Lisarow High School Core Ancient History Feedback on 2008 HSC questions 1 2008 HSC –Feedback Question 1. 7 marks total Source 1 “At the same time, an unbelievable quantity of ash was blown out, covering land, sea and all of the sky. Not surprisingly it did a great deal of damage to men, farms and cattle. It destroyed all fish and birds and in addition, it buried two whole cities, Herculaneum and…Pompeii…..the whole cloud of dust was so great that some of it reached Africa, Syria and Egypt; it also reached Rome, filling the sky above it and darkening the sun.” Dio Cassio 66.23 a) What is described in Source 1 1 mark the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD and the destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum b) Give TWO examples from Source 1 that indicate this was a major event. 2 marks The cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried by ash The dustcloud reached Africa ,Syria , Egypt and Rome The sky was darkened Source 2- photo of a streetscape in Herculaneum. c) Using Source 2 and your own knowledge, describe the streetscapes in Herculaneum. 4 marks Herculaneum had two main streets parallel and adjacent to each other The “Decumani” was oriented to Rome and the Vias were adjacent The streets were wide for a Roman town The streets were paved with stone Majority of houses were double story villas Streets would have had an atrocious smell because the majority of human waste thrown into the street to run into the sewer system There is little evidence of carts (as in Pompeii-which was rutted with wear ) Houses and shops opened onto the footpaths Verandahs on upper stories opened onto footpaths as shown in Source 2 Upstairs on the buildings is where the families lived Shops ,taverns and bars were downstairs Rich villas were decorated with extravagant doorways right on the footpath Stepping stones across the street were common Pedestrian walkways the same as today and paved streets but different materials There were fountains at every corner ,connected to the aqueducts for a fresh water supply Lisarow High School Core Ancient History Feedback on 2008 HSC questions 2 Gradient at Herculaneum much steeper than Pompeii ,hence evidence of less stepping stones than at Pompeii and drainage better .Less prone to floods ,better infrastructure and less people to accommodate Question 2 8 marks Source 3 The Gladiatorial troupe of Aulus Suettius Certus will fight at Pompeii on 31 May. There will be a hunt and awnings. Good fortune to all Neronian games. Gaius Quinctius Valgus ,son of Gaius and Marcus Porcius ,son of Marcus , quinquennial duumvirs ,for the honour of the colony ,saw to the construction of the amphitheatre at their own expense and gave the area to the colonists in perpetuity. Question 2. 8 marks Using Source 3 and your own knowledge, explain the importance of the amphitheatre in Pompeiian society. The amphitheatre was very significant for the people of Pompeii ,it was a form of mass entertainment It has been described as a social snapshot of the social structure –the poorest citizens way up in the “nose-bleed” bleachers ,down to the front row seats where the richest and most prominent citizens were seated The amphitheatre was one of the first areas discovered in the excavation of Pompeii open to the public The amphitheatres seats were in a great hollow excavated for this purpose. The amphitheatre must have occupied around twenty thousand spectators. The walls around the arena are only six feet high. It is believed that admission to higher seats was free, because they were so undesirable. It held a variety of sporting and entertainment events These ranged from animal fights , humans fighting and killing animals and most popular of all , gladiatorial events between trained and armed fighters These were either slaves or captured prisoners of war or criminals and often fought to the death Some of them were trained at special gladiatorial schools where they leaned to put up an entertaining fight Some of these gladiatorial schools have been identified in Pompeii such as the Gladiatorial Barracks Lisarow High School Core Ancient History Feedback on 2008 HSC questions 3 Source 3 says that a gladiatorial troupe will fight on 31st May and hints that sometimes they didn’t have enough of their own gladiators and hired them from travelling shows. Sometimes if they fought bravely and lost they were spared from being killed by the victor by the pleas of the crowd As seen by Source 3 part of the spectacle ,the earlier part of the program involved a hunt of wild and exotic animals which were killed and their remains given to the poor as food Awnings were provided by the local politicians to shade the upper class spectators. These sails were manned by sailors who were quite skilled with rigging ropes etc to move the sails as required. It was a highly desirable duty for sailors allowed to view the games .A naval base nearby provided the crews for these details. As seen in Source 3 the Games on 31 May (year unspecified) were associated with the former emperor Nero who like many other aspiring politicians wanted to gain support from the crowd for entertaining them. Maybe the style of the gladiatorial games are called Neronian in their extravagance (?) His (Nero) reign ended in 68 AD and the next emperors were Vespasian till 24 June 79 and Titus his son became emperor at the time of the eruption. Titus was famous for opening the Flavian Amphitheatre (The Colosseum) in 80 AD. Archaeologist Green “the Roman people were clearly obsessed with gladiatorial sport.” Brian Brennan says it is doubtful that Herculaneum had an amphitheatre as it was a much smaller centre , a smaller fishing village compared to Pompeii which was a provincial city As seen in the second inscription in Source 3 Valgus and Porcius were two local politicians who wanted the electoral support of the crowd. They were quinquennial duumvirs, two senior local magistrates elected every 5 years similar to modern mayors or state parliamentarians. (?) They personally financed the building of this amphitheatre Games were funded by the aediles or duoviri of the city There were also inscriptions in Pompeii about the outcomes of battles between leading gladiators e.g. “Cedalus, glory of the girls ,heartthrob of the girls” Lisarow High School Core Ancient History Feedback on 2008 HSC questions 4 Smaller cities (like Pompeii) held chariot racing in the amphitheatres as well as hunting contests, sport and other contests. All sorts of entertainment connected to athletics were highly regarded in Roman society. Archaeologist Ray Lawrence “the amphitheatre was a snapshot of social structure. If you’re up the back (of the amphitheatre) you’re a no-one. If you’re at the front you know you’ve made it ,indicating the seating in the amphitheatre held a specific social role” Question 3. 10 marks Source 4 Photo of modern excavation and reconstruction Source 5 …. reconstruction provides us with a means of visualising past environments, allowing us a glimpse of the past that might otherwise be difficult to appreciate. Kate Devlin and Alan Chalmers University of Bristol Using Sources 4 and 5 and your own knowledge , assess methods used by archaeologists and/or other specialists to reconstruct the past at Pompeii and/or Herculaneum. [About 30 lines – 1 ½ pages] (Begin with some type of debate ,therefore it will be an assessment) Methods of reconstructing the past at Pompeii and Herculaneum have developed over time to become controversial and ethical issues Debates whether or not to reconstruct are particularly prominent in current times If an area is dangerous to excavate there has to be some consideration for the safety of the archaeologists themselves When Fiorelli was active from 1863 he introduced innovations to the science of learning about Pompeii The hollows in ash he filled with plaster created images of bodies, first allowed us to reconstruct their deaths. However the methods used had flaws (unknown at the time) Lisarow High School Core Ancient History Feedback on 2008 HSC questions 5 The greatest was the shrinkage of the plaster when it dries , distorting the true shape Fiorelli’s later positioning of the bodies was a reconstruction and open to discussion and interpretations. Like all reconstructions done by Fiorelli and later by Maiuri under the Italian Fascist project images and figures were idealised images that held only a degree of historical “truth” and were politically based Under Maiuri Pompeii was the showcase of Italian superior culture and his reconstructions would echo this ideology. Modern attempts at conservation and reconstruction are being more carefully planned as evidenced by Source 4 Though Francis argues that the conservation and reconstruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum are now impossible tasks due to half hearted previous attempts and tampering ,new methods are making it easier for archaeologists to reconstruct what happened The value of reconstructions as outlined in Source 5 are great but cannot sacrifice the truth New reconstruction and conservation methods such as the new roofing in source 4 ; the epoxy resin casting used in the Lady of Oplontis and the new Neopolis Project dedicated to minutely record images and archaeological data on an accessible data base computer “will lead to an advancement of archaeological understanding of Pompeii .” Settis With regard to the Lady of Oplontis the epoxy resin used with that body was see through and allowed all those different scans to be much more effective. The positioning of the skeleton demonstrated exposure to extreme heat at the time of death (e.g. feet pulled back) First x-ray done of a body from Pompeii. It was cast in resin and brought to Sydney by Estelle Lazer who preformed the x-ray. It marked an innovation as new technology was used. Recent work that meets modern criteria of care and accumulation of data is evidenced in Sarah Bisel’s work on the Herculaneum boatyards.