Only ourselves
• Parasites
  – Sanitation
  – Medications
• Competition
  – Mass extinctions
What is K for humans?
K = 1010 people?




         Is this sustainable?
r
G
            Feeding the world
• World’s farmers have doubled the food
  supply since 1973
  –   Miracle wheat seeds and high yielding rice
  –   Irrigation
  –   Fertilizers and pesticides
  –   Genetically modified crops
  –   Actually have more food/person than in 1973
Agricultural Production per Person
 has remained relatively constant
Top 5 countries by population
          (2003)
1   China           1,286,975,468
2   India           1,049,700,118
3   United States     290,342,554
4   Indonesia         234,893,453
5   Brazil            182,032,604
      Population x Consumption =
        Environmental Impact
            Population      Consumption      Impact
                            (hect/person)   (hectares)
   China    1,286,975,468             1.8   2,316,555,842

  India     1,049,700,118             1.0   1,049,700,118

  United     290,342,554             12.7   3,687,350,436
  States
Indonesia    234,893,453              1.5    352,340,180

  Brazil     182,032,604              2.6    473,284,770
          Sustainable Development:
          Land Used < Land Available
              Impact           Available       Difference
             (hectares)        (hectares)      (hectares)
   China      2,316,555,842    1,544,370,562    -772,185,281

  India        1,049,700,118    656,062,574     -393,637,544

  United      3,687,350,436    2,322,740,432   -1,364,610,004
  States
Indonesia       352,340,180     610,722,978      258,382,798

  Brazil        473,284,770    1,019,382,582     546,097,812
         Ecological impact
• Impact = population X consumption
• Americans consume more per capita than
  anyone else on earth.
• It would take 3.28 billion Indians to
  consume what 290 million Americans do.
     Sustainable development
• A balance between population and
  consumption within the limits imposed by
  nature
• Need to achieve sustainability
  – Reduction in pop growth in developing nations
  – Reduction in consumption in developed nations
The End
Population
pyramids
for Tanzania
-2000
-2025
-2050
Population pyramids
for France
-2000
-2025
-2050
Population pyramids
for United States
-2000
-2025
-2050
General Pop. Stats.          Tanzania France USA
Pop. (in millions)           36.0    59.5    285.9
Infant Mortality             104     5       8
(death/1000 live births)
Fertility rate               5.5     1.7     2.0
Life Expectancy @ birth      46      72      76
Child mortality (per 1000)   159     5       8
Adult mortality (per 1000)   526     97      113
Health expenditure/          36      2,335   4,499
capita (Intl. $)
Growth      Tanzania    France    USA
(G=r x N)
r (%)       2.9         0.4       1.1

N           35,964,000 59,452,000 285,925,000

G           1,042,956   237,808   3,145,175

				
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