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Human Joints and Muscle Model Worksheet by rje92609

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Human Joints and Muscle Model Worksheet document sample

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									                          Table of Contents
Content                                       Page

Unit Plan, Part I                             3

Central Question and It’s Importance          4

Description of Solution                       4

Potential Student Problems                    4

Text Analysis                                 5

Topic and Passage Critique                    6

Unit Plan, Part II                            8

Objectives                                    9

Wisconsin Academic Standards Addressed        10

Introduction to Bones Lesson Plan             11
      Unit Overview                           14
      Required Bones Handout                  15

Bone Growth & Repair Lesson Plan              16
      Overhead on Bone Growth                 19

Skeleton Lesson Plan                          20

Palpating Lab & Lesson Plan                   22

Joints Lesson Plan                            24
       Joint Overhead                         26
       Quiz on Bones                          27
       Joints Handout                         28
       Actions & Joints Handout               29

All About Muscles Lesson Plan                 30
      Internal Structure Handout              31
      Actin and Myosin Handout                32
      Required Muscles Handout                33

Muscle Contractions Lesson Plan               34
       Muscle Contraction Overhead          35

Musculature of the Upper Body Lesson Plan   38

Musculature of the Lower Body Lesson Plan   39

Bodily Movements Lesson Plan                40

Bodily Actions Lab & Lesson Plan            41
       Quiz on Muscles                      43

Unit Plan, Part III                         44

Unit Exam                                   45

Unit Exam Key                               48

Objectives                                  51

Alternative Assessments                     53




                                      2
Unit Plan

 Part I




    3
Central Question: How does the human body move?

Why is this important?

       This is important because as human beings we need to understand how our bodies

work, and develop an appreciation for the complexity of our bodies. We also need to

take care of our bodies, so we need to be knowledgeable of how our bodies work. We

need to have knowledge of how our muscles and bones work together to perform bodily

movements so we can prevent misuse of our bodies.



Description of solution:

       Throughout the unit, we are going to work on terminology so the students will be

able to accurately pronounce and spell the terminology used. We are also going to go

over the make up, structure, function, and types of bones, joints, and muscles. To

develop a better understanding of the unit, I will be exposing the students to much of the

material by using their own bodies to learn from and relate material to. The whole focus

of this unit is for the students to be able to look at or perform a movement and identify

the motions, muscles, and bones involved.



Potential student problems:

       One of the major problems that students will have will be pronouncing the names

of the muscles of the body. During my practicum hours, I asked the biology teacher and

he said that in his experiences students found it difficult to learn the material because of

the large amount of new vocabulary involved and not being able to fluently discuss the

material. I found that in my classes here at Stevens Point, spelling is one of my most




                                              4
difficult areas especially in science classes where much of the vocabulary is rooted from

other languages. I also think spelling is a big problem because most of the vocabulary is

very isolated, not only to science but also to specific topics. I see memorization as

possibly the biggest problem because I feel it’s a prerequisite for the entire unit.

According to most students, the practicality of memorizing vocabulary for a two to three

week unit is often in question, however without knowing the basic components how can

one possibly learn their applications. A specific problem that I think students will have

with this unit is understanding how a muscle actually contracts. Even with the best

diagrams, I feel it is difficult to correlate actin and myosin filaments to the bicep brachii.

As a result of this, finding the best way to teach this is crucial.



Text analysis:

Text bibliography:

        Modern Biology. Holt, Reinhart, and Winston.  2002.

        10801 N. Mopac Expressway, Austin, Texas 78759. Pages 909-921, 930-936.



Distinguishing of key terms:

        Science facts are proven to be true in all known cases without exceptions, whereas

science generalizations are true most of the time, but there can be exceptions to that rule.

An example of a scientific fact is “The knee is a moveable joint formed by the ends of the

femur and the fibula” (p. 914). An example of a scientific generalization is “Despite their

number and size, bones make up less than 20 percent of the body’s mass” (p. 910).




                                               5
       A concept is an idea that is still taking shape and being formed, and constantly

being proved or disproved based on current findings. Laws are considered true across

time and in varying circumstances. A theory is a concept that has scientific support, but

hasn’t been proven true to the point of being a law. An example of a theory is “The first

life-form probably arose on Earth more than 3.5 billion years ago” (p. 5). An example of

a concept includes “Scientists estimate that 40 million species of organisms inhibit the

Earth, but of these 40 million species, only about 2 million have been identified and

named and only a few thousand have been studied in any detail” (p. 5). An example of a

law is “A process by which water molecules diffuse across a cell membrane from an area

of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is called osmosis” (p. 96).

       An empirical entity is something that can be observed, studied, measured, or

experimented on, while a theoretical entity is based on previous facts and knowledge but

cannot be proven without a doubt. An example of an empirical entity is the human body.

There are no examples of theoretical entities that I have found.



Lab question: How do compact bones and spongy bones differ in structure and

function?



Topic and passage critique:

       I like the organization of the book, for example, to start each section there are

very clear objectives listed which help to plan your lessons and outcomes. I feel that the

book has tremendous pictures, breaking down a structure into its component and internal

parts, such as the internal structure of a bone and a muscle. The chapter also has a small




                                             6
section called eco connection which discusses environmental connections to the material

in the chapter. The eco connection in this chapter is on lead in your bones. These

connections allow the opportunity to integrate environmental education into your

curriculum very easily. Another thing that is very nice about the book is that it has

Internet connections listed throughout the chapters where you can go to find additional

information and activities for your students. One topic that allows you the opportunity to

connect what the students are learning directly to another class or extra-curricular

activities would be the section on oxygen debt and muscle fatigue. The addition of this

information not only gives you the opportunity to point out the relevance of the material

that the students are learning, but also an opportunity to do a lab, perhaps with a physical

education class. The one thing that I don’t like about the section I chose is the lack of

more complete lists of bones and muscles. I feel that even if you’re not going to cover

every bone or muscle, you should at least have that information available to the students

because it gives a false representation of the actual number of bones and muscles that

make up their bodies.


Using the text as a resource:

         I am a firm believer that the text should be used as a supplementary material in
teaching. Following that line of thought, I would begin the unit by previewing the
material that we will be covering over the next few weeks. Particularly, pointing out the
objectives listed in the textbook that I want them to be working towards, and also the
supplementary pictures and diagrams that they should turn to to better understand a topic
more completely. I also think in this day and age that incorporating computer literacy
skills into learning is crucial by spending at least one day in the computer lab going to
various links provided in the textbook. I hope to provide opportunities to further their
interest and knowledge of the material that we have previously discussed in class.




                                              7
Unit Plan

 Part II




    8
                                 Objectives
1. Students will be able to label the structures of a typical bone on a cross-sectional
    diagram. (lower cognitive level)
2. Students will be able to identify the functions of the internal and external
    structures of a bone. (lower cognitive level)
3. Students will demonstrate respect towards the bones used in class.
4. Students will be able to identify the type of fracture based on specific
    circumstances of a situation. (lower cognitive level)
5. Students will be able to discuss the principles of bone growth/repair. (lower
    cognitive level)
6. Students will demonstrate cooperation and teamwork skills.
7. Students will be able to identify the five groupings of bones that comprise the
    axial skeleton. (lower cognitive level)
8. Students will be able to identify the nine bones that comprise the appendicular
    skeleton. (lower cognitive level)
9. Students will be able to classify the eight major bones of the appendicular
    skeleton as right or left. (lower cognitive level)
10. Students will be able to identify the nine bones that comprise the appendicular
    skeleton. (lower cognitive level)
11. Students will demonstrate respectful and safe behavior toward their lab partner.
12. Students will be able to identify the six types of joints. (lower cognitive level)
13. Students will be able to indicate the bones that make up specific joints in the
    body. (lower cognitive level)
14. Students will be able to diagram the internal components of a muscle. (lower
    cognitive level)
15. Students will be able to compare and contrast the three types of muscles. (higher
    cognitive level)
16. Students will be able to sequence the physiology behind a muscle contraction.
   (lower cognitive level)
17. Students will be able to compare and contrast the various types of contractions
    discussed in class. (higher cognitive level)
18. Students will be able to label major muscles, covered in class, on a diagram.
    (lower cognitive level)
19. Students will be able to identify attachments of major muscles covered in class.
    (lower cognitive level)
20. Students will be able to identify the muscles that produce given actions at specific
    joints of the body. (higher cognitive level)
21. Students will be able to label major muscles, covered in class, on a diagram.
    (lower cognitive level)
22. Students will be able to identify the joints that are involved in a movement.
    (lower cognitive level)
23. Students will be able to identify the muscles that are involved in a movement.
    (lower cognitive level)




                                         9
              Wisconsin Model Academic Standards
                   Covered in These Lessons

SCIENCE STANDARDS:
F.12.1 Evaluate the normal structures and the general and special functions of cells in
single-celled and multiple-celled organisms.

C.12.6 Present the results of investigations to groups concerned with the issues
explaining the meaning and implications of the results and answering questions in terms
the audience can understand.

A.12.3 Give examples that show how partial systems, models, and explanations are used
to give quick and reasonable solutions that are accurate enough for basic needs.

A.12.5 Show how the ideas and themes of science can be used to make real-life
decisions about careers, workplaces, life-styles, and use of resources.

A.12.6 Identify and, using evidence learned or discovered, replace inaccurate personal
models and explanations of science-related events.

H.12.6 Evaluate data and sources of information when using scientific information to
make decisions

H.12.7 When making decisions, construct a plan that includes the use of current scientific
knowledge and scientific reasoning




                                            10
                   Bone Introduction Lesson Plan
Objectives:

   1. Students will be able to label the structures of a typical bone on a cross-sectional
      diagram. (lower cognitive level)
   2. Students will be able to identify the functions of the internal and external
      structures of a bone. (lower cognitive level)
   3. Students will demonstrate respect towards the bones used in class. (Affective)

Materials:

      Copies of unit overview
      Copies of required bones handout
      Human skeleton model
      Various animal bones and human bone replicas

Procedures:

   1. Introduction to Unit on How the Human Body Moves
       I will have this interactive website http://www.innerbody.com/text/skelov.html,
   running and show different things as I introduce the next unit. I will also refer to the
   full size skeleton model during the introduction.
       The average human adult skeleton has 206 bones joined to ligaments and tendons
   to form a protective and supportive framework for the attached muscles and the soft
   tissues, which underlie it. The skeleton has two main parts: the axial skeleton and the
   appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, the spine, the ribs and
   the sternum (breastbone) and includes 80 bones. The appendicular skeleton includes
   two limb girdles (the shoulders and pelvis) and their attached limb bones. This part of
   the skeletal system contains 126 bones, 64 in the shoulders and upper limbs and 62 in
   the pelvis and lower limbs.
        There are only minor differences between the skeletons of the male and the
   female: the men's bones tend to be larger and heavier than corresponding women's
   bones and the women's pelvic cavity is wider to accommodate childbirth. The
   skeleton plays an important part in movement by providing a series of independently
   movable levers, which the muscles can pull to move different parts of the body. It
   also supports and protects the internal body organs.
       The skeleton is not just a movable frame, however; it is an efficient factory, which
   produces red blood cells from the bone marrow of certain bones and white cells from
   the marrow of other bones to destroy harmful bacteria. The bones are also a
   storehouse for minerals - calcium, for example - which can be supplied to other parts
   of the body.
       Babies are born with 270 soft bones - about 64 more than an adult; and many of
   these will fuse together by the age of twenty or twenty-five into the 206 hard,
   permanent bones.
       Thighbones are usually stronger, pound for pound, than reinforced concrete!


                                            11
2. Lecture on the structure of bones
    I will have the class move to the lab tables where I have placed various animal
and human bones for them to examine and pass around. As I lecture, students will be
taking notes on the structures of bones and look at the diagrams in their books.
    A living bone consists of three layers: the periosteum, or outside skin of the bone;
the hard compact bone, and the bone marrow. I will have the students look at page
910 to see the internal structures of bones. If we were to cut a living bone in half, we
would see that it contains various layers. First is a layer of thin, whitish skin, which is
packed with nerves and blood vessels and supplies the cells of which the hard bone
below is built. This outer layer of the bones is known as the periosteum. The inner
layer of the periosteum forms new bone or modifies existing bone to meet new
conditions. It is rich in nerve endings and blood and lymphatic vessels. When
fractures occur, the pain is carried to the brain by nerves running through the
periosteum.
    Next is a dense, rigid bone called compact bone. It is shaped like a cylinder and is
so hard that surgeons must use a saw to cut through it. It is honeycombed with
thousands of tiny holes and passageways, through which run nerves and blood vessels
that supply oxygen and nutrients to the bone. This dense layer supports the weight of
the body and is made up of mostly calcium and minerals, so that it feels no pain. The
"skin," however, is very sensitive, so that when a bone is broken, injured nerve fibers
run through the compact bone and send messages, which relay the pain signals to the
brain. Compact bone has a series of Haversian canals around which concentric layers
of bone cells (osteocytes) and minerals occur. New bone is formed by the osteocytes.
The Haversian canals form a network of blood vessels and nerves that nourish and
monitor the osteocytes. I will refer the students to page 911 to look at a diagram of
the Haversian canals.
    If we cut though the compact bone, we find that its cylinder surrounds and
protects the spongy bone marrow, which contains a material much like gelatin.
Spongy bone occurs at the ends of long bones and is less dense than compact bone.
The spongy bone of the femur, humerus, and sternum contains red marrow, in which
stem cells reproduce and produces red blood cells (which carry oxygen), white blood
cells (which fight infection), or platelets (that help stop bleeding). Yellow marrow, at
the center of these bones, is used to store fats.

3. Hand out copies of unit outlines and bones they need to know

4. Closure and Preview
    I will review the unit overview, pointing out specific assignment due dates, and
general student expectations. I will state that the bones handout includes all the bones
that they will need to know for Friday’s quiz and for the unit exam. I will ask
questions about how much of a background they have on the human skeleton, and ask
questions using the model of the human skeleton and the website
(http://www.innerbody.com/text/skelov.html) to get an idea of how much background
knowledge the students have.



                                          12
      Finally, I will let the students know that tomorrow we will be discussing how
   bones grow and repair themselves, and the types of fractures that can occur. I will let
   them know that they will be doing some group teaching and demonstrations.

Assignment Read pages 909-911.

Informal:
    1. Ask if they are following the materials, or if I should go over anything again
    2. Check prior knowledge of names of bones
    3. Look for misconceptions

Extension:
       1. Have students search the Internet for additional resources and information,
              websites are listed in their textbooks.




                                            13
         Unit Overview of: How the Human Body Moves


Monday             Unit introduction and basic structures of bones

Tuesday            Bone growth, repair, and identifying types of fractures

Wednesday          The human skeleton, fracture DRAWING due

Thursday           Palpating lab and bone identification, skeleton DRAWING due

Friday             LAB due, QUIZ on bone structures, fractures, and the skeleton
                   Lesson on Joints



Monday             Internal makeup of muscles

Tuesday            Muscle contractions,

Wednesday          Muscles of the upper body, muscle contraction WRITE-UP due

Thursday           Muscles of the lower body

Friday             Actions that muscles produce and QUIZ on muscles



Monday             Lab with Physical Education class on analyzing movements

Tuesday            LAB due, QUESTION for exam review due

Wednesday          EXAM




                                          14
                                  Bones to Know


Axial Skeleton

Skull – temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital, mandible
Cervical vertebrae - 7
Thoracic vertebrae - 12
Lumbar vertebrae - 5
Sacrum
Pelvic girdle – ilium, ischium, pubis
Ribs
Sternum



Appendicular Skeleton

Scapula
Clavicle
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges
Tarsals
Metatarsals
Femur
Patella
Tibia
Fibula




                                             15
                 Bone Growth & Repair Lesson Plan
Objectives:

   1. Students will be able to identify the type of fracture based on specific
      circumstances of a situation. (lower cognitive level)
   2. Students will be able to discuss the principles of bone growth/repair. (lower
      cognitive level)
   3. Students will demonstrate cooperation and teamwork skills. (Affective)

Materials:

      Human skeleton model
      Various animal bones and human bone replicas
      Copies of instructions for group teaching
      Copies of bone fractures handout
      Scrap material from the woodworking department: ½ inch wooden dowels, 1 x 1
             inch wooden blocks of various hardness, 1 x 1 x 24 in stripes of a
             softwood variety.
      Equipment from the school shop class: 4 vice grips, 4 C-clamps, 2 large
             hammers, 1 large maul
      Safety classes
      8 x 11 white paper

Procedures:

   1. Mini-Lecture on Bone Growth and Repair
               I will lecture to the class on the principles and mechanisms of bone growth
      and repair. I will refer to the overhead on “Growth of Long Bones.” The
      Students will be expected to take notes on the information.
               Endochondral ossification is the process of converting the cartilage in
      embryonic skeletons into bone. Cartilage is deposited early in development into
      shapes resembling the bones to be. Cells inside this cartilage grow and begin
      depositing minerals.
               The spongy bone forms, and osteoblasts attach and lay down the mineral
      portions of spongy bone. Osteoclasts remove material from the center of the bone,
      forming the central cavity of the long bones. The perichondrium, a connective
      tissue, forms around the cartilage and begins forming compact bone while the
      above changes are occurring. Blood vessels form and grow into the
      perichondrium, transporting stem cells into the interior. Two bands of cartilage
      remain as the bone develops, one at each end of the bone.
               During childhood, this cartilage allows for growth and changes in the
      shape of bones. Eventually the elongation of the bones stops and the cartilage is
      all converted into bone. Bones continue to change as adults, to adapt to the
      stresses generated by physical activity. Exercise can increase the diameter and
      strength of bone; inactivity can decrease them. Age is a factor: osteoporosis is a


                                           16
   disease that primarily affects older, postmenopausal women. Increasing calcium
   intake, reducing protein intake, exercise and low doses of estrogen are effective
   treatments for osteoporosis.

2. Lecture on Skeletal Disorders
           Injury, degenerative wear and tear, and inflammatory disorders affect
   joints. Sprains are common injuries that cause ligaments to rip of separate from
   the bone. Tendonitis (such as tennis elbow) and bursitis are inflammations of the
   tendon sheaths.
           Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition associated with the wearing
   away of the protective caps of cartilage covering the bone-ends. Bony growths or
   spurs develop as the cartilage degenerates, causing restriction of movement and
   pain. The cause is not known and may just be wear-and-tear associated with
   aging.
           Rheumatoid Arthritis is a severely damaging arthritis that begins with
   inflammation and thickening of the synovial membrane followed by bone
   degeneration and disfigurement. More women than men are affected. There may
   be a genetic predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis. Joint replacement may in some
   cases restore function.

3. Group Research on a Specific Type of Fracture
           I will have already divided the class up into groups of three, and will read
   off those groups and assign them a computer to use as a resource. I will instruct
   the groups that they are to find information on the type of fracture that I assigned
   their group, especially the forces that would cause that type of fracture. I will
   suggest this website as a reference, http://www.innerbody.com/image/skel06.html. I
   will ask the students if they have any questions before they move to the computers
   and to the lab tables. I will look for puzzled looks on students’ faces, and for
   other nonverbal clues that may suggest that they are not clear about something.

4. Group Teaching and Demonstration of Their Fracture
           The groups will have to provide a brief definition of their fracture as well
   as provide a demonstration of a force that could cause the fracture using the
   materials that I have provided. The groups will also have to provide a quick
   sketch of the fracture on the board, and list the forces that typically cause that
   fracture. The rest of the class will be expected to take notes on the presentations
   and copy the sketches on the board. I will as the class to give examples of these
   forces in everyday life in which could cause the fracture being presented.

5. Assignment on Types of Fractures
           I will write the instructions of the board as I say them to the class. On two
   8 x 11 pieces of white paper that I will provide, they are to draw each of the types
   of fractures and label them. They are also to include typical forces that could
   cause each fracture, as well as one example of an everyday activity where the
   forces are occurring. Completeness and neatness will be taken into consideration,
   the assignment will be worth 25 points.



                                         17
   Formal Assessment: 25 points total
   8 points        1 point for each fracture drawing
   8 points        1 point for the forces
   4 points        ½ point for each example
   5 points        neatness ( - erase marks, - wrinkled paper, + word processed, + color
                   added)

6. Closure and Preview
            I will have the class dispose of the broken and unused materials used in
   class, and put away all of the tools used in class. I will ask if they enjoyed the
   activity and if it was a beneficial way to cover materials. I will ask the class if
   there are any questions about materials covered in class, or about the assignment.
   I will inform the class that we have covered basic information about bones,
   processed that occur inside bones, and types of fractures. I will tell the class that
   tomorrow we will be starting to go over the skeleton and the bones that they will
   have to know for the quiz and for the exam. I will remind them one last time
   about the assignment, and that it is due at the beginning of class tomorrow.

   Assignment Read page 912

   Informal:
          1. Ask if they are following the materials, or if I should go over it again
          2. Check prior knowledge of names of bones

   Extension:
          1. Have students search the Internet for additional resources and
                 information, websites are listed in their textbooks.




                                            18
19
                            Skeleton Lesson Plan
Objectives:

   1. Students will be able to identify the five groupings of bones that comprise the
      axial skeleton. (lower cognitive level)
   2. Students will be able to identify the nine bones that comprise the appendicular
      skeleton. (lower cognitive level)
   3. Students will demonstrate respect towards the bones used in class. (Affective)

Materials:

      Human skeleton model
      Various animal bones and human bone replicas
      8 x 11 white paper
      Extra Handouts of the bones that they need to know

Procedures:

   1. Collect assignment

   2. Lecture on bones that make up the skeleton
               I will begin by reminding the students about the handout I provided on
      Monday, which lists all of the bones that they need to know, but there will be
      other general questions about the skeleton that they will need to know. During
      my lecture I will refer to the model skeleton and to individual bones.
                The axial skeleton consists of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage.
      The appendicular skeleton contains the bones of the appendages (limbs, wings, or
      flippers/fins), and the pectoral and pelvic girdles.
               The human skull, or cranium, has a number of individual bones tightly
      fitted together at immovable joints. At birth many of these joints are not
      completely sutured together as bone, leading to a number of "soft spots" or
      fontanels, which do not completely join until the age of 14-18 months.
               The vertebral column has 33 individual vertebrae separated from each
      other by a cartilage disk. These disks allow certain flexibility to the spinal
      column. The sternum is connected to all the ribs except the lower pair. Cartilage
      allows for the flexibility of the rib cage during breathing.
               The arms and legs are part of the appendicular skeleton. The upper bones
      of the limbs are single: humerus (arm) and femur (leg). Below a joint (elbow or
      knee), both limbs have a pair of bones (radius and ulna in the arms; tibia and
      fibula in legs) that connect to another joint (wrist or ankle). The carpals makeup
      the wrist joint; the tarsals are in the ankle joint. Each hand or foot ends in 5 digits
      (fingers or toes) composed of metacarpals (hands) or metatarsals (feet) and
      phalanges.


                                             20
           Limbs are connected to the rest of the skeleton by collections of bones
   known as girdles. The pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle (collar bone) and
   scapula (shoulder blade). The humerus is joined to the pectoral girdle at a joint
   and is held in place by muscles and ligaments. A dislocated shoulder occurs when
   the end of the humerus slips out of the socket of the scapula, stretching ligaments
   and muscles. The pelvic girdle consists of two hipbones that form a hollow cavity,
   the pelvis. The vertebral column attaches to the top of the pelvis; the femur of
   each leg attaches to the bottom. The pelvic girdle in land animals transfers the
   weight of the body to the legs and feet.

3. Show the website and how to use to study or learn more about the skeleton
           http://www.innerbody.com/image/skelfov.html
           I will have this website up and ready before class starts. After I have
   lectured on the skeleton, I will show it to the students and have an informal quiz
   with the class. I will point to a bone that they will be expected to know and ask
   for a show of hands of the people that know the name of the bone. This will help
   me get an idea of how quickly people are grasping the material, and how much
   the students are studying outside of class. I will remind the students of the quiz
   on Friday, and that this site is a great way to study this part of the material.

4. Assignment on drawing the skeleton
           I will hand out paper to everyone and explain the assignment for
   tomorrow. The students will have to draw (not trace) the human skeleton and
   include all of the bones listed on the handout from Monday. They will also have
   to label each of the bones. The drawing will be due tomorrow at the beginning of
   class.

   Formal Assessment: 30 points
   28 points    one per bone (½ spelling, ½ labeled appropriately)
   2 points     neatness (1 erase marks, 1 wrinkled paper)

5. Closure and Preview
          Remind the students that there will be a quiz on this material on Friday
   and that the sooner they know the names of the bones, the easier the rest of the
   material will be. Tomorrow we will relate the bones that we learned to day to our
   own bodies. We will also be learning how to identify bones by specific features
   they have.




                                       21
                    Palpating Lab & Lesson Plan
Objectives:

   1. Students will be able to classify the eight major bones of the appendicular
      skeleton as right or left. (lower cognitive level)
   2. Students will be able to identify the nine bones that comprise the appendicular
      skeleton. (lower cognitive level)
   3. Students will demonstrate respectful and safe behavior toward their lab partner.
      (Affective)

Materials:

      Human skeleton model
      Various animal bones and human bone replicas
      Copies of lab sheets
      Copies of identification of bones handout

Procedures:

   1. Collect assignment

   2. Handout Lab Sheets on Palpating

   3. Mini-Lecture on Lab Procedures and Proper Behavior
                  A) Cover how to tips
                  B) Go over what to do
                  C) List questions on the board for each group to do
                  D) Divide class into groups of three
                  E) Students follow lab and answer questions

   4. Handout Bone Identification Worksheet

   5. Mini-lab on Identifying Bones by specific features
                   A) I will have 10 bones predetermined and at lab stations
                   B) In pairs, students will rotate around lab tables
                   C) They must use the worksheet to identify the bone and if it is the
                      right or the left, and why.
                   D) I will collect lab sheets at the end of the hour

   Formal Assessment       10 points
   10 points if all completed
   10 bonus points if correct answers and why

   6. Closure and Preview



                                          22
          While I collect the lab sheets, I will ask the class if the two mini-labs they did
   were too easy, just right, or too difficult. I will also remind the students that we will
   be having a quiz tomorrow at the beginning of class and it will be on bone structure,
   types of fractures, and specific bones of the human body. After the quiz, we will be
   covering types of joints and specific movements that occur at those joints.

Informal:
    1. Ask if they are following the lab sheets, or if I should go over it in more detail
    2. Look for inappropriate behavior toward partners or bones




                                             23
                              Joints Lesson Plan
Objectives:

   1. Students will be able to identify the six types of joints. (lower cognitive level)
   2. Students will be able to indicate the bones that make up specific joints in the
      body. (lower cognitive level)
   3. Students will demonstrate respect towards the bones used in class. (Affective)

Materials:

      Human skeleton model
      Human bone replicas
      Copies of handout on types of joints
      Copies of handout on specific joints to know

Procedures:

   1. Quiz on bone structure, bones of the human skeleton, and fractures: 20 points

   2. Lecture on Joints
               After the quiz, I will lecture on the three types of joints: immovable, partly
      movable, and synovial. The students will be expected to take brief notes,
      concentrating on large ideas and concepts. As I lecture, I will refer to the model
      of the skeleton as well as individual bones to illustrate concepts. Immovable
      joints, like those connecting the cranial bones, have edges that tightly interlock.
      Partly movable joints allow some degree of flexibility and usually have cartilage
      between the bones; example: vertebrae. Synovial joints permit the greatest degree
      of flexibility and have the ends of bones covered with a connective tissue filled
      with synovial fluid; example: hip.
               The outer surface of the synovial joints contains ligaments that strengthen
      joints and hold bones in position. The inner surface (the synovial membrane) has
      cells producing synovial fluid that lubricates the joint and prevents the two
      cartilage caps on the bones from rubbing together. Some joints also have tendons
      (connective tissue linking muscles to bones). A bursa is a small sac filled with
      synovial fluid that reduces friction in the joint. The knee joint contains 13 bursa.
               Next, I will hand out worksheets on the six types of joints and have
      students fill out as I lecture and as we discuss. I will use the ELMO to show the
      pictures of the six types of synovial joints in the human body as I lecture on each
      type and example of each.

   3. Handout and Lecture on Specific Joints
               I will hand out the sheet to the students and go over it with them. I will
      stress to the students that they should add their own notes to the sheet as we
      discuss and demonstrate each joint in class. I will ask for students to come up in
      front of the class and demonstrate the movements that take place at each joint on


                                            24
   the sheet. I will as questions dealing with what bones make up each joint, and
   what activities involve those joints and actions. I will tell the class that they do
   not have to memorize the actions of each joint, but they should be able to tell me
   what bones make up each joint.

4. Closure and Preview
           In closing, I will review important topics that we have covered this week
   that they might see on a unit exam. These would include basic bone structures,
   types of fractures, specific bones of the body as well as specific joints and the
   bones that comprise them. I will also preview next week by saying that we will
   be learning about types and the structure muscles, how muscles contract, specific
   muscles and what bones they attach to, as well as what joints that move.

   Assignment Read pages 913 and 914




                                        25
26
                               Quiz on Bones

1.   Name 3 bones that for the skull. (3pts)



2.   Name 2 bones that for the pelvic girdle. (2pts)



3.   Name the 3 bones that make up the arm. (3pts)



4.   Name 2 bones that make up the leg. (2pts)



5.   How do compact bone and spongy bone differ in structure and function? (2pts)




6.   What is one advantage of a cartilaginous skeleton? (1pts)



7.   What is the outer most layer of a bone? (1pts)


8.   Name three types of fractures and describe a force that could cause each. (6pts)




                                         27
Synovial Joints

Types:

Plane/ Gliding –

          Examples of:




Hinge –

          Examples of:




Pivot –
          Examples of:




Ellipsoid –

          Examples of:




Saddle –

          Examples of:




Ball and Socket –

          Examples of:




                         28
    Joints, the Bones that make them up, Motions that occur




Knee – femur and tibia – extension and flexion




Hip – femur and pelvic girdle – extension and flexion, abduction and adduction




Elbow – humerus and ulna – extension and flexion




Wrist – radius, ulna, carpals – extension and flexion, deviation




Ankle – tibia, fibula, tarsals – extension and flexion, inversion and eversion




Scapularthoracic – scapula and rib cage – elevation and retraction




Glenohumeral – humerus and scapula – extension and flexion, abduction and adduction,
               horizontal abduction and adduction,




                                             29
                     All About Muscles Lesson Plan
Objectives:

   1. Students will be able to diagram the internal components of a muscle. (lower
      cognitive level)
   2. Students will be able to compare and contrast the three types of muscles. (higher
      cognitive level)

Materials:

      Copies of handouts on internal structure of muscles
      Copies of handouts of muscles to know

Procedures:

             1. Lecture on the three types of muscles
                o Cardiac Muscle, Smooth Muscle, Skeletal Muscle

             2. Show Overheads on ELMO
                o On the three types

             3. Make a chart on the board of characteristics of each

             4. Hand out copies of Skeletal Muscle Structure handouts

             5. Lecture on muscle structure
                o Refer to handouts
                o Ask for student questions/ ask questions to students

             6. Closure and Preview
                o Lead class discussion of similarities and differences between the three
                   types of muscles
                o Tell students that they should review the internal structures of muscles
                   because tomorrow we will refer to those structures when we find out
                   how contractions occur.

                Assignment Read pages 915-917

                Informal Assessment:
                1. Ask students if they understand and can compare and contrast the three
                       types of muscles.
                2. Look for student nods, gestures, or puzzled looks.




                                             30
Electron micrograph of the banding of a muscle fiber.



                         31
32
                    Muscles to Know

Upper body         Bones Attach To        Joint Actions

Trapezius

Rhomboid

Latissimus Dorsi

Deltoid

Pectorals


Arms

Bicep

Triceps

Wrist Flexors

Wrist Extensors


Mid-section

Rectus Abdominal

Obliques


Lower body

Glutes

Quads

Hamstrings

Gastrocnemius

Soleus



                                     33
Muscle Contractions Lesson Plan
Objectives:

   1. Students will be able to sequence the physiology behind a muscle contraction.
      (lower cognitive level)
   2. Students will be able to compare and contrast the various types of contractions
      discussed in class. (higher cognitive level)

Materials:

      Human skeleton model
      Copies of handouts of types of contractions
      Copies of packets on how muscle contractions occur
      One 35 pound dumbbell
      One 50 pound dumbbell

Procedures:

   1. Lecture on Concentric vs. Eccentric Muscle Contractions
             I will lecture on the different types of contractions and I will have the
         students take notes on the materials. Concentric contractions occur when the
         length of the muscle shortens as compared to an eccentric contraction. An
         eccentric contraction occurs when the length of the muscle increases.
         Contrary to popular belief, an eccentric contraction is much stronger than a
         concentric contraction. It is also the part of a contraction, which causes more
         muscle soreness when exercising.

   2. Student Demo in Front of the Class
             After I lecture on concentric and eccentric contractions, I will ask for a
         students (a “strong” male) to do a demonstration in front of the class. I will as
         him to curl the 35 pound dumbbell, which demonstrates both a concentric and
         eccentric contraction. Next, I will ask him to curl the 50 pound dumbbell
         concentrically – he will not be able to do it. Then I will lift the 50 pound
         dumbbell up and ask him to slowly let it down. He will be able to lower the
         weight slowly (eccentric contraction) and safely to a starting position of a
         curl. I will explain that in this experiment we proved that a eccentric
         contraction is stronger than a concentric contraction.

   3. Discussion on Isotonic, Isokinetic, and Isometric Muscle Contractions
             I will ask for two volunteers to help me demonstrate two of the types of
         muscle contractions. I will have one student do a wall sit to demonstrate an
         isometric contraction. I will have another students perform a squat to
         demonstrate an isotonic contraction. I will describe a Nautilus exercise
         machine to the students, how it works, and how that is an example of an
         isokinetic contraction.


                                           34
            Next, I will ask the students to try to define the three types of contractions
        based on the demonstrations that they watched and that I described. I will
        write ideas on the board and pose questions to help the students to think of
        what they are missing. After they think they have finished the definitions, I
        will go over the actual definitions of each and we will discuss what, if
        anything, they missed. In an isometric contraction, the length of the muscle
        does not change. It used to be a popular way of warming up before
        exercising. For example, pushing up against a wall. An isokinetic contraction
        is one in which the same force is applied during the entire contraction. Free
        weights are not an example.

4. Handout on Sequences of a Muscle Contraction and Lecture
           I will use the ELMO while I go over the handout. I will suggest to the
   students to make additional notes in the margins, so they will better understand
   the process. After going over the handout, I will add some additional material
   about muscle contractions.
           Neuromuscular junctions are the point where a motor neuron attaches to a
   muscle. Acetylcholine is released from the axon end of the nerve cell when a
   nerve impulse reaches the junction. A wave of electrical changes is produced in
   the muscle cell when the acetylcholine binds to receptors on its surface.
           Calcium is released from its storage area in the cell's endoplasmic
   reticulum. An impulse from a nerve cell causes calcium release and brings about a
   single, short muscle contraction called a twitch. Calcium is released into the
   sarcomere when a muscle is stimulated to contract. This calcium uncovers the
   actin binding sites. When the muscle no longer needs to contract, the calcium ions
   are pumped from the sarcomere and back into storage.
           Muscles contract by shortening each sarcomere. The sliding filament
   model of muscle contraction has thin filaments on each side of the sarcomere
   sliding past each other until they meet in the middle.
           Myosin heads attach to binding sites on the actin filaments. The myosin
   heads swivel toward the center of the sarcomere, detach and then reattach to the
   nearest active site of the actin filament. Each cycle of attachment, swiveling, and
   detachment shortens the sarcomere 1%. Hundreds of such cycles occur each
   second during muscle contraction. Depending on the amount of force needed,
   your body determines how many individual muscle units it needs to contract.
   While individual muscle units contract as a unit, the entire muscle can contract on
   a graded basis due to their organization into motor units.
           Energy for this comes from ATP, the energy coin of the cell. ATP binds to
   the cross bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments. The release of
   energy powers the swiveling of the myosin head. Muscles store little ATP and so
   must recycle the ADP into ATP rapidly. Creatine phosphate is a muscle storage
   product involved in the rapid regeneration of ADP into ATP.

5.   Assignment on sequence of muscle contraction
            I will tell the students that they are to handwrite the sequence of how a
     muscle contracts for tomorrow.



                                          35
   Formal assessment         15 points
   7 points     1 for each step
   7 points     1 for a drawing of each step
   1 point      1 neatness

6. Closure and Preview
           I will tell the students that we have learned about the internal structures of
   muscle, types of contractions and how contractions occur, and that after a few
   days of covering specific muscles, they will be applying what they have learned
   for the past two weeks during two hands-on activities. I will remind the students
   to be studying the names of the muscles from the handout from Monday, and that
   they should review what they learned last week about bones and joints.

   Assignment Read pages 917 & 918

   Extension Discuss muscle fatigue on page 920 and oxygen debt.




                                         36
37
         Musculature of the Upper Body Lesson Plan
Objectives:

   1. Students will be able to label major muscles of the upper body and arms, covered
      in class, on a diagram. (lower cognitive level)
   2. Students will be able to identify attachments of major muscles of the upper body
      and arms covered in class. (lower cognitive level)

Materials:

      Human skeleton model
      5 Elastic cords, varying in length and color

Procedures:

   1. Collect assignment

   2. Refer back to handout from Monday
         A) lecture on muscles and their attachments of upper body
         B) lecture on muscles and their attachments of the arms
         C) demonstrate on the human skeleton model where the muscles are with
             elastic cords

   3. Quiz -not graded on bones and muscles
             Pop quiz to review bones from last week, and the names of muscles that
             they should be learning. I will point to a muscle on my body, or to an area
             on the skeleton and ask for the muscle and or bone.

   4. Closure and Preview
             A) Review the sequence of a muscle contraction by asking students to say
             one step.
             B) Remind students of Quiz on Friday
             C) Tell students tomorrow will be much like today




                                           38
        Musculature of the Lower Body Lesson Plan
Objectives:

   1. Students will be able to label major muscles of the lower body and mid-section,
      covered in class, on a diagram. (lower cognitive level)
   2. Students will be able to identify attachments of major muscles of the lower body
      and mid-section covered in class. (lower cognitive level)

Materials:

      Human skeleton model
      5 Elastic cords, varying in length and color

Procedures:

      1. Refer back to handout from Monday
         A) Lecture on muscles and their attachments of mid-section.
         B) Lecture on muscles and their attachments of the lower body.
         C) Demonstrate on the human skeleton model where the muscles are with
             elastic cords.
         D) Add the individual muscles of each large group of muscles.

      2. Discuss principles of muscle balance
         A) Relate it to the muscles and muscle groups that we have covered in class.
         B) Discuss training principles of developing muscle balance.

      3. Closure and Preview
         A) Review the muscles that we have learned from yesterday and today.
         B) Tell students that tomorrow we will learn about the actions of each muscle
         and start applying what we have been learning.

      Informal Assessment
      1. Orally quiz the class on the muscles that we have covered so far.
      2. Orally quiz the class on the sequence of a muscle contraction, ask if there are
             any steps that they would like to review.




                                           39
                   Bodily Movements Lesson Plan
Objectives:

   1. Students will be able to identify the muscles that produce given actions at specific
      joints of the body. (higher cognitive level)
   2. Students will be able to label major muscles, covered in class, on a diagram.
      (lower cognitive level)
   3. Students will be able to identify attachments of major muscles covered in class.
      (lower cognitive level)

Materials:

      Human skeleton model
      Copies of handouts on actions at specific joints and the muscles that cause them

Procedures:

   1. Handout on Actions at Joints, Bones, and Muscles
      o Add to the information already on the sheets or modify the information with
         the knowledge students have gained in the past two weeks.
      o Refer to the skeleton model to demonstrate movements that occur at each
         joint.
      o Have students demonstrate the movements and feel the muscles that are
         causing the movements.

   2. Lab on Common Movements and Joint Actions
      o Group students into small groups of two or three.
      o Handout lab sheets with common movements listed
      o Students must determine what joints, bones, and muscles are involved in each
         of the movements.

   3. Closure and Preview
              Ask the students if they have any questions about the lab, or if they aren’t
      100% on any of the movements. If there are questions, have the students
      demonstrate the movement and ask questions to lead them to the correct answers.
      If no questions, review the movements and the correct answers with the class.
      Remind the students that there will be a quiz tomorrow covering all the materials
      on the muscles that was covered this week in class. Let the students know that
      after the quiz, we will be going into the weight room to do an analysis on different
      exercises and the muscles and joints and are involved in.

      Informal Assessment
              Lab sheets are to be turned in at the end of class. Check for mistakes or
      things that were missing. Address these errors during closure or at the beginning
      of class tomorrow.


                                           40
                 Bodily Actions Lab & Lesson Plan
Objectives:
  1. Students will be able to identify the joints that are involved in a movement.
      (lower cognitive level)
  2. Students will be able to identify the muscles that are involved in a movement.
      (lower cognitive level)

Materials:

       Human skeleton model
       Copies of the lab
       Copies of lab worksheets to be turned in

Procedures:

   1. Quiz on Muscle Structure, Muscle Contractions, and Muscles of the Human Body
      25 Points

   2. Lab in Weight room
         o Hand out lab
         o Go over procedures for lab and behavior expectations
                    - no lifting weights beside assignment, no horseplay, pick up
                    before we leave, etc.
         o Go to weight room
         o Draw phases 1, 2 and 3 of one weight lifting exercise
                    - squats, bench press, deadlift, hang clean, push press
         o Include joints, actions, bones, muscles

       Formal Assessment 15 points
       5 points for all correct actions and joints
       5 points for all correct bones
       5 points for all correct muscles

   3. Extension
         Ask questions to the class about how the muscles involved would change if
         were to do slight variations of each exercise.
         - smith machine squat, inclined press, stiff-legged deadlift

   4. Assignment for Exam Review
         Bring a question (and the answer) for review on exam that will cover all
         materials covered in the last two weeks. It will be due as they walk into the
         room.

       Formal Assessment           5 points possible
       1 point if material is appropriate


                                             41
   1 point if question incorporated multiple concepts, ideas
   1 point if neatly written
   1 point for higher level of thinking required (not name or list)
   1 point for the correct answer

5. Closure and Preview
          A) Ask students how the quiz went and remind that the exam will be
          similar.
          B) Remind students of exam in next week.
          C) Remind students of review Q&A due tomorrow




                                        42
                     Quiz on Muscles

1.   Name the muscles of the upper arm. (2 pts)


2.   Name the muscle groups of the upper leg. (3 pts)



3.   Name the primary muscle involved in a push up. (1 pt)


4.   Name the primary muscle involved in a pull-up. (1 pt)


5.   List the smallest units of a muscle, Hint: A&M. (2 pts)


6.   What does calcium bind to, and what does that cause? (3 pts)




7.   What role does ATP play in the sequence of a contraction? (2 pts)




8.   Name 2 actions occur at the hip, and the muscle(s) that cause each.
     (4 pts)




9.   Name 4 types of joints and the examples of each. (7 pts, 1 Bonus)




                          43
Unit Plan

 Part III




    44
                      EXAM 3                                  Name:
                    50 Points Total                               Hour:
                                                                  Section:

Part A: Short Answer

Directions: Answer each of the following questions to the best of your ability. Each
question varies in the amount of points it is worth, and partial credit is possible, so
answer each question to the best of your ability

1. How do compact bone and spongy bone differ in structure and function? (2pts)



2. What is one advantage of a cartilaginous skeleton? (1pt)


3. What is the outer most layer of a bone? (1pt)


4. List the smallest units of a muscle, Hint: A&M. (2 pts)



5. What role does ATP play in the sequence of a contraction? (2 pts)




Part B: Matching
Directions: Place the appropriate word(s) in the blank(s). Answers may be used more
than once. Each blank is worth one (1) point.

Word bank

Humerus                Vertebrae              Tibia                  Fibula
Calcaneous             Mandible               Clavicle               Triceps
Occipital              Ilium                  Ischium                Pubis
Frontal                Hamate                 Temporal               Parietal
Scapula                Pectoralis             Trapezius              Hamstrings
Biceps                 Femur                  Trapezius              Phalanges
Radius                 sternum                Pelvic girdle          Quadriceps
Acromian               Ulna                   Rhomboid               Gastrocnemius
Deltoid                Soleous                Flexors                Glutes


                                            45
6. Name 2 bones that make up the leg.                         and

7. Name the muscles of the upper arm.                         and

8. Name 3 bones that for the skull.                    and                    and



9. Name the primary muscle involved in a push up.

10. Name 2 bones that for the pelvic girdle.                  and

11. Name the muscle groups of the upper leg.                          and

       and

12. Name the 3 bones that make up the arm.                            and

       and

13. Name the primary muscle involved in a pull-up.



Part C: Essay
Directions: Answer each of the following questions in the space provided. Each answer
is worth a different point value, all of which are listed after each question. Partial credit
will be considered, so answer all


14. Name 2 actions that occur at the hip, and the muscle(s) that cause each. (4 pts)



15. Name 4 types of joints and one example of each. (7 pts, 1 Bonus)




16. Name three types of fractures and describe a force that could cause each. (6pts)



                                             46
17. What does calcium bind to, and what does that cause? (3 pts)




18. What is the difference between a concentric and an eccentric contraction?
 In your answer please address the following: Which is stronger and which causes more
          muscle growth and the implications of this in weight training? (5 pts)




                                          47
                         EXAM 3 ANSWER KEY
                                    50 Points Total


Part A: Short Answer

Directions: Answer each of the following questions to the best of your ability. Each
question varies in the amount of points it is worth, and partial credit is possible, so
answer each question to the best of your ability

1. How do compact bone and spongy bone differ in structure and function? (2pts)
      * 1 point for structure and 1 point for function

               -compact bone is dense and for support and protection
               -spongy bone is wafer-like and contains marrow which produces white
               blood cells

2. What is one advantage of a cartilaginous skeleton? (1pt)

               -flexible so it will not break like bone, but still rigid enough to provide
               support

3. What is the outer most layer of a bone? (1pt)

               -periosteum

4. List the smallest units of a muscle, Hint: A&M. (1 pt each)

               -actin and myosin


5. What role does ATP play in the sequence of a contraction? (2 pts)

               -ATP causes the actin and myosin to RELEASE (1 pt) their bond and be
               ready to re-bond again (1 pt)


Part B: Matching
Directions: Place the appropriate word(s) in the blank(s). Answers may be used more
than once. Each blank is worth one (1) point.

       * 1 Point for each blank

6. Name 2 bones that make up the leg.                          Femur, Tibia, Fibula


                                             48
7. Name the muscles of the upper arm.                         Biceps and Triceps

8. Name 3 bones that for the skull. Mandible, Occipital, Frontal, Temporal, Parietal

9. Name the primary muscle involved in a push up.              Pectoralis

10. Name 2 bones that for the pelvic girdle.                   Illium, Ischium, Pubis

11. Name the muscle groups of the upper leg.           Hamstrings, Quadriceps, and Glutes

12. Name the 3 bones that make up the arm.                    Humerus, Radius, and Ulna

13. Name the primary muscle involved in a pull-up.            Latissimus Dorsi



Part C: Essay
Directions: Answer each of the following questions in the space provided. Each answer
is worth a different point value, all of which are listed after each question. Partial credit
will be considered, so answer all


14. Name 2 actions that occur at the hip, and the muscle(s) that cause each. (4 pts)
      * 1 point for each part

       -extension = glutes/ hamstrings
       -flexion = hip flexors/ quads
       -abduction = glutes
       -adduction = quads

15. Name 4 types of joints and one example of each. (7 pts, 1 Bonus)
      * 1 point for each part

       -ball and socket = shoulder or hip
       -saddle = wrist
       -pivot = elbow
       -hinge = knee
       -elipsoid = finger
       -plane = shoulder blade or ankle

16. Name three types of fractures and describe a force that could cause each. (6pts)
      * 1 point for each part

       -Spiral = twisting force

       -Greenstick = lateral impact


                                             49
       -Transverse = sheering force

       -Oblique = compressing force

       -Comminuted = lateral impact, more severe


17. What does calcium bind to, and what does that cause? (3 pts)

       -Calcium binds to troponin (1 pt), which moves tropomysin showing the binding
       sites (1 pt), so that myosin can bind to actin (1pt).


18. What is the difference between a concentric and an eccentric contraction?
In your answer please address the following: Which is stronger and which causes more
muscle growth and the implications of this in weight training? (5 pts)

       -concentric = muscle shortens (1 pt)
       -eccentric = muscle lengthens (1pt)
       -eccentric is stronger and causes more growth (2 pts)
       -slowly lower the weight when training to get more results out of training (1pt)




                                           50
Unit Objectives                                                                                   Exam
                                                                                                  Questions
   Students will be able to label the structures of a typical bone on a cross-sectional           Covered in
   diagram. (lower cognitive level)                                                               homework

   Students will be able to identify the functions of the internal and external structures of a   A1, A3,
   bone. (lower cognitive level)

   Students will be able to identify the type of fracture based on specific circumstances of a    C16
   situation. (lower cognitive level)



   Students will be able to discuss the principles of bone growth/repair. (lower cognitive
   level)
   Students will be able to identify the five groupings of bones that comprise the axial          B8, B10
   skeleton. (lower cognitive level)

   Students will be able to identify the nine bones that comprise the appendicular skeleton.      B6, B12
   (lower cognitive level)

   Students will be able to classify the eight major bones of the appendicular skeleton as        Covered in a
   right or left. (lower cognitive level)                                                         lab only

   Students will be able to identify the six types of joints. (lower cognitive level)             C15



   Students will be able to indicate the bones that make up specific joints in the body.          C15
   (lower cognitive level)

   Students will be able to diagram the internal components of a muscle. (lower                   A4
   cognitive level)

   Students will be able to compare and contrast the two types of contractions (higher            C18
   cognitive level)

   Students will be able to sequence the physiology behind a muscle contraction.                  A5, C17
   (lower cognitive level)




                                                       51
Unit Objectives                                                                                  Exam
                                                                                                 Questions
   Students will be able to label major muscles, covered in class, on a diagram.                 B7, B11
   (lower cognitive level)

   Students will be able to identify attachments of major muscles covered in class.              B6, B7, B9,
   (lower cognitive level)                                                                       B11, B13,
                                                                                                 C14
   Students will be able to identify the muscles that produce given actions at specific joints   B9, B13
   of the body. (higher cognitive level)

   Students will be able to identify the joints that are involved in a movement. (lower          C14, B9, B13
   cognitive level)




                                                      52
                     Alternative Assessments

1. Assignment on drawing the human skeleton

               I will hand out paper to everyone and explain the assignment for
       tomorrow. The students will have to draw (not trace) the human skeleton and
       include all of the bones listed on the handout I provide. They will also have to
       label each of the bones. The drawing will be due the following day at the
       beginning of class. I want my students to learn the location of each bone and the
       spelling of each bone. I also want them to get an idea of the symmetry that the
       human skeleton follows, and by drawing each bone they will also become familiar
       with the shape of each bone. This assignment allows my students to learn by
       doing something hands one that is very visual, and allows a great deal of freedom
       for various abilities and creativity.

       30 points total
       28 points       one per bone (½ spelling, ½ labeled appropriately)
       2 points        neatness (1 erase marks, 1 wrinkled paper



2. Assignment on drawing the different types of fractures

               I will write the instructions of the board as I say them to the class. On two
       8 x 11 pieces of white paper that I will provide, they are to draw each of the types
       of fractures and label them. They are also to include typical forces that could
       cause each fracture, as well as one example of an everyday activity where the
       forces are occurring. Completeness and neatness will be taken into consideration,
       the assignment will be worth 25 points. This assignment will get my students to
       look at and create each of the types of fractures. They will also have to list the
       force that could cause the fracture and apply that by listing an example. This
       assignment allows a lot of room for creativity, not only in the examples but also in
       the drawings.

       25 points total
       8 points        1 point for each fracture drawing
       8 points        1 point for each force
       4 points        ½ point for each example
       5 points        neatness ( - erase marks, - wrinkled paper, + word processed, +
                       color added)




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3. Joints and actions lab

               I will assign each group one of the following different weight lifting
       exercises: squats, bench press, deadlift, hang clean, or push press. They will
       have to draw the beginning and midpoint of each exercise, and label the joints and
       the bones that make them up, joint actions, and the muscles that cause each
       action. This assignment will get my students to apply a lot of the information that
       we have covered for the unit, and see how they all relate. I will not expect
       masterpieces, but stick figures are not what I am looking for.

       15 points total
       5 points for all correct actions and joints
       5 points for all correct bones
       5 points for all correct muscles


4. Mini-lab on Identifying Bones by specific features

                I will have 10 bones predetermined and at lab stations. I will pair the
       students up and they will rotate around lab tables. They must use the worksheet
       that I provided to identify the bone and if it is the right or the left, and why. I will
       collect lab sheets at the end of the hour. I want my students to be able to learn
       how to identify a bones location based on specific landmarks located on the bone.
       They will see how each bone relates to other bones, how they form joints, and
       how the body functions as a total unit.

       20 points total
       10 points 1 for correctly identifying each bone
       10 points 1 for correctly identifying why they bone is left or right
                   by referring to specific landmarks.




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