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					Ref to Title of Literature      Country         Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                             Report
Datab                           discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                         Reference
ase                                             referred to here

    40 Project Performance in   UK              Process                 „UK Reliance on contract as a risk control device led to a lack of
       Britain and France                                               focused control on the development of the information necessary to
       (Edkins and Winch)                                               allow construction to take place‟
    40 Project Performance in   UK              Role of the architect   JCT 80 Contract prevented architect from accepting design changes
       Britain and France
       (Edkins and Winch)
    60 Building and             Spain           Process                 Little scope for variation
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             Spain           Role of the architect   Little scope for variation
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             Spain           Process                 Contractors do the detailed design – have their own qualified
       Development Economics                                            supervisors
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             Italy           Process                 More general contracting under direction of architects
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             Italy           Role of the architect   Architect‟s role similar to UK
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             All countries Building regulations      Building regulations “prevents” the construction sector using new
       Development Economics                                            materials, innovative structures and certain utility equipment.
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             All countries Process                   When working abroad, production costs are mostly higher due to
       Development Economics                                            various cultural differences.
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             All countries   Labour productivity     The low pay of employees discourages a high output.
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
Ref to Title of Literature      Country      Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                              Report
Datab                           discussed    Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                          referred to here

    60 Building and          All countries   Labour rates of pay and   The low pay of employees discourages a high output.
       Development Economics                 on-costs
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and          All countries   Process                   Building companies are not focusing on maximizing their output.
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
    66 Industry Economics and   UK           Labour working hours Hours worked per year in UK – Plus 20%-25% compared with
       Statistics – Vol 1.                                        France and Germany
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM
    66 Industry Economics and   France       Labour working hours Hours worked per year in UK – Plus 20%-25% compared with
       Statistics – Vol 1.                                        France and Germany
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM
    66 Industry Economics and   Germany      Labour working hours Hours worked per year in UK – Plus 20%-25% compared with
       Statistics – Vol 1.                                        France and Germany
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM
    66 Industry Economics and   UK           Labour rates of pay and   Cost of employment per head in UK const 1998-2001
       Statistics – Vol 1.                   on-costs                  Table 5.4 £13,000 - £14,000*
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                (divide 44 hours x 48 (wks pa) = 2112 hrs/pa
                                                                       14,000 / 2,112 = £6.62 per hour average
                                                                       [Research team note: using 1802 hours p.a. as Spons ‟99 = £7.76 per
                                                                       hour average]
    66 Industry Economics and UK             Machinery and             Investment in machinery and equipment per employee 1999 – 2001
       Statistics – Vol 1.                   equipment                 Germany 2.0
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                France     0.9
                                                                       UK         1.6
    66 Industry Economics and France         Machinery and             Investment in machinery and equipment per employee 1999 – 2001
       Statistics – Vol 1.                   equipment                 Germany 2.0
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                France     0.9
                                                                       UK         1.7
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                            referred to here

    66 Industry Economics and Germany          Machinery and           Investment in machinery and equipment per employee 1999 – 2001
       Statistics – Vol 1.                     equipment               Germany 2.0
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                France     0.9
                                                                       UK         1.8
   66 Industry Economics and     UK            Investment per capita   Differences in levels of capital investment per worker p.a. (i.e. not
      Statistics – Vol 1.                                              more than $2,000 per capita) do not explain productivity gap of
      Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                 $14,000 p.a. UK – USA/Germany.
   66 Industry Economics and     Germany       Investment per capita   Differences in levels of capital investment per worker p.a. (i.e. not
      Statistics – Vol 1.                                              more than $2,000 per capita) do not explain productivity gap of
      Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                 $14,000 p.a. UK – USA/Germany.
   66 Industry Economics and     Germany       Structure of industry   Apparent differences in industry structure too small to account for
      Statistics – Vol 1.                                              differences in productivity.
      Nov.2004 UCL/DLM
  263 IBC Review of European     All countries Building regulations    [Research team note:Apart from Belgium all countries in the sample
      Building Regulations and                                         have building construction and materials controls which are
      Technical Provisions                                             enforceable in whole or in part.All countries are struggling towards
                                                                       harmonisation with greater or lesser degree of enthusiasm a




  263 IBC Review of European Belgium           Building regulations    Apart from Belgium all countries in the sample have building
      Building Regulations and                                         construction and materials controls which are enforceable in whole
      Technical Provisions                                             or in part
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                        Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                                   Reference
ase                                            referred to here

  263 IBC Review of European     Spain         Materials              In Spain there is known to be extensive use of lower quality/prices materials
      Building Regulations and
      Technical Provisions
      IBC Review of European     Belgium       Building regulations   In Belgium the absence of building regulations is sometimes covered
      Building Regulations and                                        by the decennial liability insurance system presently used on the
      Technical Provisions                                            larger projects.
      IBC Review of European     Belgium       Liability insurance    In Belgium the absence of building regulations is sometimes covered
      Building Regulations and                                        by the decennial liability insurance system presently used on the
      Technical Provisions                                            larger projects.
  396 DG111 WG –                 All countries Building costs         No-one benefits
      Abnormally Low
      Tenders 19/5/99
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Quality                High quality, design/spec.Limited productivity increases
      System Approach - CIB –                                         15 - 20% of buildings show defects after 5 years
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Materials              Expensive materials (60% x cost?)
      System Approach - CIB –
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Building regulations   Materials – major ones controlled.
      System Approach - CIB –
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Labour skills          Qualifications needed for specialist works.
      System Approach - CIB –
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Process                Design/build acceptable
      System Approach - CIB –
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Health and Safety      Safety/Security – Detailed requirements
      System Approach - CIB –                                         -     site safety organization
      Jean Carassus                                                   -     clients have formal responsibility
Ref to Title of Literature      Country     Resource                 Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                           discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                         referred to here

  411 The Construction Sector   Germany     Materials costs          Materials at €128bn is 82.5% of output but NB. Includes overlapping
      System Approach - CIB –                                        with other industries.
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   Germany     Role of the architect    Architect‟s role central at all stages but contractors expanding their
      System Approach - CIB –                                        role.
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   Sweden      Structure of industry    99.5% of specialized companies (107138 employees) in companies <
      System Approach - CIB –                                        50 persons – 70% of work
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   UK          Structure of industry    99% of firms < 50 employees = 49% of output. (NB this is a much
      System Approach - CIB –                                        lower contribution than that made by the smallest firms in other
      Jean Carassus                                                  countries)
                                                                     95% of firms < 10 people
                                                                     65% of construction firms are specialists.
  411 The Construction Sector UK            Materials                Materials £19.9bn= say €30bn.
      System Approach - CIB –                                        = 30% of total
      Jean Carassus                                                  [Research team note: this gives credence to the estimate of 30-35%
                                                                     materials content of the traditional UK project price – see Figure H]
  411 The Construction Sector UK            Building cost analysis   Materials £19.9bn= say €30bn.
      System Approach - CIB –                                        = 30% of total construction output
      Jean Carassus                                                  [Research team note: this gives added credence to the estimate of 30-
                                                                     35% materials content of the traditional UK project price – see Figure
                                                                     H]
  411 The Construction Sector Germany       Structure of industry    Germany has fewer small firms (1-19) than Swe. Or Dk. But more in
      System Approach - CIB –                                        the 20-49 group
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector Sweden        Structure of industry    Germany has fewer small firms (1-19) than Swe. Or Dk. But more in
      System Approach - CIB –                                        the 20-49 group
      Jean Carassus
Ref to Title of Literature      Country      Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                       Report
Datab                           discussed    Driver/general issue                                                                                   Reference
ase                                          referred to here

  411 The Construction Sector   Denmark      Structure of industry   Germany has fewer small firms (1-19) than Swe. Or Dk. But more in
      System Approach - CIB –                                        the 20-49 group
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   Germany      Role of the architect   Germany – central role in procurement as well as design and
      System Approach - CIB –                                        production.
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   Sweden       Role of the architect   Sweden – comparatively subordinate to general or d/b contractor -
      System Approach - CIB –                                        co-ordination rests on contractor.
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   Denmark      Construction output     In 1997, the corresponding figures on building employment
      System Approach - CIB –                                        distribution show that 32 percent were doing new construction and
      Jean Carassus                                                  38 percent were involved in repair and maintenance.
      The Construction Sector   Germany      Structure of industry   Figures of table 5 seem to underestimate the number of very small
      System Approach - CIB –                                        companies in Germany, but a German specificity is the weight of
      Jean Carassus                                                  medium sized companies (10 to 49 employees). It can be explained
                                                                     by the heaviness of separate trades tenders and by local co

  426 Review 4/98 DLC           France        Labour - migrant       The informal sector : France 23%
                                              (undeclared)
  426 Review 4/98 DLC           Italy         Labour - migrant       The informal sector : Italy 17%
                                              (undeclared)
  426 Review 4/98 DLC           Spain         Labour - migrant       The informal sector : Spain 15%
                                              (undeclared)
  426 Review 4/98 DLC           All countries Labour productivity    Low wage rates normally associated with low productivity.
  563 Blueprint for change      All countries Labour skills          Industry to take responsibility for skills reproductionWidespread confusion
                                                                     over the nature of construction skills. The skills of the builder need to be
                                                                     explicit and recognized through qualification/broad education - integration
                                                                     of skilled worker into th
  563 Blueprint for change      UK           Labour skills           Inevitable skill shortages in the UK due to poor and casual employment
                                                                     conditions. This is backed up by report 1659.There is no system of
                                                                     qualifications for supervisors. This means less efficiency.
Ref to Title of Literature      Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                   Report
Datab                           discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                           referred to here

  567 Craft vs Industry in EU   Germany       Process                Industry form of organisation (as in Germany and Denmark),           lll
      housebuilding – Case                                           although significantly demanding in terms of skill and training,
      study (Clarke and Wall)                                        results in a more productive and speedier process - greater autonomy
                                                                     and less supervision
  567 Craft vs Industry in EU   Denmark       Process                Industry form of organisation (as in Germany and Denmark),
      housebuilding – Case                                           although significantly demanding in terms of skill and training,
      study (Clarke and Wall)                                        results in a more productive and speedier process - greater autonomy
                                                                     and less supervision
  567 Craft vs Industry in EU   UK            Process                 Craft form (as in UK) less productive and slower- needs control of
      housebuilding – Case                                           output of labour - relatively indifferent to quality and maintenance
      study (Clarke and Wall)
  567 Craft vs Industry in EU   UK            Training               In the UK the employer‟s obligation for training is weak.
      housebuilding – Case
      study (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the            UK            Training               - Northern Britain has higher levels of training and less
      Construction Process                                           supervision than South – due to more stable employment structure
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the            UK            Management              Northern Britain has higher levels of training and less supervision
      Construction Process                                           than South – due to more stable employment structure
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the            The           Management             Netherlands has a higher level of training and less supervision than
      Construction Process      Netherlands                          UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
      Skills and the            The           Training               Netherlands has a higher level of training and less supervision than
      Construction Process      Netherlands                          UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the            Germany       Management             Germany has a higher level of training and less supervision than UK
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                              Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Training                Germany has a higher level of training and less supervision than UK
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Process                 UK housing – simple traditional houses
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour skills           narrow range of skills
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Structure of industry   deregulated self-employment
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Process                 complex, mechanised
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour skills           wide range/depth of skills
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Structure of industry   many SME‟s
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Prefabrication          standardised concrete
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Prefabrication          Housing - ultimate in rationalisation
      Construction Process   Netherlands                           - high degree of prefabrication
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Process                 low-rise housing - complex, highly mechanised construction
      Construction Process   Netherlands                           process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                      Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                  Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         The           Labour skills               - high level/usage of skills
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Efficiency                  - very much quicker to build (than UK)
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Building costs          - very much cheaper to build (than UK)
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Structure of industry   -many SME‟s
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Efficiency              Slower and considerably less productive process
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Efficiency              UK Improvement needs radical change
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Process                 too task-specific
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour skills           - low level of technology and unpredictable level of skills
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour rates of pay and -      low paid
      Construction Process                 on-costs
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Structure of industry   -      casual labour
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country     Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                                   Report
Datab                        discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                                 Reference
ase                                      referred to here

  573 Skills and the         UK          Subcontractors            -     labour-only S/C – difficult to control – high level of supervision
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK          Process                   -     negative approach to industrialisation (50‟s to 60‟s)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK          Prefabrication            -     negative approach to industrialisation (50‟s to 60‟s)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Training                  high level of training
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Labour skills             -     flexible, transferable skills
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Labour skills             -     greater adaptability to new technologies, materials and processes
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Labour rates of pay and   -   well paid
      Construction Process               on-costs
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Structure of industry     -   directly employed labour
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Labour skills             -     workers plan their own tasks – minimum supervision
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Management                -     workers plan their own tasks – minimum supervision
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                            Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                        Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Process                 -   complex interfaces
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Materials               -   higher specification of materials
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Training                high level of training
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Labour rates of pay and -   well paid – good conditions
      Construction Process   Netherlands   on-costs
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Structure of industry   -   directly employed
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Management              -   minimum supervision
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Prefabrication          -   standardised and „open‟ systems
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Quality                   Dutch (industrialised) housing no difference in appearance from
      Construction Process   Netherlands                           UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Quality                   Dutch (industrialised) housing no difference in appearance from
      Construction Process                                         UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Efficiency              -   rapid speed of construction
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                            Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                       Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         UK            Management             - High levels of supervision may be used as a substitute for good
      Construction Process                                        employment practice and reliable skill standards
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour skills          - High levels of supervision may be used as a substitute for good
      Construction Process                                        employment practice and reliable skill standards
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Training                     Levy is 2.8% x payroll
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Training               Levy is 2% of payroll
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Training                Levy is : 0.25% x direct payroll
      Construction Process                                                 : 2% x labour-only subcontractors
      (Clarke and Wall)                                            - regulated by Employers
  573 Skills and the         The           Training               Comprehensive, Integrated, Theoretical,Trainees per worker ratio
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          quite high,Regulated by social partners (i.e. TU‟s and Employers‟
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           Associations)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Training               Comprehensive, Integrated, Theoretical,Trainees per worker ratio
      Construction Process                                        quite high,Regulated by social partners (i.e. TU‟s and Employers‟
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           Associations)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Training               formal training by a firm the only route into employment
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Training               formal training by a firm the only route into employment and work
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          placements
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Subcontractors         labour-only subcontracting not allowed
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                      Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                  Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         The           Subcontractors          labour-only subcontracting not allowed
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Structure of industry   Unionisation – 60%
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Structure of industry   Unionisation - 35%
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Structure of industry   Unionisation - 30%
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Structure of industry   Self-employment – private sector - over 60%
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Structure of industry   Self-employment – private sector - 11%
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Structure of industry   Self-employment – private sector - 12%
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour rates of pay and Earnings per hour 2/3 of Germany
      Construction Process                 on-costs                               2/3 of The Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour rates of pay and Earnings per hour 50% higher than UK
      Construction Process                 on-costs                Same as the Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Labour rates of pay and Earnings per hour 50% higher than UK
      Construction Process   Netherlands   on-costs                Same as Germany
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                           Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                      Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour working hours Weekly site hours – Northern . UK 42 } av. 50
      Construction Process                                                        Southern. UK 56 }
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour working hours Weekly site hours - 43
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Labour working hours Weekly site hours - 40
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Subcontractors         Specialist - more in Germany and NL (than UK)due to more complex
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          techniques and complexity of interfaces
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Subcontractors         Specialist - more in Germany and NL(than UK) due to more complex
      Construction Process                                        techniques and complexity of interfaces
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Subcontractors         Specialist - more in Germany and NL (than UK) due to more
      Construction Process                                        complex techniques and complexity of interfaces
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Management             Site supervision - Double in UK (compared with Germany and The
      Construction Process                                        Netherlands) especially in South,
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Management             Same as The Netherlands
      Construction Process                                        Half of UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Management             Same as Germany
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          Half of UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Machinery and          All medium and large firms owned a wide range of site plant
      Construction Process   Netherlands   equipment
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Machinery and          All medium and large firms owned a wide range of site plant
      Construction Process                 equipment
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Machinery and          Machinery and equipment : only 28% of firms owned a wide range of
      Construction Process                 equipment              site plant (and then only small-scale) - but there was a lot of plant-
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           hire
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour productivity    Construction output per employee - double that of UK
      Construction Process                                                            - 10% higher than The Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour productivity    Construction output per employee - 50% of German
      Construction Process                                                          - 60% of The Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Labour productivity    Construction output per employee - 90% of German
      Construction Process   Netherlands                                                        -190% of UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Labour productivity    Structural trades - input per m2 (index) –
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          NL         0.8(housing)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           Germany 1.6 (flats)
                                                                  UK        1.8 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour productivity    Structural trades - input per m2 (index) –
      Construction Process                                        NL         0.8(housing)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           Germany 1.6 (flats)
                                                                  UK        1.8 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour productivity    Structural trades - input per m2 (index) –
      Construction Process                                        NL         0.8(housing)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           Germany 1.6 (flats)
                                                                  UK        1.8 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Management             financial controls
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                          Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                      Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Role of the architect   Management
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Management              Project manager
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Efficiency              Speed of construction index- NL        100 (housing)
      Construction Process   Netherlands                                                     - Germany 23 (flats)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                                                      - UK       25 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Efficiency              Speed of construction index- NL        100 (housing)
      Construction Process                                                                   - Germany 23 (flats)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                                                      - UK       25 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Efficiency              Speed of construction index- NL        100 (housing)
      Construction Process                                                                   - Germany 23 (flats)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                                                      - UK       25 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Quality                 Quality of construction - largest number of errors on UK sites
      Construction Process                                         (compared with German and Dutch sites)
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Quality                 Quality of construction - largest number of errors on UK sites
      Construction Process   Netherlands                           (compared with German and Dutch sites)
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Quality                 Quality of construction - largest number of errors on UK sites
      Construction Process                                         (compared with German and Dutch sites)
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Process                 – architect design/adaptation from system, contractor detailing
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Process                 one-off architect designed (apartments)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                           Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                       Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Role of the architect   one-off architect designed (apartments)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Process                 one-off architect designed (terraced social housing)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Role of the architect   one-off architect designed (terraced social housing)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Process                 integrated construction teams – 20%-30% of the work
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Process                 Design and Build seldom used
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour - migrant         Uses low-wage UK/Irish/Portuguese workers
      Construction Process                                         - work contracts with EU States (NB Poland 100,000 in 93/94)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                            - now restricted to 15% of labour in any one firm
                                                                   - 126,000 official foreign workers
                                                                   - NB The Posting Directive – migrant foreign workers employed on

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour - migrant         250,000 – 500,000 unofficial foreign workers - 60,000 illegally
      Construction Process                 (undeclared)            from UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Structure of industry    all labour directly employed, 30% non-German. NB – second
      Construction Process                                         generation from Turkey and E. Europe
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour skills           NB – all imported labour is skilled
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                  Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                             Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         The           Labour - migrant       many immigrants are second generation Turkish or Moroccan
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          - some immigrant workers from UK
  573 (Clarke and Wall)
      Skills and the         The           Training                incentives for training given to firms
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Subcontractors         Greater complexity of interfaces involves greater numbers of sub-
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          contractors
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           [NB ? the site labour needed is less but they have the skills needed to
                                                                  cope with the more complicated site assembly problems]
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Subcontractors         Greater complexity of interfaces involves greater numbers of sub-
      Construction Process                                        contractors
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           [NB ? the site labour needed is less but they have the skills needed to
                                                                  cope with the more complicated site assembly problems]
  573 Skills and the         UK            Materials              much use of pre-fabricated components but not much large-scale pre-
      Construction Process                                        fabricated assembly
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Prefabrication         much use of pre-fabricated components but not much large-scale pre-
      Construction Process                                        fabricated assembly
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Process                not much large-scale pre-fabricated assembly
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Process                mechanised structure
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour - migrant       mainly Polish semi-skilled workers – on one site
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour skills           (mechanised structure) mainly Polish semi-skilled workers – on one
      Construction Process                                        site
      (Clarke and Wall)                                            - bricklayer‟s operations more wide ranging
Ref to Title of Literature     Country         Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                             Report
Datab                          discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                        Reference
ase                                            referred to here

  573 Skills and the           The             Process                 bricklayer‟s hod „a museum-piece
      Construction Process     Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the           Germany         Labour skills          The range of activities for separate trades in assembling
      Construction Process                                            superstructure elements is greater the higher the degree of
      (Clarke and Wall)                                               prefabrication and mechanization‟
  573 Skills and the           Germany         Labour skills          The range of activities for separate trades in assembling
      Construction Process                                            superstructure elements is greater the higher the degree of
      (Clarke and Wall)                                               prefabrication and mechanization‟
                                                                       Few workers are unskilled – all multi-skilled - work as a team on
                                                                      complex interfaces
                                                                      - ready for innov
  573 Skills and the           All countries   Prefabrication         The range of activities for separate trades in assembling
      Construction Process                                            superstructure elements is greater the higher the degree of
      (Clarke and Wall)                                               prefabrication and mechanization‟
  573 Skills and the           All countries   Process                The range of activities for separate trades in assembling
      Construction Process                                            superstructure elements is greater the higher the degree of
      (Clarke and Wall)                                               prefabrication and mechanization‟
588   Cost vs Production –     Germany         Process                German firms directly employ labour for groundworks and
      Britain v Germany –                                             superstructure and employ specialist trade firms for finishes
      Social Housing (Clarke
  588 Cost vs Production –     Germany         Subcontractors         Sub-contracts 27.3% of total value – more contracts than UK
      Britain v Germany –
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             UK              Subcontractors         sub-cons – 44% - 69% - less contracts than the German sites
      Britain v Germany –
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             Germany         Process                emphasis on optimum productive method [NB Buildability in part] –
      Britain v Germany –                                             not cost per sub-contract as in UK
      Social Housing (Clarke
      and Hermann)
Ref to Title of Literature     Country     Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                              Report
Datab                          discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  588 Cost vs Production –     UK          Process                 emphasis on optimum productive method [NB Buildability in part] –
      Britain v Germany –                                          not cost per sub-contract as in UK
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             Germany     Efficiency              emphasis on optimum productive method [NB Buildability in part] –
      Britain v Germany –                                          not cost per sub-contract as in UK
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             Germany     Cost control            In Germany the cost function is integrated with technical expertise
      Britain v Germany –
      Social Housing (Clarke
  588 Cost vs Production –     Germany     Process                  The high input of production expertise is evident in the extended
      Britain v Germany –                                          role of the building engineer and the architect
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             Germany     Role of the architect    The high input of production expertise is evident in the extended
      Britain v Germany –                                          role of the building engineer and the architect
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             UK          Cost control            QS‟s „tinker with‟ contract relations and cost reductions
      Britain v Germany –
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             UK          Process                 The UK is pre-occupied with contracts rather then employment
      Britain v Germany –                                          relations. This affects efficiency, productivity and site process.
      Social Housing (Clarke
  588 and Hermann)
      Cost vs Production –     UK          Efficiency              The UK is pre-occupied with contracts rather then employment
      Britain v Germany –                                          relations. This affects efficiency, productivity and site process.
      Social Housing (Clarke
  599 and Hermann)
      Construction Industry    Germany     Role of the architect   central role in procurement as well as design and production
      Development in 1990‟s
      Denmark, Germany and
      Sweden
Ref to Title of Literature      Country         Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                  Report
Datab                           discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                             referred to here

  599 Construction Industry     Sweden          Role of the architect   comparatively subordinate to general or design/build contractor.
      Development in 1990‟s                                             - co-ordination rests on contractor
      Denmark, Germany and
      Sweden
  599 Construction Industry     Sweden          Process                 co-ordination rests on contractor
      Development in 1990‟s
      Denmark, Germany and
      Sweden
  636 Busines model for UK      UK              Process                 No single business model likely to be effective for UK construction   1
      Construction - CRISP
  693                           UK              Labour skills           The UK is lagging in skills (both labour and managerial wise) when
                                                                        compared with the rest of the world and behind competitor
                                                                        companies in the EU.

  693                           UK              Management              The UK is lagging in skills (both labour and managerial wise) when
                                                                        compared with the rest of the world and behind competitor
                                                                        companies in the EU.
   801 Future Construct – RTD   All countries   Efficiency              Production improvement targets :
      (Research and                                                     - 30% more for no extra cost
                                                                        - 50% reduction in time
      technological                                                     - 50% reduction in :
      development) Strategies                                               O + M costs
      for European                                                          Energy
  801 Future Construct – RTD All countries RTD                              Waste + pollution
                                                                        E.U. 1.91% of GDP in RTD
      (Research and                                                     > 1% down to 0.1% in construction
      technological
      development) Strategies
      for European
      Construction - Summary
Ref to Title of Literature    Country         Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                         discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                           referred to here

  801 Future Construct – RTD All countries Training                   E.U. 1.91% of GDP in RTD
      (Research and                                                   > 1% down to 0.1% in construction
      technological
      development) Strategies
      for European
      Construction - Summary
1406 SECTEUR                  All countries Process                   Actions for improvement :
                                                                            People      - training
                                                                                       - recruitment
                                                                            Innovation - information
                                                                                       - research
                                                                                       - incentives
 1406 SECTEUR                 All countries Quality                   Actions for improvement :
                                                                       - procurement
                                                                      - guarantees and insurance
                                                                       - registration and qualification
 1406   SECTEUR               All countries   Structure of industry   Dominance of the industry by small firms
 1406   SECTEUR               All countries   RTD                     Dominance of the industry by small firms obstacle to research
 1406   SECTEUR               Germany         Labour skills           German „Handwork‟ sector – craft registration „meister‟ certificate
 1406   SECTEUR               Spain           Process                 Forbids design and build but …. more detailed design left to
                                                                      contractors.
 1406 SECTEUR                 Spain           Role of the architect   Forbids design and build but …. more detailed design left to
                                                                      contractors.
 1406 SECTEUR                 All countries Process                   Construction methodology changes:
                                                                      Improvements required :
                                                                      Increasing standardization
                                                                      Mechanisation and labour-saving innovations
                                                                      More off-site manufacture/prefabrication – less on-site work
 1406 SECTEUR                 All countries Quality                   Problems with buildability are mostly caused by defects in designs or
                                                                      workmanship.
Ref to Title of Literature       Country         Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                            discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                              referred to here

 1406 SECTEUR                    All countries Efficiency                Problems with buildability are mostly caused by defects in designs or
                                                                         workmanship.
 1406   SECTEUR                  All countries   Process                 In general there are poor working conditions.
 1406   SECTEUR                  All countries   Building regulations    Very small firms seem to try to evade many regulations.
 1406   SECTEUR                  All countries   Training                The entire EU does not invest enough in training.
 1406   SECTEUR                  All countries   Building regulations    EC legislation creates new administrative costs and learning
 1406 SECTEUR                    All countries Management                obstacles firms have a weak management.
                                                                         Many small
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK            Subcontractors            1982-1992 – 20% up to 80% - Tax advantage for self-employed
                                                                         workers in UK
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Subcontractors          Payment problems – quality, performance
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Quality                  Subcontractor payment problems –adverse effect on quality,
                                                                         performance
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Efficiency               Subcontractor payment problems –adverse effect on quality,
                                                                         performance
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Subcontractors          Legal position re ensuring sub-contractors‟ liability for compliance
                                                                         with legislation e.g. social security, tax, health and safety
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Health and Safety       Legal position re ensuring sub-contractors‟ liability for compliance
                                                                         with legislation e.g. social security, tax, health and safety
 1406 SECTEUR                    All countries Subcontractors            Temporary and Mobile Sites Directive – ? effect on construction
                                                                         management and lots separes/pilot
 1406 SECTEUR                    Spain           Role of the architect   Napoleonic Code control of architect – only as a rule in the Spanish
                                                                         system
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Building regulations    Legal position re ensuring sub-contractors‟ liability for compliance
                                                                         with legislation e.g. social security, tax, health and safety
1502    UK – future trends and   UK              Process                  Future developments :
        issues                                                            „increased demand for components and systems that employ
                                                                         lightweight and novel jointing technologies‟
                                                                         „developments in more advanced materials such as super-critical
                                                                         concrete………many emerge as established industrial products in the
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                 Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                        referred to here

 1521                        Ireland       Process                  In Ireland there are often problems with communication, due to
                                                                    deficiencies in mutual understanding between building parties.
 1521                        Ireland       Labour skills            There are high needs for certain categories of skilled workers in this
                                                                    country.
 1522 Irish Construction     Ireland       Construction output      Building Activity 21% of GNP (17% of GDP)
      Industry 2001
 1522 Irish Construction     Ireland       Labour availability      Shortage of skilled manpower at all levels
      Industry 2001
 1522 Irish Construction     Ireland       Labour - migrant         Flexible procedures for overseas contractors
      Industry 2001                                                  - covered by Irish labour and social welfare
                                                                    - minimum wages
                                                                    - private pension
                                                                    Not intended to undercut min. pay rates or pension rights for Irish
                                                                    workers
                                                                    No unfair bids from overseas
 1522 Irish Construction     All countries Prefabrication            - can reduce material wastage
      Industry 2001                                                  - can improve quality of building elements
 1522 Irish Construction     All countries Building cost analysis     Prefabrication can reduce material wastage
      Industry 2001
 1522 Irish Construction     All countries Quality                  Prefabrication can improve quality of building elements
      Industry 2001
 1522 Irish Construction     Ireland       Materials                Time delays on Agreement certification delaying innovation
      Industry 2001
 1524 Irish Construction     Ireland       Structure of industry    Labour force : 300,000 (2003) Direct +indirect
      Industry – DKM 2003                                           (indirect is 40% of direct or 28.5% of total)
                                                                    Direct labour force : 210,000)
 1524 Irish Construction     Ireland       Subcontractors           Now mainly use sub/trade contractors
      Industry – DKM 2003
Ref to Title of Literature   Country     Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                            Report
Datab                        discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                      referred to here

 1525 Irish Construction     Ireland     Labour rates of pay and   Average earnings Eur37,455 p.a. ( 2004)
      Industry Indicators                on-costs                   [divide by 1872 hours p.a.(Spons 99) = Eur20/hour at 2004]
      (DKM) (2005)                                                 Spons 99 hourly rate      = Eur 17.34/hour at 1999
                                                                   After adjustment for inflation this is very close.
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Structure of industry     Firms:
      Industry 2005          Republic                              2404 firms with 20 + employees = 70% work.
                             (CR)                                  small companies (less than 49) increasing.
                                                                   med/large companies decreasing.
                                                                   1999 – 2005 - 440,000 – 450,000 employees in const. industry.
                                                                   2004 263,000 firms [ = 1.71 per firm]
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Building costs            Price inflation to 2004 : 99 – 2004 = 23.02%
      Industry 2005          Republic
                             (CR)
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Labour rates of pay and Wages 2004 av CZK 16,858 p.m.x 0.033 =                Eur 556 p.m.x
      Industry 2005          Republic    on-costs                12      =     Eur 6,676 p.a.
                             (CR)                                divided by 1,800 (say) hours p.a. =     Eur3.71/hr
                                                                 After adjustment for inflation this compare well with Spons 2000
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Materials               market supply = as advanced as in W. Europe
      Industry 2005          Republic                             „Some sectors of quarrying and manufacture . . . . . are highly
                             (CR)                                advanced‟
                                                                 - large volumes
                                                                 - some high quality
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Materials               Cost of production:
      Industry 2005          Republic                            Factory labour rate 2004 -     21,263 CZK p.m. x 0.033 =
                             (CR)                                Eur701.67 p.m. x 12 = € 8420 p.a.
                                                                 NB Higher than in constn. (Eur 6676 – see above)
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Building cost analysis  Cost of production:
      Industry 2005          Republic                            Factory labour rate 2004 -     21,263 CZK p.m. x 0.033 =
                             (CR)                                Eur701.67 p.m. x 12 = € 8420 p.a.
                                                                 NB Higher than in constn. (Eur 6676 – see above)
Ref to Title of Literature     Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                          discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                             Reference
ase                                          referred to here

 1526 The Czech Construction Czech           Building regulations    Harmonisation of CZR standards/EU
      Industry 2005          Republic                                Authorisation of - architects
                             (CR)                                    - engineers
                                                                     - technicians
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech           Quality                 In the Czech Republic there is an insufficient quality of work when it
      Industry 2005          Republic                                concerns smaller constructions.
                             (CR)
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech           Structure of industry   In the Czech Republic there is an insufficient quality of work when it
      Industry 2005          Republic                                concerns smaller constructions.
                             (CR)
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech           Labour skills           There is also a decreasing number of craftsmen and a critically low
      Industry 2005          Republic                                amount of apprentices in this country.
                             (CR)
 1528 Economic efficiency of Norway          Efficiency              The most efficient companies had:
      Contractors                                                    High average wage/hour
                                                                     High no. of hours worked per employee
                                                                     Low share of apprentices
                                                                     Low concentration in the product mix (categories)
                                                                     Sales over 100 million NoK
 1528 Economic efficiency of   All countries Efficiency              The most efficient companies had:
      Contractors                                                    High average wage/hour
                                                                     High no. of hours worked per employee
                                                                     Low share of apprentices
                                                                     Low concentration in the product mix (categories)
                                                                     Sales over 100 million NoK
                                                                     Research Team Comment:
                                                                     This may well apply in princip
Ref to Title of Literature     Country      Resource                 Extracts from Text/Precis                                           Report
Datab                          discussed    Driver/general issue                                                                        Reference
ase                                         referred to here

 1528 Economic efficiency of   All countries Labour working hours Overtime:
      Contractors                                                 Employees work better under pressure
                                                                  Best workers choose employees for overtime availability
                                                                  Repetition effect is positive
                                                                  Research Team Comment:UK workers do more hours overtime
                                                                  than almost any country but they donot appear to get good results

 1528 Economic efficiency of   Sweden       Training             Sweden has a higher share of apprentices but this also means a lower
      Contractors                                                production rate.
 1528 Economic efficiency of Sweden        Labour productivity   Sweden has a higher share of apprentices but this also means a lower
      Contractors                                                production rate.
      Economic efficiency of Sweden        Labour productivity   The wage cost per hour influences the productivity.
      Contractors                                                Sweden seems more open to overtime, which means more time for
                                                                 repetition of process.
 1528 Economic efficiency of Sweden         Labour working hours Sweden seems more open to overtime, which means more time for
      Contractors                                                repetition of process.
 1529 International          All countries International         Macro-economic studies:
      Comparables –Risk Best               comparisons            - too simple to be an adequate measure
                                                                  - large and complex- unreliable data
                                                                  - too lacking in detail
                                                                  - unsatisfactory measure of efficiency of resource usage
                                                                  - data on quality lacking
                                                                  - capital intensity ignored
                                                                 Big Mac Inde
 1529 International          All countries International         Performance measurement:
      Comparables –Risk Best               comparisons           Productivity}
                                                                 Time          } all necessary for
                                                                 Cost         } performance
                                                                 Quality       } measurement
Ref to Title of Literature        Country       Resource                 Extracts from Text/Precis                                               Report
Datab                             discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                             referred to here

 1529 International          All countries International               Material prices:
      Comparables –Risk Best               comparisons                 Labour costs and basic materials are mostly produced locally so little
                                                                       affected by exchange rates
 1531    Basket of Construction All countries International            Construction purchasing power parity:
        Components (BOCC) (K.                  comparisons             BOCC more reliable than Construction PPP‟s – especially for
         Walsh and A. Sawhney)                                         developing countries.
                                                                       [Research team note: BOCC seems to have the same problem as
                                                                       CPPP of not differentiating between cultures,
 1574   Construction costs in NL Netherlands Efficiency                Dutch very productive and efficient, especially for Housebuilding –
        – Henk Vermande                                                general view
 1574   Construction costs in NL All countries International           Eurostat data ;
        – Henk Vermande                        comparisons             cannot be used for comparative purposes
 1574   Construction costs in NL The           Labour rates of pay and Dutch have „average‟ labour costs
        – Henk Vermande          Netherlands on-costs
 1574   Construction costs in NL The           Materials costs         Dutch have cheap materialcosts
        – Henk Vermande          Netherlands
 1653   Innovation in the        All countries Structure of industry   SME‟s need to be involved more in the construction process
        Construction Sector
 1653   (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian All countries Labour skills
        Innovation in the                                              Investment in skills critical
        Construction Sector
        (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
        Atkin
 1653   Innovation in the        All countries Liability insurance     Barriers persist from design liability issues
        Construction Sector
        (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
        Atkin
 1653   Innovation in the        Spain          RTD                    Dragados
        Construction Sector                                            -substantial RTD investment
        (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
        Atkin
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                               Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1653 Innovation in the          Spain         Prefabrication         Dragados
      Construction Sector                                             - prefab building systems
      (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
      Atkin
 1653 Innovation in the          All countries Efficiency             Cost of non-quality – 5% - 10% of sector's output.
      Construction Sector
      (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
      Atkin
 1653 Innovation in the          All countries Innovation             „The opposite to innovation is archaism and routine‟
      Construction Sector
      (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
      Atkin
 1657 Innovation in Design and   All countries Process                Innovation requires close co-operation between design and
      Construction - R.S.                                             construction
      Steedman
 1657 Innovation in Design and   UK            Efficiency             Site productivity in UK seems to be lower than in other EU countries
      Construction - R.S.
      Steedman
      BSRIA Worldwide KPI‟s      Finland       Productivity -         Existing schemes;Finland – tender price data being gathered
1657A and Benchmarking                         measurement
      BSRIA Worldwide KPI‟s      Finland       International          Existing schemes;Finland – tender price data being gathered
1657A and Benchmarking                         comparisons
      BSRIA Worldwide KPI‟s      Denmark       Productivity -         Denmark – Track Reports for companies on state projects over Dkr
1657A and Benchmarking                         measurement            2.5 mill
 1658 Benchmarking UK            All countries Efficiency             Competition and innovation are drivers of productivity in their own
      Productivity Performance                                        right
      (HM Treasury)
Ref to Title of Literature      Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                   Report
Datab                           discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                           referred to here

 1658 Benchmarking UK          All countries Productivity -          Output per worker
      Productivity Performance               measurement             Output per person of working age
      (HM Treasury)                                                  Output per hour
                                                                     Total factor productivity
                                                                     [Research team note: see reservations at Appendix N].
1659                            UK            Labour availability    In the UK there are labour shortages in specialized skilled.


 1711 Scientific benchmarking   All countries Productivity -         National account figures not suitable for productivity studies in
      of building projects                    measurement            construction.
 1711 Scientific benchmarking   All countries Productivity -         Lack of knowledge about how to measure productivity/efficiency and
      of building projects                    measurement            how to identify influencing factors
 1711 Scientific benchmarking   All countries Productivity -         „the productivity number has little interest‟ – performance
      of building projects                    measurement            comparison is the issue
 1711 Scientific benchmarking   All countries Efficiency             „the ability to produce a building with a minimum of resources (with
      of building projects                                           highest possible efficiency) seems to depend on how much time is
                                                                     „leaking out‟ between all specified activities, different professions
                                                                     and/or contracts on the project‟.
 1711 Scientific benchmarking All countries Productivity -           The DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) method – ranks a group of
      of building projects                  measurement              producing units from most efficient to least efficient – highest = 1.0 =
                                                                     best practice.Data must be
                                                                     consistent and of satisfactory quality.
                                                                     Researchers calculated a contractor‟s net costs (but




 1711 Scientific benchmarking All countries Productivity -           Statistically seeking explanatory factors correlating with high and
      of building projects                  measurement              low efficiency – a huge numeric operation!
 1725                         All countries Process                  The EU building and construction sector has a major communication
                                                                     problem
                                                                     [Research Team note - this concurs with report 1521 and 1729].
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1725                            All countries Process                 There is a low technical innovation.
 1725                            All countries Efficiency              The selection of components depends a lot on environmental
                                                                       requirements instead of efficiency.
 1725                            All countries Materials               The selection of components depends a lot on environmental
                                                                       requirements instead of efficiency.
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Process                 Low involvement of suppliers/sub-contractors in process – major
      04 - Sweden                                                      barrier to improvement
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Structure of industry   Organisations must be capable of learning – those that cannot learn
      04 - Sweden                                                      cannot innovate
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Process                 There must be „process transparency‟
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Process                 Often in Sweden there are inadequate building designs.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Role of the architect   Often in Sweden there are inadequate building designs.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Process                 There is a low involvement of suppliers and subcontractors.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Process                 No time is taken for reflection.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Materials               Inflexible and in-efficient components and systems.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Prefabrication          Inflexible and in-efficient components and systems.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Quality                 Constructions in Sweden seem to suffer from damp problems
      04 - Sweden
 1729 Construction process       All countries Efficiency              „A focus on doing things right rather than doing things better‟
      improvement (B. Atkin et
 1729 al)
      Construction process       All countries Process                 „Change creates uncertainty‟ – „leads parties to reject new thinking
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         and practices‟
 1729 al)
      Construction process       All countries Process                 There is a conflict between flexibility and standardisation in the EU
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         countries.
      al)
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1729 Construction process       All countries Prefabrication          There is a conflict between flexibility and standardisation in the EU
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         countries.
 1729 Construction process       All countries Process                 The EU unfortunately has a non-consistent learning curve.
      improvement (B. Atkin et
 1729 Construction process       All countries Process                 Incentives create an external barrier for partnering.
      improvement (B. Atkin et
 1729 al)
      Construction process       All countries Structure of industry   The majority of EU construction companies act locally due to
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         differences in regulatory requirements and various kinds of trade
      al)                                                              barriers.
                                                                       [Research Team note: an addition to this is cultural differences, as
                                                                       stated in report 60].
 1729 Construction process     All countries   Role of the architect   Communication between parties becomes a problem when it
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         concerns conflicting ideas between architects, engineers and clients.
 1729 al)
      Construction process     All countries   Process                 Communication between parties becomes a problem when it
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         concerns conflicting ideas between architects, engineers and clients.
 1729 al)
      Construction process     All countries   Management              Construction problems within the industry can be avoided but simply
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         aren‟t for reasons unknown (lack of management skills?).
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Productivity - site     Social housing – terraced houses -20 hours per meter (squared!) -
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                             n.b. - 30% unskilled labour
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Subcontractors          - UK dependence on large sub-contractor firms – a major weakness
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Process                 - the production process has become secondary
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Process                 All main trades present all the time in UK due to sequential working
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                             – NB supervision problems
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Management              All main trades present all the time in UK due to sequential working
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                             – NB supervision problems
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Productivity - site     Productivity/input per m2 – Housing
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                             UK (av) 120/150 = 135
                                                                       Germany          = 107
                                                                       Denmark          = 100
Ref to Title of Literature     Country     Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                             Report
Datab                          discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                        Reference
ase                                        referred to here

 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   Denmark     Productivity - site    Productivity/input per m2 – Housing
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                        UK (av) 120/150 = 135
                                                                  Germany           = 107
                                                                  Denmark           = 101
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   Germany     Productivity - site    Productivity/input per m2 – Housing
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                        UK (av) 120/150 = 135
                                                                  Germany           = 107
                                                                  Denmark           = 102
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   Germany     Management             Site management: operatives ratio :
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                        Germany 1 : 25
                                                                  UK 1 : 33
                                                                  [Research Team note- this appears to be inconsistent with earlier
                                                                  reports that UK labour needed more supervision than the other
                                                                  countries; however in this case study the German project was apart
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK          Management             Site management: operatives ratio :
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                        Germany 1 : 25
                                                                  UK 1 : 33
                                                                  [Research Team note- this appears to be inconsistent with earlier
                                                                  reports that UK labour needed more supervision than the other
                                                                  countries; however in this case study the German project was apart


 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   Denmark     Process                Abrupt ending to project – all final trades finished together
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   Denmark     Prefabrication         Extensive use of bathroom pods
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK          Labour skills          Fragmentation of knowledge:
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                            Engineering technology
                                                                      Building technology
                                                                      Production
                                                                      Cost
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1731 Cost vs Production (L.     UK            Subcontractors          extensive sub-contracting:
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.     UK            Process                 Lose control of site production process
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.     UK            Subcontractors          Workforce loses mobility of employment
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1739 Trends and Drivers of      All countries Prefabrication          Scope for mechanisation and automation (and thus capital intensive
      Change (EMCC)                                                    production) is limited.
 1739 Trends and Drivers of      All countries Process                 Scope for mechanisation and automation (and thus capital intensive
      Change (EMCC)                                                    production) is limited.
 1739 Trends and Drivers of      All countries Process                 Sector still very labour intensive.
      Change (EMCC)                                                    [Research Team note: there is a big difference between the
                                                                       traditional cultures and the industrialised ones]
 1744 Mobilizing the skills of   All countries Process                 Use of „open‟ tendering procedures
      specialist firms…4/12/98
 1744 Mobilizing the skills of   All countries Role of the architect   Firms must manage „the strategic intermediary function‟ i.e. relating
      specialist firms…4/12/99                                         their skills to clients‟ needs through a „co-design‟ process
 1744 Mobilizing the skills of   All countries Process                 Firms must manage „the strategic intermediary function‟ i.e. relating
      specialist                                                       their skills to clients‟ needs through a „co-design‟ process
      firms…4/12/100                                                   [Research Team note: compare „Beauteam‟ working]
 1746 Success factors in the     Germany       Construction output     EU enlargement creating an increase in supply, but there is a drop in
      (German) construction                                            demand.
      industry in 2004 (Roland                                         50% drop in orders from 1994 – 2003. Continuing lack of project pre-
      Berger)                                                          qualification increases supply
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Labour skills           Innovation and employee development increasingly important
      (German) construction
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                  Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                             Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Innovation             Innovation and employee development increasingly important
      (German) construction
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Labour skills          Motivation and advanced training – major problem areas for the
      (German) construction                                           future
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Labour skills          Qualified motivated staff – the essential capital of every construction
      (German) construction                                           company.
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Building regulations   Economic policy, legislation and price competition change little
      (German) construction                                           within the industry
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Process                Economic policy, legislation and price competition change little
      (German) construction                                           within the industry
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Macro-economics        Economic policy, legislation and price competition change little
      (German) construction                                           within the industry
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Process                Partnerships with customers } also key factors
      (German) construction                                           Lean organizational structure }
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                            Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Structure of industry     Partnerships with customers } also key factors
      (German) construction                                              Lean organizational structure }
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 European survey of         Belgium       Labour rates of pay and    General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Be - 535 divided by 365 = 1.47
 1746 European survey of         Sweden        Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Swe - 528 “            364 = 1.45
 1746 European survey of         Germany       Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  G - 504 “           402 = 1.25
 1746 European survey of         UK            Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  UK - 465 “            389 = 1.19
 1746 European survey of         Denmark       Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Dk - 461 “ 452 = 1.02
 1746 European survey of         Finland       Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Fr - 459 “ 315 = 1.46
 1746 European survey of         Ireland       Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Ir - 383 “ 299 = 1.28
 1746 European survey of         The           Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs           Netherlands   on-costs                  NL - 347 “ 294 = 1.18
 1746 European survey of         Italy         Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  It - 232 “ 228 = 1.42
 1746 European survey of         Spain         Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Sp - 292 “ 206 = 1.42
 1746 European survey of         Czech         Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs           Republic      on-costs                  CR - 95 “ 68 = 1.4
                                 (CR)
 1746 European survey of         Finland       Labour rates of pay and http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/construction/compet/benchmarch_activ
      employment costs                         on-costs                ities/appendix_i_en.xls
Ref to Title of Literature   Country         Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                               Report
Datab                        discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                          referred to here

 1753 Leonardo study         Norway          Labour skills          60-90% of all workers are considered to be skilled workers –
                                                                    completed a course of vocational training. (? What is a skilled
                                                                    worker?)
 1753 Leonardo study         Sweden          Labour skills          60-90% of all workers are considered to be skilled workers –
                                                                    completed a course of vocational training. (? What is a skilled
                                                                    worker?)
 1753 Leonardo study         Denmark         Labour skills          60-90% of all workers are considered to be skilled workers –
                                                                    completed a course of vocational training. (? What is a skilled
                                                                    worker?)
 1753 Leonardo study         The             Labour skills          60-90% of all workers are considered to be skilled workers –
                             Netherlands                            completed a course of vocational training. (? What is a skilled
                                                                    worker?)
 1753 Leonardo study         The             Training               60-90% of all workers are considered to be skilled workers –
                             Netherlands                            completed a course of vocational training. (? What is a skilled
                                                                    worker?)
 1753   Leonardo study       Sweden          Labour skills          Northern European countries meet skills needs more effectively.
 1753   Leonardo study       Denmark         Labour skills          Northern European countries meet skills needs more effectively.
 1753   Leonardo study       Finland         Labour skills          Northern European countries meet skills needs more effectively.
 1753   Leonardo study       Norway          Labour skills          Northern European countries meet skills needs more effectively.
 1753   Leonardo study       All countries   Labour skills             Types of skills required:
                                                                    .    basic technical
                                                                    .    organisation/communication
                                                                    .    complementary technical skills – integration of developments in
                                                                    scope of skills
                                                                    .    compliance
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Labour - migrant         Unregulated migrant labour to cover skilled worker requirements?
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Labour skills            Unregulated migrant labour to cover skilled worker requirements?
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Labour skills            In most countries medium age of workforce is declining. Tech.
                                                                    development results in reconfiguration of trades – not new ones.
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                   Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                        referred to here

 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Building regulations   National and EU regulations increasingly restrictive.
                                                                  [Research Team note: no evidence elsewhere to suggest that
                                                                  legislation affects efficiency although it probably does influence cost]
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Labour availability    All countries except Sweden say social status of construction not
                                                                  good.
 1753 Leonardo study         Sweden        Labour availability    All countries except Sweden say social status of construction not
                                                                  good.
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Labour availability    All countries, except Sweden, get workers by default.
 1753 Leonardo study         Sweden        Labour availability    All countries, except Sweden, get workers by default.
 1753 Leonardo study         Denmark       Training               Denmark‟s small firms invest as much in continuing (formal) training
                                                                  as the large ones.
 1753 Leonardo study         The           Training               Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway have largest number of
                             Netherlands                          workers in continuing training schemes.
 1753 Leonardo study         Sweden        Training               Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway have largest number of
                                                                  workers in continuing training schemes.
 1753 Leonardo study         Denmark       Training               Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway have largest number of
                                                                  workers in continuing training schemes.
 1753 Leonardo study         Norway        Training               Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway have largest number of
                                                                  workers in continuing training schemes.
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries International          Future improvement through dissemination and transfer of important
                                           comparisons            practices, cross-border co-operation – better mutual knowledge and
                                                                  joint action.
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Efficiency             Future improvement through dissemination and transfer of important
                                                                  practices, cross-border co-operation – better mutual knowledge and
                                                                  joint action.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2000    Italy         Materials              ) Specification practice descriptive not prescriptive. New
                                                                  arrangements for accreditation.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2000    Italy         Process                  Less adversarial than in UK – mutual respect. and pride in quality of
                                                                  end result.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2000    Italy         Quality                  Less adversarial than in UK – mutual respect. and pride in quality of
                                                                  end result.
Ref to Title of Literature      Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                           discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                           referred to here

 1756 Spons Handbook 2000       Italy         Labour skills           Mainly directly employed craftsmen – only specialist trades sub-
                                                                      contracted.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2000       Italy         Subcontractors          Mainly directly employed craftsmen – only specialist trades sub-
                                                                      contracted.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2000       Italy         Structure of industry   Mainly directly employed craftsmen – only specialist trades sub-
                                                                      contracted.
 1756   Spons Handbook 2000     Spain         Subcontractors          Sub-contracting is increasing.
 1756   Spons Handbook 2000     Spain         Process                 Main contractors powerful.
 1756   Spons Handbook 2001     Spain         Liability insurance     Contractors do not carry decennial insurance cover
 1756   Spons Handbook 2002     Spain         Liability insurance     Architect liable for whole design – carry insurance – contractors do
                                                                      not.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2003       Spain         Role of the architect   Architect liable for whole design – carry insurance – contractors do
                                                                      not.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2004       Spain         Building regulations    No legal requirement to use approved products.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2005       Spain         Materials               No legal requirement to use approved products.
                                                                      [Research Team note: Spanish materials are comparatively cheap
                                                                      and the Total Project Labour Index developed in the Report takes this
                                                                      into account in much the same way as Construction Purchasing
                                                                      Power Parity.
 1759 An Investigation into the All countries International           An attempt to benchmark the performance of construction projects in
      Construction                            comparisons             a range of countries. Construction often accounts for a significant
      Performance of High-                                            proportion of a country‟s Gross Domestic Product. Therefore, this
      Rise Commercial Office                                          type of research is of paramount performance to all
      Buildings Based on
      Productivity and
      Resource Consumption
Ref to Title of Literature        Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                               Report
Datab                             discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                             referred to here

 1759 An Investigation into the   All countries Macro-economics        The effect on building costs of international cost comparisons and
      Construction                                                     purchasing power parity has highlighted the general issues involved.
      Performance of High-                                             When applied to a specific industry and product, these problems are
      Rise Commercial Office                                           compounded. The scope for egregious errors in the a
      Buildings Based on
      Productivity and
      Resource Consumption
 1759 An Investigation into the   All countries International          Significant controversy exists about the correct approach to be used
      Construction                              comparisons            when undertaking international cost comparisons. Base currency
      Performance of High-                                             adjustments are common but generally regarded as inferior to PPPs.
      Rise Commercial Office
      Buildings Based on
      Productivity and
      Resource Consumption
 1759 An Investigation into the   All countries International          The performance of projects is advanced as a function of issues of
      Construction                              comparisons            productivity (m2/month) and resource consumption (cost/m2).
      Performance of High-                                             Productivity measurement as defined here has nothing to do with
      Rise Commercial Office                                           international cost adjustment indices. High performance is defin
      Buildings Based on
      Productivity and
      Resource Consumption
 1759 An Investigation into the   All countries Productivity -         The performance of projects is advanced as a function of issues of
      Construction                              measurement            productivity (m2/month) and resource consumption (cost/m2).
      Performance of High-                                             Productivity measurement as defined here has nothing to do with
      Rise Commercial Office                                           international cost adjustment indices. High performance is defin
      Buildings Based on
      Productivity and
      Resource Consumption
Ref to Title of Literature    Country     Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                             Report
Datab                         discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                        Reference
ase                                       referred to here

 1759 An Investigation into the UK        Efficiency             From the data, it would appear that projects in UK and Japan are
      Construction                                               procured less efficiently than those in China, Malaysia and the
      Performance of High-                                       Philippines.From this model it was determined that China, Malaysia
      Rise Commercial Office                                     and the Philippines demonstrated projects of high performan
      Buildings Based on
      Productivity and
      Resource Consumption
Ref to Title of Literature      Country         Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                             Report
Datab                           discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                         Reference
ase                                             referred to here

    40 Project Performance in   UK              Process                 „UK Reliance on contract as a risk control device led to a lack of
       Britain and France                                               focused control on the development of the information necessary to
       (Edkins and Winch)                                               allow construction to take place‟
    40 Project Performance in   UK              Role of the architect   JCT 80 Contract prevented architect from accepting design changes
       Britain and France
       (Edkins and Winch)
    60 Building and             Spain           Process                 Little scope for variation
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             Spain           Role of the architect   Little scope for variation
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             Spain           Process                 Contractors do the detailed design – have their own qualified
       Development Economics                                            supervisors
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             Italy           Process                 More general contracting under direction of architects
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             Italy           Role of the architect   Architect‟s role similar to UK
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             All countries Building regulations      Building regulations “prevents” the construction sector using new
       Development Economics                                            materials, innovative structures and certain utility equipment.
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             All countries Process                   When working abroad, production costs are mostly higher due to
       Development Economics                                            various cultural differences.
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and             All countries   Labour productivity     The low pay of employees discourages a high output.
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
Ref to Title of Literature      Country      Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                              Report
Datab                           discussed    Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                          referred to here

    60 Building and          All countries   Labour rates of pay and   The low pay of employees discourages a high output.
       Development Economics                 on-costs
       in the EU (BWA)
    60 Building and          All countries   Process                   Building companies are not focusing on maximizing their output.
       Development Economics
       in the EU (BWA)
    66 Industry Economics and   UK           Labour working hours Hours worked per year in UK – Plus 20%-25% compared with
       Statistics – Vol 1.                                        France and Germany
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM
    66 Industry Economics and   France       Labour working hours Hours worked per year in UK – Plus 20%-25% compared with
       Statistics – Vol 1.                                        France and Germany
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM
    66 Industry Economics and   Germany      Labour working hours Hours worked per year in UK – Plus 20%-25% compared with
       Statistics – Vol 1.                                        France and Germany
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM
    66 Industry Economics and   UK           Labour rates of pay and   Cost of employment per head in UK const 1998-2001
       Statistics – Vol 1.                   on-costs                  Table 5.4 £13,000 - £14,000*
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                (divide 44 hours x 48 (wks pa) = 2112 hrs/pa
                                                                       14,000 / 2,112 = £6.62 per hour average
                                                                       [Research team note: using 1802 hours p.a. as Spons ‟99 = £7.76 per
                                                                       hour average]
    66 Industry Economics and UK             Machinery and             Investment in machinery and equipment per employee 1999 – 2001
       Statistics – Vol 1.                   equipment                 Germany 2.0
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                France     0.9
                                                                       UK         1.6
    66 Industry Economics and France         Machinery and             Investment in machinery and equipment per employee 1999 – 2001
       Statistics – Vol 1.                   equipment                 Germany 2.0
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                France     0.9
                                                                       UK         1.7
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                            referred to here

    66 Industry Economics and Germany          Machinery and           Investment in machinery and equipment per employee 1999 – 2001
       Statistics – Vol 1.                     equipment               Germany 2.0
       Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                France     0.9
                                                                       UK         1.8
   66 Industry Economics and     UK            Investment per capita   Differences in levels of capital investment per worker p.a. (i.e. not
      Statistics – Vol 1.                                              more than $2,000 per capita) do not explain productivity gap of
      Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                 $14,000 p.a. UK – USA/Germany.
   66 Industry Economics and     Germany       Investment per capita   Differences in levels of capital investment per worker p.a. (i.e. not
      Statistics – Vol 1.                                              more than $2,000 per capita) do not explain productivity gap of
      Nov.2004 UCL/DLM                                                 $14,000 p.a. UK – USA/Germany.
   66 Industry Economics and     Germany       Structure of industry   Apparent differences in industry structure too small to account for
      Statistics – Vol 1.                                              differences in productivity.
      Nov.2004 UCL/DLM
  263 IBC Review of European     All countries Building regulations    [Research team note:Apart from Belgium all countries in the sample
      Building Regulations and                                         have building construction and materials controls which are
      Technical Provisions                                             enforceable in whole or in part.All countries are struggling towards
                                                                       harmonisation with greater or lesser degree of enthusiasm and
                                                                       success.
                                                                       The team had no evidence from any source to suggest that this
                                                                       situation had a significant effect upon the use of resources in any
                                                                       country. However, in Spain there is known to be extensive use of
                                                                       lower quality/prices materials and in Belgium the absence of building
                                                                       regulations is sometimes covered by the decennial liability insurance
                                                                       system presently used on the larger projects.
                                                                       Regulations concerning contractor and engineers‟ qualifications
                                                                       varied quite widely but with no stated impact on the efficiency of
  263 IBC Review of European Belgium           Building regulations    resource usage.
                                                                       Apart from Belgium all countries in the sample have building
      Building Regulations and                                         construction and materials controls which are enforceable in whole
      Technical Provisions                                             or in part
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                        Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                                   Reference
ase                                            referred to here

  263 IBC Review of European     Spain         Materials              In Spain there is known to be extensive use of lower quality/prices materials
      Building Regulations and
      Technical Provisions
      IBC Review of European     Belgium       Building regulations   In Belgium the absence of building regulations is sometimes covered
      Building Regulations and                                        by the decennial liability insurance system presently used on the
      Technical Provisions                                            larger projects.
      IBC Review of European     Belgium       Liability insurance    In Belgium the absence of building regulations is sometimes covered
      Building Regulations and                                        by the decennial liability insurance system presently used on the
      Technical Provisions                                            larger projects.
  396 DG111 WG –                 All countries Building costs         No-one benefits
      Abnormally Low
      Tenders 19/5/99
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Quality                High quality, design/spec.Limited productivity increases
      System Approach - CIB –                                         15 - 20% of buildings show defects after 5 years
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Materials              Expensive materials (60% x cost?)
      System Approach - CIB –
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Building regulations   Materials – major ones controlled.
      System Approach - CIB –
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Labour skills          Qualifications needed for specialist works.
      System Approach - CIB –
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Process                Design/build acceptable
      System Approach - CIB –
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector    Denmark       Health and Safety      Safety/Security – Detailed requirements
      System Approach - CIB –                                         -     site safety organization
      Jean Carassus                                                   -     clients have formal responsibility
Ref to Title of Literature      Country     Resource                 Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                           discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                         referred to here

  411 The Construction Sector   Germany     Materials costs          Materials at €128bn is 82.5% of output but NB. Includes overlapping
      System Approach - CIB –                                        with other industries.
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   Germany     Role of the architect    Architect‟s role central at all stages but contractors expanding their
      System Approach - CIB –                                        role.
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   Sweden      Structure of industry    99.5% of specialized companies (107138 employees) in companies <
      System Approach - CIB –                                        50 persons – 70% of work
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   UK          Structure of industry    99% of firms < 50 employees = 49% of output. (NB this is a much
      System Approach - CIB –                                        lower contribution than that made by the smallest firms in other
      Jean Carassus                                                  countries)
                                                                     95% of firms < 10 people
                                                                     65% of construction firms are specialists.
  411 The Construction Sector UK            Materials                Materials £19.9bn= say €30bn.
      System Approach - CIB –                                        = 30% of total
      Jean Carassus                                                  [Research team note: this gives credence to the estimate of 30-35%
                                                                     materials content of the traditional UK project price – see Figure H]
  411 The Construction Sector UK            Building cost analysis   Materials £19.9bn= say €30bn.
      System Approach - CIB –                                        = 30% of total construction output
      Jean Carassus                                                  [Research team note: this gives added credence to the estimate of 30-
                                                                     35% materials content of the traditional UK project price – see Figure
                                                                     H]
  411 The Construction Sector Germany       Structure of industry    Germany has fewer small firms (1-19) than Swe. Or Dk. But more in
      System Approach - CIB –                                        the 20-49 group
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector Sweden        Structure of industry    Germany has fewer small firms (1-19) than Swe. Or Dk. But more in
      System Approach - CIB –                                        the 20-49 group
      Jean Carassus
Ref to Title of Literature      Country      Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                       Report
Datab                           discussed    Driver/general issue                                                                                   Reference
ase                                          referred to here

  411 The Construction Sector   Denmark      Structure of industry   Germany has fewer small firms (1-19) than Swe. Or Dk. But more in
      System Approach - CIB –                                        the 20-49 group
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   Germany      Role of the architect   Germany – central role in procurement as well as design and
      System Approach - CIB –                                        production.
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   Sweden       Role of the architect   Sweden – comparatively subordinate to general or d/b contractor -
      System Approach - CIB –                                        co-ordination rests on contractor.
      Jean Carassus
  411 The Construction Sector   Denmark      Construction output     In 1997, the corresponding figures on building employment
      System Approach - CIB –                                        distribution show that 32 percent were doing new construction and
      Jean Carassus                                                  38 percent were involved in repair and maintenance.
      The Construction Sector   Germany      Structure of industry   Figures of table 5 seem to underestimate the number of very small
      System Approach - CIB –                                        companies in Germany, but a German specificity is the weight of
      Jean Carassus                                                  medium sized companies (10 to 49 employees). It can be explained
                                                                     by the heaviness of separate trades tenders and by local construction
                                                                     markets in every state.
  426 Review 4/98 DLC           France        Labour - migrant       The informal sector : France 23%
                                              (undeclared)
  426 Review 4/98 DLC           Italy         Labour - migrant       The informal sector : Italy 17%
                                              (undeclared)
  426 Review 4/98 DLC           Spain         Labour - migrant       The informal sector : Spain 15%
                                              (undeclared)
  426 Review 4/98 DLC           All countries Labour productivity    Low wage rates normally associated with low productivity.
  563 Blueprint for change      All countries Labour skills          Industry to take responsibility for skills reproductionWidespread confusion
                                                                     over the nature of construction skills. The skills of the builder need to be
                                                                     explicit and recognized through qualification/broad education - integration
                                                                     of skilled worker into the construction team.
  563 Blueprint for change      UK           Labour skills           Inevitable skill shortages in the UK due to poor and casual employment
                                                                     conditions. This is backed up by report 1659.There is no system of
                                                                     qualifications for supervisors. This means less efficiency.
Ref to Title of Literature      Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                   Report
Datab                           discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                           referred to here

  567 Craft vs Industry in EU   Germany       Process                Industry form of organisation (as in Germany and Denmark),           lll
      housebuilding – Case                                           although significantly demanding in terms of skill and training,
      study (Clarke and Wall)                                        results in a more productive and speedier process - greater autonomy
                                                                     and less supervision
  567 Craft vs Industry in EU   Denmark       Process                Industry form of organisation (as in Germany and Denmark),
      housebuilding – Case                                           although significantly demanding in terms of skill and training,
      study (Clarke and Wall)                                        results in a more productive and speedier process - greater autonomy
                                                                     and less supervision
  567 Craft vs Industry in EU   UK            Process                 Craft form (as in UK) less productive and slower- needs control of
      housebuilding – Case                                           output of labour - relatively indifferent to quality and maintenance
      study (Clarke and Wall)
  567 Craft vs Industry in EU   UK            Training               In the UK the employer‟s obligation for training is weak.
      housebuilding – Case
      study (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the            UK            Training               - Northern Britain has higher levels of training and less
      Construction Process                                           supervision than South – due to more stable employment structure
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the            UK            Management              Northern Britain has higher levels of training and less supervision
      Construction Process                                           than South – due to more stable employment structure
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the            The           Management             Netherlands has a higher level of training and less supervision than
      Construction Process      Netherlands                          UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
      Skills and the            The           Training               Netherlands has a higher level of training and less supervision than
      Construction Process      Netherlands                          UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the            Germany       Management             Germany has a higher level of training and less supervision than UK
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                              Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Training                Germany has a higher level of training and less supervision than UK
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Process                 UK housing – simple traditional houses
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour skills           narrow range of skills
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Structure of industry   deregulated self-employment
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Process                 complex, mechanised
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour skills           wide range/depth of skills
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Structure of industry   many SME‟s
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Prefabrication          standardised concrete
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Prefabrication          Housing - ultimate in rationalisation
      Construction Process   Netherlands                           - high degree of prefabrication
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Process                 low-rise housing - complex, highly mechanised construction
      Construction Process   Netherlands                           process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                      Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                    Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         The           Labour skills                 - high level/usage of skills
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Efficiency                    - very much quicker to build (than UK)
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Building costs            - very much cheaper to build (than UK)
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Structure of industry     -many SME‟s
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Efficiency                Slower and considerably less productive process
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Efficiency                UK Improvement needs radical change
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Process                   too task-specific
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour skills             - low level of technology and unpredictable level of skills
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour rates of pay and   -      low paid
      Construction Process                 on-costs
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Structure of industry     -      casual labour
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country     Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                                   Report
Datab                        discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                                 Reference
ase                                      referred to here

  573 Skills and the         UK          Subcontractors            -     labour-only S/C – difficult to control – high level of supervision
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK          Process                   -     negative approach to industrialisation (50‟s to 60‟s)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK          Prefabrication            -     negative approach to industrialisation (50‟s to 60‟s)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Training                  high level of training
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Labour skills             -     flexible, transferable skills
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Labour skills             -     greater adaptability to new technologies, materials and processes
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Labour rates of pay and   -   well paid
      Construction Process               on-costs
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Structure of industry     -   directly employed labour
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Labour skills             -     workers plan their own tasks – minimum supervision
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany     Management                -     workers plan their own tasks – minimum supervision
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                            Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Process                   -   complex interfaces
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Materials                 -   higher specification of materials
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Training                  high level of training
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Labour rates of pay and   -   well paid – good conditions
      Construction Process   Netherlands   on-costs
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Structure of industry     -   directly employed
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Management                -   minimum supervision
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Prefabrication            -   standardised and „open‟ systems
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Quality                     Dutch (industrialised) housing no difference in appearance from
      Construction Process   Netherlands                             UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Quality                     Dutch (industrialised) housing no difference in appearance from
      Construction Process                                           UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Efficiency                -   rapid speed of construction
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                            Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                       Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         UK            Management             - High levels of supervision may be used as a substitute for good
      Construction Process                                        employment practice and reliable skill standards
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour skills          - High levels of supervision may be used as a substitute for good
      Construction Process                                        employment practice and reliable skill standards
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Training                     Levy is 2.8% x payroll
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Training               Levy is 2% of payroll
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Training                Levy is : 0.25% x direct payroll
      Construction Process                                                 : 2% x labour-only subcontractors
      (Clarke and Wall)                                            - regulated by Employers
  573 Skills and the         The           Training               Comprehensive, Integrated, Theoretical,Trainees per worker ratio
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          quite high,Regulated by social partners (i.e. TU‟s and Employers‟
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           Associations)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Training               Comprehensive, Integrated, Theoretical,Trainees per worker ratio
      Construction Process                                        quite high,Regulated by social partners (i.e. TU‟s and Employers‟
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           Associations)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Training               formal training by a firm the only route into employment
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Training               formal training by a firm the only route into employment and work
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          placements
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Subcontractors         labour-only subcontracting not allowed
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                      Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                  Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         The           Subcontractors          labour-only subcontracting not allowed
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Structure of industry   Unionisation – 60%
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Structure of industry   Unionisation - 35%
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Structure of industry   Unionisation - 30%
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Structure of industry   Self-employment – private sector - over 60%
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Structure of industry   Self-employment – private sector - 11%
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Structure of industry   Self-employment – private sector - 12%
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour rates of pay and Earnings per hour 2/3 of Germany
      Construction Process                 on-costs                               2/3 of The Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour rates of pay and Earnings per hour 50% higher than UK
      Construction Process                 on-costs                Same as the Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Labour rates of pay and Earnings per hour 50% higher than UK
      Construction Process   Netherlands   on-costs                Same as Germany
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                           Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                      Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour working hours Weekly site hours – Northern . UK 42 } av. 50
      Construction Process                                                        Southern. UK 56 }
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour working hours Weekly site hours - 43
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Labour working hours Weekly site hours - 40
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Subcontractors         Specialist - more in Germany and NL (than UK)due to more complex
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          techniques and complexity of interfaces
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Subcontractors         Specialist - more in Germany and NL(than UK) due to more complex
      Construction Process                                        techniques and complexity of interfaces
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Subcontractors         Specialist - more in Germany and NL (than UK) due to more
      Construction Process                                        complex techniques and complexity of interfaces
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Management             Site supervision - Double in UK (compared with Germany and The
      Construction Process                                        Netherlands) especially in South,
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Management             Same as The Netherlands
      Construction Process                                        Half of UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Management             Same as Germany
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          Half of UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Machinery and          All medium and large firms owned a wide range of site plant
      Construction Process   Netherlands   equipment
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Machinery and          All medium and large firms owned a wide range of site plant
      Construction Process                 equipment
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Machinery and          Machinery and equipment : only 28% of firms owned a wide range of
      Construction Process                 equipment              site plant (and then only small-scale) - but there was a lot of plant-
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           hire
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour productivity    Construction output per employee - double that of UK
      Construction Process                                                            - 10% higher than The Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour productivity    Construction output per employee - 50% of German
      Construction Process                                                          - 60% of The Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Labour productivity    Construction output per employee - 90% of German
      Construction Process   Netherlands                                                        -190% of UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Labour productivity    Structural trades - input per m2 (index) –
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          NL         0.8(housing)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           Germany 1.6 (flats)
                                                                  UK        1.8 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour productivity    Structural trades - input per m2 (index) –
      Construction Process                                        NL         0.8(housing)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           Germany 1.6 (flats)
                                                                  UK        1.8 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Labour productivity    Structural trades - input per m2 (index) –
      Construction Process                                        NL         0.8(housing)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           Germany 1.6 (flats)
                                                                  UK        1.8 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Management             financial controls
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                          Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                      Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Role of the architect   Management
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Management              Project manager
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Efficiency              Speed of construction index- NL        100 (housing)
      Construction Process   Netherlands                                                     - Germany 23 (flats)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                                                      - UK       25 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Efficiency              Speed of construction index- NL        100 (housing)
      Construction Process                                                                   - Germany 23 (flats)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                                                      - UK       25 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Efficiency              Speed of construction index- NL        100 (housing)
      Construction Process                                                                   - Germany 23 (flats)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                                                      - UK       25 (housing)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Quality                 Quality of construction - largest number of errors on UK sites
      Construction Process                                         (compared with German and Dutch sites)
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Quality                 Quality of construction - largest number of errors on UK sites
      Construction Process   Netherlands                           (compared with German and Dutch sites)
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Quality                 Quality of construction - largest number of errors on UK sites
      Construction Process                                         (compared with German and Dutch sites)
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Process                 – architect design/adaptation from system, contractor detailing
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Process                 one-off architect designed (apartments)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                           Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                       Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         Germany       Role of the architect   one-off architect designed (apartments)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Process                 one-off architect designed (terraced social housing)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Role of the architect   one-off architect designed (terraced social housing)
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Process                 integrated construction teams – 20%-30% of the work
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Process                 Design and Build seldom used
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour - migrant         Uses low-wage UK/Irish/Portuguese workers
      Construction Process                                         - work contracts with EU States (NB Poland 100,000 in 93/94)
      (Clarke and Wall)                                            - now restricted to 15% of labour in any one firm
                                                                   - 126,000 official foreign workers
                                                                   - NB The Posting Directive – migrant foreign workers employed on
                                                                   the same terms/conditions as German workers,
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour - migrant         250,000 – 500,000 unofficial foreign workers - 60,000 illegally
      Construction Process                 (undeclared)            from UK
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Structure of industry    all labour directly employed, 30% non-German. NB – second
      Construction Process                                         generation from Turkey and E. Europe
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour skills           NB – all imported labour is skilled
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                  Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                             Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  573 Skills and the         The           Labour - migrant       many immigrants are second generation Turkish or Moroccan
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          - some immigrant workers from UK
  573 (Clarke and Wall)
      Skills and the         The           Training                incentives for training given to firms
      Construction Process   Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         The           Subcontractors         Greater complexity of interfaces involves greater numbers of sub-
      Construction Process   Netherlands                          contractors
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           [NB ? the site labour needed is less but they have the skills needed to
                                                                  cope with the more complicated site assembly problems]
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Subcontractors         Greater complexity of interfaces involves greater numbers of sub-
      Construction Process                                        contractors
      (Clarke and Wall)                                           [NB ? the site labour needed is less but they have the skills needed to
                                                                  cope with the more complicated site assembly problems]
  573 Skills and the         UK            Materials              much use of pre-fabricated components but not much large-scale pre-
      Construction Process                                        fabricated assembly
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Prefabrication         much use of pre-fabricated components but not much large-scale pre-
      Construction Process                                        fabricated assembly
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         UK            Process                not much large-scale pre-fabricated assembly
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Process                mechanised structure
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour - migrant       mainly Polish semi-skilled workers – on one site
      Construction Process
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the         Germany       Labour skills           (mechanised structure) mainly Polish semi-skilled workers – on one
      Construction Process                                        site
      (Clarke and Wall)                                            - bricklayer‟s operations more wide ranging
Ref to Title of Literature     Country         Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                             Report
Datab                          discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                        Reference
ase                                            referred to here

  573 Skills and the           The             Process                 bricklayer‟s hod „a museum-piece
      Construction Process     Netherlands
      (Clarke and Wall)
  573 Skills and the           Germany         Labour skills          The range of activities for separate trades in assembling
      Construction Process                                            superstructure elements is greater the higher the degree of
      (Clarke and Wall)                                               prefabrication and mechanization‟
  573 Skills and the           Germany         Labour skills          The range of activities for separate trades in assembling
      Construction Process                                            superstructure elements is greater the higher the degree of
      (Clarke and Wall)                                               prefabrication and mechanization‟
                                                                       Few workers are unskilled – all multi-skilled - work as a team on
                                                                      complex interfaces
                                                                      - ready for innovation
  573 Skills and the           All countries   Prefabrication         The range of activities for separate trades in assembling
      Construction Process                                            superstructure elements is greater the higher the degree of
      (Clarke and Wall)                                               prefabrication and mechanization‟
  573 Skills and the           All countries   Process                The range of activities for separate trades in assembling
      Construction Process                                            superstructure elements is greater the higher the degree of
      (Clarke and Wall)                                               prefabrication and mechanization‟
588   Cost vs Production –     Germany         Process                German firms directly employ labour for groundworks and
      Britain v Germany –                                             superstructure and employ specialist trade firms for finishes
      Social Housing (Clarke
  588 Cost vs Production –     Germany         Subcontractors         Sub-contracts 27.3% of total value – more contracts than UK
      Britain v Germany –
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             UK              Subcontractors         sub-cons – 44% - 69% - less contracts than the German sites
      Britain v Germany –
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             Germany         Process                emphasis on optimum productive method [NB Buildability in part] –
      Britain v Germany –                                             not cost per sub-contract as in UK
      Social Housing (Clarke
      and Hermann)
Ref to Title of Literature     Country     Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                              Report
Datab                          discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                        referred to here

  588 Cost vs Production –     UK          Process                 emphasis on optimum productive method [NB Buildability in part] –
      Britain v Germany –                                          not cost per sub-contract as in UK
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             Germany     Efficiency              emphasis on optimum productive method [NB Buildability in part] –
      Britain v Germany –                                          not cost per sub-contract as in UK
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             Germany     Cost control            In Germany the cost function is integrated with technical expertise
      Britain v Germany –
      Social Housing (Clarke
  588 Cost vs Production –     Germany     Process                  The high input of production expertise is evident in the extended
      Britain v Germany –                                          role of the building engineer and the architect
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             Germany     Role of the architect    The high input of production expertise is evident in the extended
      Britain v Germany –                                          role of the building engineer and the architect
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             UK          Cost control            QS‟s „tinker with‟ contract relations and cost reductions
      Britain v Germany –
      Social Housing (Clarke
      Cost vs Production –
  588 and Hermann)             UK          Process                 The UK is pre-occupied with contracts rather then employment
      Britain v Germany –                                          relations. This affects efficiency, productivity and site process.
      Social Housing (Clarke
  588 and Hermann)
      Cost vs Production –     UK          Efficiency              The UK is pre-occupied with contracts rather then employment
      Britain v Germany –                                          relations. This affects efficiency, productivity and site process.
      Social Housing (Clarke
  599 and Hermann)
      Construction Industry    Germany     Role of the architect   central role in procurement as well as design and production
      Development in 1990‟s
      Denmark, Germany and
      Sweden
Ref to Title of Literature      Country         Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                  Report
Datab                           discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                             referred to here

  599 Construction Industry     Sweden          Role of the architect   comparatively subordinate to general or design/build contractor.
      Development in 1990‟s                                             - co-ordination rests on contractor
      Denmark, Germany and
      Sweden
  599 Construction Industry     Sweden          Process                 co-ordination rests on contractor
      Development in 1990‟s
      Denmark, Germany and
      Sweden
  636 Busines model for UK      UK              Process                 No single business model likely to be effective for UK construction   1
      Construction - CRISP
  693                           UK              Labour skills           The UK is lagging in skills (both labour and managerial wise) when
                                                                        compared with the rest of the world and behind competitor
                                                                        companies in the EU.

  693                           UK              Management              The UK is lagging in skills (both labour and managerial wise) when
                                                                        compared with the rest of the world and behind competitor
                                                                        companies in the EU.
   801 Future Construct – RTD   All countries   Efficiency              Production improvement targets :
      (Research and                                                     - 30% more for no extra cost
                                                                        - 50% reduction in time
      technological                                                     - 50% reduction in :
      development) Strategies                                               O + M costs
      for European                                                          Energy
  801 Future Construct – RTD All countries RTD                              Waste + pollution
                                                                        E.U. 1.91% of GDP in RTD
      (Research and                                                     > 1% down to 0.1% in construction
      technological
      development) Strategies
      for European
      Construction - Summary
Ref to Title of Literature    Country         Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                         discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                           referred to here

  801 Future Construct – RTD All countries Training                   E.U. 1.91% of GDP in RTD
      (Research and                                                   > 1% down to 0.1% in construction
      technological
      development) Strategies
      for European
      Construction - Summary
1406 SECTEUR                  All countries Process                   Actions for improvement :
                                                                            People      - training
                                                                                       - recruitment
                                                                            Innovation - information
                                                                                       - research
                                                                                       - incentives
 1406 SECTEUR                 All countries Quality                   Actions for improvement :
                                                                       - procurement
                                                                      - guarantees and insurance
                                                                       - registration and qualification
 1406   SECTEUR               All countries   Structure of industry   Dominance of the industry by small firms
 1406   SECTEUR               All countries   RTD                     Dominance of the industry by small firms obstacle to research
 1406   SECTEUR               Germany         Labour skills           German „Handwork‟ sector – craft registration „meister‟ certificate
 1406   SECTEUR               Spain           Process                 Forbids design and build but …. more detailed design left to
                                                                      contractors.
 1406 SECTEUR                 Spain           Role of the architect   Forbids design and build but …. more detailed design left to
                                                                      contractors.
 1406 SECTEUR                 All countries Process                   Construction methodology changes:
                                                                      Improvements required :
                                                                      Increasing standardization
                                                                      Mechanisation and labour-saving innovations
                                                                      More off-site manufacture/prefabrication – less on-site work
 1406 SECTEUR                 All countries Quality                   Problems with buildability are mostly caused by defects in designs or
                                                                      workmanship.
Ref to Title of Literature       Country         Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                            discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                              referred to here

 1406 SECTEUR                    All countries Efficiency                Problems with buildability are mostly caused by defects in designs or
                                                                         workmanship.
 1406   SECTEUR                  All countries   Process                 In general there are poor working conditions.
 1406   SECTEUR                  All countries   Building regulations    Very small firms seem to try to evade many regulations.
 1406   SECTEUR                  All countries   Training                The entire EU does not invest enough in training.
 1406   SECTEUR                  All countries   Building regulations    EC legislation creates new administrative costs and learning
 1406 SECTEUR                    All countries Management                obstacles firms have a weak management.
                                                                         Many small
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK            Subcontractors            1982-1992 – 20% up to 80% - Tax advantage for self-employed
                                                                         workers in UK
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Subcontractors          Payment problems – quality, performance
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Quality                  Subcontractor payment problems –adverse effect on quality,
                                                                         performance
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Efficiency               Subcontractor payment problems –adverse effect on quality,
                                                                         performance
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Subcontractors          Legal position re ensuring sub-contractors‟ liability for compliance
                                                                         with legislation e.g. social security, tax, health and safety
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Health and Safety       Legal position re ensuring sub-contractors‟ liability for compliance
                                                                         with legislation e.g. social security, tax, health and safety
 1406 SECTEUR                    All countries Subcontractors            Temporary and Mobile Sites Directive – ? effect on construction
                                                                         management and lots separes/pilot
 1406 SECTEUR                    Spain           Role of the architect   Napoleonic Code control of architect – only as a rule in the Spanish
                                                                         system
 1406 SECTEUR                    UK              Building regulations    Legal position re ensuring sub-contractors‟ liability for compliance
                                                                         with legislation e.g. social security, tax, health and safety
1502    UK – future trends and   UK              Process                  Future developments :
        issues                                                            „increased demand for components and systems that employ
                                                                         lightweight and novel jointing technologies‟
                                                                         „developments in more advanced materials such as super-critical
                                                                         concrete………many emerge as established industrial products in the
                                                                         longer terms (20 years)‟
                                                                         but - ? sustainability - renewables may be the only permissibles
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource                 Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                        referred to here

 1521                        Ireland       Process                  In Ireland there are often problems with communication, due to
                                                                    deficiencies in mutual understanding between building parties.
 1521                        Ireland       Labour skills            There are high needs for certain categories of skilled workers in this
                                                                    country.
 1522 Irish Construction     Ireland       Construction output      Building Activity 21% of GNP (17% of GDP)
      Industry 2001
 1522 Irish Construction     Ireland       Labour availability      Shortage of skilled manpower at all levels
      Industry 2001
 1522 Irish Construction     Ireland       Labour - migrant         Flexible procedures for overseas contractors
      Industry 2001                                                  - covered by Irish labour and social welfare
                                                                    - minimum wages
                                                                    - private pension
                                                                    Not intended to undercut min. pay rates or pension rights for Irish
                                                                    workers
                                                                    No unfair bids from overseas
 1522 Irish Construction     All countries Prefabrication            - can reduce material wastage
      Industry 2001                                                  - can improve quality of building elements
 1522 Irish Construction     All countries Building cost analysis     Prefabrication can reduce material wastage
      Industry 2001
 1522 Irish Construction     All countries Quality                  Prefabrication can improve quality of building elements
      Industry 2001
 1522 Irish Construction     Ireland       Materials                Time delays on Agreement certification delaying innovation
      Industry 2001
 1524 Irish Construction     Ireland       Structure of industry    Labour force : 300,000 (2003) Direct +indirect
      Industry – DKM 2003                                           (indirect is 40% of direct or 28.5% of total)
                                                                    Direct labour force : 210,000)
 1524 Irish Construction     Ireland       Subcontractors           Now mainly use sub/trade contractors
      Industry – DKM 2003
Ref to Title of Literature   Country     Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                            Report
Datab                        discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                      referred to here

 1525 Irish Construction     Ireland     Labour rates of pay and   Average earnings Eur37,455 p.a. ( 2004)
      Industry Indicators                on-costs                   [divide by 1872 hours p.a.(Spons 99) = Eur20/hour at 2004]
      (DKM) (2005)                                                 Spons 99 hourly rate      = Eur 17.34/hour at 1999
                                                                   After adjustment for inflation this is very close.
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Structure of industry     Firms:
      Industry 2005          Republic                              2404 firms with 20 + employees = 70% work.
                             (CR)                                  small companies (less than 49) increasing.
                                                                   med/large companies decreasing.
                                                                   1999 – 2005 - 440,000 – 450,000 employees in const. industry.
                                                                   2004 263,000 firms [ = 1.71 per firm]
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Building costs            Price inflation to 2004 : 99 – 2004 = 23.02%
      Industry 2005          Republic
                             (CR)
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Labour rates of pay and Wages 2004 av CZK 16,858 p.m.x 0.033 =                Eur 556 p.m.x
      Industry 2005          Republic    on-costs                12      =     Eur 6,676 p.a.
                             (CR)                                divided by 1,800 (say) hours p.a. =     Eur3.71/hr
                                                                 After adjustment for inflation this compare well with Spons 2000
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Materials               market supply = as advanced as in W. Europe
      Industry 2005          Republic                             „Some sectors of quarrying and manufacture . . . . . are highly
                             (CR)                                advanced‟
                                                                 - large volumes
                                                                 - some high quality
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Materials               Cost of production:
      Industry 2005          Republic                            Factory labour rate 2004 -     21,263 CZK p.m. x 0.033 =
                             (CR)                                Eur701.67 p.m. x 12 = € 8420 p.a.
                                                                 NB Higher than in constn. (Eur 6676 – see above)
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech       Building cost analysis  Cost of production:
      Industry 2005          Republic                            Factory labour rate 2004 -     21,263 CZK p.m. x 0.033 =
                             (CR)                                Eur701.67 p.m. x 12 = € 8420 p.a.
                                                                 NB Higher than in constn. (Eur 6676 – see above)
Ref to Title of Literature     Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                          discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                             Reference
ase                                          referred to here

 1526 The Czech Construction Czech           Building regulations    Harmonisation of CZR standards/EU
      Industry 2005          Republic                                Authorisation of - architects
                             (CR)                                    - engineers
                                                                     - technicians
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech           Quality                 In the Czech Republic there is an insufficient quality of work when it
      Industry 2005          Republic                                concerns smaller constructions.
                             (CR)
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech           Structure of industry   In the Czech Republic there is an insufficient quality of work when it
      Industry 2005          Republic                                concerns smaller constructions.
                             (CR)
 1526 The Czech Construction Czech           Labour skills           There is also a decreasing number of craftsmen and a critically low
      Industry 2005          Republic                                amount of apprentices in this country.
                             (CR)
 1528 Economic efficiency of Norway          Efficiency              The most efficient companies had:
      Contractors                                                    High average wage/hour
                                                                     High no. of hours worked per employee
                                                                     Low share of apprentices
                                                                     Low concentration in the product mix (categories)
                                                                     Sales over 100 million NoK
 1528 Economic efficiency of   All countries Efficiency              The most efficient companies had:
      Contractors                                                    High average wage/hour
                                                                     High no. of hours worked per employee
                                                                     Low share of apprentices
                                                                     Low concentration in the product mix (categories)
                                                                     Sales over 100 million NoK
                                                                     Research Team Comment:
                                                                     This may well apply in principle universally
Ref to Title of Literature     Country      Resource                 Extracts from Text/Precis                                            Report
Datab                          discussed    Driver/general issue                                                                         Reference
ase                                         referred to here

 1528 Economic efficiency of   All countries Labour working hours Overtime:
      Contractors                                                 Employees work better under pressure
                                                                  Best workers choose employees for overtime availability
                                                                  Repetition effect is positive
                                                                  Research Team Comment:UK workers do more hours overtime
                                                                  than almost any country but they donot appear to get good results as
                                                                  suggested here.
 1528 Economic efficiency of   Sweden       Training             Sweden has a higher share of apprentices but this also means a lower
      Contractors                                                production rate.
 1528 Economic efficiency of Sweden        Labour productivity   Sweden has a higher share of apprentices but this also means a lower
      Contractors                                                production rate.
      Economic efficiency of Sweden        Labour productivity   The wage cost per hour influences the productivity.
      Contractors                                                Sweden seems more open to overtime, which means more time for
                                                                 repetition of process.
 1528 Economic efficiency of Sweden         Labour working hours Sweden seems more open to overtime, which means more time for
      Contractors                                                repetition of process.
 1529 International          All countries International         Macro-economic studies:
      Comparables –Risk Best               comparisons            - too simple to be an adequate measure
                                                                  - large and complex- unreliable data
                                                                  - too lacking in detail
                                                                  - unsatisfactory measure of efficiency of resource usage
                                                                  - data on quality lacking
                                                                  - capital intensity ignored
                                                                 Big Mac Index not valid for construction
 1529 International          All countries International         Performance measurement:
      Comparables –Risk Best               comparisons           Productivity}
                                                                 Time          } all necessary for
                                                                 Cost         } performance
                                                                 Quality       } measurement
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                               Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1529 International          All countries International                 Material prices:
      Comparables –Risk Best               comparisons                   Labour costs and basic materials are mostly produced locally so little
                                                                         affected by exchange rates
 1531 Basket of Construction All countries International                 Construction purchasing power parity:
     Components (BOCC) (K.                 comparisons                   BOCC more reliable than Construction PPP‟s – especially for
      Walsh and A. Sawhney)                                              developing countries.
                                                                         [Research team note: BOCC seems to have the same problem as
                                                                         CPPP of not differentiating between cultures,
 1574 Construction costs in NL   Netherlands   Efficiency                Dutch very productive and efficient, especially for Housebuilding –
      – Henk Vermande                                                    general view
 1574 Construction costs in NL   All countries International             Eurostat data ;
      – Henk Vermande                          comparisons               cannot be used for comparative purposes
 1574 Construction costs in NL   The           Labour rates of pay and   Dutch have „average‟ labour costs
      – Henk Vermande            Netherlands on-costs
 1574 Construction costs in NL   The           Materials costs           Dutch have cheap materialcosts
      – Henk Vermande            Netherlands
 1653 Innovation in the          All countries Structure of industry     SME‟s need to be involved more in the construction process
      Construction Sector
 1653 (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
      Innovation in the          All countries Labour skills             Investment in skills critical
      Construction Sector
      (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
      Atkin
 1653 Innovation in the          All countries Liability insurance       Barriers persist from design liability issues
      Construction Sector
      (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
      Atkin
 1653 Innovation in the          Spain          RTD                      Dragados
      Construction Sector                                                -substantial RTD investment
      (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
      Atkin
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                               Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                          Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1653 Innovation in the          Spain         Prefabrication         Dragados
      Construction Sector                                             - prefab building systems
      (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
      Atkin
 1653 Innovation in the          All countries Efficiency             Cost of non-quality – 5% - 10% of sector's output.
      Construction Sector
      (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
      Atkin
 1653 Innovation in the          All countries Innovation             „The opposite to innovation is archaism and routine‟
      Construction Sector
      (ECCREDI) 1999 Brian
      Atkin
 1657 Innovation in Design and   All countries Process                Innovation requires close co-operation between design and
      Construction - R.S.                                             construction
      Steedman
 1657 Innovation in Design and   UK            Efficiency             Site productivity in UK seems to be lower than in other EU countries
      Construction - R.S.
      Steedman
      BSRIA Worldwide KPI‟s      Finland       Productivity -         Existing schemes;Finland – tender price data being gathered
1657A and Benchmarking                         measurement
      BSRIA Worldwide KPI‟s      Finland       International          Existing schemes;Finland – tender price data being gathered
1657A and Benchmarking                         comparisons
      BSRIA Worldwide KPI‟s      Denmark       Productivity -         Denmark – Track Reports for companies on state projects over Dkr
1657A and Benchmarking                         measurement            2.5 mill
 1658 Benchmarking UK            All countries Efficiency             Competition and innovation are drivers of productivity in their own
      Productivity Performance                                        right
      (HM Treasury)
Ref to Title of Literature      Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                   Report
Datab                           discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                           referred to here

 1658 Benchmarking UK          All countries Productivity -          Output per worker
      Productivity Performance               measurement             Output per person of working age
      (HM Treasury)                                                  Output per hour
                                                                     Total factor productivity
                                                                     [Research team note: see reservations at Appendix N].
1659                            UK            Labour availability    In the UK there are labour shortages in specialized skilled.


 1711 Scientific benchmarking   All countries Productivity -         National account figures not suitable for productivity studies in
      of building projects                    measurement            construction.
 1711 Scientific benchmarking   All countries Productivity -         Lack of knowledge about how to measure productivity/efficiency and
      of building projects                    measurement            how to identify influencing factors
 1711 Scientific benchmarking   All countries Productivity -         „the productivity number has little interest‟ – performance
      of building projects                    measurement            comparison is the issue
 1711 Scientific benchmarking   All countries Efficiency             „the ability to produce a building with a minimum of resources (with
      of building projects                                           highest possible efficiency) seems to depend on how much time is
                                                                     „leaking out‟ between all specified activities, different professions
                                                                     and/or contracts on the project‟.
 1711 Scientific benchmarking All countries Productivity -           The DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) method – ranks a group of
      of building projects                  measurement              producing units from most efficient to least efficient – highest = 1.0 =
                                                                     best practice.Data must be
                                                                     consistent and of satisfactory quality.
                                                                     Researchers calculated a contractor‟s net costs (but including „second
                                                                     noise‟ subcontractors profits).
                                                                     [Research team note: this is unlikely to be possible/available for
                                                                     general application and would be impossible for our project).
 1711 Scientific benchmarking All countries Productivity -           Statistically seeking explanatory factors correlating with high and
      of building projects                  measurement              low efficiency – a huge numeric operation!
 1725                         All countries Process                  The EU building and construction sector has a major communication
                                                                     problem
                                                                     [Research Team note - this concurs with report 1521 and 1729].
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1725                            All countries Process                 There is a low technical innovation.
 1725                            All countries Efficiency              The selection of components depends a lot on environmental
                                                                       requirements instead of efficiency.
 1725                            All countries Materials               The selection of components depends a lot on environmental
                                                                       requirements instead of efficiency.
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Process                 Low involvement of suppliers/sub-contractors in process – major
      04 - Sweden                                                      barrier to improvement
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Structure of industry   Organisations must be capable of learning – those that cannot learn
      04 - Sweden                                                      cannot innovate
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Process                 There must be „process transparency‟
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Process                 Often in Sweden there are inadequate building designs.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Role of the architect   Often in Sweden there are inadequate building designs.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Process                 There is a low involvement of suppliers and subcontractors.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Process                 No time is taken for reflection.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Materials               Inflexible and in-efficient components and systems.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Prefabrication          Inflexible and in-efficient components and systems.
      04 - Sweden
 1728 Competitive bidding 98-    Sweden        Quality                 Constructions in Sweden seem to suffer from damp problems
      04 - Sweden
 1729 Construction process       All countries Efficiency              „A focus on doing things right rather than doing things better‟
      improvement (B. Atkin et
 1729 al)
      Construction process       All countries Process                 „Change creates uncertainty‟ – „leads parties to reject new thinking
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         and practices‟
 1729 al)
      Construction process       All countries Process                 There is a conflict between flexibility and standardisation in the EU
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         countries.
      al)
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1729 Construction process       All countries Prefabrication          There is a conflict between flexibility and standardisation in the EU
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         countries.
 1729 Construction process       All countries Process                 The EU unfortunately has a non-consistent learning curve.
      improvement (B. Atkin et
 1729 Construction process       All countries Process                 Incentives create an external barrier for partnering.
      improvement (B. Atkin et
 1729 al)
      Construction process       All countries Structure of industry   The majority of EU construction companies act locally due to
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         differences in regulatory requirements and various kinds of trade
      al)                                                              barriers.
                                                                       [Research Team note: an addition to this is cultural differences, as
                                                                       stated in report 60].
 1729 Construction process     All countries   Role of the architect   Communication between parties becomes a problem when it
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         concerns conflicting ideas between architects, engineers and clients.
 1729 al)
      Construction process     All countries   Process                 Communication between parties becomes a problem when it
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         concerns conflicting ideas between architects, engineers and clients.
 1729 al)
      Construction process     All countries   Management              Construction problems within the industry can be avoided but simply
      improvement (B. Atkin et                                         aren‟t for reasons unknown (lack of management skills?).
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Productivity - site     Social housing – terraced houses -20 hours per meter (squared!) -
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                             n.b. - 30% unskilled labour
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Subcontractors          - UK dependence on large sub-contractor firms – a major weakness
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Process                 - the production process has become secondary
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Process                 All main trades present all the time in UK due to sequential working
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                             – NB supervision problems
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Management              All main trades present all the time in UK due to sequential working
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                             – NB supervision problems
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK              Productivity - site     Productivity/input per m2 – Housing
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                             UK (av) 120/150 = 135
                                                                       Germany          = 107
                                                                       Denmark          = 100
Ref to Title of Literature     Country     Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                            Report
Datab                          discussed   Driver/general issue                                                                       Reference
ase                                        referred to here

 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   Denmark     Productivity - site    Productivity/input per m2 – Housing
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                        UK (av) 120/150 = 135
                                                                  Germany           = 107
                                                                  Denmark           = 101
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   Germany     Productivity - site    Productivity/input per m2 – Housing
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                        UK (av) 120/150 = 135
                                                                  Germany           = 107
                                                                  Denmark           = 102
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   Germany     Management             Site management: operatives ratio :
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                        Germany 1 : 25
                                                                  UK 1 : 33
                                                                  [Research Team note- this appears to be inconsistent with earlier
                                                                  reports that UK labour needed more supervision than the other
                                                                  countries; however in this case study the German project was
                                                                  apartments which are more complex to construct than the terraced
                                                                  housing in the UK project.]
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   UK          Management             Site management: operatives ratio :
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                        Germany 1 : 25
                                                                  UK 1 : 33
                                                                  [Research Team note- this appears to be inconsistent with earlier
                                                                  reports that UK labour needed more supervision than the other
                                                                  countries; however in this case study the German project was
                                                                  apartments which are more complex to construct than the terraced
                                                                  housing in the UK project.]
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   Denmark     Process                Abrupt ending to project – all final trades finished together
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.   Denmark     Prefabrication         Extensive use of bathroom pods
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1731 Cost vs Production (L.     UK            Labour skills           Fragmentation of knowledge:
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)                                                  Engineering technology
                                                                            Building technology
                                                                            Production
                                                                            Cost
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.     UK            Subcontractors          extensive sub-contracting:
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.     UK            Process                 Lose control of site production process
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1731 Cost vs Production (L.     UK            Subcontractors          Workforce loses mobility of employment
      Clarke, S. Merrmann)
 1739 Trends and Drivers of      All countries Prefabrication          Scope for mechanisation and automation (and thus capital intensive
      Change (EMCC)                                                    production) is limited.
 1739 Trends and Drivers of      All countries Process                 Scope for mechanisation and automation (and thus capital intensive
      Change (EMCC)                                                    production) is limited.
 1739 Trends and Drivers of      All countries Process                 Sector still very labour intensive.
      Change (EMCC)                                                    [Research Team note: there is a big difference between the
                                                                       traditional cultures and the industrialised ones]
 1744 Mobilizing the skills of   All countries Process                 Use of „open‟ tendering procedures
      specialist firms…4/12/98
 1744 Mobilizing the skills of   All countries Role of the architect   Firms must manage „the strategic intermediary function‟ i.e. relating
      specialist firms…4/12/99                                         their skills to clients‟ needs through a „co-design‟ process
 1744 Mobilizing the skills of   All countries Process                 Firms must manage „the strategic intermediary function‟ i.e. relating
      specialist                                                       their skills to clients‟ needs through a „co-design‟ process
      firms…4/12/100                                                   [Research Team note: compare „Beauteam‟ working]
 1746 Success factors in the     Germany       Construction output     EU enlargement creating an increase in supply, but there is a drop in
      (German) construction                                            demand.
      industry in 2004 (Roland                                         50% drop in orders from 1994 – 2003. Continuing lack of project pre-
      Berger)                                                          qualification increases supply
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                  Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                             Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Labour skills          Innovation and employee development increasingly important
      (German) construction
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Innovation             Innovation and employee development increasingly important
      (German) construction
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Labour skills          Motivation and advanced training – major problem areas for the
      (German) construction                                           future
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Labour skills          Qualified motivated staff – the essential capital of every construction
      (German) construction                                           company.
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Building regulations   Economic policy, legislation and price competition change little
      (German) construction                                           within the industry
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Process                Economic policy, legislation and price competition change little
      (German) construction                                           within the industry
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Macro-economics        Economic policy, legislation and price competition change little
      (German) construction                                           within the industry
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
Ref to Title of Literature       Country       Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                         Report
Datab                            discussed     Driver/general issue                                                       Reference
ase                                            referred to here

 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Process                   Partnerships with customers } also key factors
      (German) construction                                              Lean organizational structure }
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 Success factors in the     All countries Structure of industry     Partnerships with customers } also key factors
      (German) construction                                              Lean organizational structure }
      industry in 2004 (Roland
      Berger)
 1746 European survey of         Belgium       Labour rates of pay and    General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Be - 535 divided by 365 = 1.47
 1746 European survey of         Sweden        Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Swe - 528 “            364 = 1.45
 1746 European survey of         Germany       Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  G - 504 “           402 = 1.25
 1746 European survey of         UK            Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  UK - 465 “            389 = 1.19
 1746 European survey of         Denmark       Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Dk - 461 “ 452 = 1.02
 1746 European survey of         Finland       Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Fr - 459 “ 315 = 1.46
 1746 European survey of         Ireland       Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Ir - 383 “ 299 = 1.28
 1746 European survey of         The           Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs           Netherlands   on-costs                  NL - 347 “ 294 = 1.18
 1746 European survey of         Italy         Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  It - 232 “ 228 = 1.42
 1746 European survey of         Spain         Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                         on-costs                  Sp - 292 “ 206 = 1.42
 1746 European survey of         Czech         Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs           Republic      on-costs                  CR - 95 “ 68 = 1.4
                                 (CR)
Ref to Title of Literature   Country         Resource                  Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                        discussed       Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                          referred to here

 1746 European survey of     Finland         Labour rates of pay and   General level of labour on-costs
      employment costs                       on-costs                  Fi - 262 “ 205 = 1.28
 1753 Leonardo study         Norway          Labour skills             60-90% of all workers are considered to be skilled workers –
                                                                       completed a course of vocational training. (? What is a skilled
                                                                       worker?)
 1753 Leonardo study         Sweden          Labour skills             60-90% of all workers are considered to be skilled workers –
                                                                       completed a course of vocational training. (? What is a skilled
                                                                       worker?)
 1753 Leonardo study         Denmark         Labour skills             60-90% of all workers are considered to be skilled workers –
                                                                       completed a course of vocational training. (? What is a skilled
                                                                       worker?)
 1753 Leonardo study         The             Labour skills             60-90% of all workers are considered to be skilled workers –
                             Netherlands                               completed a course of vocational training. (? What is a skilled
                                                                       worker?)
 1753 Leonardo study         The             Training                  60-90% of all workers are considered to be skilled workers –
                             Netherlands                               completed a course of vocational training. (? What is a skilled
                                                                       worker?)
 1753   Leonardo study       Sweden          Labour skills             Northern European countries meet skills needs more effectively.
 1753   Leonardo study       Denmark         Labour skills             Northern European countries meet skills needs more effectively.
 1753   Leonardo study       Finland         Labour skills             Northern European countries meet skills needs more effectively.
 1753   Leonardo study       Norway          Labour skills             Northern European countries meet skills needs more effectively.
 1753   Leonardo study       All countries   Labour skills                Types of skills required:
                                                                       .     basic technical
                                                                       .     organisation/communication
                                                                       .     complementary technical skills – integration of developments in
                                                                       scope of skills
                                                                       .     compliance
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Labour - migrant            Unregulated migrant labour to cover skilled worker requirements?
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Labour skills               Unregulated migrant labour to cover skilled worker requirements?
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Labour skills               In most countries medium age of workforce is declining. Tech.
                                                                       development results in reconfiguration of trades – not new ones.
Ref to Title of Literature   Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                   Report
Datab                        discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                              Reference
ase                                        referred to here

 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Building regulations   National and EU regulations increasingly restrictive.
                                                                  [Research Team note: no evidence elsewhere to suggest that
                                                                  legislation affects efficiency although it probably does influence cost]
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Labour availability    All countries except Sweden say social status of construction not
                                                                  good.
 1753 Leonardo study         Sweden        Labour availability    All countries except Sweden say social status of construction not
                                                                  good.
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Labour availability    All countries, except Sweden, get workers by default.
 1753 Leonardo study         Sweden        Labour availability    All countries, except Sweden, get workers by default.
 1753 Leonardo study         Denmark       Training               Denmark‟s small firms invest as much in continuing (formal) training
                                                                  as the large ones.
 1753 Leonardo study         The           Training               Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway have largest number of
                             Netherlands                          workers in continuing training schemes.
 1753 Leonardo study         Sweden        Training               Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway have largest number of
                                                                  workers in continuing training schemes.
 1753 Leonardo study         Denmark       Training               Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway have largest number of
                                                                  workers in continuing training schemes.
 1753 Leonardo study         Norway        Training               Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway have largest number of
                                                                  workers in continuing training schemes.
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries International          Future improvement through dissemination and transfer of important
                                           comparisons            practices, cross-border co-operation – better mutual knowledge and
                                                                  joint action.
 1753 Leonardo study         All countries Efficiency             Future improvement through dissemination and transfer of important
                                                                  practices, cross-border co-operation – better mutual knowledge and
                                                                  joint action.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2000    Italy         Materials              ) Specification practice descriptive not prescriptive. New
                                                                  arrangements for accreditation.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2000    Italy         Process                  Less adversarial than in UK – mutual respect. and pride in quality of
                                                                  end result.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2000    Italy         Quality                  Less adversarial than in UK – mutual respect. and pride in quality of
                                                                  end result.
Ref to Title of Literature      Country       Resource                Extracts from Text/Precis                                                Report
Datab                           discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                           referred to here

 1756 Spons Handbook 2000       Italy         Labour skills           Mainly directly employed craftsmen – only specialist trades sub-
                                                                      contracted.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2000       Italy         Subcontractors          Mainly directly employed craftsmen – only specialist trades sub-
                                                                      contracted.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2000       Italy         Structure of industry   Mainly directly employed craftsmen – only specialist trades sub-
                                                                      contracted.
 1756   Spons Handbook 2000     Spain         Subcontractors          Sub-contracting is increasing.
 1756   Spons Handbook 2000     Spain         Process                 Main contractors powerful.
 1756   Spons Handbook 2001     Spain         Liability insurance     Contractors do not carry decennial insurance cover
 1756   Spons Handbook 2002     Spain         Liability insurance     Architect liable for whole design – carry insurance – contractors do
                                                                      not.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2003       Spain         Role of the architect   Architect liable for whole design – carry insurance – contractors do
                                                                      not.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2004       Spain         Building regulations    No legal requirement to use approved products.
 1756 Spons Handbook 2005       Spain         Materials               No legal requirement to use approved products.
                                                                      [Research Team note: Spanish materials are comparatively cheap
                                                                      and the Total Project Labour Index developed in the Report takes this
                                                                      into account in much the same way as Construction Purchasing
                                                                      Power Parity.
 1759 An Investigation into the All countries International           An attempt to benchmark the performance of construction projects in
      Construction                            comparisons             a range of countries. Construction often accounts for a significant
      Performance of High-                                            proportion of a country‟s Gross Domestic Product. Therefore, this
      Rise Commercial Office                                          type of research is of paramount performance to all the
      Buildings Based on                                              stakeholders within and allied to the construction industry, and
      Productivity and                                                to society itself.
      Resource Consumption
Ref to Title of Literature    Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                         discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                         referred to here

 1759 An Investigation into the All countries Macro-economics      The effect on building costs of international cost comparisons and
      Construction                                                 purchasing power parity has highlighted the general issues involved.
      Performance of High-                                         When applied to a specific industry and product, these problems are
      Rise Commercial Office                                       compounded. The scope for egregious errors in the analysis and
      Buildings Based on                                           method of comparison is great, and many assumptions must be
      Productivity and                                             made for the comparisons to be useful.
      Resource Consumption
 1759 An Investigation into the All countries International        Significant controversy exists about the correct approach to be used
      Construction                            comparisons          when undertaking international cost comparisons. Base currency
      Performance of High-                                         adjustments are common but generally regarded as inferior to PPPs.
      Rise Commercial Office
      Buildings Based on
      Productivity and
      Resource Consumption
 1759 An Investigation into the All countries International        The performance of projects is advanced as a function of issues of
      Construction                            comparisons          productivity (m2/month) and resource consumption (cost/m2).
      Performance of High-                                         Productivity measurement as defined here has nothing to do with
      Rise Commercial Office                                       international cost adjustment indices. High performance is defined
      Buildings Based on                                           as maximum productivity and minimum resource consumption.
      Productivity and                                             Activity (which is defined as cost/month) can be used as a check on
      Resource Consumption                                         the reasons for productivity differences, such as the effect caused by
                                                                   more workers on site or 24-hour construction cycles. This approach
                                                                   to benchmarking international construction performance is unique.
Ref to Title of Literature      Country       Resource               Extracts from Text/Precis                                                 Report
Datab                           discussed     Driver/general issue                                                                            Reference
ase                                           referred to here

 1759 An Investigation into the All countries Productivity -         The performance of projects is advanced as a function of issues of
      Construction                            measurement            productivity (m2/month) and resource consumption (cost/m2).
      Performance of High-                                           Productivity measurement as defined here has nothing to do with
      Rise Commercial Office                                         international cost adjustment indices. High performance is defined
      Buildings Based on                                             as maximum productivity and minimum resource consumption.
      Productivity and                                               Activity (which is defined as cost/month) can be used as a check on
      Resource Consumption                                           the reasons for productivity differences, such as the effect caused by
                                                                     more workers on site or 24-hour construction cycles. This approach
                                                                     to benchmarking international construction performance is unique.
 1759 An Investigation into the UK            Efficiency             From the data, it would appear that projects in UK and Japan are
      Construction                                                   procured less efficiently than those in China, Malaysia and the
      Performance of High-                                           Philippines.From this model it was determined that China, Malaysia
      Rise Commercial Office                                         and the Philippines demonstrated projects of high performance, while
      Buildings Based on                                             Australia, Singapore and Hong Kong were mid range and Japan and
      Productivity and                                               the United Kingdom were relatively poor performers.
      Resource Consumption

				
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