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					Advances of Women in Sports
       Sara Anne Smith
   Brief History of Women in Sports

   Psychological aspects

   Title IX

   Personal Experience

   Questions
      History of Women in Sports
   776 B.C. – first Olympics: no women

   1896- first modern Olympics in Athens
    women not allowed, but compete anyway

   1900- women in Olympics: tennis, golf, &

   1967- Katherine Switzer registers for
    Boston Marathon

   1960/1972 – the IOC recognizes more
    women’s sports including rowing

   1970 – Billie Jean King made great strides
    for women in tennis
“I am Strong. I am invincible. I am Women.”
                           -Helen Reddy

   1972 – Title IX of the Education Amendments

   1973 – 1.3 million girls participating in high
    school sports vs. 294,000 in 1970

   1996 – 2.4 million girls play high school

   1999 – Happy 27th Birthday Title IX

   2000 – 16 new women’s events in the
    Sydney Olympics & Equality

   Present – more athletic women in media/
    seen as role models

                                       No damage to reproductive
   Damage to reproductive              organs
                                       Exercise is crucial to
                                        prevention of osteoporosis
   More fragile bone structure         and prevention of breast
   Less attractive than other
    girls                              Stronger self-images and
                                        lower levels of depression
   Less time to focus on              Less likely to have unwanted
    academics                           pregnancy

                                       More likely to graduate from
                                        high school and get better
Psychology of Women in Sports
   Gender role orientation
    – Role Conflict – inner conflict about taking on
      a “male” role
    – Psychological androgyny – mixture of the
      best of both gender roles and expectations

   Homosexuality
    – No relationship to sport and does not affect
      athletic performance

   Eating Disorders
    – Overall may provide protection
    – Prevalence is sport specific

   Fear of Success
    – explains female fear of succeeding (Horner)
              A Hero For Daisy
   Chris Ernst – 2 time Olympian rower

   Yale Crew – unequal facilities

   1976 – Title IX wasn’t being fully enforced
                                   Title IX
   Title IX of the Educational Amendments of

    – “No person in the U.S. shall, on the basis of sex be
      excluded from participation in, or denied the benefits of, or
      be subjected to discrimination under any educational
      program or activity receiving federal aid.”

    Flatter me, and I may not believe you
    Criticize me, and I may not like you
    Ignore me, and I may not forgive you
    Encourage me, and I may not forget you
                             -William Arthur Ward
               Why was it needed?
                 “Athletic competition builds character in our boys.
                 We do not need that kind of character in our girls.”
                                    -Connecticut judge, 1971

   Today more than 150,000 women
    participate in intercollegiate
    athletics – fourfold increase since

   Women won a record 19 Olympic
    medals in the 1996 Summer
    Olympic Games

   1994 – Increase in doctoral
    degrees, law degrees, and medical
    degrees earned by women,
    compared to 1972

    1979 final Title IX regulations were

    Three-part test
    1.   Substantially proportionate
    2.   History and continuing practice
    3.   Accommodation of interest and abilities

    Civil Rights Restoration Act
                 Conflicting Views

   1990’s college sports became a big business

   Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools
    – Right for plaintiffs to sue for punitive damages in
      Title IX cases

   Norma Cantu (1996)
    – Resulted in substantial proportionality becoming a
      “safe harbor”
           The Three-Part Test
   Colleges using the first
    prong of the test in order
    to avoid being sued
    – Resulting in unfair cuts for
      men’s teams

   Kelley v. Board of Trustees
    of the University of Illinois

   Seven Federal Appellate
    Courts have upheld the
    three-part test
       Discrimination Against Men?
   Should not limit men’s
    athletic opportunities as a
    way of achieving parity for

   Replace the three-part test
    with something more flexible

   Who is the real culprit?
              No Change Needed
   Since the enactment of Title IX, for every
    dollar spent on women, two dollars were
    spent on men (Fulks, 1994)

   In the 1970’s sports participation for women
    increased from 8% to 30% at the
    intercollegiate level
    – There are approximately 2.7 million girls
      participating in high school sports; and a little over
      150,000 currently participating in collegiate level

   Institutions are responsible for cutting men’s
                   Recent Events
   Bush administration calls for a Commission
    on Opportunity in Athletics to review Title IX
    this past June

   15 member commission returns a 70-page
    report in February to the Education Secretary

   Law should be retooled to ensure that new
    sports opportunities for women don’t come at
    the expense of men’s teams
    – Two major dissenters are Foudy and
      de Varona
             Possible Solutions
   Count slots rather than actual students; walk-ons
    should not be counted under proportionality

   Greater flexibility in rules concerning non-
    scholarship athletes, older athletes and roster slots

   Additional ways to demonstrate equity

   A greater ability for schools to accept private money
            Further Suggestions
   Educational campaign

   Not counting football

   Cutting back on football and men’s

   Stay away from the business-model and
    start treating college sports like more of an
    educational program
         “Without Title IX, I’d be nowhere.”
                   -Cheryl Miller, Olympic athlete
   Profound changes have occurred in education and

   Increasing participation in athletics

   Increase in athletic scholarships

   We still have a long way to go!
                       Why Crew?


   1997 – Novice – D Boat
    “Rowing is a sport for dreamers. As long as you put in the work,
    you can own the dream.” - Jim Dietz

   Awesome learning experience

   2001 – Captain -Varsity Eight
What Sports Have Done For Me
   Teamwork

   Dedication – never quit

   Time management

   Work ethic – the body can achieve what the mind believes

   Attitude - I can do anything I put my mind to



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