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									ROHS教育材料
Environmental Protective Requirements
on waste electronic & electrical products
对废弃电子电器产品的环保要求




                                    苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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WEEE & RoHS
-They are resourced main on political reason, then are the environmental target
 他们是主要源于政治原因,其次才是环境的目的
- They are the new barrier,
 他们是新的壁垒


* WEEE more like the tariff wall, the invisible wall to increase your cost.
 WEEE更象是关税壁垒,犹如一堵无形的墙增加你的支出。
 * RoHS more like the TBT; the environmental related certification, similar as
the safety certification but misty.
  RoHS更象是技术性贸易壁垒,环境认证就与安规认证相似,但更模糊。




                                                                    苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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WEEE Directive
2002/96/EEC




                 苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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      Why WEEE Directive ? 为什么要有WEEE
 About 90% of the EEE waste is land-filled 90%的电子废弃物被填埋
Total Collected in W. Europe (1999)- - 764,000 tonnes
 欧洲总的回收量(1999年) – 76.4万吨


Landfill 填埋
96%




                                                            Mechanical Recycling
                                                            机械循环利用率 3%
                                                        Energy Recovery
                                                        能源再生率 1%




                                                               苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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Objective 目的
A producer responsibility directive. It aims to:
一个生产者承担责任的指令。它的目的在于:
 Reduce the waste from electrical and electronic equipment
   减少来自电子设备的废弃物
 Increase recovery and recycling rates of WEEE
   增加废弃电子电器产品的再生和循环使用。
 Improve environmental performance of all operators involved in the life
   cycle of WEEE
   提高废弃电子电器产品全部生命周期中所涉及到的所有操作者的环保执行
   情况




                                                            苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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         Objective 目的

Today
 今天
            Resource    Product
              资源          产品                Landfill 填埋
                                           Burning 焚烧
                                     Throw away freely 随意丢弃


Future
 将来
                                  Dispose, Burning, Landfill designedly
             Resource   Product   and collection organically
               资源         产品      有计划地处置/焚烧和填埋,
                                  以及有组织地收集

                                        Recovery 再生
                                         Reuse 再利用
                                       Recycling 循环使用
Scope – General    范围- 一般
Covers discarded EEE 包括:
 Designed to operate at a maximum voltage of 1,000 V a.c. or 1,500 V
  d.c;    最大工作电压不超过 1000 V a.c 或 1500 V d.c,通过电流、电磁
  场、发电机、变压器工作的设备或测量这种电流的设备;和
 Falling within 10 categories of WEEE (Annexes IA & IB);
   适用于10类产品
 Includes all components, sub-assemblies and consumables forming part
  of the EEE when discarded—94 products.
   包括产品的所有元件、配件及消耗材料—94个产品品目(有豁免类).

Excludes EEE that is 不包括:
 Part of equipment not covered by the WEEE Directive;
    不在WEEE指令覆盖范围的设备
 Specifically intended for military use.
    军事用途




                                                         苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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     Scope – Categories 范围-分类

1.   Large household appliances       6. Electrical & electronic tools;
      大型家用电器                              Except large stationary
2.   Small household appliances;          industrial tools.
                                         电子电气工具(大型固定工业用途工
      小型家用电器                              具除外)
3.   IT & telecommunications          7. Toys, leisure & sports equipment;玩
     equipment;                           具、休闲及运动设备
      IT及通讯设备                         8. Medical devices;
4.   Consumer equipment;                  Except implanted & infected
      消费性设备                               products.
5.   Lighting equipment;                 医疗器材(植入部件或污染处除外)
     Except filament light bulbs &    9. Monitoring & control instruments;监
     household luminaires.                控设施
      照明设备( 白炙灯泡和家用照明                 10. Automatic dispensers.自动售货机
     光源除外)



                                                           苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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     Producer’s responsibility 生产者责任

1.     WEEE from private households: 来自私人用户的WEEE
     - Producers install systems for take back free of cost for final user
       生产者设立对最终使用者免费的回收体系
     - Individual or collective possible
       可以是个别的,也可以是集体的
     - Producers take over cost of reuse, recycling, disposal
        生产者负责再利用、循环和处理的费用
     - Distributors voluntarily(but free of cost) may take back WEEE
        批发者可以回收WEEE(但是是免费的)

2.     WEEE from other than private users: 来自非私人用户的WEEE
     - Producers responsible for collection, reuse, recycling, disposal and costs
       生产者负责收集、再利用、循环使用和处理的费用
     - Producers responsible for management cost of historical waste
       生产者负责历史性废弃物的管理费用
     - Member states as well as users and producers may agree on different financing
       成员国,还有使用者和生产者可以对不同的财务费用达成一致意见




                                                                        苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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  Product Design 产品设计


Product designs shall 产品的设计应当:
 Allow selective removal of certain materials/components.
    允许有选择性地淘汰处理某些原料和部件。
 Permit repair and end-of-life dismantling for the recovery (reuse &
   recycling) of materials/components.
    准许修复或淘汰产品分解出的原料和部件的回收利用(再利用和循环在利
   用)
 Not include design features which hinder reuse, unless required for
   overriding reasons such as safety or environmental protection.
     产品不得有妨碍再利用的设计,除非是出于安全及环保因素考虑




                                                          苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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        Rate for Collection, Recovery, Recycling
        收集,再回收和再循环比例

             Separate collection  4 kg per inhabitant and year from households




Automatic dispensers                                             IT & telecommunications appliances
Large household appliances                                       Consumer equipment
- Recovery: 80%                                                  - Recovery: 75%
- Recycling, reuse*: 75%                                         - Recycling, reuse*: 65%



           Small household appliances
           Lighting equipment
           Electrical and electronic tools        Medical device
           Toys, leisure & sports equipment       To be determined by
           Monitoring and control instruments      31 December 2006
           - Recovery: 70%
           - Recycling, reuse*: 50%


                                                                             苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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  Recovery & Recycling Targets 回收再用和再循环的目标

Example 例子:

   Refrigerator Weight 冰箱重量:              100 kg (Category 1)
   Recovery Target 再生目标 :                 80%
   Reuse / Recycling Target 再利用/循环使用目标:   75%


   Conclusion 结论:
   Disposal as Landfill 填埋处置:             max. 20 kg
   Recovery as incineration 焚烧:           max. 5 kg
   Back into resource stream 循环利用:        minimum 75 kg




                                                  苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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   Treatment - Selective Removal 处理-选择性除去
The following materials, substances, components must be removed from the product by
the treatment facilities(the information should be provided by manufactories)
至少下列物质、配制件和组件要必须从任何分类收集的废弃电子电气设备中除去(
相关的有毒物质存在部位的信息应由工厂提供)
 All liquids;所有液体
 Capacitors containing PCB’s & PCT’s;
  含有PCB’s & PCT’s的电容
 Mercury-containing components; 含汞零件
 Batteries; 电池
 Printed circuit boards from mobile phones; 手机的电路板
 Printed circuit boards from other devices with a surface area
  印刷电路板面积大于10 平方厘米的其他仪器
 Toner cartridges etc; 碳粉盒等
 Plastics containing brominated flame retardants;
  含溴化阻燃剂的塑料
 Refractory ceramic fibre-containing components;
   耐火陶瓷纤维元件


                                                                  苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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   Treatment - Selective Removal 处理-选择性除去

 Cathode ray tubes; 阴极射线管
 External electric cables; 外置电线
 Radioactive substances;
   放射性物质
 CFC’s, HCFC’s, HFC’s & HC’s;
   臭氧层消耗物质
 Liquid crystal displays (LCD’s) with a surface area > 100 cm²;
   表面积大于100 平方厘米的液晶显示器
 LCD’s back-lit by gas discharge
   lamps;
   液晶背光-气体放电灯;
 Electrolyte capacitors which contain relevant substance and
  depth≥25mm/diameter≥25/as the similar volumn proportion
  含相关物质的电解电容器(高度≥25 毫米,直径≥25 毫米或者按比例类似容积)
 Gas discharge lamps;
   气体放电灯
 Asbestos waste.
   石棉废料




                                                    苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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   Treatment – Process      处理-步骤
Only permitted at licensed or registered sites.
    处理机构应该有执照或在主管当局登记的单位
Storage sites must prevent environmental contamination.
    储存场所必须防止环境污染
Treatment sites shall 处理地点应当:
 - Use the best available techniques.
     应用最好的可用技术
 -Prevent environmental contamination.
     避免环境的污染
 -Include appropriate storage facilities.
     有适当的贮存场所
 -Treat water before discharge.
     污水处理后方可排放
 -Have balances to monitor incoming WEEE, outgoing recovered materials &
 waste.
    监控WEEE进料及回收材料和废物输出的平衡
Minimum quality standards for treatment may be set up.
    处理的最低质量标准应当建立。


                                                            苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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    Recovery & Recycling Targets 回收再用和再循环的目标
 Word Definition   名词定义
             Word 单词                                    Explain    解释

             Prevention                      Reduced the hazardous substance
                预防                                       content
                                                  产品中有害物质的减少
 Treatment    Recovery     Reuse             Fulfill the requirement of the desiring
处理,包括破碎         再生         再利用                             designing use
、 分解、再生                                              符合设计使用目的的用途
等经过设备处
  理的过程                    Recycle                 Re-produce or re-process
                          循环使用                    将材料经过再加工或再生产

                           Energy            Recover the heat energy or the other
                          recovery                         energy
                          能量回收                      回收热能或其他能源

                     Disposal                     Just cremate or bury only
                       处置                              单纯焚化或掩埋

                                                                  苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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    Recovery & Recycling 回收再用和再循环
    Waste Stream during Recycling example: 废弃物循环利用流程实例
Component suppliers              Manufactory                Component suppliers
    零件供应商                        整机制造商                           零件供应商


                                                           Raw material producers
Raw material producers
                                                               原材料生产商
    原材料生产商
                                                               Metals
                                                                金属

                                                               Glass
   Re-use       Components        Dismantler                   玻璃
                                                                            Recycling
   再利用             零件             拆分拆解                        Plastics
                                                                             循环使用
                                                                塑料

                                   WEEE                       Rubber

    Siderurgy          Steel                                    橡胶

      熔炼                 钢
                                  Shredder           SR        Other

                                                     视情况       其他
                      Non-ferr
                                  切碎机
     Foundry           metal
                                                             Energy
     铸造厂              有色金属             Landfill             recovery
                                        填埋                  能量再生
                                                                     苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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     Cost Estimations       费用估算
1.   Collection costs: 200-400 Euro per ton
     收集费用: 每吨200-400欧元
     - 4kg pp, 350M inhabitants: 300-600M Euro per year
       4公斤每人每年,3.5亿人口:每年3亿-6亿欧元

2.   Treatment costs: 300-800 Euro per ton
     处理费用:每吨300-800欧元
     - 450-1200M Euro per year
       每年4.5亿-12亿欧元

3.   Original average price increase of 0.5% to 2% per electric/electronic device
     最初的平均价格每台电子电器设备增加0.5%至2%.

4.   To be detailed per product category
      每种产品详细的目录




                                                                   苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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      Marking - All WEEE 1         标记- 所有WEEE 1

    Information for Users 提供给使用者的信息


     The products placed on the market after 13 August 2005 must be labeled with
     2005年8月13日以后投放市场的电子电器应注明:

     Marking the product according to prEN 50419, Marking must include:
     按 prEN 50419 规定,产品标识内容应包括:

    - A unique identification of producer (e.g brand name, trade mark or others
     means)
     唯一的生产者身份标识 (例如品牌,注册商标或其他内容)

    - Date or year of manufacture/placed on the market in coded or un-coded text
     生产日期或年份/以编码或非编码形式投放市场




                                                                     苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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  Marking - All WEEE 1       标记- 所有WEEE 1

- Marking as above with the crossed-
  outwheeled bin and additional bar Crossed
  wheelie bin symbol.
 上述标识内容应该以带有叉形符号的轮式垃圾
  箱以及条状文字符号的形式构成
 In exceptional cases, where the product’s
  size and function prevent this, the symbol
  shall be placed on:
  如果产品的大小和功能不适于加贴上述标志时,
  可印在:
     Packaging 包装;
     Instructions for use 说明书;
     Warranty.保证卡




                                               苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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   Information Supplied - All WEEE
   信息提供- 所有WEEE
 Information for Treatment Facilities 给处理机构的信息

 - Information about reuse and treatment of EEE, of components and hazardous
  substances used inside the product and their location inside the product and
  disassembly information.
   该信息应该包括针对电子电气设备以及相关零部件的再生与处理,零部件与有害物质在
 产品中的具体位置以及相应的拆除方法

 - Plastic parts, which is >25g or >200mm2 must be marked according ISO 1043
  对于总重量大于25克或面积大于200平方毫米的塑料部件必须按 ISO 1043 规定的方法
 标识




                                                                   苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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    Information Supplied - All WEEE
    信息提供- 所有WEEE

- This information must be made available to all interested parties especially to reuse
  centers, treatment and recycling facilities in the form of manuals, by electronic means
  or on-line on Internet. The information must be available within one year after placing
  the product on the market.
   关于处理方法的信息,必须使所有对此感兴趣的机构均可获得,尤其应该对废弃物再生
  中心、处理或循环使用机构开放该信息可以通过用户手册、电子出版物或互联网在线服
  务等方式发布该信息应该在产品投放市场后的一年内仍能查询




                                                                        苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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   Information Supplied - Household WEEE
   信息提供- 家用WEEE

Details to be supplied to consumers:提供如下资料给消费者:
 Not to dispose of WEEE as unsorted municipal waste, but collect it
   separately; 不要将WEEE当做未分类垃圾随意丢弃,应进行分类回收
 Available return and collection systems;有效的回收系统
 The role of consumers in the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery;
   消费者应如何处理这些需要重复使用、再生及回收的事项
 The potential effects on the environment & human health of hazardous
   substances in the WEEE.
   WEEE中有害物质对环境和人身健康的潜在影响
 Meaning of the crossed wheelie bin symbol.
    带大叉有轮垃圾桶标志的含义
 May be required in the instructions and/or at point of sale.
    可以在说明书或/和销售地点获得




                                                               苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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RoHS Directive
2002/95/EEC




                      苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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   Reason and Objective 原因和目的

WHY? 为什么?
 Increased risk that lead disposed at landfills contaminates drinking water supplies
  饮用水水源受废弃填埋物中铅污染的危机日益严重
 22% of the annual world consumption of mercury is used in electronic and
  electrical equipment
  全世界每年消耗的汞,有 22%被应用在电子电气设备中
 Brominated flame retardants emit furan and dioxin during heating
  塑料中的溴化物阻燃剂在加热时会释放出呋喃与二噁英

Objective 目的
 Restriction of of the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic
   equipment限制电子电气设备中有害物质的使用

 and contribute to the protection of human health and recovery and disposal of
   waste of electrical and electronic equipment
   并有利于保障人类健康,有利于报废电子电气设备的再生或处理



                                                                  苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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   Scope 范围 1

Similar to the WEEE Directive, except:
与WEEE指令相似,除了:
 Applies to new EEE placed on the market after 1 July 2006.
   仅对于2006年7月1日起投放市场的新产品。

 Includes household filament light bulbs & luminaries.
  包括家用的白炙灯泡和光源。

 Should not disobey the special regulation or directive to safety and healthy
   不应违反特殊的关于安全和健康要求的专门指令或规定
   - Vehicle ELV (2000/53/EEC)
     车辆指令
   - Battery directive, 91/157/EEC, 93/86/EEC & 98/101/EC
     电池指令




                                                                  苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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     Scope 范围 2
                                           1. Large Household Appliances 大型家用电器
 Excludes 不包括:                            2. Small Household Appliances 小型家用电器
 - Medical devices or monitoring &         3. IT and Telecommunications Equipment
   control equipment (WEEE categories
                                                  信息与通讯设备
   8 & 9);
                                           4. Consumer Equipment 消费者
   医用器材或监控设备-WEEE指令第8
   ,9类                                     5. Lighting Equipment 照明设备
                                           6. Electrical and Electronic Tools

 - Spare parts for the repair of EEE          电子与电气工具
   placed on the market before 1 July      7. Toys, Leisure and Sports Equipment
   2006;                                      玩具, 休闲娱乐设备与运动器材
   在2006年7月1日前投放市场的维修备                     8 Medical Devices (not implanted and infected
   件。                                         devices) (after 2008)
                                              医疗装置 (不包含灌输与被污染的装置) (2008之后)
 - Re-used EEE originally placed on the
                                           9 Monitoring and Control Instruments (after 2008)
   market before 1 July 2006.
                                              监测与控制仪表 (2008之后)
   2006年7月1日前原先投放市场的再利
   用产品                                     10.Automatic Dispenser自动售货机




                                                                          苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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  Requirements – Outline 要求- 概要


Restricted hazardous substances:
限制的有毒物质:

 Heavy metals 重金属:
    Lead 铅;
    Mercury 汞;
    Cadmium 镉;
    Chromium (VI) 六价铬.
 Certain brominated flame retardants:
  某些溴化阻燃剂
    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB’s);
       多溴联苯
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE’s).
       多溴联苯醚




                                                苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
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       Requirements – Outline 要求- 概要
Proposal by TAC (Technical Adaptation Committee)
 TAC 的提议(技术编写委员会)
A maximum concentration value up to 0.1% by weight in specific materials of electrical
and electronic equipment for lead 1) , mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated
biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), and up to 0.01% by
weight in specific materials for cadmium, shall be tolerated.
电子电气设备使用的特定原材料中,允许的铅1),汞,六价铬,多溴联苯 (PBB) 和多溴
联苯醚 (PBDE) 含量最高为重量百分比0.1%,允许的镉含量最高为重量百分比0.01%。

1)   For solder alloys used to attach electrical components to printed circuit boards, a
maximum concentration of lead of 0.1% by weight of solder alloy shall be tolerated.
For electrical components attached to the printed circuit board, a maximum
concentration of lead of 0.1% by weight of the component shall be tolerated.
  用于印刷电路板上电气零部件焊接的焊料,其合金成分中允许的铅含量,最高为重量
百分比。用于印刷电路板的电气零部件,其组成中允许的铅含量,最高为重量百分比
0.1%。


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     Requirements – Outline 要求- 概要
Definition of Material: (under discussion)
原材料定义: (讨论中)
1.   Metals, (e.g. solder alloys, electroplated coatings, copper alloys, steel alloys,
     aluminum alloys), plastics and plastic blends (e.g. ABS, polyamide, PBT),
     ceramics, glass etc. in this case the limits apply to mass of the single material
     金属, (例如合金焊料, 电镀层, 铜合金, 铁合金, 铝合金), 塑料及其混合物 (例如 ABS,
     聚酰胺, PBT), 陶瓷, 玻璃等。在这种条件下,其含量限制适用于单一原材料
2.   Components (e.g. capacitors, switch, semiconductors, PCB, relays etc.) in this
     case the limits would apply to the mass of the whole component
     元器件 (例如电容器, 开关, 晶体管, PCB, 继电器等)。在这种条件下,其含量限制适
     用于整个元件
3.   Assemblies
     组合件




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   Lead - Current Use 铅- 实际应用

 Solder 焊锡
 Glass 玻璃
 Lead halides and lead phosphors in certain gas discharge lamps.
  某些气体放电灯中: 铅的卤化物和铅的磷酸盐
 Electronic ceramic parts.
  电子陶瓷元件
 Amiable-Cutting metal and alloy.
  易切削金属或合金中的应用
 Metallic coatings – brightener & stabiliser.
  金属覆盖物- 光亮剂和稳定剂
 Thermal stabiliser for plastics/rubber
  塑胶/橡胶的热稳定剂
 Ink/pigment/paint for printing/painting
   墨水/颜料/油漆
 Batteries 电池
 Resin additives 树脂添加剂
 Optical components 光学组件
 Contacts 触点
 Power cords and wires 电源和电缆


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     Lead - Permitted Uses (RoHS Exemptions)
     铅- 允许应用(豁免)
Glass in 玻璃:
 Cathode ray tubes 阴极射线管;
 Electronic components 电子元件;
 Fluorescent tubes 荧光管.
Alloying elements in 合金:
 Steel (maximum 0.35% lead) 钢 (最高0.35%的铅);
 Aluminium (maximum 0.4% lead) 铝 (最高 0.4% 的铅);
 Copper (maximum 4% lead) 铜 (最高4%的铅).
Solders 焊锡:
 Lead in high melting temperature type solders (i.e. tin-lead solder
        alloys containing more than 85% lead lead based alloys containing
 85% by weight or more lead.)
     高温融焊料中的铅(即:锡铅焊料合金中铅含量超过85%, 铅基体合金铅
 含量85%或更多)
 Servers, storage & storage arrays (until 2010);        Lead in solders for servers.storage
     服务器,存储器 ,存储器阵列(至2010)                               and storage array systems,
 Network infrastructure & telecom management.           Network infrastructure equipment
     网络基础设施和电信管理                                         for switching, signaling,
                                                        transmission as well as net work
Electronic ceramic parts,e.g. piezoelectronic devices. management for telecommunications
    电子陶瓷元件.                     如压电陶瓷.
Lead - Permitted Uses (RoHS Exemptions)
铅- 允许应用(豁免)
Summary 总之:
Clarification 明确了:
- lead used in compliant pin connector systems
  铅在倾向于接脚连接系统中的应用
- lead as a coating material for the thermal conduction module o-ring
   铅在热传导模块C形圈涂层材料中的应用
- lead and cadmium in optical and filter glass
   铅和镉在光学和滤镜玻璃中的应用
- lead in solders consisting of more than two elements for the connection
between the pins and the package of microprocessors with a lead content of
more than 80% and less than 85% by weight
   铅在微处理器的接脚和封装间连接的由大于两种元素组成的焊锡的应用,铅
的含量大于80%,小于85%。 半导体
- lead in solders to complete a viable electrical connection between
semiconductor die and carrier within integrated circuit Flip Chip packages
    铅在集成电路变址浮点运算芯片封装中半导体die核心和载子间完成可行的电
连接。
 RoHS Directive
 Mercury - Current Use     汞- 实际应用


 Fluorescent lamps, High intensity discharge (HID) lamps,
  荧光灯管, 高强度放电(HID) 灯管,
 Painting or pigment or ink     涂料或颜料
 LCD back light       液晶背光
 Tilt switches/adjuster   倾斜度开关/调节器
 Reed-relays       簧片式继电器
 Contact point materials(e.g relays)   连接材料(如继电器)
 Anti-corrosion treatment    抗腐蚀处理
 Thermostats       调温器
 Batteries 电池
      etc 等….




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  RoHS Directive
  Mercury - Permitted Uses (RoHS Exemptions)
  汞- 允许使用 (豁免)
 Compact fluorescent lamps (maximum 5 mg per lamp);
  微型荧光灯(每个灯最多不超过5毫克)
 Straight fluorescent lamps for general purposes: 一般直式荧光灯
    Halophosphate (maximum 10 mg per lamp);
      每个灯最多不超过10毫克
    Triphosphate with normal life (maximum 5 mg per lamp);
      普通使用三磷酸盐(每个灯最多不超过5毫克)
    Triphosphate with long life (maximum 8 mg);
      长期使用三磷酸盐(最多不超过8毫克)
 Straight fluorescent lamps for special purposes;
  特殊用途直荧光灯
 Other lamps not specifically mentioned.
  其他灯具




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  RoHS Directive
  Cadmium - Current Use            镉- 实际应用

 Cadmium plating.        镉电镀
 Solar cells & other light-sensitive devices, e.g CdTe
  太阳电池和其他光敏器件
 Electrical contact alloys, e.g relay, switch, thermostat
  电接触合金, 如继电器,开关,调温器
 Pigments, yellow – red - orange pigments 颜料
 Connection point 接点
 Solder 焊锡或熔丝
 Thermal stabiliser for plastics
  塑胶的热稳定剂
 Optical parts 光学组件
 Batteries, e.g Cd-Ni battery
  电池,如镍镉电池
 Springs     弹簧
 Power cords 电源线
 Wires      电缆




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RoHS Directive
Cadmium - Permitted Uses (RoHS Exemptions)
镉- 允许使用 (豁免)

Cadmium plating, except for applications banned under the Cadmium
Directive 91/338/EEC. e.g. production equipment or machinery and the
associated products in certain industries.
电镀镉,除了91/338/EEC禁止应用的以外。如生产设备、机器和在摹写工业领
域的相关的产品。

Cadmium and its compounds in electrical contacts and cadmium plating
except for applications banned under Directive 91/338/EEC amending
directive 76/769/EEC relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of
certain dangerous substances and preparations. Clarification of the
cadmium plating exemption.
在电接触部件和电镀镉中的镉及其化合物。明确了镉电镀的豁免。

lead and cadmium in optical and filter glass
铅和镉在光学和滤光镜




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  RoHS Directive
  Chromium (VI) - Current Use 六价铬-实际应用

 Metallic coatings,eg. Zinc electrical plating surface: Anti-Corrosion
  layer
  金属表层、和表面,如电镀锌金属表面的防腐层(钝化层 )。
 Metal plated plastics.
  金属电镀的塑料
 Coatings, paints, inks for printer         Dichromate anti-corrosion surface
  印刷和打印用的油墨、墨水
                                               重铬酸盐防腐和自修复钝化层
                                               (0.2-2µm)

Zinc electrical plating surface 镀锌层
(0.5-10µm)



         Metal base 金属基材



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RoHS Directive
Chromium (VI) - Current Use 六价铬-实际应用


 Anti-corrosion agent for the carbon steel system cooling system in
 absorption refrigerators. And phase out with exemption.
 碳钢中的防腐剂,和电冰箱制冷剂中的防腐剂。并逐步停止使用。




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   RoHS Directive
   PBB’s & PBDE’s - Current Use
   多溴联苯和多溴联苯醚- 实际应用

There are series of compounds concerned.
它们涉及一系列的化合物。


They are used as Flame retardants used for Housings; Printed circuit boards;
Cables, rated V-0/V-1 according to UL94.
它们以阻燃剂的用途用于屏蔽物和遮盖物,印刷电路板,电缆和电线等,根据UL94,
V-0/V-1设定。




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   RoHS Directive
   PBB’s & PBDE’s - Current Use
   多溴联苯和多溴联苯醚- 实际应用
 PBBs: mainly used for ABS plastic(arylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)
         主要用于ABS塑料
         US stop used in 1976, EU stop used in 2001
         美国于1976年停用,欧盟2001年停用
 PBDEs: used in plastics, PCB boards and cables.
          用于塑料,印刷电路板和电缆
          And Penta/Octa/Deca-BDEs always are available.
          五/八/十溴联苯醚经常被使用
   - Penta-BDEs: mainly used for phenolic resins/PVC/rubber/PU,
     五溴联苯醚:主要用于酚醛树脂/PVC塑胶/橡胶/聚氨酯
   - Octa-BDEs: mainly used for ABS/PA/PBT,
     八溴联苯醚:主要用于ABS/聚酰氨/聚丁烯
   - Deca-BDEs: mainly used for PA, PBT, PET, PVC, PU, rubber,
     十溴联苯醚:主要用于聚酰氨/聚丁烯/聚酯/PVC/聚氨酯/橡胶



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RoHS Directive
PBB’s & PBDE’s - Permitted Uses (RoHS Exemptions)
多溴联苯和多溴联苯醚- 允许使用(豁免)

There are currently no exemptions for these brominates flame retardants
except Deca-BDE. And Deca-BDE is under consideration by European
Commission.
除了十溴联苯醚以外无豁免,十溴联苯醚正在重新评估之中。

Penta-/Octa-BDEs have already banned by EU directive-2003/11/EEC.
五溴联苯醚和八溴联苯醚已经被欧盟指令-2003/11/EEC所禁用。




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    RoHS Directive
    Exemption Ongoing evaluation 正在进行评估的豁免

With reference to Article 7(2), the Commission shall evaluate the applications for:
根据在条款 7(2)条中提及的程序,欧盟委员会将评价以下方面的应用

- deca-BDE;
- The lead in lead-bronze bearing shells and bushes
- The lead crystal in the glass of chandeliers
- The use of non-RoHS compliant parts from old electrical and electronic equipment in
the manufacture of new equipment.




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    RoHS Directive
    Exemption amendment for RoHS Directive (VII) 修改的豁免
— Lead used in compliant-pin VHDM (Very High Density Medium) connector system
  顺应针(很高密度介质)连接系统中的铅
— Lead as a coating material for a thermal conduction module c-ring
  热传导模块o形圈覆盖材料中的铅
— Lead and cadmium in optical and filter glass
  光学和滤光玻璃中的铅和镉
— Lead in optical transceivers for industrial applications
  工业用途的光学收发器中的铅
— Lead in solders consisting of more than two elements for the connection between the
 pins and the package of microprocessors with a lead content of more than 85% in
 proportion to the tin-lead content (exemption until 2010)
   微处理器的接脚和封装间的超过两个元素组成的连接焊锡中的铅,其铅含量超过85%比
    例
   的铅锡合金.
— Lead in high melting temperature type solders (i.e. tin-lead solder alloys containing
 more than 85% lead) and any lower melting temperature solder required to be used
 with high melting temperature solder to complete a viable electrical connection
    高温型焊锡中的铅(如锡铅合金中的铅含量超过85%),和要求用于高熔化温度焊接以完
    成一可行的电连接的任何低温合金.
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  RoHS Directive
  Exemption amendment for RoHS Directive (VIII) 修改的豁免


— Lead in solders to complete a viable electrical connection internal to certain
  Integrated Circuit Packages (Flip Chips) (exemption until 2010)
  焊锡中的铅是为满足某些集成电路(变址浮点运算芯片)有效可行的内部连接.
— Article 4(1) substances in safety equipment for fire and rescue services.
  第4(1)章中的物质在安全设备(火灾和营救服务)中.
— Lead in lead-bronze bearing-shells and bushes
  在铅-青铜轴承外壳和衬套中的铅




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    Implementation Timetable on WEEE & RoHS
    WEEE/RoHS 执行时间表

WEEE and RoHS                                           Collection quote 4kg/inhabitant
                                National
publish in official                                       from household, recycling
                             implementation
  EU-Journal                                                  and recovery quotes

         Feb.13, 2003         Aug.13, 2004(?)                  Dec.31, 2006



      2003            2004           2005               2006           2007           2008



                      Aug.13, 2005                       Jul.1, 2006          Dec.31, 2008

                                                                               Amendment of quota
               Take back system on
                                                Material bans                 for recycling, recovery,
                   the market
                                                                                       reuse



              Deadlines Extended for new EU-Member


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   Implementation present situation of EU countries on
   WEEE & RoHS
   欧盟国家WEEE/RoHS 执行的现状

There are 3 types:
有三类国家
-A type: actively to push, sternly execute the directive, and they always have the
good condition and basic on waste treatment system.
A类:积极推进,执法严厉, 他们通常有很好的废弃物处理系统


-B type: just follow, they have the waste treatment system
B类:仅跟进,他们一般有废弃物处理系统


-C type: antipathy,
C类:反感



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Recommendation
建议




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    How to approach WEEE? 如何实施以应对WEEE
Design 设计
Bring the environmental concept into the design scheme, actively and initiatively
research and develop the new material/new technology/new ideas
在设计中纳入环保理念,积极主动研发和使用环保新材料、新技术和新观念:
a)the dosage of the raw material: as less as better, the number of assistant materials:
as less as better, the output rate: as higher as better. The input material had better to
be recovery and easy to collect.
 原材料用量越少越好;辅助材料用得越少越好、产出率越高越好;导入的材料最好可再
生、易回收;
b)performance/quality/security/reliability of the product should be design to better or
perfect, and prolong the durability.
   产品的性能、质量、安全性、可靠性越高越好,使用寿命越长越好;
c)easy-disassembly design: try to design the product as blocking, easy for
dismantling/assemble/collection, in order to reduce the dismantling fee, and can also
prolong the complete product life—only remove and exchange one part.
  拆卸设计,要尽可能把产品各功能部分做成积木式,便于拆卸、组装和回收,降低回
收处理拆解费用;同时可以延长整机的使用寿命-只换其中一部分便可.


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   How to approach WEEE? 如何实施以应对WEEE
d)the performance of the products can show more benefit to environment, and
energy exhaust should be as lower as better.
   产品性能对环境越有利越好, 能耗越小越好
e)reduce the manufacture cost include cost used for environmental protection.
   尽量降低包括环境成本在内的生产成本;
 f) Reuse and recycle design concept, and lead to more parts with reused or
recycling function.
   再生设计,产品中可重复利用的部分越多越好;
But,
Generally speaking it will not solve the WEEE problem(some people think so,
but it is not true. 总体来说:设计无法解决所有问题
Design for recycling is useful when combined with other item
循环设计只有和其他方面相结合才有用。
 * Lower disassembly time=lower assembly time
 * Less materials diversity=good for lower bill of material

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   How to approach WEEE? 如何实施以应对WEEE


Join the Eropean Indstry Association EICTA
加入欧洲工业协会EICTA


Join consortium of companies dealing with WEEE implementation
加入致力于WEEE实施的公司联合会
Collective implementation of individual producer responsibility is allowed
允许单独生产者责任制的集体实施
-don’t try to do by yourself 不要尝试着自己做
-No competitive advantage, but also no competitive disadvantage
没有竞争的优势,而且没有竞争的劣势。




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    How to approach WEEE? 如何实施以应对WEEE

Material declaration:
材料申明
-Prepare the material list, and the material’s detail location;
准备材料清单,和材料的具体位置;
-Provide the each material’ weight, these materials can be reused or recycled,
 提供每种有用材料的重量,这些材料可以被再利用和循环利用
 Then, It can reduce the treatment cost, because the waste treatment
manufactories can sale the useful materials, such as gold or copper to earn the
money by using the material declaration.
 这样,就可以降低处理的费用,应为废弃物处理工厂可以通过卖掉有用的材料来
赚钱,如金子和铜,但只有清楚的材料申明才有助于这一行为
-mark or provide the plastic information, then the plastic can be reused or recycled
again. 标明和提供塑料的信息以便再利用和循环使用



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How to approach WEEE? 如何实施以应对WEEE




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    How to approach WEEE? 如何实施以应对WEEE
Complies with EU Directive, 2002/96/EEC(WEEE) for:
满足WEEE指令的要求
 Marking
  标签
 Product Design Article
  产品实际项目
 Information for treatment Facilities Article
  信息提供项目
Additional Information for recycling facilities about substances and materials
impacting the recycling process in particular the metal smelting process included
in parts and components others than Printed Circuit Boards
  额外的为便于循环使用的关于物质和材料影响的信息
Report template 报告模板: WEEE_Report_Version_1.doc



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     How to approach RoHS? 如何实施以满足RoHS

1. Build the environmental quality ensure management system
     环境品质保证管理体系的建立


2.   Assuring the products not contain the banned substances of the environmental
     QMs
     产品不含有环境管理禁用物质的保证




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    How to approach RoHS? 如何实施以满足RoHS
- know the hazardous substances content information in raw materials and request
suppliers provide the relevant information. Entirely survey to the composition of all the
materials. Set up the system and criterion on factory auditing to all the suppliers.
Supervising the suppliers on real time. Provide the necessary support and help to
rectify and improve the products for the suppliers. Provide the essential information to
suppliers.
 对原材料化学物质含有情况的了解和要求供应商提供相关信息,全面调查供应商材料
所含的成分;建立对供应商的工厂审核制度和规范;实时监督供应商,并协助供应商
整改,为供应商提供必要的信息;
- Test report: set up the documentation system for the test reports of own products,
the test report from suppliers.
   产品的检测和报告:自己工厂成品的监测和对供应商报告的要求及文件系统
 - Confirm and establish the control point on the producing process, real time
inspection
   建立,确认产品生产过程的控制点,实时监控;




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    How to approach RoHS? 如何实施以满足RoHS
Manufacturer conduct Supplier Survey 由供应商到生产者的审核途径



        Suppliers 供应商                        Manufacturer 生产者



 Material Supplier             Material,
                                                     Establish
 材料供应商                         Component
                                                     Component and
                               and
                                                     Material
                               Parts                 Database
 Component Supplier
                               Declaration
 零件供应商                                               建立
                               原材料,
                               零件和                   零部件和原材料
                               部件
 Other parts Supplier                                数据库
                               申明
 其他部件供应商




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 How to approach RoHS? 如何实施以满足RoHS

 Supplier Survey 供应商审核
 Survey for every supplier must cover
 针对每个供应商的审核必须函盖:

    - Manufacturing process
      制造工艺

    - Packaging material content (if any)
      包装材料目录 (如果存在)

    - Product / Component / Part content
      产品 / 零件 / 部件目录

    - Batteries content (if any)
       电池目录 (如果存在)




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  How to approach RoHS? 如何实施以满足RoHS
Design and manufacture 设计和生产
- Design
 a)control the hazardous substance, understand the quality and possible harmful
    of every raw material. Set up the documentation system, and stop the use of
    the materials containing the banned substances. And confirm the materials has
    much less toxicity
     有毒物质的控制,详细地了解原材料质量及其可能的危害性,进行分类并造册存
     档,杜绝使用世界上的禁用物质;原材料的毒性越小越好;
 b)control the contamination during manufacture: design the manufacture process
   and work flow in pertinence, in order to prevent generating hazardous
   substances in every working procedure; or have the corrective action plan.
     工艺过程产生污染越少越好:要有针对地进行工艺设计,使每一道工序都不产生
     或避免产生危害性物质,或考虑好危害性物质的处理方法和措施;




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  How to approach RoHS? 如何实施以满足RoHS


- Manufacture 生产
  a) Control the contamination: use testing for supervision
控制污染:事后处理,采用检验,在发现污染后采取措施,由于反复检测,根据结
果进行改进,成本较高;但对工厂技术人员要求低,是个可用的“笨办法”;


  b) Depollution 防止污染:Control beforehand, control the design.
事前管理,通过设计和重新设计的办法,在产品的设计阶段就预先取消或改变有可
能产生危害性副产品的工艺和制造方法。。这种方法需要大量的启动资金进行前期
的誓言,开始会投入较大的人力和物力成本,但一旦完成,就可以从本质上杜绝污
染,并且可以降低长期的检测成本,一劳永逸。




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   How to approach RoHS? 如何实施以满足RoHS

If find banned substances: 如果发现了禁用物质
  don’t fear 不必害怕
- find if it is exempted 查一下是否是豁免的。
- if it is no exempted, then find if other companies also content all use, or if it is
under considering to be exempted by EU
  如果不是豁免的,查一下是否有其他公司用,或是否是欧盟正在考虑豁免的项目
- if no way to change, and no exemption, no plan to be exempted, no other
companies use, then ask help from the some EU association or European famous
experts, provide a letter to government of related EU country, to explain and
confirm the improvement plan to ask the excuse.
 如果无法改,无豁免,无计划豁免,无其他公司用,则应向欧盟的相关行业协会或
著名的专家寻求帮助,准备向欧盟国家的相关政府提交说明信函,解释和确认改进
计划以求谅解。




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       Replacement-Example
       替代物质-例子
1.     Lead free solder 无铅焊锡
•      At present most of solders is the tin-lead alloy as:63% tin / 37%lead (187 °C)
       最常用的焊料是铅锡合金(63%锡,37%铅)(187 °C)


•      Main replacement: SnAgCu (Ag 3.3-4.3%, Cu 0.4-1.1%)
        锡、银、铜作为主要替代物 (银3.3-4.3%, 铜 0.4 – 1.1%)
      LF218TM 96.5 Sn /3.0 Ag /0.5Cu (217-218)* recommended by JEIDA
       patented.(为JEIDA专利推荐)
      96 Sn / 3.5 Ag / 0.5 Cu (217-218)* no patented(未获专利)
      CASTIN® 96.2 Sn / 2.5 Ag / 0.8 Cu / 0.5 Sb (217)* patented(已获专利)
     *=melting point in °C
       熔点为 °C




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Replacement-Example
替代物质-例子

 Lead free soldering cost comparison 无铅焊锡合金价格比较



Alloy                                        Cost Per Kg (US Dollar)
63Sn / 37Pb                                  6.36
96.5 Sn /3.0 Ag /0.5Cu                       9.33
96 Sn / 3.5 Ag / 0.5 Cu                      10.44
96.2 Sn / 2.5 Ag / 0.8 Cu / 0.5 Sb           8.59




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Replacement-Example
替代物质-例子
  Japan companies leading in lead free soldering   日本无铅焊锡进展和计
      划




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       Replacement-Example
       替代物质-例子
2.     Cadmium free Contact point 无镉连接点
     At present, the materials for contact point are 目前的替代品:
         AgCdO or AgCdSe or AgCdO + Cu
     And the main replacement is 主要的替代品:
         AgSnO or AgZnO




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     Replacement-Example
     替代物质-例子

3.   Alternative brominated flame retardants (BFR)
     可以使用的溴化阻燃剂


     - Oligomeric brominated flame retardants
        低聚溴化阻燃剂
     - Tetrabromobisphenol – A (TBBPA) mainly used for PCB board
        四溴二苯酚 – A (TBBPA), 主要用于印刷电路板
     - Ethylene 1,2 bis(tetrabromophthalimide) – (EBTBP)
        乙烯1,2 二(四溴苯邻二甲酰亚胺) – (EBTBP)
     - Ethane 1,2 bis(pentabromophenyl) – (EBP)
       乙烷1,2 二(五溴联苯) – (EBP)




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   Replacement-Example
   替代物质-例子

4. Replacement of Mercury 汞的替代品
   tilt switches, reed-relays, thermostats. contact point material (e.g. relays) -
   replacement available
   跌倒开关,干簧继电器,温控器触点材料 (如继电器上使用的) - 可使用替代物




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     Replacement-Example
     替代物质-例子
4. Replacement of Cr(6+) 六价铬的替代品
DACROMET technology ,invented by US, but Japanese buy the patent. This
material has a good anti-corrosion performance, and no Cr(6+)
达克罗技术,美国发明,日本买下了专利。有良好的耐腐蚀性,无六价铬。




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Test method
检测方法




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         Heavy metal test method                 重金属检测方法
Test method        Destroying method 破坏性方法                                  Non-destroying method
检测方法                                                                            非破坏性方法
                BS EN 1122,EPA 3050,EPA 3051,
                    EPA 3052,EPA3060,etc.
Instrument    1. AAS- FAAS, GAAS, Hydride-AAS                1.     XRF
仪器            2. AFS                                         2.     EDX
              3. ICP-AES
              4. ICP-MS
              5. UV-Vis
Excellence    1. Good recovery 重现性、回收率好                      1. Rapid and simple method 分析快速、简单
优点            2. Exact quantitative method 准确定量              2. Reserve sample integrality 保存样品完整性
              3. Standard support method 标准支持方法              3. No sample preparation procedure, so no pollution
              4. Can detect most of metal elements 可以           无需样品的前处理,省去消化、存取等步骤,没有
                 测量大部分金属元素                                      酸雾等废气、废液的污染
                                                             4. Has the certain high detection sensitivity for Lead
                                                                and Cadmium 对某些元素有一定高的灵敏度
Disadvantag   1. Take long time and need more HR 消           1. Cannot detect most of metal elements, just
e                化时间长,好人力                                       Lead/Cadmium at present 无法反映样品全部的元
缺点            2. Bad pollution, and create waste water          素含量,目前,只有铅/镉.
                 and gas 污染大,有较多的废气、废液                       2. It is not the quantitative method, just the semi-
                 污染                                             quantitative method 不是经典的定量方法,属于半
              3. Dangerous method 消化过程危险性较                      定量范畴
                 大                                           3. Heavy interference 有较高的干扰.
              4. Investment more 设备投入大                       4. It is not the international standard supported
                                                                                          苏州时代之峰电子科技有限公司
              5. High requirement to staff 对人员要求高    70/72      method 是一个非标准方法
Heavy metal Detection instruments
重金属检测仪器




                          Graphite Furnace AAS     Flame Furnace AAS
                          石墨炉原子吸收光谱仪               火焰原子吸收光谱仪
      EDX
能量分散型X光射线衍射光谱仪




                             ICP-MS                  ICP-AES
                          电感耦合等离子质谱仪             电感耦合等离子发射光谱仪




 UV-Vis spectrum meter
  紫外可见分光光度计
                                 AFS(Hydride generator)
                            原子荧光光谱仪(氢化物发生原子吸收光谱仪)
     EDX method
     能量分散型X光射线衍射光谱仪方法的应用
1.    Quantitative and qualitative applying 定量和定性分析
     - strictly speaking, EDX is a semi-quantitative method, or the qualitative method,
       normally can tell the user: contain or not.
      严格来说,EDX是一种半定量或定性地方法,一般可告诉使用者:含有或不含有.
     - As the technical development, EDX use standard reference calibration curve, and can
       quantitatively and truly detect the some elements(such as lead/cadmium, etc) in
       some base material(PVC, the same material as the reference std. sample). For
       Cr(6+) and Bromine flame retardant, should use other methods such as GC-MS or
       HPLC or LC-MS for the confirmation, since the EDX can only detect Total Cr and
       Total Bromine.
      随着技术地发展,EDX应用标准物质参数法可对一些元素(如铅/镉)在特定基材(PVC, 由
      于仪器供应商使用PVC作为标准物质的基材)中进行较为准确的定量. 但如果测出铬或
      溴,则需用其他方法进一步确认,因为EDX测出的是总铬和总溴含量.
2.    Actual usage 实际应用:
     - Filtering the raw materials 遴选原材料.
     - A lot of manufactories begin to use this method. 已有许多工厂在应用.
      i.e. Cadmium 如对于镉: <20ppm accepted(接受);
                     20-50ppm Confirmed by ICP(用ICP法进行确认);
                      >50ppm Unaccepted (不接受)

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