2008 HSC-feedback by keralaguest


									Lisarow High School                                                   Core Ancient History
Feedback on 2008 HSC questions 1

2008 HSC –Feedback
Question 1.                                               7 marks total
Source 1
         “At the same time, an unbelievable quantity of ash was blown out, covering land, sea and all
of the sky. Not surprisingly it did a great deal of damage to men, farms and cattle. It destroyed all
fish and birds and in addition, it buried two whole cities, Herculaneum and…Pompeii…..the whole
cloud of dust was so great that some of it reached Africa, Syria and Egypt; it also reached Rome,
filling the sky above it and darkening the sun.”                 Dio Cassio 66.23
a) What is described in Source 1                                                         1 mark
        the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD and the destruction of Pompeii and
b) Give TWO examples from Source 1 that indicate this was a major event.                 2 marks
        The cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried by ash
        The dustcloud reached Africa ,Syria , Egypt and Rome
        The sky was darkened
Source 2- photo of a streetscape in Herculaneum.
c) Using Source 2 and your own knowledge, describe the streetscapes in Herculaneum.          4 marks
        Herculaneum had two main streets parallel and adjacent to each other
        The “Decumani” was oriented to Rome and the Vias were adjacent
        The streets were wide for a Roman town
        The streets were paved with stone
        Majority of houses were double story villas
        Streets would have had an atrocious smell because the majority of human
         waste thrown into the street to run into the sewer system
        There is little evidence of carts (as in Pompeii-which was rutted with wear )
        Houses and shops opened onto the footpaths
        Verandahs on upper stories opened onto footpaths as shown in Source 2
        Upstairs on the buildings is where the families lived
        Shops ,taverns and bars were downstairs
        Rich villas were decorated with extravagant doorways right on the footpath
        Stepping stones across the street were common
        Pedestrian walkways the same as today and paved streets but different
        There were fountains at every corner ,connected to the aqueducts for a
         fresh water supply
Lisarow High School                                                  Core Ancient History
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          Gradient at Herculaneum much steeper than Pompeii ,hence evidence of
           less stepping stones than at Pompeii and drainage better .Less prone to
           floods ,better infrastructure and less people to accommodate

Question 2 8 marks
Source 3
The Gladiatorial troupe of Aulus Suettius Certus will fight at Pompeii on 31 May. There will be
a hunt and awnings. Good fortune to all Neronian games.

Gaius Quinctius Valgus ,son of Gaius and Marcus Porcius ,son of Marcus , quinquennial
duumvirs ,for the honour of the colony ,saw to the construction of the amphitheatre at their own
expense and gave the area to the colonists in perpetuity.
Question 2.                                                              8 marks
Using Source 3 and your own knowledge, explain the importance of the amphitheatre in Pompeiian
          The amphitheatre was very significant for the people of Pompeii ,it was a
           form of mass entertainment
          It has been described as a social snapshot of the social structure –the
           poorest citizens way up in the “nose-bleed” bleachers ,down to the front
           row seats where the richest and most prominent citizens were seated
          The amphitheatre was one of the first areas discovered in the excavation
           of Pompeii open to the public
          The amphitheatres seats were in a great hollow excavated for this purpose.
          The amphitheatre must have occupied around twenty thousand spectators.
           The walls around the arena are only six feet high.
          It is believed that admission to higher seats was free, because they were so
          It held a variety of sporting and entertainment events
          These ranged from animal fights , humans fighting and killing animals and
           most popular of all , gladiatorial events between trained and armed fighters
          These were either slaves or captured prisoners of war or criminals and
           often fought to the death
          Some of them were trained at special gladiatorial schools where they
           leaned to put up an entertaining fight
          Some of these gladiatorial schools have been identified in Pompeii such as
           the Gladiatorial Barracks
Lisarow High School                                         Core Ancient History
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      Source 3 says that a gladiatorial troupe will fight on 31st May and hints
       that sometimes they didn’t have enough of their own gladiators and hired
       them from travelling shows.
      Sometimes if they fought bravely and lost they were spared from being
       killed by the victor by the pleas of the crowd
      As seen by Source 3 part of the spectacle ,the earlier part of the program
       involved a hunt of wild and exotic animals which were killed and their remains
       given to the poor as food
      Awnings were provided by the local politicians to shade the upper class
       spectators. These sails were manned by sailors who were quite skilled with
       rigging ropes etc to move the sails as required. It was a highly desirable duty
       for sailors allowed to view the games .A naval base nearby provided the
       crews for these details.
      As seen in Source 3 the Games on 31 May (year unspecified) were
       associated with the former emperor Nero who like many other aspiring
       politicians wanted to gain support from the crowd for entertaining them.
      Maybe the style of the gladiatorial games are called Neronian in their
       extravagance (?)
      His (Nero) reign ended in 68 AD and the next emperors were Vespasian
       till 24 June 79 and Titus his son became emperor at the time of the
       eruption. Titus was famous for opening the Flavian Amphitheatre (The
       Colosseum) in 80 AD.
      Archaeologist Green “the Roman people were clearly obsessed with
       gladiatorial sport.”
      Brian Brennan says it is doubtful that Herculaneum had an amphitheatre
       as it was a much smaller centre , a smaller fishing village compared to
       Pompeii which was a provincial city
      As seen in the second inscription in Source 3 Valgus and Porcius were
       two local politicians who wanted the electoral support of the crowd. They
       were quinquennial duumvirs, two senior local magistrates elected every 5
       years similar to modern mayors or state parliamentarians. (?)
      They personally financed the building of this amphitheatre
      Games were funded by the aediles or duoviri of the city
      There were also inscriptions in Pompeii about the outcomes of battles
       between leading gladiators e.g. “Cedalus, glory of the girls ,heartthrob of
       the girls”
Lisarow High School                                         Core Ancient History
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      Smaller cities (like Pompeii) held chariot racing in the amphitheatres as well
       as hunting contests, sport and other contests. All sorts of entertainment
       connected to athletics were highly regarded in Roman society.
      Archaeologist Ray Lawrence “the amphitheatre was a snapshot of social
       structure. If you’re up the back (of the amphitheatre) you’re a no-one. If
       you’re at the front you know you’ve made it ,indicating the seating in the
       amphitheatre held a specific social role”

Question 3.                                                                10 marks
Source 4
Photo of modern excavation and reconstruction
Source 5
…. reconstruction provides us with a means of visualising past environments,
allowing us a glimpse of the past that might otherwise be difficult to appreciate.
Kate Devlin and
Alan Chalmers
University of Bristol

Using Sources 4 and 5 and your own knowledge       , assess methods used
by archaeologists and/or other specialists to reconstruct the past at Pompeii
and/or Herculaneum.
  [About 30 lines – 1 ½ pages]
      (Begin with some type of debate ,therefore it will be an assessment)
      Methods of reconstructing the past at Pompeii and Herculaneum have
       developed over time to become controversial and ethical issues
      Debates whether or not to reconstruct are particularly prominent in current
      If an area is dangerous to excavate there has to be some consideration for
       the safety of the archaeologists themselves
      When Fiorelli was active from 1863 he introduced innovations to the
       science of learning about Pompeii
      The hollows in ash he filled with plaster created images of bodies, first
       allowed us to reconstruct their deaths.
      However the methods used had flaws (unknown at the time)
Lisarow High School                                        Core Ancient History
Feedback on 2008 HSC questions 5
      The greatest was the shrinkage of the plaster when it dries , distorting the
       true shape
      Fiorelli’s later positioning of the bodies was a reconstruction and open to
       discussion and interpretations.
      Like all reconstructions done by Fiorelli and later by Maiuri under the
       Italian Fascist project images and figures were idealised images that held
       only a degree of historical “truth” and were politically based
      Under Maiuri Pompeii was the showcase of Italian superior culture and his
       reconstructions would echo this ideology.
      Modern attempts at conservation and reconstruction are being more
       carefully planned as evidenced by Source 4
      Though Francis argues that the conservation and reconstruction of
       Pompeii and Herculaneum are now impossible tasks due to half hearted
       previous attempts and tampering ,new methods are making it easier for
       archaeologists to reconstruct what happened
      The value of reconstructions as outlined in Source 5 are great but cannot
       sacrifice the truth
      New reconstruction and conservation methods such as the new roofing in
       source 4 ; the epoxy resin casting used in the Lady of Oplontis and the
       new Neopolis Project dedicated to minutely record images and
       archaeological data on an accessible data base computer “will lead to an
       advancement of archaeological understanding of Pompeii .” Settis
      With regard to the Lady of Oplontis the epoxy resin used with that body
       was see through and allowed all those different scans to be much more
      The positioning of the skeleton demonstrated exposure to extreme heat at
       the time of death (e.g. feet pulled back)
      First x-ray done of a body from Pompeii. It was cast in resin and brought to
       Sydney by Estelle Lazer who preformed the x-ray. It marked an innovation
       as new technology was used.
      Recent work that meets modern criteria of care and accumulation of data is
       evidenced in Sarah Bisel’s work on the Herculaneum boatyards.

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