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					                           VIRTUAL
                      INSTRUMENTATION
Teacher Summit 2010
Dwight Look College of Engineering
Department of Biomedical Engineering

Kenith E. Meissner
Assistant Professor


                                                                                       January 2, 2010

To Whom It May Concern:
I certify that the Virtual Microscope and Virtual Spectrophotometer are for educational purposes
and may be installed on any computer free of charge. In an educational setting where computer
administrator access is limited, the software should be installed by a qualified IT person in order
to ensure proper installation and operation of the software.
Sincerely,




Kenith E. Meissner
Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX




   337 Zachry Engineering Center                                 (979) 458-0180   kmeissner@tamu.edu
                                        http://biomed.tamu.edu
§112.19. Science, Grade 7, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

      (4) Science investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools
      and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

             (A) use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including
             life science models, hand lens, stereoscopes, microscopes, beakers, Petri dishes,
             microscope slides,



§112.20. Science, Grade 8, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

      (4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of
      tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

             (A) use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including
             lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers,
             psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes,
             thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes,



§112.32. Aquatic Science, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit).

      (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field
      investigations. The student is expected to:

             (F) collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with
             precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate
             statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and
             range;

             (G) demonstrate the use of course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and
             procedures;



§112.33. Astronomy, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit).

      (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field
      investigations. The student is expected to:
             (I) use astronomical technology such as telescopes, binoculars, sextants,
             computers, and software.

      (11) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and life cycle of stars. The
      student is expected to:

              (F) relate the use of spectroscopy in obtaining physical data on celestial objects
             such as temperature, chemical composition, and relative motion; and

      (14) Science concepts. The student recognizes the benefits and challenges of space
      exploration to the study of the universe. The student is expected to:

             (D) recognize the importance of space telescopes to the collection of
             astronomical data across the electromagnetic spectrum; and



§112.34. Biology, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit).

      (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods and equipment during
      laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

             (F) collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements
             with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software,
             data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes,
             various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel
             electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers,
             hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, cameras, Petri dishes, lab
             incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples
             of biological specimens or structures;

      (4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living
      things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different
      from cells. The student is expected to:

             (A) compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;

             (C) compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and
             describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency
             virus (HIV) and influenza.



§112.35. Chemistry, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit).
      (6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of
      atomic theory. The student is expected to:

             (B) understand the electromagnetic spectrum and the mathematical relationships
             between energy, frequency, and wavelength of light;



§112.36. Earth and Space Science, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit).

      (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field
      investigations. The student is expected to:

             (E) demonstrate the use of course equipment, techniques, and procedures,
             including computers and web-based computer applications;

             (F) use a wide variety of additional course apparatuses, equipment, techniques,
             and procedures as appropriate such as satellite imagery and other remote sensing
             data, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS),
             scientific probes, microscopes, telescopes, modern video and image libraries,
             weather stations, fossil and rock kits, bar magnets, coiled springs, wave
             simulators, tectonic plate models, and planetary globes;



§112.39. Physics, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit).

      (2) Scientific processes. The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific
      laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:

             (F) demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and
             procedures, including multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), triple beam
             balances, batteries, clamps, dynamics demonstration equipment, collision
             apparatus, data acquisition probes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne,
             Ar), hand-held visual spectroscopes, hot plates, slotted and hooked lab masses,
             bar magnets, horseshoe magnets, plane mirrors, convex lenses, pendulum support,
             power supply, ring clamps, ring stands, stopwatches, trajectory apparatus, tuning
             forks, carbon paper, graph paper, magnetic compasses, polarized film, prisms,
             protractors, resistors, friction blocks, mini lamps (bulbs) and sockets,
             electrostatics kits, 90-degree rod clamps, metric rulers, spring scales, knife blade
             switches, Celsius thermometers, meter sticks, scientific calculators, graphing
             technology, computers, cathode ray tubes with horseshoe magnets, ballistic carts
             or equivalent, resonance tubes, spools of nylon thread or string, containers of iron
             filings, rolls of white craft paper, copper wire, Periodic Table, electromagnetic
             spectrum charts, slinky springs, wave motion ropes, and laser pointers;
College Readiness Standards

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         -(&4&0-503&7#&6&5(40'#1)540-503&7#.'%#501308'%#1)540-503&B#

(13) The student identifies drugs found at a simulated crime scene. The student is expected to:

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#
VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTS

 TEACHERS MANUAL
    Instrument Version 5

         1/11/2009




             1
                                    INTRODUCTION


This manual describes the operation of Virtual Instruments, a product of the STARS
Science Triathlon, a precollege outreach program funded by The Howard Hughes
Medical Institute with supplementary funding from The Peter O’Donnell Foundation and
the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School. The Virtual Instruments resulted
from a collaboration among Texas A&M, UT Southwestern, National Instruments,
Advanced Placement Strategies, The Math and Science Initiative, and Carl Zeiss, Inc.

How would a virtual microscope or virtual spectrophotometer help in your classroom?
These “virtual instruments” are software packages that load on computers running
Microsoft Windows and simulate physical instruments. They have a visual user interface
made to look like the physical instrumentation and enable a realistic laboratory
experience. Students “operate” them using the mouse or track pad to click on buttons or
turn knobs.

Many classrooms do not have enough real instruments for their students. Microscopes
could be broke, a spectrophotometer might be beyond the resources of the classroom. In
such cases these virtual instruments could serve as substitutes for the real thing. In other
cases, these instruments can be used in pre-labs to familiarize students with instrument
operation before encountering the real instruments.

Besides the use of virtual instruments to teach the operation of real instruments, teachers
can use these instruments to teach biology or chemistry. The developers hope that the
samples provided will be of use: Biology students can use the Virtual Microscope to
study the microscopic morphologies of lung and kidney, for example, identifying key
features such as alveolae or glomeruli of these tissues. Chemistry or biochemistry
students can use the Virtual Spectrophotometer to identify the wavelengths of maximal
absorbance of molecules and use Beer’s law to calculate extinction coefficients.

The group of samples provided for these instruments is somewhat limited at present.
More will be provided in future versions, based largely on feedback we obtain from
teachers. Users can add samples to the Virtual Spectrophotometer even beyond the
generation of “custom samples” already provided in the software. A table of absorbances
at a series of wavelengths (in the proper format) is all that is required. For the Virtual
Microscope, addition of virtual slides cannot easily be added by the user; a very high
quality digital scan is required, and the resulting images must be processed in a very
specific way. The STARS (Science Teacher Access to Resources at Southwestern)
program at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School and its collaborators
will make more available in the future. The tissues provided with the microscope are
human in origin, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and provided by the Pathology
Department of UT Southwestern.




                                              2
                     TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                    Page #

INTRODUCTION                                             2

INSTALLATION OF VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTS                      4

STARTING VIRTUAL MICROSCOPE AND SPECTROPHOTOMETER        6

OPERATING VIRTUAL MICROSCOPE                             8

OPERATING VIRUAL SPECTROPHOTOMETER                       12

GETTING HELP                                             17

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                         17




                               3
                   INSTALLATION OF VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTS


As of this writing (December 2008), two Virtual Instruments are available: Virtual
Microscope (VScope) and Virtual Spectrophotometer (VSpec).

Both instruments run on the Windows platform. They will also run on the Macintosh
computer with an Intel microprocessor. (Under the Apple menu, click on “About this
Mac”. The “Processor” should be stated as Intel, NOT PowerPC.) To run on a Mac, you
must use Windows mode, installed with Boot Camp or a simulator program. You must
be in Windows environment to continue.

Whether you have obtained the Virtual Instruments by CD or download, you should have
2 folders and 3 installation script files:

       Install VScope v5.bat
       Install VSpec v5.bat
       Install VSpec v5 and VScope v5.bat
       VScope v5 (folder)
       VSpec v5 (folder)

From the CD, thumb drive, or download, double-click the appropriate “.bat” file to install
just be Virtual Microscope (VScope), the Virtual Spectrophotometer (VSpec), or both.
Double-clicking will execute the script and install the instruments on your C: (internal)
hard disk.

Following installation, two new folder will appear on the C: drive of your computer:
VScope and VSpec. The folders should contain the files/folders shown in Figure 1.




          Figure 1: Files/folders created during installation process for VScope.

                                            4
The .exe file is the executable file and may be used to start the program. The folder
entitled “Local Image Data” (VScope) or “LocalSpectrumData” (VSpec) contain the
experimental samples that can be used by each of the virtual instruments.

The virtual instrument(s) is (are) now installed and ready for use.




                                             5
       STARTING VIRTUAL MICROSCOPE AND SPECTROPHOTOMETER


In Windows, click on “Start” at the bottom left corner of your screen, select “All
Programs”. Within the list of programs, you will see icons for “VScope v5” and/or
“VSpec v5”, depending on which you have installed. Move the cursor to either icon and a
box with either “VScope v5” or “VSpec v5” will appear to the right. Clicking on this will
start the program.

Initially, you will see a title screen as the program initializes (Figure 2). This window
indicates that the program is working and should only be visible for a few seconds.




                  Figure 2: Initialization screen for Virtual Microscope

After the program initializes, you will need to load the desired samples from the Loading
List window (Figure 3). This list includes all the samples available in the “Local Image
Data” (VScope) or “LocalSpectrumData” (VSpec) folders on your computer. NOTE:
Additional samples may be added as described below.

Double click individual samples to add them to the Loading List, or click on “Add All” to
add all samples to the loading list. If you change your mind, you may “Remove All” or
double click on single images to remove them from the loading list.


                                              6
After selecting the images you would like to load, click on “Load Images and Start
Program”.




                  Figure 3: Sample loading screen during initialization




The sample(s) are now loaded on the virtual instrument and you may begin exploring the
instrument and sample(s). Up to this point, the operation of the two instruments has been
identical. However, a general description of each instrument follows. When operating the
instruments, switches/buttons are operated by clicking (down and release) on the
appropriate part of the instrument. Knobs are turned by clicking and holding the mouse
button down as you drag or turn the knob to a new position.




                                            7
                        OPERATING VIRTUAL MICROSCOPE


The virtual microscope is designed to offer features found on common teaching
microscopes. Therefore, the instrument should be viewed and operated just a physical
instrument would be operated.




                        Figure 4: Virtual Microscope main screen


The main screen opens with an isometric view of the microscope on the right side of the
window and the Eyepiece View Screen (large circle, now darkened) on the left (Figure
4). Click on the green “Show Diagram” button on the lower right side of the window to
highlight the components of the microscope. NOTE: You must turn off the Show
Diagram feature to use the program by clicking on the “Show Diagram” button again.

Select a slide to view by clicking on the drop-down list (currently labeled “Blank”) under
“Slide Selector” (top left of screen). A list of loaded slides will appear. Choose the slide
you are interested in viewing by clicking on the list. Your slide will now appear on the
stage of the microscope (Figure 5). The sample is the dark area in the center of the slide
as shown below.



                                             8
               Figure 5: Microscope slide showing location of sample

You must now operate the microscope to view the sample. Start by clicking on the Power
Switch (Figure 6) to activate the tungsten bulb. (Clicking on “Show Diagram” will
provide labels for all the knobs and switches. The microscope will not be operational,
however, until “Show Diagram” is clicked again.) Light will now appear to come out of
the condenser and the Eyepiece view screen will become a bit brighter. A small circle
appears where the light strikes near the sample. To increase the amount of light for your
microscope, turn the Bulb Control Knob in a circular clockwise direction. As you do this,
the viewed image field will brighten. It is best to choose a position in the middle for
initial sample alignment. You may adjust the light level at any time.




                              Figure 6: Parts of a microscope




                                            9
You next move the sample in the light path, bring the sample into the focus of the
objective, and adjust the contrast of the image, if needed.

To center your sample, use the round outline of the transmitted light on your slide to
guide the sample positioning. Adjust the X- and Y-stage knobs (just below the stage) so
that the outline of transmitted light is centered on your sample. The knobs turn
clockwise/counter-clockwise to move the stage right/left and backward/forward,
respectively. Just as with a real microscope, this may be frustrating and take some time
at first. But with practice, you’ll be a pro and it will take nearly no time at all! HINT: If
you are having trouble getting the stage to move, make sure you have clicked somewhere
on the top surface of the knob. Also when turning the knob, make sure you go around the
center post of the knob with your cursor. The knob spins on an axis centered on the center
post. So, you have to trace a circle around that axis in order to spin the knob. Otherwise,
the knob will just move back and forth a little bit and the sample will not move. Just be
sure to keep the mouse button pressed the whole time you are turning the knob.

Next, you need to adjust the stage so that the image is in focus. We recommend starting
at 4x power. Be sure the “4x” objective is in place over the slide. It is in this position
when the program starts. If it is not, switch to the 4x objective by rotating the nosepiece
above the objectives. Using the Course Focus knob, elevate the stage, paying attention to
the image in the eyepiece view screen. You may find yourself focusing on dust at the top
of the slide. Ignore this and keep elevating the stage until the sample comes into focus.
You should adjust the light level to provide optimal viewing of the sample.

You may need to adjust the condenser (use the condenser slider) to get acceptable
contrast, and adjust the fine focus knob to obtain maximum sharpness of image.

Once your image is in focus, you may use the X- and Y-stage knob to move around the
sample to an area of interest.

To increase magnification and obtain greater resolution, switch to the 10x or 40x
objective by rotating the nosepiece. You will probably have to refocus somewhat. Be sure
you are careful: Do not move the stage too close to the objective or you might break the
slide!

Ruler

By clicking on “Ruler ON” you obtain graduated X-Y axes to allow you to compare sizes
of objects. The ticks on the axes are of an arbitrary dimension. A second click on “Ruler
ON” removes the X-Y axes.

Take and Store Photograph

You may save your image by typing a file name in the box at the bottom left and clicking
on “Take Photo.” Be sure to click on the folder, choose a directory and type a


                                             10
filename BEFORE taking the picture. The image photo will be saved in jpeg format to
the C:/ directory on your hard disk if you do not change directories. This may be a
convenient function for students to save a particular image for a classroom assignment.


Adding Images to the Slide Collection

At this time it is not possible for the user to add new virtual slides to the Virtual
Microscope. If you would specific samples added to the collection of slides, please
contact the STARS office at UT Southwestern at STARS@UTSouthwestern.edu, or
through our website at www.utsouthwestern.edu/STARS .

Sample Lesson Plans

Future versions of the software will contain sample lesson plans.




                                            11
                 OPERATING VIRTUAL SPECTROPHOTOMETER

The virtual spectrophotometer is designed to offer features found on common teaching
spectrophotometers and is modeled after the Spectronic 20. Therefore, the instrument
should be viewed and operated just as a physical instrument would be operated.




                   Figure 7: Virtual Spectrophotometer main screen



The main screen opens with a front view of the spectrophotometer on the left side of the
window and a sample window on the right (Figure 7). Controls on the instrument include
a sample chamber door, a zero (or offset) knob, a max (or gain) knob, a wavelength knob
and a shutter slider. Displays on the instrument include wavelength, transmittance and
absorbance. The top of the window includes menus for choosing the sample and making
custom samples.

The instrument starts with a sample from the list of loaded samples. If you wish to choose
another sample, select it from the drop-down list of “Default Samples” on the top left of


                                           12
the window. This list includes all samples selected for loading during the instrument
startup. When the sample is visible in the sample viewing window, it is not in the
instrument.

Measuring Absorbance or Transmittance

Measurements require calibration of the instrument. As with a physical instrument, you
will have to do this for each wavelength that you wish to measure because the lamp
outputs a different amount of light, and the detector responds differently, at each
wavelength. If you know into what medium your sample was dissolved (such as distilled
water), the calibration process can help correct for the absorbance of the medium. So, you
should calibrate the instrument against the sample’s medium if you want to measure just
a component of the sample, or against an empty cuvette if you want to measure the
absorbance of the entire sample. Select “water” or “empty cuvette” from the menu of
default solutions. A cuvette with water (or air) will appear in the “Insert Sample”
window (to the right of the spectrophotometer). The sample may be cleaned by clicking
on “Clean Cuvette”; this is necessary if there is visible dust on the surface.

Be sure the sample chamber door (the opening on the left of the instrument) is open. If
not, click on it to open the door. Click “Insert Sample”. The cuvette should now insert
into the instrument. Close the door.

Choose the wavelength at which you want to measure the absorbance of your sample by
rotating the “Wavelength (nm)” knob clockwise or counterclockwise. You may choose
any wavelength from 400 to 750 nm.

With the shutter closed (no light), remove the background signal by turning the “Zero”
knob until the transmittance reads approximately 00.0%. You have now set the
background level so that no light through the sample results in 0% transmittance. The
readings will continually fluctuate to due to lamp variations and electronic noise in the
spectrophotometer. You may not be able to zero to exactly 0.000 but you should be able
to zero to a reading between about -0.5% and +0.5%. This is a limitation of a real
instrument. HINT: If you are having trouble getting the level just right, move your mouse
away from the knob after you have clicked on the knob. This will enable you to make
smaller changes in the background level. Just be sure to keep the mouse button pressed
the whole time you are turning the knob.

Now, open the shutter by dragging the shutter slider to the open position. Light is now
going through the cuvette. Notice that the Transmittance and Absorbance are now
reading some amount of light. Since we are calibrating the instrument to this background
level and the sample of interest is not yet in the instrument, this should read 100%
Transmittance or 0.0 Absorbance. Use the “Max” knob to adjust this level; either reading
may be used, but is probably easier to adjust to 100% Transmittance. You have now set
the range of the instrument to read between 0% (no light) and 100% (light with no
sample). Again, the readings will continually fluctuate to due to lamp variations and
electronic noise in the spectrophotometer. NOTE: This calibration is good for this


                                            13
wavelength only. If you change the wavelength, you need to repeat the calibration
procedure.

Now you may remove the cuvette. Close the shutter by moving the shutter slider to the
closed position. Open the sample chamber door by clicking on it. Remove the cuvette by
clicking on the “Remove Sample” button. The cuvette will go back to the sample
window.

Now, you should select your sample for the experiment. Select one from the “Default
Samples”. Clean the cuvette if necessary and insert the cuvette into the instrument.
Close the sample chamber door and open the shutter. Read the Transmittance or
Absorbance. At this wavelength and with the background sample to which you calibrated
the instrument, you may measure as many samples as you would like in this manner. If
you change the wavelength, the background medium (i.e. water or empty cuvette), the
“Zero” adjustment or the “Max” adjustment, you must re-calibrate the instrument.

Diluting or Mixing Samples

You may wish to dilute your sample, especially if the absorbance of your solution is
above 2.0 or the transmittance is near zero. In this case very little light is getting through
the sample and you will notice that the noise of the instrument hinders the ability to
accurately read the Transmittance or Absorbance of the sample. The instrument is not
sensitive enough to give accurate readings without more light. By diluting the sample,
more light is transmitted through the sample and the instrument can again make accurate
measurements. Alternatively, samples may be mixed in order to look at the absorbance of
a solution containing both samples. You can do either of these by clicking on “Generate a
custom sample”.

A new window appears (Figure 8). Two micropipetters are shown. Select the solutions
for Pipette A and Pipette B from the drop-down menus on the top left of the window. All
samples from “Default Samples” list are available. For example to dilute a concentrated
sample with water, choose the concentrated sample for Pipette A and water for Pipette B.

The total volume will be held constant as 1000 µl (1 ml). You adjust the volume of
Pipette B (“Volume B”) and the program will automatically adjust the volume of pipette
A. For very concentrated solutions, you might want to try setting Pipette B to 990,
thereby diluting the sample in Pipette A by 1:100. This may have to be further adjusted
upon measurement of the absorbance of the resulting solution.

When you have finished setting the volumes, click on “Mix and add to the custom sample
list”. After prompting you for a new sample name, the pipettes will dispense the volumes
into the cuvette. This sample in now added to the “Custom Samples” list on the main
instrument screen. You may make as many samples as you want. Click “Exit” when you
are done and want to return to the instrument.




                                             14
               Figure 8: Virtual Spectrophotometer sample mixing window


Once back in the main window, select your new sample by clicking on “Custom
Samples” on the top left of your window.

Kinetics

The spectrophotometer can also display kinetic data on samples with indicated time
dependence. The time (in minutes) can be selected and the absorbance shown.

Select a sample that contains kinetic data (such as “Methylene Blue with time variance”)
and insert it into the instrument (after calibrating, as usual). You may now click on
“Elapsed Time” and the absorbance will be shown for the time points.


                                           15
Adding New Samples to the Default Samples List

New samples may be easily added to the VSpec. The sample’s absorbance should be
measured on a high quality spectrophotometer. Alternatively, some absorbance spectra
are available on the Internet and may be adapted for use with the VSpec. The absorbance
spectra must cover the entire range from 400 nm to 750 nm. The spectral files are stored
as text files in the LocalSpectrumData folder found at C:/VSpec v5/LocalSpectrumData.
The title of the file will be used as the sample name when loading samples during
instrument initialization.

To compose a new sample text file, use two columns separated by a tab. The first row
should have “0” (zero) in both columns. Subsequent rows should have the wavelength in
row one (from 400 to 750 in increments of 2 nm) and the absorbance in row 2. You may
open one of the existing sample files (i.e. in Notepad) to directly see the file structure.
The sample text file is then simply saved to the C:/VSpec v5/Local Image Data folder
with the other sample files. The next time VSpec is started, the new sample will be added
to the list of samples to load during VSpec initialization.

For a sample with time variance, spectra at additional time points are added as new
columns. The first row in each new column contains the number corresponding to
minutes of elapsed time for the spectrum. The first two columns should still contain zeros
in the first row. For example, for readings at 0, 15 min and 30 min, the first row should
contain “0 0 15 30”. Row two should have the first wavelength in the spectrum
(400) in column one, then the absorbance at zero time in column 2, the absorbance the
first non-zero time point in column 3, etc. Follow through with increasing wavelengths
and absorbance data similarly in rows three on. Again, you may open one of the existing
sample files (i.e. in Notepad) to directly see the file structure.

You may copy a kinetics file from the LocalSpectrumData to your desktop and open it
with a text reader to observe the formatting.

Sample Lesson Plans

Sample lesson plans will be provided in a future version of the software.




                                            16
                                    GETTING HELP


If you have problems installing or operating the Virtual Instruments, or would like to pass
along feedback, please contact the STARS office at STARSmail@mednet.swmed.edu, or
through our website at www.utsouthwestern.edu/STARS . Feedback is strongly
encouraged and will help us to build better instruments! We will respond as soon as we
can (although it may take a few days for us to get back to you).




                               ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Development of these Virtual Instruments was a part of a proposal, The STARS Science
Triathlon, to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Pre-College Program
submitted by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School / Science Teacher
Access to Resources at Southwestern (STARS) in Dallas, Texas. Independent funding
for The Virtual Microscope and Virtual Spectrophotometer was generously provided by
The Peter O’Donnell Foundation and UT Southwestern Medical School. Dr. Kenith
Meissner and Dr. Charles Lessard, Biomedical Engineering at Texas A&M University,
led the development of the software for the Virtual Microscope and Virtual
Spectrophotometer. National Instruments kindly donated the NI Vision software for the
Virtual Microscope. Ms. Rene McCormick of The National Math and Science Initiative
helped in the initial planning and design of the microscope. Dr. Kathryn Phelps (UT
Southwestern) helped generate the images, and Zeiss donated their facilities and staff for
scanning the images.

This manual was written by Joel Goodman (Joel.Goodman@UTSouthwestern.edu) and
Kenith Meissner (kmeissner@tamu.edu). December 23, 2008

CD cover art designed by Marc Mumby (UT Southwestern).




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