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ALE_200_years_of_Foreigners_in_Finland_Migri_revised

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					    200 years of
Foreigners in Finland
       Antero Leitzinger
              Dr. Pol. Sc.
Researcher, Finnish Immigration Service
      antero.leitzinger@migri.fi
                                                                           8.7.2009
                                                                   Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                   2




Sources
•   Archives of the Finnish Immigration Service (1918-), Finnish
    National Archives (1939-1950), provincial archives, etc.
•   Database of naturalizations 1832-1946 (over 14.000 persons or
    families)
•   Official statistics of foreigners in largest towns 1870, 1880, 1890,
    1900, 1910, and 1920; nationally in 1920, 1922-1924, and since
    1926
•   Official statistics of naturalizations since 1928
•   Biographies, family chronicles, local histories, articles...
•   Researches only on some nationalities, professions, or periods
                                               8.7.2009
                                       Antero Leitzinger
                                                       3


Dissertation in Turku,
June 2008




         http://www.ewbhelsinki.com/
                                                                8.7.2009
                                                        Antero Leitzinger
                                                                        4




Numbers
• no exact numbers are available because there were always
  gaps in the statistics, and f. ex. women naturalized through
  marriage have never been counted or researched
• comparable to Sweden until 1944
• comparable to the population of the city of Viipuri (Wiborg)
• records surpassed only in the 21st century
                                                             8.7.2009
                                                     Antero Leitzinger
                                                                     5




Nationalities by 1917
• Russian Empire (> 22 %, incl. ethnic Finns, Estonians,
  Poles, etc. – Jews and Tatars not yet naturalized)
• Sweden (< 46 %)
• Germany (< 19 %)
• Denmark (< 4 %), Norway, Switzerland, Austria-Hungary,
  United Kingdom, France, Netherlands, USA (Finnish
  emigrants), Ottoman Empire (Greeks), Italy, etc.
                                                                 8.7.2009
                                                         Antero Leitzinger
                                                                         6




Nationalities in 1920 / 1970
•Total numbers                   24.451 / 5483 or 7325
•Former Russian Empire /
Soviet Union:
       Former Russian subjects          61 % / < 1549
       Soviet citizens                  0 % / 341
       Estonia                          4%/-
       Latvia                           1%/-
       Poland                           3 % / 211
       Ukraine                          1%
                                                        8.7.2009
                                                Antero Leitzinger
                                                                7




Nationalities in 1920 / 1970 cont.
•Sweden                4080 (17 %) / ?
•Germany               1645 (7 %) / 1504 + 64
•Norway                457 / ?
•Denmark               379 / ?
•USA                   124 / 955
•United Kingdom        190 / 484
•Italy                 127 / 347
•Switzerland           269 / 242
                                                       8.7.2009
                                               Antero Leitzinger
                                                               8




Professions 1832-1917
•   Merchants            246 naturalizations
•   Accountants          226
•   Peasants             182
•   Restaurateurs        163
•   Clerks               89
•   Soldiers (retired)   89
•   Engineers            83
•   Gardeners            79
•   Housewives           68
•   Tailors              60
•   Brewers              47
                                                                             8.7.2009
                                                                     Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                     9




Dramatic cases
•   deportations of gypsies and Jews based on vagrancy laws throughout the
    19th century; German beggars in 1859; swindlers from the Middle East at
    least in 1854-1908
•   summer guests to the datchas of Terijoki
•   Russian Jews escaping pogroms in 1905 and Muslims seeking inspiration
    for self-rule and westernization model
•   revolutionary refugees from the Russian Empire in 1900-1918, incl. Lenin
    and Stalin; the bank robbery in early 1909
•   refugees from revolutionary Russia since 1917, incl. Grand Duke Kiril
    whose son Vladimir was born in Haikko 30 August 1917, and two former
    gouvernor generals invited by the president in 1922
•   Kronstadt rebellion in March 1921: some 8000 refugees overnight (only
    initial research made)
•   Ingermanland and East Karelians after failed uprisings in 1919-1922
•   runaways from Solovetsk GULAG in 1929-1930
                                                                                 8.7.2009
                                                                         Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                        10




Dramatic cases cont.
•   Estonian right-wing activists in 1934-1936, remaining until 1944
•   Jews from Central Europe 1933-1941: some 400 remained through the
    war years and 8 deported on 6 November 1942 (very well researched by
    Taimi Torvinen and Hannu Rautkallio, but still myths circulating specially in
    international media)
•   Baltic refugees since 1940, incl. 6000 Estonians in 1943-1944
•   internment of Soviet citizens in occupied areas (Miehikkälä and East
    Karelian camps)
•   evacuation of over 63.000 Ingermanlandians in 1942-1944
•   forced repatriation of Soviet prisoners-of-war, and some others in 1944-
    1955 (research project by the Finnish National Archives)
•   11 Finnish and 8 foreign "Leino prisoners" deported on 21 April 1945
•   14 Estonian and 1 Lithuanian ex-soldiers deported in January 1948
•   Soviet defectors: ca 150 in 1945-1981, aliens' passports for East European
    defectors
                                                                                           8.7.2009
                                                                                   Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                                  11




Immigration administration
•   centralized naturalization process since 1832
•   centralization of immigration administration in 1918-1939
•   State police (Valtiollinen poliisi) passport bureau until 1948 and separate Aliens'
    Bureau (Ulkomaalaistoimisto) since 1949, both in 1937-1970 under Aarne Kovero:
    constant under-funding
•   Eila Kännö as chief 1970-1984: increasing critical publicity
•   Name changes to Aliens' Centre (Ulkomaalaiskeskus), Aliens' Office / Directorate of
    Immigration (Ulkomaalaisvirasto) 1993-2007, and Maahanmuuttovirasto (Immigration
    Office/Service) since 2008
•   extra concerns: epidemies, estate ownership, tourism, visa policy (liberal until 1976),
    State Refugee Assictance Centre (Valtion pakolaisavustuskeskus) in 1922-1958,
    work permits since 1927, international cooperation, crime, espionage, failures in
    bureaucracy
                                                                                   8.7.2009
                                                                           Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                          12




Sweden
•   separation by 1809 (with a transitional option of citizenships)
•   special regulations at the northern border
•   industrialists, restaurateurs, gardeners, architects, glasworkers,
    goldsmiths, miners, prostitutes
•   Pehr Cerelius Rettig (1811-1871), Carl Ulrik Frietsch (1821-1881)
•   easy integration, difficult to distinguish from the old Swedish minority
                                                                              8.7.2009
                                                                      Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                     13




Other Scandinavian countries
•   Norwegian fishmerchant: Sören Berner (1859-1902)
•   Norwegian photographer: Carl Nyblin (1856-1923)
•   Norwegian sawmill owners and workers: Hans Gutzeit (1836-1919),
    Adolfsen family (later Ahtisaari)
•   communities in Kotka and Kemi
•   some research made (f. ex. by Merja Bertling)

•   Danish seamen and dairyworkers
•   Danish cablemen's community in Uusikaupunki

•   one Icelandic resident in 1931-1932
                                                                                    8.7.2009
                                                                            Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                           14




Germany
•   Prussia (41 %), Lübeck (12 %), Saxony (10 %), Mecklenburg (8 %), Hamburg (6 %),
    Hannover (5 %), Bavaria (5 %), and other states in the 19th century
•   Prussian architect: Karl Ludwig Engel (1778-1840)
•   Lübeck merchants: Heinrich Stockmann (1825-1906), Gustav Paulig (1850-1907)
•   Hamburg musician: Friedrich Pacius (1809-1891)
•   Bavarian brewers
•   Bavarian or Swiss mystery woman: Alina Frasa (1834-1899)
•   sometimes enemies or allies with special treatment (deportation in 1914-1918,
    internment in 1944-1947)
•   German schools and (lutheran) churches, mechanics in the 1920s
•   some research made (f. ex. by Robert Schweitzer, Martha Müller)
                                                                           8.7.2009
                                                                   Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                  15




Switzerland
•   cheesemakers: Jost Leuzinger (1766-1849), Rudolf Klossner (1824-1915),
    Christian Oesch (1860-1935)
•   conditeurs, restaurateurs, and hoteliers: Florio Theodor Catani (1781-
    1871), Christian Andrea (1843-1900)
•   teachers and gouvernantes: Leon Gabriel Biaudet (1848-1898), Sophie
    Weber, Anna Lockert
•   hatmaker: Eduard Peter Fazer (1821-1894)
•   engineer: Jakob Robert Huber (1844-1905)
•   well researched
                                                                                        8.7.2009
                                                                                Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                               16




West and South Europe
•   Belgian ceramics designer Alfred William Finch (1854-1930)
•   Luxemburg teacher Cathérine Servé (1911-?)
•   French gouvernante and teacher Marie de Verneuil (1859-1897)
•   British industrialists James Finlayson (1772-1852) and John Barker, and comedian
    Neil Hardwick (b. 1948)
•   Italian posetive players; toy peddlers, ice cream and sweets merchants: Antonio
    Casagrande, Oreste Magi (1850-1924)
•   Greek tobaccoworkers; ice cream and sweets (halva) merchants: Vasili Christides,
    Stefan Papakostas (1888-1978), Georg Karaokyros (1887-1965)
•   no Albanians before very recent decades
•   some research made on French, Italian, and Greek immigration (f. ex. by Gunilla de
    Chapelle, Maija Lehtonen, Roberto Tanzi-Albi, and Nina Lehtonen)
                                                                                          8.7.2009
                                                                                  Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                                 17




Russians
•   settlement in Kyyrölä village already since late 18th century
•   soldiers (retired), incl. Jews
•   servs in Raivola and Karatsalmi villages
•   merchants, monks
•   painter Ilja Repin (1844-1930), movie star Valentin Ivanoff (Vaala, 1909-1976), singer
    Viktor Klimenko (b. 1942)
•   privileged position under Russian rule, unfounded pogrom scare of 1905, mass
    deportations and Viipuri massacre in spring 1918, but only individual internment
    during war years 1939-1944
•   Russian schools and (orthodox) churches
•   many surnames changed into Finnish during the 1920s and 1930s
•   some reserarch made (f. ex. by Natalia Baschmakoff and Marja Leinonen), and some
    myths circulating
                                                                              8.7.2009
                                                                      Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                     18




Imperial non-Russian subjects
•   Ingermanlandians and East Karelians (ethnic Finns), peddlers and
    peasants, easy integration: f. ex. radio reporter Pekka Tiilikainen (1911-
    1976)
•   Estonian fishermen, bakers, seasonal workers, smugglers, and refugees: f.
    ex. Ella Murrik (later Hella Wuolijoki, 1886-1954), Aino Kallas (former
    Finnish citizen, 1878-1956), Jutta Kingo (later Zilliacus, b. 1925)
•   Latvian movie star Theodor Tugai (Teuvo Tulio, 1912-2000)
•   Polish composer Georg de Godzinsky (1914-1993) and comedian Pentti
    Siimes (b. 1929)
                                                                         8.7.2009
                                                                 Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                19




•Armenian missionary Abraham bek Amirchanjanz (1838-1913), and freedom-
fighter Anushavan Zatikjan
                                                                                         8.7.2009
                                                                                 Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                                20




•Jewish tailors, later politicians: Santeri Jacobsson and his nephew Max Jakobson (b.
1923), Ben Zyskowicz (b. 1954)
•Muslim (mainly Mishar Tatar) cloth peddlers, fur and carpet merchants; world's
northernmost mosque in Järvenpää built in 1942
                                                                                           8.7.2009
                                                                                   Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                                  21




Other continents
•   African missionary children in late 19th century
•   Chinese fortification workers in 1916-1917 and Alfred Wan (1922-?)
•   Finnish emigrants to America and Australia repatriating
•   British, French, and other colonial powers had citizens from the colonies
•   First Turks, Iranians, and Afghans, by 1947
•   Marriages with Finnish women specially since early 1950s
•   Students
•   Pakistani mass immigration attempt in 1971
•   First refugee quota from Chile in late 1973, later from Vietnam, Kurds of Iraq and Iran,
    others from Iraq and Iran, Afghanistan and Myanmar (Burma)
•   asylum-seekers from Somalia and Kosovo in the 1990s
•   labour immigration increasing from Russia and other countries
                                                                                              8.7.2009
                                                                                      Antero Leitzinger
                                                                                                     22


Foreigners in Finland today
(31 December 2008: 143.197 foreign residents)


•Russia                                         26.887
•Estonia                                        22.509
•Sweden                                         8493     (mostly repatriated Finns)
•Somalia                                        4919     (mostly asylum-seekers)
•China                                          4515
•Thailand                                       3924     (mostly wives)
•Germany                                        3480
•Turkey                                         3437
•United Kingdom                                 3243
•Iraq                                           3219     (mostly quota refugees)
•Serbia & Montenegro & Kosovo                   < 2855   (mostly asylum-seekers)
•India                                          2716
•Iran                                           2502     (partly quota refugees)
•USA                                            2340
•Vietnam                                        2267     (partly quota refugees)
•Afghanistan                                    2176     (mostly quota refugees)
                                                                8.7.2009
                                                        Antero Leitzinger
                                                                       23




Conclusions
• Immigration was always an integral part of Finnish history
• Early immigrants were integrated into the Finnish society
  better than expected
• Only failures of immigration policy are remembered and
  researched, success is forgotten or considered self-evident
• No modern challenges are really new in essence, only
  heavier in quantity

				
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