; Cortaland - UVM Apple Orchard
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Cortaland - UVM Apple Orchard

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 30

  • pg 1
									Apple Cultivar Recommendation for
             Vermont
                       By
                M. Elena Garcia
         Extension, Tree Fruit Specialist
                  Jon Clements
         Tree Fruit Research Technician
                            Cortland
•   Strains:          Redcort
•                     Royal Court (new)*
•   Parentage:        McIntosh x Ben Davis
•   Tree vigor:       Hardy, vigorous, and
                      productive
•   Bloom             Midseason
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Large fruit
     – Skin color:    Dark red with stripes
     – Flesh color:   White, slow browning after cutting
     – Shape:          Round
     – Uses:           Fresh, cooking, cider
•   Harvest date:     Mid Sept-early Oct. (125 -135 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Stores well in CA
•   Advantages:       Taste, good pollinator, productive, and hardy, good seller in
                      roadside markets
•   Disadvantages:    Tendency for biennial bearing; fruit inclined to scald in
                      storage if picked too early; susceptible to scab,
                      fireblight, powdery mildew, and CAR
                          Empire
•   Strains:          Royal Empire (a highly colored red sport)
•   Parentage:        McIntosh x Delicious
•   Tree vigor:       Medium vigor
•   Bloom:            Midseason
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Medium fruit
     – Skin color:    Red with darker red blush
     – Flesh color:   Cream colored
     – Shape:         Round
     – Uses:          Good dessert quality, cider
•   Harvest date:     Mid Oct. (125 -140 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Does not appear to store well
•   Advantages:       Good pollinator, McIntosh type with better color;
                      does not bruise as easily as McIntosh; low
                      susceptibility to cedar apple
•   Disadvantages:    Susceptible to scab and powdery mildew, and rust;
                      medium susceptibility to fireblight
•                     May be difficult to sell in national markets
                              Fortune
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Red Spy (Schoharie cv) x Empire
•   Tree vigor:       Medium to high vigor
•   Bloom             Mid to late season
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Large fruit
     – Skin color:    Red with darker red blush
     – Flesh color:   Cream colored
     – Shape:         Round
     – Uses:          Good dessert quality
•   Harvest date:     Late Oct. (150 -160 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Good storage
•   Advantages:       Very good flavor, hard, large apple
•   Disadvantages:    Information is needed on disease susceptibility; needs
                      more testing in Vermont. Some Bitter pit has been
                      reported.
                                  Fuji
•   Strains:          Nagafu # 2 (good in Massachusetts)
                      Myra Red *(matures 7 to 10 days earlier than the
                      Nagafu type, needs testing in Vermont
•   Parentage:        Ralls Janet x Delicious
•   Tree vigor:       Medium to high vigor
•   Bloom:            Mid to late season
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Medium
     – Skin color:    Red over green,
                      darker stripes
     – Flesh color:   White flesh
     – Shape:         Round-to-conical
     – Uses:          Dessert
•   Harvest date:     Very late in October (170 -185 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Good
•   Advantages:       Very high quality fruit; show some resistance to scab
•   Disadvantages:    Watercore; may require up to 200 days to mature
                      May require detailed pruning; fireblight, powdery mildew, and
                      CAR
                                 Gala
•   Strains:          Royal Gala
                      Regal Gala (redder and ripens earlier)
                      Fulford Gala (Ellipsoid and larger than other Gala clones)
•   Parentage:        Cox Orange x Golden Delicious
•   Tree vigor:       Compact growth habit, productive bearer
•   Bloom:            Midseason
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Small to medium
     – Skin color:    Orange to red
     – Flesh color:   White-cream
     – Shape:         Oval to round
     – Uses:          Dessert
•   Harvest date:     Early Sept- early Oct depending on
                      location (110 -120 DAFB)
•   Storage:
•   Advantages:       Excellent flavor
•   Disadvantages:    May require heavy thinning to size and prevent biennial
                      bearing; susceptible to scab, fireblight, powdery mildew, and
                      CAR.
                           Ginger Gold
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Unknown.
                      Chance seedling
•   Tree vigor:       Vigorous
•   Bloom:            Moderately early
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Medium to large
     – Skin color:    Green to yellow;
                      blush if allowed to hang
                      on the tree
     – Flesh color:   Cream colored
     – Shape:         Oblate
     – Uses:          Fresh
•   Harvest date:     Mid Sept
•   Storage:          Keeps well for short storage
•   Advantages:       Good early season cultivar, excellent flavor, and russet free
•   Disadvantages     Storage??; susceptible to fireblight and powdery mildew,
                      scab and CAR
                           Golden Delicious
•   Strains:               Smoothie (russet free)
•                          Golden Glory (Semi-spur type, Smoothie sport)
•   Parentage:             Probably a seedling of Grimes Golden
•   Tree vigor:            Moderately vigorous
•   Bloom                  Midseason
•   Fruit
     – Size:               Medium
     – Skin color:Yellow
     – Flesh color:        Cream
     – Shape:              Oval to conic
     – Uses:               All-purpose
•   Harvest date:          Sept to late Oct depending on location (135- 150 DAFB)
•   Storage:               Good
•   Advantages:            Good quality flesh, distinctive flavor, self pollinated
•   Disadvantages:         Russeting, bruises easily, biennial bearing
                           tendency; low susceptibility to scab, powdery mildew,
                           and CAR; moderate susceptibility to
                           fireblight,
                      Golden Supreme*
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Chance seedling
•   Tree vigor:       Medium vigor
•   Bloom             Mid to late season
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Medium
     – Skin color:    Yellow with a
                      pink orange blush
     – Flesh color:   Cream
     – Shape:         Oval to conic
     – Uses:          All-purpose
•   Harvest date:     Sept to late Oct depending on location (125- 140 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Good
•   Advantages:       Similar to Golden Delicious, but ripens 1 to 2 weeks earlier,
                      annual bearing habit; less likely to russet than standard
                      Golden; biennial bearing tendency
•   Disadvantages:    Uneven ripening, may require multiple harvest; needs more
                      information on disease susceptibility; needs more testing in
                      Vermont
                      Gold Rush (Scab resistant)
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:            From Perdue (HER4T16)
•   Tree vigor:
•   Bloom:                Middle
•   Fruit
     – Size:              Medium large
     – Skin color:        Uniform greenish
                          yellow
     – Flesh color:
     – Shape:             Conic-round
     – Uses:
•   Harvest date:         Late Oct. (165 - 175 DAFB)
•   Storage:              Excellent, storage exceeds 6 months
•   Advantages:           Scab resistant, great flavor
•   Disadvantages:        Susceptible to CAR
                           Honeycrisp*
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Macoun x Honeygold
•   Tree vigor:       Weak, upright to spreading
•   Bloom:            Early season
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Large
     – Skin color:    Deep red over yellow
     – Flesh color:   Scarlet red over a
                      yellow
                      background
     – Shape:         Round
     – Uses:          Dessert quality
•   Harvest date:     Mid Sept to Oct (125-140 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Excellent
•   Advantages:       Great tasting apple, seems to do well in storage; it is hardy in
                      Minnesota
•   Disadvantages:    Information needed on disease susceptibility, hardiness in
                      Vermont
                              Jonagold
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Golden Delicious x Jonathan
•   Tree vigor:       Sturdy, vigorous tree
•   Bloom:            Midseason
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Large
     – Skin color:    Striped red over yellow
     – Flesh color:   Orangish-red blush with a slight
                      hint of strip over yellow ground color
     – Shape:         Slightly elongated, conic to round
     – Uses:          Dessert
•   Harvest date:     Mid Sept -late Oct (135 -150 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Stores in common refrigeration for 3 months
•   Advantages:       Very high quality fruit
•   Disadvantages:    Triploid (not a good pollinator); susceptible to scab, fireblight,
                      and CAR; low susceptibility to powdery mildew. May not be
                      winter hardy in VT
          Jonafree (Scab resistant cultivar)
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:           PRI introduction
•   Tree vigor:          Moderately vigorous
•   Bloom:               Midseason
•   Fruit
     – Size:             Tendency to be small
     – Skin color:       Bright red with some
                         green-yellow
     – Flesh color:      Pale yellow
     – Shape:            Round to conic
     – Uses:             Dessert
•   Harvest date:        Mid Sep - late Oct (135 -150 DAFB)
•   Storage:
•   Advantages:        Scab resistant, very firm; very early yellow apple
•   Disadvantages:     Tendency of fruit to be small, careful pruning to avoid
                       small fruit; high susceptibility to CAR, and
                 medium susceptibility to fireblight
          Liberty (Scab resistant cultivar)
• Strains:
• Parentage:        Macoun x Perdue 54-12
• Tree vigor:       Hardy, vigorous, and heavily spurred
• Bloom:            Early
• Fruit
   – Size:          Medium to large
   – Skin color:    Red blush
   – Flesh color:   Light yellow
   – Shape:
   – Uses:          All purpose
• Harvest date:     Early October (140 -150 DAFB)
• Storage:          Not good, flavor intensifies with storage
• Advantages:       Most resistant apple, low susceptibility to most apple
                    diseases
• Disadvantages:    Sets heavy loads resulting in small sized fruit, requires
                    thinning;
                            McIntosh
•   Strains:        Marshall McIntosh (Highly colored strain that ripeness earlier)
•                   Pioneer (More color than McIntosh, less than Marshall)
•                   Redmax
•                   Rogers Red
•                   Summer Mac (ripens 3 weeks before McIntosh)
•   Parentage:      Unknown
•   Tree vigor:     Very productive, vigorous, and hardy
•   Bloom:          Mid season
•   Fruit
•   Size:           Large
•   Skin color:     Red
•   Flesh color:    White
•   Shape:
•   Uses:           Multipurpose
•   Harvest date:   Late Sept to mid Oct (130 -140 DAFB)
•   Storage:        Does well in CA
                          McIntosh
– Advantages:      The New England apple; well adapted to Vermont's climatic
                   conditions, hardy; low susceptibility to CAR
– Disadvantages:   Bruises easily, drops early; susceptible to scab, fireblight,
                   and powdery mildew;
Redmax
                                      Mutsu
•   Strains:               Crispin
•   Parentage:             Golden Delicious X Indo
•   Tree vigor:
•   Bloom:                 Midseason
•   Fruit
     – Size:               Large
     – Skin color:         Yellow green
     – Flesh color:        Yellow
     – Shape:
     – Uses:               Eating and processing
•   Harvest date:          Late Oct (160 -170 DAFB)
•   Storage:
•   Advantages:           Precocious and annual, when harvested early fruit
                          appearance is similar to Granny Smith
•   Disadvantages:        Storage scald, not a good pollinator; susceptible to scab,
                          powdery mildew, and CAR, moderate
                 susceptibility to fireblight,
                              Macoun
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        McIntosh x Jersey Black
•   Tree vigor:       Low vigor
•   Bloom:            Midseason
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Medium
     – Skin color:    Red
     – Flesh color:   White
     – Shape:         Round to conic
     – Uses:          Great dessert quality
•   Harvest date:     Late Sept to mid Oct. Appox. 10 days after McIntosh
•   Storage:          Short (shelf life around 2 weeks)
•   Advantages:       Excellent flavor
•   Disadvantages:    Biennial bearing, requires extra thinning to increase fruit size,
                      does not ship well; susceptible to scab, powdery mildew, and
                      CAR, moderate susceptibility to fireblight. One needs large
                      fruit to sell well (3” +)
           Nova Easy-Gro (Scab resistant cultivar)

•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Spartan x PRI
•   Tree vigor:       Hardy, vigorous and
                      moderately productive
•   Bloom:            Mid season
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Large
     – Skin color:    Red striped over greenish yellow
     – Flesh color:   Cream-colored
     – Shape:         Oblate
     – Uses:          Fresh fruit and dessert
•   Harvest date:     Early Sept
•   Storage:          Sores well in cold storage
•   Advantages:       Resistant to scab and CAR
•   Disadvantages:    May experience preharvest drop, moderately resistant to fire
                      blight and powdery mildew
                         Northern Spy
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:
•   Tree vigor:       Good
•   Bloom:            Late season
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Large
     – Skin color:    Red
     – Flesh color:   White
     – Shape:         Round
•   Uses:             Fresh and processing
•   Harvest date:     Late Oct. (140-160 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Good storage
•   Advantages:       Winter apple, stores well; apears to do well in retail sales
•   Disadvantages:    Tree slow to come into bearing; susceptible to scab, powdery
                      mildew, CAR, and fireblight
       NY 75414-1 (Scab resistant cultivar)
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Liberty x Macspur
•   Tree vigor:       Medium to vigorous
•   Bloom:            Middle
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Medium
     – Skin color:    Maroon/red with
                      conspicuous lenticels
     – Flesh color:   White
     – Shape:         Round
•   Uses:             Multi-purpose
•   Harvest date:     Late Sept to early Oct
•   Storage:          Needs more testing
•   Advantages:       Moderate to heavy crop, very promising cultivar
•   Disadvantages:    More testing needed for storage and disease susceptibility
                              Paulared
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Unknown
•   Tree vigor:       Vigorous
•   Bloom:            Early season
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Medium to large
     – Skin color:    Red
     – Flesh color:   White
     – Shape:         Round to oblate
•   Uses:             Fresh
•   Harvest date:     Early Sept (95 -100 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Short
•   Advantages:       Early ripening variety. Good pollinator for McIntosh; low
                      susceptibility to scab and CAR
•   Disadvantages:    Fruit tends to be borne in pairs on the tips of branches;
                      susceptible to fireblight and powdery mildew
             Prima (Scab resistant cultivar)
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        PRI introduction
•   Tree vigor:       Moderately vigorous, spreading
                      and sturdy
•   Bloom:            Mid to late
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Medium
     – Skin color:    Orange-red
     – Flesh color:
     – Shape:         Round
•   Uses:             Fresh and cooking
•   Harvest date:     Mid Sept
•   Storage:          Short
•   Advantages:       Scab and powdery mildew resistant
•   Disadvantages:    Moderately resistant to fire blight
            Pristine (Scab resistant cultivar)
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Camuzat x PRI 1659-10
•   Tree vigor:       Medium
•   Bloom:            Early season
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Small to medium
     – Skin color:    Lemon yellow
     – Flesh color:   White
     – Shape:         Round to oblate
•   Uses:             Fresh
•   Harvest date:     Mid to late Aug (70 -90 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Short
•   Advantages:       Relatively free of arthropod pests
•   Disadvantages:    Needs testing for disease susceptibility other than scab;
                      tendency for biennial bearing and early fruit drop; bruises
                      easily, soft flesh
           Redfree (Scab resistant cultivar)
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Raritan x PRI 1018-101
•   Tree vigor:       Medium
•   Bloom:            Midseason
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Medium
     – Skin color:    Bright red color
     – Flesh color:   White
     – Shape:         Round
•   Uses:             Fresh
•   Harvest date:     Late Aug (90 -100 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Short
•   Advantages:       Immune to scab and apple cedar rust
•   Disadvantages:    Moderately resistant to fire blight and powdery mildew,
                      uneven ripening
                               Sansa*
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        Gala x Akane
•   Tree vigor:       Weak
•   Bloom:            Middle to late
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Small to medium
     – Skin color:    Blush red over
                      yellow green
     – Flesh color:   White to yellow
     – Shape:         Round
•   Uses:
•   Harvest date:     Mid Sept (90 -110 DAFB)
•   Storage:
•   Advantages:       Keeps well on tree up to 3 weeks; good flavor
•   Disadvantages:    Tree vigor; more information on disease susceptibility
                      needed
                                        Shamrock*
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:                   Spur Golden Delicious x Spur McIntosh
•   Tree vigor:                  Medium
•   Bloom:                       Middle early
•   Fruit
     – Size:                     Medium
     – Skin color:               Very similar to Granny Smith,
                                 green skin
     – Flesh color:              Creamy light green
     – Shape:
•   Uses:
•   Harvest date:                Early Oct
    http://www.tcgcs.com/~nrolls/aplpics/shamrock.jpg
•   Storage:
•   Advantages:                  Developed as a substitute for Granny Smith, flavor similar to
                                 McIntosh, hardy
•   Disadvantages:               Mote information on disease susceptibility and adaptability
                                 needed
                              Spartan
                                   http://www.tcgcs.com/~nrolls/aplpics/spartan.jpg
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        McIntosh x Newton Pippin
•   Tree vigor:       Vigorous
•   Bloom:            Midseason
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Small
     – Skin color:    Dark red, almost mahogany
     – Flesh color:   White
     – Shape:
                                          Uses:             Dessert
•   Harvest date:     Mid Oct (120 -130 DAFB)
•   Storage:          Does well in storage, ships better than McIntosh
•   Advantages:       Flesh crisp, firmer than McIntosh, precocious
•   *Disadvantages:   Susceptible to pre-mature drop, susceptible to scab, powdery
                      mildew, and CAR; moderately resistant to
                      fireblight; a more dwarfing rootstock recommended to
                      increase size; difficult to thin
                              Sunrise
•   Strains:
•   Parentage:        McIntosh x Golden Delicious
•   Tree vigor:       Extremely vigorous
•   Bloom:            Middle early
•   Fruit
     – Size:          Medium to large
     – Skin color:    Red stripe over green skin
     – Flesh color:   White to cream
     – Shape:         Oblate
•   Uses:
•   Harvest date:     Late Aug
•   Storage:          Does not store well
•   Advantages:       Flesh very crisp
•   Disadvantages:    Fruit may be over-matured if allowed to develop good color
                      while on the tree

								
To top