Bloodborne Pathogens by zhangyun

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 37

									Bloodborne Pathogen Safety
          Could You Contract a
          Disease at Work?
• Administering first aid?
• Cleaning the restrooms?
• Using a tool covered with dried
  blood?
• A co-worker sneezes on you?
• Changing diapers?
• Tube feeding?
• Catheterization?
                                    2
What is a Bloodborne Pathogen
    A micro-organism that lives in your
     blood and causes disease. Some
     bloodborne pathogens include:
      Hepatitis B
      Hepatitis C
      HIV-AIDS
    Other diseases of concern for
     educators:
      Hepatitis A
      Tuberculosis (TB)
      Common Cold
                                           3
What is Hepatitis A?
Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by
 Hepatitis A virus.
33% of Americans have evidence of
 past infection (immunity)
Cases increasing slightly during past
 several years.
Estimated 125,000-200,000 total
 infections/yr in United States


                                        4
How is Hepatitis A Virus
Transmitted?
  • Hepatitis A virus is spread from person
    to person by putting something in the
    mouth that has been contaminated
    with the stool of a person with hepatitis
    A. This type of transmission is called
    "fecal-oral.―

  • The virus is more easily spread in areas
    where there are poor sanitary
    conditions or where good personal
    hygiene is not observed.
                                                5
What are the Signs and
Symptoms of Hepatitis A?
  Persons with hepatitis A virus infection may not have any signs
   or symptoms of the disease.
  Older persons are more likely to have symptoms than children.
  If symptoms are present, they usually occur abruptly and may
   include
        fever,
        tiredness,
        loss of appetite,
        nausea,
        abdominal discomfort,
        dark urine, and
        jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
  Symptoms usually last less than 2 months; a few persons are ill
   for as long as 6 months.
  The average incubation period for hepatitis A is 28 days .


                                                                 6
Hepatitis B (HBV)

•   1—1.25 million         •   May lead to chronic
    Americans are              liver disease, liver
    chronically infected       cancer, and death
•   Symptoms include:      •   300,000 new cases
    jaundice, fatigue,         every year
    abdominal pain, loss   •   90% Infection rate
    of appetite,           •   HBV can survive for at
    intermittent nausea,       least two weeks in
    vomiting                   dried blood
HEPATITIS B SYMPTOMS
  •   Jaundice,
  •   fatigue,
  •   abdominal pain,
  •   loss of appetite,
  •   intermittent nausea,
  •   vomiting


                             8
Hepatitis B Vaccination


• Offered to all potentially
  exposed employees
• Provided at no cost to
  employees
• Declination form

                               9
Viral Hepatitis C
•   Hepatitis C is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus.
    You should contact your medical care provider for a blood test if
    you:
     • were notified that you received blood from a donor who later
       tested positive for hepatitis C.
     • have ever injected illegal drugs, even if you experimented a few
       times many years ago
     • received a blood transfusion or solid organ transplant before
       July, 1992
     • received a blood product for clotting problems produced before
       1987
     • have ever been on long-term kidney dialysis
     • have evidence of liver disease



                                                                        10
        Hepatitis C (HCV)
• Hepatitis C is the most common chronic
  bloodborne infection in the United States
• Symptoms include: jaundice, fatigue,
  abdominal pain, loss of appetite,
  intermittent nausea, vomiting.
• 85% Infection rate – only 25% will show
  symptoms upon infection. The ―Stealth
  Disease‖ – some may have no symptoms
  for 20 years or more.
• May lead to chronic liver disease and death
                                           11
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
  • 25-30% of infections are symptomatic
  • Chronic infection >85% of infected
    persons
  • Chronic liver disease: 70% of infected
    persons
  • Deaths from chronic liver disease: 8,000-
    10,000/yr
  • Leading indication for liver transplantation
  • Estimated 3.9 million (1.8%) Americans
    have been infected with HCV of whom 2.7
    million are chronically infected

                                               12
Hepatitis D and Hepatitis E
 Hepatitis D is a co-virus     HEV is transmitted
  associated with Hepatitis      primarily by the fecal-oral
  B (HBV).                       route and fecally
                                 contaminated drinking
 Patients with HBV and          water is the most
  HDV have an increased          commonly documented
  chance of developing liver     vehicle of transmission
  cancer or cirrhosis of the    Virtually all cases of acute
  liver.                         Hepatitis E in the United
 IV drug use or                 States have been
  unprotected sex with           reported among travelers
  multiple partners.             returning from high HEV-
                                 endemic areas



                                                           13
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV)

• HIV is the virus that leads
  to AIDS
• HIV depletes the immune
  system
• HIV does not survive well
  outside the body
                            14
# of AIDS Cases by Age at
Diagnosis




                            15
Trends in AIDS Epidemic
•   Today, 42 million people are estimated to be
    living with HIV/AIDS. Of these, 38.6 million are
    adults. 19.2 million are women, and 3.2 million are
    children under 15.
•   An estimated 5 million people acquired the
    human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2002,
    including 2 million women and 800,000 children under
    15.
•   During 2002, AIDS caused the deaths of an
    estimated 3.1 million people, including 1.2 million
    women and 610,000 children under 15.
•   Women are becoming increasingly affected by HIV.
    Approximately 50%, or 19.2 million, of the 38.6
    million adults living with HIV or AIDS worldwide are
    women.

                                                      16
RISK GROUPS
 • Injection drug users    • Low socioeconomic
 • Sexually active           level
   heterosexuals           • Sexual/household
 • Men who have sex          contacts of infected
   with men                  persons
 • Infants/children of     • Infants born to
   immigrants from           infected mothers
   disease-endemic
   areas                   • Health care workers
 • Hemodialysis patients



                                              17
18
           Potentially Infectious
           Bodily Fluids
• Blood
• Saliva, vomit, urine (with visible
  blood)
• Semen or vaginal secretions
• Skin, tissue, cell cultures
• Other body fluids



                                       19
PREVENTION OF TRANSMISSION OF
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS


UNIVERSAL
 PRECAUTIONS
  Wear Personal Protective
   Equipment, like Gloves
  Good hygiene and
   sanitation

                                20
 Universal Precautions


•Proper cleanup and
 decontamination
•Treat all blood and bodily fluids as
 if they are contaminated
•Wash your hands
First Aid
  • Wear gloves if you might
    come in contact with blood.

  • Have first aid supplies handy
    on the playground by keeping
    a zip-lock plastic bag stocked
    with disposable gloves, sterile
    wipes, gauze wrap, and
    bandaids in your pocket.
                                      22
Protective
Equipment

•Gloves (Latex, Vinyl, or Plastic)
•Apron
•Face shield
•CPR mask
 **Whatever you need must be provided by
                 the district
Safe Work Practices
• Remove contaminated PPE or clothing
  as soon as possible
• Clean and disinfect contaminated
  equipment and work surfaces
• Thoroughly wash up immediately
  after exposure
• Properly dispose of contaminated
  items

                                    24
HOW TO WASH HANDS
(CONTINUED)
  Turn the faucet off using the towel.
  Discard the used towel in a trash can lined
   with a fluid-resistant (plastic) bag.
  Consider using hand lotion to prevent chapping of
   hands.
  When assisting a child in handwashing, either
   hold the child (if an infant) or have the child
   stand on a safety step at a height at which the
   child's hands can hang freely under the running
   water.
  Assist the child in performing all of the above
   steps and then wash your own hands.

                                                  25
How to Wash Hands
   Always use warm, running water and a liquid,
    soap. Antibacterial soaps may be used, but are
    not required.
   Wet the hands and apply a small amount of
    liquid soap to hands.
   Rub hands together vigorously until a soapy
    lather appears and continue for at least 15
    seconds. (Sing a tune to pass the time!!) Be
    sure to scrub between fingers, under fingernails,
    and around the tops and palms of the hands.
   Rinse hands under warm running water. Leave
    the water running while drying hands.
   Dry hands with a clean, disposable towel.

                                                    26
When Hands Should Be
Washed
• Upon arrival at work.
• Immediately before handling food, preparing
  bottles, or feeding children.
• After using the toilet, assisting a child in using the
  toilet, or changing diapers.
• After contacting a child's body fluids, including wet
  or soiled diapers, runny noses, spit, vomit, etc.
• Whenever hands are visibly dirty or after cleaning
  up a child, the room, bathroom items, or toys.
• After removing gloves used for any purpose.
• Before giving or applying medication or ointment to
  a child or self.
• Before going home.

                                                           27
Decontamination
• Wear protective gloves
• Disinfectant/cleaner provided in
  bodily fluid disposal kit
• Solution of 1/4 cup bleach per gallon
  of water
• Properly dispose of contaminated
  PPE, towels, rags


                                          28
  Labels and Signs
• Labels must include the universal
  biohazard symbol, and the term
  ―Biohazard‖ must be attached to:
  • containers of regulated
    biohazard waste
  • refrigerators or freezers
    containing blood or OPIM
  • containers used to store,
    transport, or ship blood or OPIM



                                       29
Exposure Incident
• A specific incident of contact with
  potentially infectious bodily fluid
• If there are no infiltrations of mucous
  membranes or open skin surfaces, it is not
  considered an occupational exposure
• Report all accidents involving blood or
  bodily fluids
• Post-exposure medical evaluations are
  offered
                                         30
   Potential Transmission
• Contact with another person’s blood or
  bodily fluid that may contain blood
• Mucous membranes -- eyes, mouth, nose
• Non-intact skin
• Contaminated sharps/needles
Potential Exposure

• Administering first aid
• Post-accident cleanup
• Custodial or maintenance
  work


                             32
    Post Exposure Evaluation
• Confidential medical evaluation
• Document route of exposure
• Identify source individual
• Test source individuals blood (with
  consent)
• Provide results to exposed employee



                                        33
What is an exposure?
What do I do?
  An exposure is:        If you are exposed:
    When someone           Wash the exposed
     else’s blood gets       area thoroughly with
     into your blood         soap and water.
     through a cut or       Report it to your
     open wound.             supervisor,
    Needle stick            IMMEDIATELY
                            Seek immediate
                             medical
    Human bite that
     breaks the skin         attention


                                                34
Things to Remember

• A person could be HIV or HBV positive
  and have no symptoms at all.
• You can’t tell by looking.
• Treat every person, every needle, and
  every body fluid as if it’s infected.
• USE UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS
  EVERY TIME.

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Summary
• Universal precautions
• Use PPE and safe work practices
• Decontaminate contaminated
  surfaces
• Report Exposure incidents




                                    36
Use Universal Precautions!

Let’s break the chain of
  infection.



                           37

								
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