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List of Figures                                                                         xi
List of Tables                                                                        xvii
List of Contributors                                                                   xxi

                                Part I:    IntroDuCtIon

1.   Introduction                                                                       3
     John R. Wilson, Ann Mills, Theresa Clarke and Beverley Norris

2.   Real Prediction of Real Performance                                                9
     Neville Moray

                          Part II:    Passengers anD PuBLIC

3.   Wayfinding, Accessibility, Inclusive Design and Passenger Information Systems:
     ‘euston Station and Beyond’                                                       25
     Matt Pattison, John R. Wilson and Theresa Clarke

4.   Improving the Content and Placement of Anti-Trespass Signs                        37
     Nicola Forsdike, Claire Turner, Fiona Bellerby, Sue Nelson and Paul McGuire

5.   Travel Information vs Commercial Signboards:
     The Battle between Travel and Shopping                                            49
     Answina D.P. Zwaagstra

                Part III:    DrIver PerformanCe anD WorkLoaD

6. Assessing the Impact of Increased Numbers of CCTv Images on Driver only
   operation of a Train                                                                63
   M. Wood, M. Freer, E. Grimes and N. Brook-Carter

7. Understanding Driver Route knowledge                                                71
   R. Luther, H. Livingstone, T. Gipson and E. Grimes

8. Robot Trains: Results of Focus Groups with Remote Control operators in the
   United States and Canada                                                            79
   Stephen Reinach
vi                                  People and Rail Systems

                         Part Iv:     DrIvIng anD CognItIon

9.   Cognitive Workload of Train Drivers                                               91
     Ilse Gillis

10. Train Drivers and Fatal Accidents on the Rails: Psychological Aspects and Safety   103
    Valdimar Briem, Sonia de Lima and Camilla Siotis

11. The Cognitive Tasks of the Driver: The Approach and Passage Through Diverging
    Junctions                                                                          115
    Amanda C. Elliott, Sarah D. Garner, and Elaine Grimes

12. A Train Driving Simulator experiment to Investigate Driver Fault Diagnosis         125
    W.H. Gibson, M.W. Halliday, L. Sutton, J. Shelton, and M. Bond

        Part v: traIn CaB anD InterfaCes: sImuLatIon anD DesIgn

13. An Ergonomics Methodology for Retrofitting Equipment in Train Cabs                 137
    Katie Buchanan, Gary Davis and Richard Roels

14. The Waterfall Train Accident: Implications and lessons learnt                      147
    Andrew S. McIntosh and Graham Edkins

15. Determining User Requirements for a Human Factors Research Train Driver Simulator 155
    Thomas K. Yates, Sarah C. Sharples, Ged Morrisroe and Theresa Clarke

16. A Facility for Testing eRTMS/eTCS Conformity and Human Factors                     167
    Klaus P. Jaschke, Katrin Hartwig, Michael Meyer zu Hörste and Karsten Lemmer

17. Cardboard to Computers: An evolution of Design visualisation                       175
    Karen Wright

             Part vI:    routes, sIgnage, sIgnaLs anD DrIvaBILIty

18. early Route Drivability Assessment in Support of Railway Investment                185
    W. Ian Hamilton, Emma Lowe and Charlotte Hill

19. Development of a Route Assessment Checklist Tool for Train operators               197
    Mark Newman, Claire Turner, Ann Mills and John Peters

20. Informing Signage Positioning Rules Through a Human Factors Assessment of
    Signal/Sign Co-location                                                            203
    Charlotte Hill, Harry Blanchard and Mike Carey
                                           Contents                                        vii
            Part vII:     sIgnaLLIng anD ControL of the raILWay

21. Mental Workload Assessment and the Development of the operational Demand               215
    evaluation Checklist (oDeC) for Signallers
    Laura Pickup and John R. Wilson

22. Supervision in Signal Boxes                                                            225
    Stuart Dickinson and Emma Lowe

23. Prediction of Signaller Workload                                                       237
    Toby Garner, Mark Newman, Chris Lowe and W. Ian Hamilton

24. Collecting Human Factors Attitudes and opinions from Signallers:
    Development and Use of ReqUeST (The Railway ergonomics questionnaire)                  247
    Brendan Ryan, John R. Wilson, Sarah Sharples and Eleanor Marshall

25. ergonomics Assessment of lever operation in Mechanical Signalling                      257
    R.J. Muffett

26. From the Horse’s Mouth: The Contribution of Subject Matter experts (SMes) to
    Study of Rail Work Systems                                                             267
    Gemma Cox, Trudi Farrington-Darby and Richard Bye

27. Work Analysis and Distributed Cognition Representation of Integrated Rail operations   275
    R. Bye, T. Farrington-Darby, G. Cox, G.R.J. Hockey, J.R. Wilson and T. Clarke

                      Part vIII:    PLannIng for the raILWay

28. Planning, Reasoning and Patterns of Inferences: An empirical Study into the
    Reasoning of Staff Planners in The Netherlands Railways                                287
    René Jorna and Derk Jan Kiewiet

29. Implementation of a Test System for Evaluation of New Concepts in Rail Traffic
    Planning and Control                                                                   301
    Bengt Sandblad, Arne W. Andersson, Arvid Kauppi and Johan Wikström

30. Task oriented Support for Train Shunting Planning                                      309
    Wout Van Wezel

               Part IX:     engIneerIng Work anD maIntenanCe

31. Understanding the Underlying Causes of Procedures violations and Developing
    effective Preventative Strategies                                                      321
    David Embrey
viii                                People and Rail Systems

32. Human Factors in the Management of engineering Possessions:
    The Roles of the engineering Supervisor and PICoP                                  331
    Brendan Ryan, John R. Wilson, Alex Schock, Emma Lowe and Fiona Kenvyn

33. Human Factors Integration for the Computerised Track Access Control System         343
    Chris Lowe, Dan Lock, Barnaby Annan, Paul Thompson and Paul Raistrick

                             Part X:        LeveL CrossIngs

34. The Impact of Aggressive Driving on the Design of level Crossing Safety Measures   355
    Andrej Godec and Zdravko Toš

35. Human Factors Issues at level Crossings: A Reference Tool for Inspectors           363
    Hayley Dixon, Andy Baker and Claire Dickinson

36. Human Factors in the Upgrading of Railway Control Equipment                        371
    John Wood, Mark Brunt, Claire Fix, Andy Harding and Theresa Clarke

37. The Effect of a Level Crossing Upgrade on Signaller Workload and Staffing
    Requirements: A Case Study                                                         379
    Amanda J. Widdowson

                          Part XI: aCCIDents anD safety

38. Maximising Information: An Effective Interview Technique for Investigators in
    the Rail Industry                                                                  387
    Emma Lowe and Claire Turner

39. Changing Safety Critical Communications Behaviour                                  399
    Emma Lowe and Peter Nock

40. Safety Climate in Australian Railways                                              409
    A. Ian Glendon and Bronwyn Evans

41. The Waterfall Train Accident: The Critical Role of Human Factors                   419
    Andrew S. McIntosh and Graham Edkins

42. The Role of Communication errors in Railway Incident Causation                     427
    Dr Paul Shanahan, Dik Gregory, Mike Shannon and Huw Gibson

              Part XII:     human error anD human reLIaBILIty

43. Assessing the Potential for Human error in level 4 Rail vehicle Maintenance        439
    Steve Mason
                                           Contents                                       ix
44. Generic Human Reliability Assessment for Railways: Results                           477
    Ned Hickling, Liz Gaskell and Theresa Clarke

45. The Development and Application of a Rail Human Reliability Assessment Tool          455
    Jenny Gilroy and Elaine Grimes

46. Improving the Predictive Power of an existing Human Reliability Assessment Method    465
    J.L. Bell, J.C. Williams, C. Daniels and N.D. Warren

                 Part XIII:    sPaDs – sIgnaLs PasseD at Danger

47. The Impact of Returning from Rest Days on SPAD Incidents                             475
    W. Huw Gibson, John Shelton and Ann Mills

48. Driver Assessment of the effectiveness of Spad Mitigation Measures                   483
    Tidi Wisawayodhin, Suzanne Heape, Guangyan Li, Claire Turner, Ann Mills
    and John Peters

49. Predicting the Causes of Spad Incidents                                              491
    Linda Wright, Mark Dabekaussen, Tjerk van der Schaaf

         Part XIv:      human faCtors IntegratIon anD stanDarDs

50. Integrating ergonomics into engineering and engineering into ergonomics              501
    Mike Carey

51. Focussed and effective Human Factors Integration Programmes for Railways             511
    Martin Dooley, Ned Hickling and Paul Stephens

52. experience of Rail Human Factors in Hong kong                                        517
    Karen Priestley

                   Part Xv:      ImPaIrments to PerformanCe

53. The Prevalence of obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (oSAS) in Train Drivers          529
    Melissa Hack, Elaine Grimes, Toyin Davies and John Shelton

54. Fatigue Management on the operational Railway: Developing a Strategic Approach       535
    Fiona Kenvyn

55. Alcohol and Drugs as Risk Factors in Railway Traffic                                 545
    O. Ervasti, L. Pitkämäki, H.K. Otterstad, M. Sternudd and J. Worm-Petersen

56. Research on Fatigue and Mental Workload of Railway Drivers and Traffic Controllers   553
    Anabela Simoes, José Carvalhais, Pedro Ferreira, Júlia Correia and Miguel Lourenco
x                                   People and Rail Systems

57. Fatigue and Shift Work in Uk Train Drivers                                        565
    Barbara Stone, Alison McGuffog, Mick Spencer, Claire Turner and Ann Mills

           Part XvI:      ComPetenCIes, traInIng anD ProCeDures

58. educational Activities in Relation to Affective Commitment, voluntary Turnover,
    Perceived Inner Motivation and Work effort                                        577
    Cathrine Brustad, Anna Gunningberg and Marie Svensli

59. Management Toolkits: Solutions for Rule Compliance                                583
    Jonathan Berman, Peter Ackroyd, Ann Mills and Toyin Davies

60. Rules Management: How to Achieve Flexible Guidance for Safe Railway operations    593
    Gudela Grote

Index                                                                                 601