Human Resource Management B8204: Managing Workplace Diversity Tuesday January 24th, 2006 Agenda • Sexual Harassment – Peirce, Smolinski, & Rosen (1998) • Managing Diversity – Kossek & Zonia (1993) – Gilbert & Ivancevich (2000) Harassment • Canadian Human Rights Act also prohibits harassment, such that it is a discriminatory practice. • Harassment: – “Occurs with a member of an organization treats an employee in a disparate manner because of that person’s sex, race, religion, age, or other protective classifications” Sexual Harassment • What is sexual harassment? • How do you measure it? • Who does it? • Why do people do it? • What are the consequences? • Lessons learned? Sexual Harassment • What is it? – Generate a full and comprehensive list of what we think it is – What is the underlying feature (ie can we provide a unifying definition?) • How do we Measure it? – Frequency? • Two different questions, two different answers – Severity or impact? Sexual Harassment • Who does it? – Primarily men – A considerable amount of peer-based harassment • Why do they do it? – Social structure • Power imbalance (eg gender distribution in groups) – Personal psychopathology • Obsession • Rape and Sexual harassment myths – Organizational factors What are the Consequences? • Personal? • Organizational? • And new avenues for research – Vicarious? – Behavioral responses (e.g., absenteeism and turnover, grievances, workplace violence) Sexual Harassment • Peirce, Smolinski, & Rosen (1998). Why sexual harassment complaints fall on deaf ears. AME. – Factors contributing to managerial and organizational inaction – fall prey to “deaf ear syndrome” • Inadequate policies and procedures • Managerial reactions and rationalizations • Inertial tendencies Diversity • One of the biggest organizational challenges • Essentially, diversity is human characteristics that make people different from one another – The mosaic of people who bring a variety of backgrounds, styles, and beliefs as assets to the groups and organizations with which they interact. – Have control over some • Important because increasing – Use it to our advantage, not disadvantage (e.g., discrimination, stereotypes) The Revised Diversity Menu • Race • Language • Ethnicity • Age • Personality • Religion • Skills • Mental Ability • Learning Styles • Parental Status • Gender • Workplace • Physical Attributes • Education • Background • Income • Sexual Orientation • Much More ... What is discrimination and when does it occur? ● Discrimination Different treatment (distinction, exclusion, preference) due to irrelevant personal or social characteristics The denial or impairment of equal opportunity and treatment Rooted in fear, ignorance & stereotyping (perceptions prevail over objective facts) Not isolated, sporadic act; entrenched in institutions (practices, rules) ● When does it occur? Formal and informal work settings Entry to labour market (vocational guidance, training; recruitment, hiring) On the job (retaining, promotion, training, conditions of work, including equal pay for work of equal value, social security benefits, access to and representation in workers’ and employers’ organizations) At exit (dismissal) What is Managing Diversity? • Integrating non-traditional employees into workforce; using diversity to enhance organizational effectiveness – Identify diversity – Identify current and desired future states – Analyze present state – Change systems, policies and practices – Evaluate results • Challenges for Management – Valuing employee diversity – Balancing individual needs with group fairness – Coping with resistance to change – Avoiding employee resentment and dealing with backlash – Retaining valued performers Benefits of Diversity at Work • Engaged, motivated and high performing staff • Reduced turnover • Diverse workforce reflecting customer base • Managers skilled in recruiting and managing a diverse workforce • An enhanced corporate reputation • Proactive in terms of changing composition of workforce • Greater creativity & flexibility • Better problem solving • Diversity “friendly” workplace – Policies & procedures support diversity (employees & customers/clients) – Commitment to diversity through training – Recruitment of diverse individuals – Focus on retaining diverse staff The Cost of Discrimination at Work ● Violates a fundamental human right and limits individual freedom and well-being ● Affects productivity and business competitiveness ● Perpetuates and exacerbates poverty ● Compromises economic growth ● Affects social cohesion and political stability Does Diversity Training Work? ● Diversity training alone is not enough ● Need: organizational commitment to fostering a diversity- friendly work environment; includes policies and procedures, investment of resources, and commitment beyond one program or workshop. Diversity Readings • Gilbert & Ivancevich (2000) – Three primary reasons why multicultural organization was successful, and three main reasons why plural organization is lagging behind • Kossek & Zonia (1993) – Main findings from study – Strengths and limitations Next Class…Thursday January 26, 2006 • Managing Organizational Fairness, Commitment and Trust – Greenberg, J. (1988). Cultivating an image of justice: Looking fair on the job. Academy of Management Executive, 2, 155-158. – Sidle, S. D. (2003). Best laid plans: Establishing fairness early can help smooth organizational change. Academy of Management Executive, 17, 127-128. – Dessler, G. (1999). How to earn your employees’ commitment. Academy of Management Executive, 13, 58-67. – Braun, C. (1997). Organizational infidelity: How violations of trust affect the employee-employer relationship, Academy of Management Executive, 11, 94-95. – De Boer, E.M., et al. (2002). Unfairness at work as a predictor of absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 181-197.
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