Human Resource Management by Ivancevich by zzq15271


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									Human Resource Management B8204:
   Managing Workplace Diversity

       Tuesday January 24th, 2006
• Sexual Harassment
  – Peirce, Smolinski, & Rosen (1998)

• Managing Diversity
  – Kossek & Zonia (1993)
  – Gilbert & Ivancevich (2000)
• Canadian Human Rights Act also
  prohibits harassment, such that it is a
  discriminatory practice.
• Harassment:
  – “Occurs with a member of an organization
    treats an employee in a disparate manner
    because of that person’s sex, race,
    religion, age, or other protective
        Sexual Harassment
•   What is sexual harassment?
•   How do you measure it?
•   Who does it?
•   Why do people do it?
•   What are the consequences?
•   Lessons learned?
        Sexual Harassment
• What is it?
  – Generate a full and comprehensive list of
    what we think it is
  – What is the underlying feature (ie can we
    provide a unifying definition?)
• How do we Measure it?
  – Frequency?
     • Two different questions, two different answers
  – Severity or impact?
        Sexual Harassment
• Who does it?
  – Primarily men
  – A considerable amount of peer-based harassment
• Why do they do it?
  – Social structure
     • Power imbalance (eg gender distribution in groups)
  – Personal psychopathology
     • Obsession
     • Rape and Sexual harassment myths
  – Organizational factors
What are the Consequences?
• Personal?
• Organizational?
• And new avenues for research
  – Vicarious?
  – Behavioral responses (e.g., absenteeism
    and turnover, grievances, workplace
          Sexual Harassment
• Peirce, Smolinski, & Rosen (1998). Why
  sexual harassment complaints fall on deaf
  ears. AME.
  – Factors contributing to managerial and
    organizational inaction – fall prey to “deaf ear
     • Inadequate policies and procedures
     • Managerial reactions and rationalizations
     • Inertial tendencies
• One of the biggest organizational challenges
• Essentially, diversity is human characteristics
  that make people different from one another
  – The mosaic of people who bring a variety of
    backgrounds, styles, and beliefs as assets to the
    groups and organizations with which they interact.
  – Have control over some
• Important because increasing
  – Use it to our advantage, not disadvantage (e.g.,
    discrimination, stereotypes)
    The Revised Diversity Menu
•   Race                  •   Language
•   Ethnicity             •   Age
•   Personality           •   Religion
•   Skills                •   Mental Ability
•   Learning Styles       •   Parental Status
•   Gender                •   Workplace
•   Physical Attributes   •   Education
•   Background            •   Income
•   Sexual Orientation    •   Much More ...
     What is discrimination and when
              does it occur?
● Discrimination
     Different treatment (distinction, exclusion, preference) due to irrelevant
     personal or social characteristics
     The denial or impairment of equal opportunity and treatment
     Rooted in fear, ignorance & stereotyping (perceptions prevail over
     objective facts)
     Not isolated, sporadic act; entrenched in institutions (practices, rules)
● When does it occur?
    Formal and informal work settings
    Entry to labour market (vocational guidance, training; recruitment,
    On the job (retaining, promotion, training, conditions of work, including
    equal pay for work of equal value, social security benefits, access to
    and representation in workers’ and employers’ organizations)
    At exit (dismissal)
       What is Managing Diversity?
• Integrating non-traditional employees into workforce;
  using diversity to enhance organizational effectiveness
   –   Identify diversity
   –   Identify current and desired future states
   –   Analyze present state
   –   Change systems, policies and practices
   –   Evaluate results

• Challenges for Management
   –   Valuing employee diversity
   –   Balancing individual needs with group fairness
   –   Coping with resistance to change
   –   Avoiding employee resentment and dealing with backlash
   –   Retaining valued performers
        Benefits of Diversity at Work
•   Engaged, motivated and high performing staff
•   Reduced turnover
•   Diverse workforce reflecting customer base
•   Managers skilled in recruiting and managing a diverse workforce
•   An enhanced corporate reputation
•   Proactive in terms of changing composition of workforce
•   Greater creativity & flexibility
•   Better problem solving

• Diversity “friendly” workplace
    –   Policies & procedures support diversity (employees & customers/clients)
    –   Commitment to diversity through training
    –   Recruitment of diverse individuals
    –   Focus on retaining diverse staff
The Cost of Discrimination at Work
● Violates a fundamental human right and limits
    individual freedom and well-being
●   Affects productivity and business competitiveness
●   Perpetuates and exacerbates poverty
●   Compromises economic growth
●   Affects social cohesion and political stability

Does Diversity Training Work?
● Diversity training alone is not enough
● Need: organizational commitment to fostering a diversity-
  friendly work environment; includes policies and
  procedures, investment of resources, and commitment
  beyond one program or workshop.
         Diversity Readings
• Gilbert & Ivancevich (2000)
  – Three primary reasons why multicultural
    organization was successful, and three main
    reasons why plural organization is lagging behind
• Kossek & Zonia (1993)
  – Main findings from study
  – Strengths and limitations
            Next Class…Thursday
              January 26, 2006
• Managing Organizational Fairness, Commitment and Trust
   – Greenberg, J. (1988). Cultivating an image of justice: Looking fair
     on the job. Academy of Management Executive, 2, 155-158.
   – Sidle, S. D. (2003). Best laid plans: Establishing fairness early can
     help smooth organizational change. Academy of Management
     Executive, 17, 127-128.
   – Dessler, G. (1999). How to earn your employees’ commitment.
     Academy of Management Executive, 13, 58-67.
   – Braun, C. (1997). Organizational infidelity: How violations of trust
     affect the employee-employer relationship, Academy of
     Management Executive, 11, 94-95.
   – De Boer, E.M., et al. (2002). Unfairness at work as a predictor of
     absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 181-197.

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