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					 "EVERY sickness, EVERY disease, EVERY ailment can be traced to a
MINERAL DEFICIENCY." - Dr. Linus Pauling, winner of two Nobel Prizes.




CAT'S CLAW (UNCARIA TAMENTOSA):
A POTENT CELLULAR RECONSTITUTOR
Cat's claw is an herb that grows in the rain forest of the Peruvian Amazon. Native Peruvian
Indians have used it for centuries, dating back to the ancient Incas. The inner bark contains
unique active constituents to help support the body's natural defenses.

Cat's claw is currently the subject of extensive scientific research and is used worldwide as a
nutritional supplement.




I discovered Cat's claw on the internet while desperately seeking a cure for hepatocellular
carcinoma. When he informed me of my hepatitis C infection, the blood donor bank technician
offered the possibility that I might die from this disease. He suggested that my final demise would
be from this form of cancer, because there was no possible way to alter the death path of
hepatitis C. Mickey Mantle, Alan Ginsburg, and many other famous people have died from
hepatocellular carcinoma, as a complication of hepatitis C.

Unknown to most Americans, Cat's claw is labeled as a cancer cure and sold over the counter in
most South American countries. It has terrific anti-viral qualities as well and should not be
overlooked in your quest for life.

Six oxindole alkaloids have been isolated from the inner bark. These oxindole alkaloids have
been proven to provide a general boost to the immune system and have a profound effect on the
ability of white blood cells to engulf and digest harmful microorganisms and foreign matter. Other
alkaloids and phytochemicals present in Cat's claw have been shown to provide natural support
against many viruses.

Besides containing oxindole alkaloids, Peruvian and Italian researchers have discovered a wealth
of other beneficial phytochemicals inherent in the herb, including proanthacyanidens,
polyphenols, triterpines and plant sterols beta-stitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. The
presence of these additional compounds might further explain the anti-oxidant, anti-microbial,
anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties attributed to this herb. It is a powerful cellular
reconstitutor

In the words of Dr. Brent Davis:

                    Uncaria Tomentosa (Cat's claw) is a world class herb which has
                    the power to arrest and reverse deep seated pathology, allowing a
                    more rapid return to health in the context of consistent A. K.
                    therapies. (50)

During my treatment I took:
Two 500 mg. cat's claw capsules two times per day.
I also drank two cups of cat's claw tea per day.



Support for joint, cardiovascular, immune and gastrointestinal function.

A Remedy For:


        Osteoarthritis
        Rheumatoid Arthritis
        Rheumatism
        Bursitis
        Rheumatism
        Gout
        Stomach Disorders
        Urinary Disorders
        Immune System Dysfunction
        Repairs effects cause by chemotherapy and radiation therapies
        Skin Disorders




What it is; What it does

Cat's claw, also known as Uncaria tomentosa, has been used traditionally in Peru for over 2,000 years. Alkaloids,
phenols, sterols, and glycosides comprise some of the naturally-occurring constituents of this herb. The effects of
these compounds are far-reaching and include support for joint function, gastric and intestinal health, cellular
protection and immune activity. In a 52-week, randomized, double-blind trial, cat's claw extract promoted joint
comfort in volunteers.

A 4-week study also suggests that cat's claw has the ability to promote joint comfort, in part by moderating
prostaglandin metabolism. Other mechanisms of action that may account for these effects include modulation of
both oxidative stress and cytokine production. Studies involving cultured gastric epithelial cells suggest that cat's
claw may provide important antioxidant protection for gut health. Cat's claw alkaloids have been specifically
associated with enhancing immune system cell function, including phagocytosis and macrophage activity.
Cardiovascular support properties include support for healthy vascular and platelet function. Preliminary evidence
suggests that cat's claw may provide protective support for healthy breast cell function.

Cat's claw extract is derived from the inner vine bard and is standardized to contain 3% alkaloids and 15%
polyphenols, providing potential joint, cardiovascular, immune and gastrointestinal function support. This cat's
claw extract contains 2.73% POAs and 0.27% TOAs.

How Cat's Claw May Help with Arthritis

The anti-inflammatory effects of Cat’s Claw have proven beneficial in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism,
bursitis and gout. As an antioxidant, it also helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Its beneficial
effects in treating arthritis pain may also be due, in part, to its ability to cleanse the digestive tract and aid in
removing toxins from the body. Arthritis, joint pain and inflammation as well as chronic fatigue, allergies,
immune deficiency and a host of other conditions have been associated with defects in intestinal permeability
(leaky bowel syndrome) and toxin overload




WHAT IS COENZYME Q10?

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 for short) is a vital nutrient necessary for the functioning of
every cell of our bodies. CoQ10 is a coenzyme. An enzyme is a catalyst for
biochemical reactions that occur in the body. At the most basic level, they act to
"speed up" these reactions. A coenzyme, like CoQ10, functions solely in the
mitochondria and donates its protons and electrons from its molecule to facilitate
energy production, an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

CoQ10 is known as the world's most comprehensive cardiovascular support
supplement. Taking 100 mg per day per 100 lbs of body weight of CoQ10 increases
aerobic activity and protects the heart muscle, while 300 mg CoQ10 is commonly
advised for therapeutic purposes.

CoQ10 is endogenously synthesized within the mitochondria of every cell of the
body. It is then distributed to those tissues where it is needed. It can be found
predominantly in the skeletal and cardiac muscle, as well as the liver, kidney and
reproductive organs. If is is lacking, the body's most important source of cellular
energy is depleted, and many medical conditions are aggravated. It is most
concentrated in the heart and liver, and is a vital component in the mitochondria, the
body's metabolic factories. Physicians recommend it's use to boost the function of
the heart, as well as a preventative measure to safeguard against heart attacks and
valve damage.

The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell. Cellular respiration occurs here
through a series of complex biochemical reactions. The end product is adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) or energy. CoQ10 is essential to this never ending process. For
without ATP, life ceases to exist.

It is from knowing the role of CoQ10 in the production of energy, that we can
understand how critical it is to the overall health of the human body and in
particular, heart health.

While CoQ10 is obtained naturally by eating fruits and vegetables, it is difficult to get
enough of it on a daily basis from food alone. Age, improper diet, drugs and various
lifestyles deplete CoQ10 levels. Supplementation with a highly bioavailable source of
CoQ10 such as KALA Health CoQ10, can benefit cardiovascular health, act as an
adjunct therapy to cancer, support the immune system and provide a positive effect
on other health concerns.

Increasing the body's CoQ10 concentration has the following benefits:
       It reduces many of the serious side effects caused by prescription drug;
       It reduces the effects of aging;
       It aid in the recovery from a wide range of heart problems including angina
        pectoris, congestive heart failure and mitral valve prolapse;
       It reduce blood pressure and blood lipids;
       It assists chronic fatigue sufferers when administered at 100 to 300 mg per
        day;
       It assists in weight loss by stimulating mitochrondria and thermogenic
        activity;
       It treats chronic gum disease;
       It helps build a strong immune system as a defense against many diseases




                                      IP-6 Supplement
Overview

IP-6 boosts immune function, promotes tumor cells to mature into healthy cells, and regresses
tumor growth, according to several research studies. These studies also demonstrate that IP-6
repairs broken DNA strands, removes excess iron, copper, and heavy metals. Such a stellar
performance in the lab warrants the attention of cancer patients seeking alternative therapies.

IP-6 stands for Inositol Hexaphosphate and plays several essential roles in key body functions.
Inositol is a sugar molecule found in almost every cell in the human body. IP-6 is one of a family
of inositol phosphates, each performing a unique biochemical task. IP-6 helps control the growth
and number of cells, an important attribute in preventing the development of cancer.

Inositol occurs naturally in the fiber of whole grains and legumes. Populations with high fiber
diets generally experience fewer cancers than cultures eating a fiber-poor diet. Over 20 years
ago, Dr. Abulkalam Shamsuddin, a researcher at the University of Maryland, hypothesized that
some constituent in fiber might reduce or fight cancer. Years of research led him to Inositol
Hexaphosphate (IP-6). Since 1975, he has been researching the immune enhancing and anti-
cancer actions of IP-6. Dr. Shamsuddin has written a book titled ‘IP6, Nature's Revolutionary
Cancer-Fighter’ which documents his work. [1]

Evidence

In 1989, a study demonstrated that Inositol-phosphates enhance natural killer cell activity and the
suppression of tumor growth [2]. Two papers published in 1995, reported the beneficial effects
of IP-6 (also called Phytic acid) in protecting against DNA damage due to exposure to asbestos
[3]. IP-6 was shown to inhibit the growth of cancerous tumors in the liver in 1998 [4]. These
studies are just a small sample of the wealth of evidence that implores health-conscious people to
choose fiber-rich whole foods over refined, ready-to-eat meals.

Dose

IP-6 capsules can be purchased on-line from Enzymatic Therapy at www.enzy.com. Take two
capsules (400 mg), twice daily, once before breakfast and again between meals. Take on an
empty stomach 30 minutes before or 90 minutes after meals. One naturopath recommended up to
16 capsules per day while tumors are present, then reduce to a maintenance dose of four capsules
each day.

Carolyn’s Conclusion (The conclusion reflects the author’s viewpoint and is not taken from
information provided in the body of this essay.)

IP-6 is similar to MGN-3 and Copper Reduction Therapy in that all three approaches use
concentrated compounds found naturally in a whole foods diet. That fact leads one to deduce that
a life-long commitment to whole foods, rather than reliance on convenience foods, would prevent
cancer from occurring and/or reoccurring. These supplements can help cancer patients recover
from a life-threatening condition. To maintain health, a cancer patient in remission should adopt
a whole foods diet and avoid highly processed convenience foods. Certainly, the gift of life is
worth a few extra minutes in the kitchen each day. Ultimately, for IP-6 to bring lasting results,
the patient should not return to the lifestyle that led to the disease.


THE BOOK

In this exciting book, Dr. Shamsuddin describes the amazing results of his
ground-breaking experiments of the last 15 years, as to how the B-vitamin
inositol and its derivative inositol hexaphosphate (IP-6) prevent the formation of
cancer and even shrink pre-existing experimental cancers, in clear easy to
understand language, yet providing all the scientific data and references for
those who would like more details. He also describes the many other fascinating
health benefits of these natural products. Learn how IP-6 and Inositol boost
immune system, help lower cholesterol, prevent kidney stones and the
complications of diabetes and sickle cell anemia, and reduce the risk of
cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke. To obtain at a
discounted price, call: 888-882-4304; now also available in Japanese; in Europe
please visit AboutIP6.com (UK) and Nutrisan.com (BENELUX), IP6-Inositol.com
in Asia-Pacific, IP6-PatentedFormula.ca in Canada, and IP6.Info elsewhere.


                                                                               THE AUTHOR

Dr. AbulKalam M. Shamsuddin MD, PhD, is Professor of Pathology at the
University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. Since 1975, he has been
researching the processes of cancer formation, cancer prevention and cancer
treatment. Inventor of a rapid, simple and inexpensive screening test for cancer
[US Patent #5,348,860] he is also the pioneering scientist to demonstrate the
immune enhancing and anti-cancer actions of IP-6 & Inositol, for which he was
awarded the US patent #5,082,833; European Patent # 0 422 109; Japanese
Patent #3188897 and German Patent # 689 12 331.
                                       Magnesium
               Covers common conditions linked to a deficiency

                                       Part Two



Read my disclaimer and terms of use.


Continued from Magnesium - Part One

Many of the following conditions commonly occur in conjunction with each other
and all have been linked to magnesium (Mg) deficiency.

      Fibromyalgia
      Hearing Loss
      Hypercalciuria
      Keratoconus
      Migraines
      Mitral valve prolapse
      Muscle Contractions and Cramps
      Myopia
      Nystagmus
      Osteoporosis and Osteopenia
      Premature Birth
      Rachitic Skeletal Features:

                Pectus Excavatum                   Bulging Foreheads
                Pectus Carinatum                   Beaded Ribs
                Hypermobility                      Scoliosis
                Pes Planus (Flat feet)             Fractures
                Bowed Limbs                        Acetabuli Malformations


      Scar Formation
      Seizures
      TMJ
      Other Conditions Linked to a Magnesium Deficiency



Fibromyalgia

Patents with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome are often found to be low in Mg.
Supplementation with malic acid and magnesium is a common treatment for fibromyalgia.
Seventy-five percent of the people with fibromyalgia have mitral valve prolapse. Mitral valve
prolapse is thought to occur in about 10% of the population in general, so this statistically is quite
significant. Mitral valve prolapse is another disorder also closely linked to Mg deficiency.

Hypermobility is also closely linked to fibromyalgia. Hypermobility is a feature of rickets which
has links to Mg deficiencies.

Women with fibromyalgia have been found to have abnormal serum levels of hyaluronic acid.
The authors of this study suggested serum hyaluronic levels may be used to diagnose
fibromyalgia. But are elevated serum hyaluronic acid levels an indicator of fibromyalgia, or are
they yet another symptom of a Mg deficiency?

Interestingly, people with Down syndrome have elevated serum hyaluronic acid levels, too. What
are some common links between Down syndrome and fibromyalgia? Both groups have mitral
valve prolapse and hypermobility at rates much higher rates than controls, and Down syndrome
patients have been found to be low in magnesium, among other trace elements.

Fibromyalgia, hypermobility and mitral valve prolapse are closely linked to each other, all may be
linked to magnesium deficiency and all are features of many chronic disorders, and virtually all
hereditary connective tissue disorders, especially Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. All three conditions
are also features of Down syndrome, which has many overlaps with connective tissue disorders.
All of these individual features and syndromes are linked to hyaluronic acid abnormalities, and
hyaluronic acid is dependent upon Mg for its synthesis.

Magnesium deficiency, and perhaps other elements that affect hyaluronic acid levels, are a
common thread to connective tissue disorders and disorders with overlapping features like Down
syndrome. If these disorders all had an underlying biochemical deficiency such a magnesium
deficit, then all of these interesting associations between mitral valve prolapse, fibromyalgia,
hyaluronic acid, magnesium, Down syndrome and connective tissue disorders would have
perfectly logical explanations.

Click here to go to my fibromaylagia diet page.

Also see my separate section on mitral valve prolapse for information on why studies show a
strong link between fibromyalgia and MVP.




Natural Calm
Discover the power of magnesium!

General Info: The fact remains that many of us suffer for months and years from chronic conditions,
which no one seems to detect the source of (not even the so-called experts). With all the myriad of
solutions we have sought, only a lucky handful amongst us realize that the true source of these
conditions lies with magnesium deficiency (which as explained later, most magnesium supplements
don't seem to work for). Many of the conditions I listed before are caused primarily by magnesium
deficiency. As for the rest of the conditions, magnesium deficiency is a chief contributing factor. This
information may bring new hope to those who have already grown hopeless about improving their
condition. These conditions are correctable.

90-95% of the population is deficient including many of those who supplement magnesium regularly.
The majority may still think that regular magnesium supplements will fix magnesium deficiency.
Unfortunately, this isn't the case. Read on to understand this in full, and why water-soluble magnesium
is the answer. After reading this data you will become your own expert on how to handle a magnesium
deficiency, which strikes most of our unknowing population. This data is vital for everybody to know. It
has changed the lives of many. It may change your own as well.


Reported Benefits:
       Sleep Disorders           Fatigue                  Stroke Risk
       Back Pain                 Diabetes                 Irregular Heart Beats
       Neck Pain                 Asthma                   Seizures
       Joint Pain                Kidney                   Hyperactivity
       Headaches                 Disorders                High Blood Pressure
       Depression                Nervousness              Arthritis
       Migraine                  PMS                      Bones keep going Out of Alignment
       Headaches                 Osteoporosis
       Muscle Cramps             Muscle Spasms




The Breakthrough
The improper use of magnesium among health professionals and the population in general, is
deeply responsible for many of the failures encountered daily in treating chronic health
conditions nationwide.

Discovery Number 1: The symptoms listed above are normally caused by MAGNESIUM deficiency,
NOT calcium deficiency.

Discovery Number 2: Calcium needs magnesium to assimilate, and will naturally deplete magnesium
storages. Magnesium, on the other hand, does not depend on calcium and works on its own.
Magnesium is FAR more important than calcium.

Discovery Number 3: Excess calcium in the body is, as a result, one of the major causes of
magnesium deficiency and disease. Excess calcium is responsible for many of the above-mentioned
conditions! Lack of sufficient magnesium in the body will make calcium toxic and disease causing.
Excess calcium is today one of the major causes of heart difficulties, kidney malfunction, fatigue, sleep
difficulties, muscle cramps, weakening of bone structure, accelerated aging, moodiness, and much
more.

Discovery Number 4: Sufficient magnesium will allow calcium to assimilate, as well as dissolve and
discharge calcium deposits in the body.

Discovery Number 5: Most magnesium calcium supplements on the market are incorrectly
proportioned and only make things worse.

Discovery Number 6: Nothing will work faster in bringing relief to the conditions listed above as will
water-soluble magnesium powder taken WITHOUT any calcium. The astounding results attained today
by hundreds of successful doctors using Natural Calm will attest to that.

Click here to read what some Doctors say!
Ingredients: 3 teaspoons contain: 615mg Magnesium.

Normally Used For: See description above.

Suggested Usage: 8 oz. - Approximately a 15 day supply - Mix 1-3 teaspoons in 3-4 oz hot water - stir
until dissolve then add 3-4 oz of cold water and drink.

Other Info: This formula is free from preservatives, solvents, additives, fillers, yeast, wheat, corn, soy
or milk.

Safety Info: Do not use this product if you have a known allergy to any of the above ingredients. Do
not use if you have ulcers, pregnant or lactating. Always consult with a health care professional before
using and nutritional supplement or starting any dietary program.




Colostrum ...

is the pre-milk fluid produced from the mother's mammary glands during
the first 72 hours after birth. Colostrum provides life-supporting immune
and growth factors that insure the health and vitality of the newborn.

Colostrum: Beyond the Hype

With all the hype surrounding vitamins, minerals, herbs and supplements, sometimes it’s
hard to know where to start. The answer is really quite simple -- we start at the beginning
-- life. Colostrum is the first food of life! Immune and growth factors in colostrum provide
the newborn with the essential nutrients needed to begin a healthy life. Intended to be
the first substance a newborn ingests, it is safe for all ages. While it’s relatively new on
the market, colostrum has been used for thousands of years to help maintain the health
of people worldwide. For adults, supplementing with colostrum can help restore and
sustain health.

So . . . Got Colostrum???

We know that cow’s milk provides our bodies with vitamin D and calcium, but our four-
legged friends provide an even more powerful substance for our health, -- bovine
colostrum. Colostrum is the nutrient-rich, pre-milk fluid that is secreted by the mammary
glands of female mammals to nourish their young. Bovine (cow) colostrum is nearly
identical to human colostrum but research confirms it is four times richer in immune
factors than human colostrum. Best of all, bovine colostrum is beneficial to all mammals
– humans -- and pets as well!

Immune factors in colostrum can help balance and support a healthy immune system;
which is the key to good health. Growth factors supply the necessary building blocks for
the newborn, enhancing the growth of cells, muscles, tissue, bone and cartilage. As we
age, our bodies produce less and less of these vital factors, increasing signs of aging,
and making it more difficult for us to fight disease.

Pollution, toxins, carcinogens, smoking, alcohol and overuse of antibiotics can lead to a
decrease in our immune response, resulting in disease. Colostrum can help restore the
body’s ability to function properly in both newborns and adults. It even works great for
our pets!

Most experts agree that the majority of disease and illness begins in the gastrointestinal
tract. Pathogens (viruses, bacteria, yeast, and fungus) enter the body through our nose,
ears, and mouth and can attach themselves to the lining of the bowel, where they grow
and multiply, causing a huge variety of diseases. Colostrum helps inhibit the binding of
pathogens to the bowel lining, so they are unable to proliferate.

All humans are exposed to these deadly invaders throughout their lives. Unfortunately,
these days, they are in the air we breathe and the food we eat. When our bodies are
healthy, our immune system fights off these pathogens without needing any help.
However, if our immune system is compromised in any way (which is unfortunately true
for most of us), colostrum can help our bodies restore proper immune function.

What makes colostrum so beneficial?
There are over 90 known components in colostrum. The primary components, divided
into two classes, are immune factors and growth factors. Colostrum also contains a
precise balance of vitamins, minerals and amino acids. All of these factors work together
in perfect synergy to restore and maintain health.

Colostrum’s Immune Factors

Immune Factors in colostrum have been shown to help the body fight off harmful
invaders such as viruses, bacteria, yeast and fungus. Each factor plays a specific role in
our body’s defense against these attackers. In addition, colostrum contains over 20
antibodies to specific pathogens including E coli, salmonella, rotavirus, candida,
streptococcus, staphylococcus, H pylori, and cryptosporidia.

In addition to immunoglobulins, medical studies show that PRP in colostrum also
supports an under active immune system. PRP also helps balance an overactive
immune system present in autoimmune diseases.

Colostrum’s Growth Factors

Growth Factors help build and restore bone, muscle, nerve tissue, connective tissue,
skin and cartilage. These factors have also been shown to help increase lean muscle,
help the body burn fat for fuel, and assist in wound healing. Growth factors have also
been shown to help slow the signs of aging!

Colostrum's growth factors may:
      Affect the brain’s mood regulating chemicals to brighten our moods. (serotonin &
       dopamine)
      Assist in regeneration and improve normal growth of aged or injured muscle,
       bone, cartilage, skin collagen and nerve tissue.
      Help burn fat for fuel instead of muscle tissue in times of fasting (diet), and build
       & retain lean muscle (non-diet).
      Assist the internal regulation of blood glucose levels and "brain chemicals",
       supporting alertness and better concentration.
      Support healing skin when applied topically
      Repair our body’s precious RNA and DNA.

Other Beneficial Components

Vitamins and Minerals are nutrients that are essential for normal metabolism, growth and
development. They act as coenzymes, enabling chemical process to take place
throughout the body. Vitamins and minerals are indispensable for the maintenance of
health.

Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins. They are required for growth and
development. Amino acids are divided into essential (not produced by the body) and
nonessential (can be produced by the body).

Obtaining Colostrum
How to Select A High Quality Product

With the growth in popularity, many colostrum products have emerged on the
market. We find there is a great deal of conflicting information or should we say
misinformation, about colostrum supplements. That's why, in the course of our
research, we have gone to great lengths to define which elements are the most
important when selecting the best colostrum supplement for your own use. With
that in mind, use the following guidelines:

What                    constitutes                 quality                   processing?
Bottom line: Choose a product that has been processed carefully, but not “OVER-
PROCESSED.”
We say repeatedly that nature created a perfect food in colostrum. Of course it isn’t
practical to get colostrum fresh from the cow, so how do we find colostrum that remains
as close as possible to it’s ―perfect‖ state? Look for colostrum that has has been
minimally processed at the lowest temperature possible. High temperatures can destroy
some of colostrum’s vital components and denature the product. Colostrum that has
been flash pasteurized and freeze-dried or spray-dried using low temperatures is the
best choice. This is the simplest, most effective way of preserving all of colostrum’s vital
components without over-processing it.

A note on freeze-drying: In general, colostrum is usually frozen for storage. Dairies
have used frozen colostrum to supplement newborn calves for years. Freezing
colostrum isn't actually the problem- thawing is. Colostrum must be thawed at very low
temperatures to avoid any bacterial growth and maintain all of the biological components
that benefit health. Therefore, companies that freeze colostrum would either have to
spend an unreasonable amount of money in monitoring and regulating the thawing
process, or find a better way to preserve colostrum’s vital components. This just isn’t
probable for a company that mass produces colostrum from a milk production plant. A
process like this could only be done by a company devoted to natural products that
specializes in colostrum manufacturing*. To produce the highest quality product requires
a state of the art process that takes the colostrum straight from freezing to freeze-drying;
so the product is never subjected to the thawing process and therefore retains all of its
valuable benefits. Freeze-drying is an effective process used for many components
supplied to the medical industry. This technique allows the colostrum to be processed
with minimal heat, keeping it as close to the way nature intended it as possible.

New                       Zealand                           or                       U.S.?
Bottom       Line:      New    Zealand           purity      wins      by      a     hoof.
Bovine Colostrum is effective for humans- whether it comes from New Zealand or the
United States. What makes high-quality colostrum is high-quality cattle and high-quality
processing. We favor New Zealand colostrum because of its dairies stringent standards
of quality. Also, New Zealand colostrum comes from cows mostly pasture-fed or even
100% pasture fed, which may create a broader spectrum of immune factors in the
colostrum. Colostrum from certified New Zealand Dairies an even better choice.

What's        all     the       fuss      about      Immunoglobulins?
Bottom line: Important to calves, but much over-emphasized for humans.
While immunoglobulin (IG) level has been the most common measurement used to
determine colostrum quality for calves, it is often over-emphasized as the measurement
of quality for humans. Nature created a perfect food in colostrum and all colostrum
contains the same basic components including IG, lactoferrin and growth factors. For
calves, IG may be the most important factor as it is their sole source of immune
protection at birth. For humans who choose colostrum as a supplement however,
superiority in collection and processing should be the benchmarks of quality. The true
quality of colostrum for human use can be determined by choosing a product that has
been:

      Pooled from 100% pasture-fed cows
      Low heat processed
      Flash pasteurized
      Certified free from hormones, pesticides and antibiotics.
      If possible, collected from certified organic dairies.


First,      milking,     second             milking,       or        what    milking?
Bottom      line:    The    calves'          needs        MUST       be   met    first!
The first colostrum that comes from the cow must be given to the calf- it is essential to
the health and vitality of the newborn and the preservation of the entire herd. Ideally, the
calf will be given 3 quarts of first milking colostrum within the first 6 hours and then 2
quarts within the next 12 hours. Companies that claim "6-hour" or "First milking"
colostrum products are simply not telling the truth. While a cow produces a substantial
amount of colostrum, the initial colostrum or "first milking" contains a significant amount
of fat and proteins that must be received by the calf right away for proper absorption.
These factors are most beneficial to the newborn calf, but not necessarily as important to
humans. Colostrum collected after the first 6 hours still contains all of the beneficial
factors that we value. After about 48 hours, the colostrum becomes transitional milk and
finally full milk at about 72 hours.

Good              fat,        bad             fat,          or              no           fat?
Bottom          line:       Mother          nature         has         it        right       .
Lipids (fats) help colostrum disperse and dissolve, and are therefore an important
component in colostrum. The problem is that fats also become rancid quickly. So
colostrum     with     its    full   fat   content      intact   will    spoil    quicker.
Defatted colostrum has the advantage of having a much longer shelf life. However,
there's nothing to indicate that defatted colostrum is missing any vital components as
some manufacturers of american colostrum have suggested. Check with the
manufacturer to find out what you are getting and how long it sits on the shelf. The ideal
colostrum is one that is processed with the fat left intact, and delivered quickly to you.
Colostrum from certified New Zealand Dairies generally have the fat left intact.

Pasture-fed                                  or                                  "Lot-fed"?
Bottom                        Line:                      Pasture                        fed.
It stands to reason that pasture-fed cattle are more natural cattle. At the same time,
practicality dictates that cattle are not always pasture-fed. We do know that New
Zealand cattle can be pasture-fed nearly year-round because the weather is so
temperate. Some New Zealand dairy cattle are actually 100% pasture-fed. Pasture
feeding exposes cows to the live enzymes and nutrients found in the soil. When cows
are pasture fed, they produce more antibodies to disease-causing pathogens in their
colostrum, which can help support our immune system when taken as a supplement.
Cows that are lot-fed may be exposed to something called offal (ironically pronounced
"awful"). Offal is the one of the "lot feed" products that's fed to livestock along with corn
and other grains. Offal is made from animal parts left over after slaughter, including the
bones and spines. Now that's awful. We favor pasture-feeding.

Encapsulation               ,              gelatin               or              vegetable?
Bottom-line:             Vegetable            capsules                are          superior
Unlike standard gelatin capsules, vegetable capsules have a very low moisture content.
This can provide better protection and will not compromise the integrity of the delicate,
bio-active, components found in colostrum. Although vegetable caps are about twice the
cost of gelatin caps, the additional cost will be well worth the investment in terms of the
freshness and purity, not to mention the fact that you won't be ingesting bovine and pig
hoofs as part of your health regime, which is what gelatin capsules are from.

Tested                                      for                                      safety?
Bottom       Line:       Accept       no     foreign      agents        or       pathogens.
Colostrum should be tested by a certified laboratory to be free of pesticides, heavy
metals, antibiotics, and disease-causing pathogens. Use of antibiotics and hormones like
rBST         with        cattle      is      illegal      in         New       Zealand.
Please Note: New Zealand is the only country with a major dairy industry that has never
had a recorded case of scrapie or mad cow disease in their cattle herds or other
livestock.
Expert Opinions About Colostrum:
Ayurvedic physicians and spiritual leaders have used colostrum for its
physical and spiritual health benefits for over 2,000 years.

Scandinavian countries have been making colostrum pudding topped with honey for
hundreds of years to celebrate the birth of calves and good health. And, until penicillin
and other antibiotics were discovered, it was used in the U.S. as an early antibiotic.

But it wasn't until about 20 years ago that Western medical scientists began to study
colostrum's phenomenal health benefits. Today, over 2,000 scientific and clinical studies
have been published by some of the world's most-respected doctors and medical
researchers.

Here's just a sampling of what these professionals are saying:

When I first heard the claims about colostrum I dismissed them. Now, after seeing the research,
and seeing patients’ results for myself, I’m a believer.
—Dr. Donald Henderson MD

"Colostrum is valuable to me both personally and within my practice. I consider colostrum an
important therapeutic aid for all my patients who have chronic infections, including bacterial, viral,
or fungal … Patients who gain the most from nutritional supplement are those with chronic fatigue
syndrome, infectious diarrhea, sinusitis and Fibromyalgia."
-Nikki-Marie Welch, MD, Sedona, AZ Townsend Letter for Doctor & Patients

"It is the growth factor content of colostrum which is truly exciting for the adult patient. The growth
factors present in colostrum are numerous and of a character that provides great hope for
biotechnology."
-Daniel S. Bricker, B.S.,
"Colostrum: Implications for Accelerated Recovery in Damaged Muscle and Cartilage, Prevention
of Some Pathogenic Disease," The American Chiropractor

"Completely healthy individuals can supplement with colostrum just to maintain their vitality and
good health. Colostrum stimulates lean muscle growth and increases endurance…It also
promoted the burning of excessive body fat [and] may even help reverse many signs of aging."
-Zoltan Rona, M.D.
"Bovine Colostrum, Immunity and the Aging Process," Nature's Impact

"It is now well-known that a wide range of antiviral factors are present in colostrum."
-Dr. E.L Palmer, Atlanta, GA Center for Disease Control

"Colostrum contains nonspecific inhibitors that inhibit a wide range of respiratory illness, notably
influenza viruses. Colostrum is specifically cited for its unique effectiveness against potentially
deadly outbreaks of Asian Flu viruses that emerge from animal/human mutations."
-Dr. Shortridge, et. al, Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

"Glycoproteins, in bovine colostrum, inhibit the attachment of the Helicobactor pylori bacteria that
cause stomach ulcers. Colostrum contains significant amounts of Interlukin-10 (a strong
inflammation inhibitory agent), found significant in reducing inflammation in arthritic joints and
injury areas."
-Dr. Olle Hernell, University of Ulmea, Sweden, Science

"Colostrum and breast milk (from cows and humans) stimulates the newborn's immune system as
yet, unidentified proteins speed the maturation of cultured B Lymphocytes (type of white blood
cell) and primes them for production of antibodies."
-Dr. Michael Julius, McGill University, Montreal; Science News


"Studies with human volunteers found that the preservation of the biological activity of IgG
(immunoglobulin), in the digestive secretions of adults receiving bovine colostrum orally, indicates
passive enteral (intestinal) immunization for the prevention and treatment of acute intestinal
diseases."
-Dr. L.B. Khazenson, Microbial & Epidemial Immunobiology

"Immunoglobulin from bovine colostrum effectively reduces and prevents viral and bacterial
infections in immune deficient subjects: Bone marrow recipients, premature babies, AIDS, etc."
-New England Journal of Medicine

"PRP, in bovine colostrum, has the same ability to regulate activity of the immune system as
hormones of the thymus gland. It activates an under active immune system, helping it move into
action against disease-causing organisms. PRP also suppresses an overactive immune system,
such as is often seen in the autoimmune diseases. PRP is highly anti-inflammatory and also
appears to act on T-cell precursors to produce helper T-cells and suppressers T-cells."
-Dr. Staroscik, et. al., Molecular Immunology

"Bovine colostrum contains TgF-B which has an important suppressive effect on cytoxic
substances (anti-inflammatory). Inhibits cell growth of human osteosarcoma (cancer) cells (75%
inhibition). Mediator of fibrosis and angiogenesis (healing of heart muscle and blood vessels),
(Roberts et. al., 1986), accelerates wound healing (sporn et. al., 1983) and bone formation
(Centrella et.al., 1987).
-Drs. Tokuyama and Tokuyama, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazaw University, Japan

Growth factors in bovine colostrum were found to be very effective in promoting wound healing.
Recommended for trauma and surgical healing. External and internal applications."
-Dr. Spron, et. al., Science

"Cartilage inducing Factor-A, found in colostrum, stimulates cartilage repair."
-Drs. Seyedin, Thompson, Bentz, et. al.; Journal of Biological Chemistry


"Colostrum is found to contain numerous powerful, naturally-occurring antioxidants."
-Pediatric Research (Vol.24, No.1, pp. 14-19)

"Why is [colostrum] so important: Because it contains substances that provide temporary
immunity against diseases and afflictions until the baby's own immune system 'turns on.' It
contains substances that destroy viruses. It also starts proper bowel movements … stimulates
physical growth and initiates many other body functions. One researcher has estimated that
colostrum triggers at least 50 processes and functions in the newborn that provide lasting
benefits, some lifelong. More recently, we have found that colostrum has great health benefits for
adults."
-Dr. Bernard Jensen, Ph.D. Colostrum: Life's First Food

Relief-Mart - Bringing you High Quality Glucosamine and MSM products at a discount.
              ALL ABOUT GLUCOSAMINE AND MSM
By Rick Swartzburg, D.C.
2/20/02

Introduction

Glucosamine and MSM (Methyl Sulfonyl Methane) are perhaps the most widely used
natural supplements for those seeking alternative solutions for pain relief,
inflammation and tissue repair. This large scale interest was prompted from some
early positive studies on these nutrients and has blossomed into a full spectrum of
current and future planned scientific studies which preliminarily continue to validate
supplemental use of these naturally occurring compounds for a variety of disorders.
Both of these supplements have been studied since the early 1980s, but with an
increasing interest in alternative remedies that can perhaps offer a natural solution
to a medical problem, the medical and scientific community has taken a much more
active approach in researching these topics.

Glucosamine

Glucosamine, the precursor in the formation of Chondroitin, has been found to
stimulate cartilage cells to synthesize glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycansore(1).
This essentially means that Glucosamine has the potential to rebuild the cartilage
lost in a joint due to injury or osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint
disease. With more than 30 million Americans suffering from this type of arthritis, it
is no wonder that the American College of Rheumatology took a closer look at this
supplement. In a 1999 press release they proclaimed that Glucosamine reduces the
signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. Lead investigator Jean-Yves
Reginster, MD, PhD, of the University of Liege in Belgium added that "for the first
time, we have shown that a compound may be able at least to slow down the
progression of osteoarthritis." They based these findings on a three-year study
where they compared disease symptoms and average joint space widths, as
measured by X-rays, between patients taking a 1500 mg daily dose of Glucosamine
sulfate and those taking a placebo. They found that joint space narrowed in patients
taking a placebo, but showed no further narrowing in patients on Glucosamine
sulfate. They also found that symptoms worsened for patients taking a placebo and
improved for those on Glucosamine sulfate(2). A just released study done over
three years demonstrated virtually the same findings(3), further validating the use of
Glucosamine for stimulating cartilage growth and joint pain.

Because Glucosamine is a small molecule, it is easily absorbed and very permeable
to cell linings. According to the Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements, the
absorption rate for Chondroitin Sulfate is estimated between 0 and 8 percent. In
contrast, studies show up to 98% of the orally administrated Glucosamine Sulfate is
absorbed(4). The very recent long-term study demonstrated slightly higher side
effects occurring with taking Glucosamine orally(3), while another demonstrated that
only 1% of patients taking the Glucosamine had epigastric pain/tenderness,
heartburn, diarrhea and nausea(5). Glucosamine can be taken in pill or liquid form,
administered though intramuscular injections, and more recently can be found in
topical formulas. The effectiveness of a topical formula is dependent on the ability of
the ingredients to penetrate the skin barrier. Creams and lotions usually lack this
ability to penetrate, as they usually contain thick, non-absorbing, and often waxy
ingredients. Glucosamine Sulfate is currently sold over the counter in the United
States as a supplement and therefore not currently evaluated by the FDA.

MSM
MSM (Methyl Sulfonyl Methane) was isolated by Robert Herschler and
Dr. Stanley Jacob of the University of Oregon Medical School in the
early 80's. Their research showed that MSM is a natural sulfur
compound found in all living things. It revealed that MSM one of the
most prominent compounds in our bodies, just behind water and
sodium. In his research, Dr. Jacob found that the sulfur in MSM, called
Sulfonyl, is as safe and is as important as vitamin C in our diet. He
observed that it is very different than the bad sulfurs like sulfite, often
used to preserve certain foods. MSM is a member of the sulfur family
but should never be confused with sulfa drugs, to which some people
are allergic. MSM is a natural form of organic sulfur found in all living
organisms, including human body fluids and tissues. MSM originates
in the ocean and reaches the human food chain through rainfall. MSM
is an odorless, water-soluble, white crystalline material that supplies a
bio-available form of dietary sulfur. While MSM is normally found in
many common foods, including raw milk, meat, fish and a variety of
fruits, vegetables, and grains, it is normally lost from our food by
heating, storage, processing, drying, cooking and preserving and even
washing. MSM has been shown to add flexibility to cell walls while
allowing fluids to pass through the tissue more easily. MSM enhances
tissue pliability and encourages the repair of damaged skin(6) MSM
levels in humans decline with age, resulting in symptoms of fatigue,
tissue and organ malfunction, and increased susceptibility to
disease(6).

In a study of 24 people with athletic injuries, MSM was shown to reduce symptoms
by nearly twice as much as those taking placebos, and was able to reduce the
average needed visits to the chiropractor by approximately 60%(7). Another
preliminary study compared 10 degenerative arthritis suffers taking MSM versus 6
who took a placebo. Results indicate a better than 80 percent control of pain within
six weeks for those patients using MSM, while only two patients showed a minimal
improvement (less than 20 percent) on the placebo(7). Dr. Lawrence, the medical
doctor who headed up these studies, relates that he has treated more than one
thousand patients with MSM and believes that it is safer than water. He noted that it
appears that the body uses what it requires and flushes out the rest within 12
hours. According to a recent book by Lawrence, Jacob, and Zucker, entitled The
Miracle of MSM, MSM can be a natural remedy for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid
arthritis, Fibromyalgia, tendonitis and bursitis, muscular soreness and athletic
injuries, carpal tunnel syndrome, post-traumatic inflammation and pain, heartburn
and hyperacidity, headaches and back pain, and allergies. It was also noted that
people taking MSM may notice other benefits, including softer skin, harder nails,
thicker hair, and softening of scar tissue. An allotted time of 2 - 4 weeks may be
needed before significant improvement is seen. It was demonstrated that patients at
the Oregon Health Sciences University who have received oral MSM as part of their
treatment show no toxic build-up, even after years of ingesting more than 2,000mg
of MSM each day(8). MSM can be taken orally in pill or liquid form, and is also found
in topical formulas. Topical creams with MSM may not offer much benefit, as the
heating process may destroy the bio-availability of the MSM. With MSM's ability to
allow fluids to pass through the tissue more easily, it works well with other natural
compounds to allow for better absorption.

Conclusion

The current scientific literature available supports the use of Glucosamine and MSM
for the use of symptom reduction and tissue repair in damaged muscle and joints.
The low occurrence of mild side effects when taken internally far underscore the
benefits demonstrated with the use of Glucosamine. Topical formulas will not only
avoid these mild side effects, but when combined with a good delivery system, will
offer local transfer of ingredients directly to the site of irritation. However, it will be
beneficial to see future studies which compare outcomes using different
formulations, dosages and musculoskeletal conditions to help better understand the
limitations of these powerful nutritional supplements.

         Use Therapain Plus® on: ARTHRITIS NECK AND BACK ACHE
        SPORTS RELATED INJURIES SORENESS MUSCLE AND JOINT
              STIFFNESS SPRAINS STRAINS FIBROMYALGIA
             CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME BURSITIS TENDONITIS
               MORNING STIFFNESS SCIATICA CHRONIC PAIN



Why do we need minerals and vitamins?
Much of the food we eat does not contain the amount of usable minerals and vitamins that our
bodies need for healthy living. This is due to current soil conditions and manufacturing processes.
To get our daily dose of these essential nutrients, we would have to eat an unrealistic amount of
food. This is where supplements come in.

But, not all supplements are equally beneficial. Water-soluble, ionic minerals, vitamins, and other
nutrients are the most effective because their angstrom size (1/10,000th of a micron, which is a
millionth of a meter) insures immediate absorption and maximum usage, with no need for
digestion... [more]

WHAT ARE THE TRACE ELEMENTS?
Trace elements, as the name implies, are those that we need to ingest only in tiny amounts - typically in the range
of micrograms to milligrams per day - in order to maintain levels conducive to good health. It is generally accepted
that the nine vital trace elements - the ones without which good health (or even life itself) would not be possible -
are chromium, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc. These are the ones that
play absolutely essential (and, for the most part, fairly well-understood) roles in myriad aspects of human
physiology.

The other trace elements - those that are not vital in the Big Nine sense but that are nonetheless believed (with
widely varying degrees of evidence) to be essential to our health - are aluminum, arsenic, boron, bromine,
cadmium, fluorine, germanium, lead, lithium, nickel, rubidium, silicon, tin, vanadium, and perhaps others. Of these,
fluorine may be the one that is not truly essential, but it is beneficial.2 The surprise entries in this list are arsenic,
cadmium, and lead, which are notorious poisons, but even poisons can have positive qualities in small enough
quantities, as anyone who has received strychnine as a medicine can attest.
All categories of foods - fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, grains, meats, seafood, etc.- are potential sources of
trace elements, most of which are present there in the form of inorganic salts. When we eat them, they are
absorbed by the stomach or intestines and are then carried by the blood to target sites throughout the body, either
as free ions or bound to protein carriers. Their distribution throughout the body may be very uneven, depending on
where they are most needed. Most of the iodine we ingest, e.g., goes to the thyroid gland, with a small amount
going to the ovaries and a few other places. Ultimately, the trace elements are excreted in the bile, urine, stool,
and sweat, which is why we must continue to consume them.

WHAT DO THE TRACE ELEMENTS DO?
Most of the evidence for the essentiality of many of the trace elements is circumstantial, i.e., it is based on
observations of deficiency symptoms (from either accidental or induced deficiencies) and the response of those
symptoms to dietary supplementation with the elements in question, rather than on direct evidence of the
biochemical roles played by the elements.3

The roles that we do know about fall into three broad categories: (1) catalytic, in which the element is a component
of an enzyme cofactor (also called a coenzyme), without which the enzyme could not perform its function as the
catalyst for a particular chemical reaction, such as one involved in cellular metabolism or cellular reproduction; (2)
structural, in which the element is a component of a physiologically vital molecule, such as hemoglobin (trace
element: iron), thyroxine (iodine), or cyanocobalamin (cobalt), and (3) regulatory, in which the element interacts
chemically with macromolecules in such a way as to enhance or inhibit their function. Taken together, the trace
minerals are involved in all major metabolic pathways and are thus of fundamental importance in human
physiology.4

DOES OUR DIET CONTAIN ENOUGH OF THE TRACE ELEMENTS?
Complacency can be harmful to your health. It is important to realize that we do not necessarily get enough of all
the trace elements we need in our diet, even if it's an otherwise healthy one that follows generally recommended
standards with regard to the main food groups. Whether such a diet contains enough of a certain trace element
depends mainly on the mineral content of the soil in which the crops that go into that diet are grown (or the mineral
content of the soil that grew the grass that fed the cow that gave the milk that you poured on your breakfast
cereal).

The soil in some geographic regions is known to be deficient in this or that trace element, so foodstuffs derived
from that soil will be deficient also. This can be a problem for those whose food comes primarily from that region
rather than from diverse regions. But if the region in question is large enough - the entire country of New Zealand,
e.g., is low in selenium - virtually everyone can be affected. Many other places throughout the world are low in
selenium, including parts of China, Egypt, and the United States.

Of course, those who eat a poor diet that is unbalanced with regard to the main food groups are much more likely
than their more sensible friends to suffer some trace-element deficiencies. In either case, however, the crucial
question is: deficiencies of which trace elements? There is no easy way to know, because there are so many
dietary variables involved. And, unless the deficiencies are so serious that they cause overt disease (which is rare,
especially in the developed nations), their symptoms are usually very hard to identify as such, because there is a
great deal of overlap among them, and most of them can easily arise from many other causes as well. The most
common symptoms are malaise, loss of appetite, anemia, infections, skin lesions, and low-grade neuropathy (a
disease or abnormality of the nervous system). 5

WHAT IS GOOD HEALTH AND HOW GOOD IS IT?
Regarding nutrition in general, it is widely taken for granted that one of the main objectives of a balanced diet is to
ensure that we get enough of all the vital nutrients our bodies need to prevent deficiency symptoms for any of
those nutrients. For example, if we get enough vitamin C, we won't get scurvy. The implicit assumption here is that
good health is the absence of disease.

What a ridiculous notion! As readers of Life Enhancement know, ingesting just enough of the essential nutrients to
avoid their deficiency symptoms is hardly the basis of good - let alone optimal - health. We know that many
nutrients keep on delivering health benefits, the more of them we ingest - up to some reasonable limits, beyond
which toxic effects can begin to occur. Within those limits, more is generally better. Without question, good health
is better than minimal health (the absence of disease), and optimal health is best of all. It's the difference between
reaching for the stars and reaching for the top of your head.

There is no reason to believe that this principle does not apply to the trace elements and other micronutrients as
well as to the better-known macronutrients, and some scientists (even government scientists!) are beginning to
acknowledge it. Listen to Dr. Forrest H. Nielsen of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Human Nutrition Research
Center in Grand Forks, ND:3 "A new paradigm is emerging in which the dominating role of the concept of
deficiency in the determination of nutritional requirements is gradually being complemented by the concern for the
total health effects of a nutrient. In other words, dietary intake recommendations for nutrients are being made that
far exceed those required to prevent deficiency pathology because of apparent beneficial health effects."

We couldn't have said it better ourselves. (OK, maybe we could have, but let's not quibble.) What's important to
remember is that, although it is usually difficult to know for sure whether one is getting enough of a given trace
element in the diet to ensure at least good health, it is easy to guarantee getting enough by taking intelligently
designed supplements. The intelligence comes in the form of ensuring that the amount taken is well within the
limits of safety at both ends of the spectrum: not too little, certainly, but also not too much.

WHO NEEDS MORE TRACE ELEMENTS?
An interesting question is whether or not the elderly are at greater risk of trace-mineral deficiencies, in analogy with
their known tendency to a low dietary intake of the "macrominerals" such as calcium and magnesium. Among the
reasons for believing that this could be true are: changes in appetite and in the senses of smell and taste brought
on by medications; lowered food intake owing to difficulties in chewing or swallowing; and changes in endocrine
function as well as in gastrointestinal and renal physiology, which could alter the requirements for some minerals.
Whether or not the elderly do need higher average daily intakes of some trace elements remains largely an open
question, however. There is little hard evidence either way. 6

In any case, the health-conscious consumer of any age nowadays is bombarded with all kinds of claims - many of
them specious and irresponsible - regarding the trace elements and the so-called "cures" they can provide for
everything from arthritis to zits. It is difficult to find honest, reliable, scientifically sound advice on this subject in
publications written for the layman. But that's why you're reading Life Enhancement, isn't it?

Based on extensive examination of the scientific literature on trace elements, we have created a formulation of ten
of these elements for which deficiencies are most likely to occur in the modern American diet. They are boron,
chromium, copper, iodine, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, and they can
now be found in BioEnhance With DNAbleTM, a new version of DNAbleTM, our gene-support supplement. Following
are capsule descriptions of each of these elements.

BORON
Boron deficiency in chicks (the kind with feathers) causes impaired calcium and energy metabolism, altered bone
morphology, and an increased vitamin D requirement. 3 These findings are consistent with the belief that boron in
humans may be beneficial for optimal calcium metabolism and thus optimal bone metabolism.7 There is
epidemiological evidence that arthritis is much more prevalent in areas of the world where boron levels are
unusually low, suggesting that this may be a primary effect of boron deficiency. 8 A reasonable amount of
supplemental boron is 3 mg/day.

CHROMIUM
The role of chromium in the body is in glucose and lipid metabolism, and a dietary deficiency can cause impaired
glucose tolerance, which is of great importance to diabetics. Oral supplementation with chromium corrects this
problem in patients with Type 2 (maturity-onset) diabetes mellitus and in children with protein-energy malnutrition,
but such supplements have no effect in people with normal chromium intakes or in those with normal glucose
tolerance.4 A reasonable amount of supplemental chromium is 200 mcg/day.

COPPER
Copper is found in all living cells and is essential for proper function of the immune system. With zinc, it is part of a
complex called copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, which is an extremely important antioxidant enzyme. A copper
deficiency impairs the function of this enzyme and leads to various diseases affecting the blood, the cardiovascular
system, the skeleton, and the central nervous system. 5 Adequate intake of copper is especially important for obese
women during weight loss, and it has been known for decades that a copper deficiency can cause osteoporosis. 9 A
reasonable amount of supplemental copper is 2.5 mg/day.

IODINE
Iodine is absolutely vital for proper thyroid function, and its deficiency is probably the most dramatically visible of
all, as it produces goiter, a pronounced swelling of the thyroid gland, which is located in the front of the neck.
Severe cases cause mental retardation, even cretinism, and are thus among the most devastating of all trace-
element deficiencies. Although iodine deficiency was virtually eliminated in the developed world in the 1920s
through the brilliantly simple expedient of adding a pinch of iodine to our commercial table salt, it has been making
a "comeback" in recent years and thus represents a growing threat to good health even in some Western
countries.10,11 It has always been a major health problem in most underdeveloped countries. (By the way, it's
pronounced "eye-oh-deen," not "eye-oh-dine." The latter pronunciation applies only to the antiseptic tincture you
buy at the drugstore.) A reasonable amount of supplemental iodine is 100 mcg/day.

MAGNESIUM
Interest in the role of magnesium in clinical medicine, nutrition, and physiology has recently increased. Magnesium
is used in several hundred chemical reactions in the body. 12 It possesses special binding characteristics that
contribute to its effects on many cellular functions, including the transport of potassium and calcium ions. It also
modulates signal transduction, energy metabolism, and cell proliferation, and it is now thought to have a role in the
prevention and treatment of vascular headaches. Magnesium deficiency is not uncommon among the general
population: its intake has decreased over the years, especially in the Western world. Deficiency is related to
atherosclerosis, cardiac diseases, diabetes, and asthma. A reasonable amount of supplemental magnesium is 450
mg/day.

MANGANESE
Although manganese is found in very few enzymes in the human body, it plays a role in activating a wide variety of
enzymes, and that too makes it essential. Evaluating just how important manganese really is has proved to be
difficult, however, because there is only one recorded case of a human manganese deficiency - and that was
induced accidentally through an error in an experimental diet. The patient in question developed weight loss,
decreased serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids, and a blood-clotting abnormality that did
not respond to vitamin K until manganese was given. In any case, extrapolations from animal studies indicate that
manganese deficiency can produce abnormalities in the metabolism of carbohydrates, glycosaminoglycans, and
cholesterol.4 A reasonable amount of supplemental manganese is 8 mg/day.

MOLYBDENUM
In the human body, molybdenum tends to be concentrated in the liver, kidneys, skin, and bones. A deficiency is
characterized by mouth and gum disorders and mental disturbance, among others. 5 It produces a distinctive
syndrome of impaired metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids (constituents of proteins) and nucleotides (the
basic constituents of DNA and RNA).4 A reasonable amount of supplemental molybdenum is 80 mcg/day.

SELENIUM
Selenium is widely distributed throughout the body, with high concentrations in the kidneys, liver, and testicles.
Selenium-containing enzymes - notably the vital antioxidant glutathione peroxidase - play a major role in protecting
the integrity of cell membranes and the immune system, and they help maintain the function of the thyroid gland
and the heart.5 An interesting aspect of the selenium in glutathione peroxidase is that it is synergistic with vitamin E
(another antioxidant); consequently, a deficiency in either of these nutrients can create additional requirements for
the other.4 Selenium has been shown to increase sperm motility (and hence the probability of conception) in
subfertile men with low selenium levels. 13 And there appears to be strong evidence that a low selenium intake is
associated with higher cancer rates, suggesting that an adequate selenium intake may be essential for cancer
prevention.14 A reasonable amount of supplemental selenium is 200 mcg/day.

VANADIUM
Vanadium is widespread in both the plant and animal worlds, but in low concentrations: most foods contain less
than 1 part per billion. The estimated daily intake of the U.S. population ranges from 10 to 60 micrograms. 15
Although known for more than a hundred years, its hypoglycemic properties were established only in 1985. Recent
research shows that it has an insulin-like effect on blood-sugar levels. Vanadium is also known to play a role in the
regulation of intracellular signaling and as a cofactor of enzymes essential in energy metabolism. A reasonable
amount of supplemental vanadium is 20 mcg/day.

ZINC
Zinc is the champion trace element, being active in over 400 proteins, in the interactions of hormones with their
receptors, and in synaptic transmission in the nervous system. 1 The influence of zinc is so pervasive,
encompassing all the major metabolic pathways, that it has been compared in importance to an essential amino
acid.16 It is second only to iron in total amount in the body and is found in high concentrations in the male
reproductive system as well as in muscle, bone, liver, kidneys, skin, and hair.

Evidence from both animal and human studies indicates that a zinc-deficient diet can cause chromosomal
damage, esophageal cancer, male infertility, alterations in brain development and growth, learning and behavioral
disabilities, cognitive defects, immune-system dysfunction, and slow growth and development in newborns, among
others.1 Zinc is believed to play a role in neural functions such as appetite control, taste, olfaction, vision
(particularly dark adaptation), abstract thought, and neuromuscular coordination. 4 Wound healing and the integrity
of cellular membranes are highly dependent on adequate amounts of zinc. 5 It has even been suggested that an
intracellular zinc deficiency may be the primary cause of the aging process.17 A reasonable amount of
supplemental zinc is 20 mg/day.
Hyaluronic Acid - The Fountain of Youth?
Hyaluronic acid has been called The fountain of youth in the media because groups
of people who consume a lot of it in their diets seem to live longer than average.
Hyaluronic acid, which is also known as hyaluron, is found throughout the body in
areas like joints and heart valves. Hyaluronic acid is a part of the connective tissue
that cushions and lubricates. It is being studied as a treatment for connective system
disorders such as Glaucoma, Keratoconus, muscle contractures and wrinkled skin,
among other things.

Hyaluronic acid may indeed be a sort of fountain of youth since one of the main
features of premature aging syndromes are hyaluronic acid abnormalities. Zinc or
magnesium deficiencies may be involved in hyaluronic acid abnormalities.
Magnesium in particular is needed for hyaluronic acid synthesis in the body. One
thing that can degrade Hyaluronic acid is Vitamin C. Strep and staph are known to
break down Hyaluronic acid.

HA is influenced by nutrition and other environmental factors. Good natural sources
of Hyaluronic acid include starchy root vegetables such as satsumaimo and taro, as
well as chicken skin and animal parts with a large concentration of hyaluronic acid.


What is Hyaluronic Acid?
Hyaluronic acid is a clear and oderless liquid which is often used by podiatrists and
veterinarians to lubricate joints, strengthen meridians, melt hardened scar tissue and
shorten injury recovery periods. It is used heavily by professional athletes.

Hyaluronic acid is one of the more heavily researched substances in medicine with
literally thousands of clinical trials focusing on it. Hyaluronic acid is used to treat
muscle spasms, fibromyalga and hardened tissue. It is also used to restore
circulation and relieve pain.

The reason that Hyaluronic acid is so effective is because it is a water soluble oil that
can selectively bond to water molecules or aqueous ions such as sodium, potassium,
and magnesium, providing firmness in limp, soft tissue. It acts as a lubricant by
allowing fibers to pass over each other smoothly, thus making the tissue softer. This
is the reason that Hyaluronic acid is used to treat scarred tissue. Being a lubricant,
HA allows the fibers of the scar tissue to slide past each other, making what used to
feel hard become soft and flexible. It can also strengthen other structures like nerves
and blood vessels.

Hyaluronic acid is capable of creating meridians by forming non-conducting tubes
filled with highly conductive fluid. In other words, HA simply creates a pathway of
high electrical conductivity by withdrawing from an area and leaving a high
concentration of free aqueous ions. When we are tense or uptight the Hyaluronic acid
in our body is tightly coiled, making our muscles and skin tense. This substantially
slows down our ability to heal. But as we relax the Hyaluronic acid unwinds, allowing
our muscles and skin to relax, which promotes healing.

 Very basically, HA helps to hold water in the skin, providing essential moisture to body
 processes. HA helps control cell migration which protect cells and also activates the white
 cells. Since HA is an endogenous substance, it can be used to reduce the need for antibiotics
by stimulating the immune system. HA helps reduce bacterial infections and has been found
to inhibit the growth of a variety of strains of bacteria. It has also been concluded that HA even
reduced the number of chronic bronchitis infections in patients.

There are many different options for supplementing your natural supply of Hyaluronic Acid.
Currently, the most popular uses of Hyaluronic acid supplements and products are to combat
signs of aging such as wrinkles and as therapy for certain joint ailments. Hyaluronic acid
supplements also boast the ability to combat and help with everything from sexual dysfunction
to sleep problems

Some examples of reported Hyaluronic acid benefits:

       ·               Increased Mobility                        ·          Improved Vitality

                   ·       Softer Skin                       ·             Reduced Fine Lines

   ·               Faster Wound Healing                               ·        Hair Growth

       ·               Fibromyalgia Relief               ·                Hair Color Restoration

       ·               Retinal Lubrication               ·                Tissue Reconstruction

               ·         Clearer Vision                  ·            Improved Bone Density

           ·             Dry Skin Relief             ·               Increased Mental Alertness

           ·            Dietary Benefits             ·               Improved Muscle Strength

           ·            Improved Sleep               ·               Increased Sexual Potency

    ·     Stabilized Emotions                    ·           Strengthening of Internal Organs
Medical Treatments

Products containing Hyaluronic acid are in use or are being researched to aid in the prevention
and treatment of symptoms related to connective tissue disorders such as:

Fractures
Hernias
Glaucoma
Keratoconus
Detached retinas
Osteoarthritis (link)
TMJ
Prevents scarring
Vocal cord insufficiency
Wrinkled skin
Cartilage damage
Wound healing
Ligament Healing

Osteoarthritis Treatment
 Physicians have injected Hyaluronic acid directly into the synovial fluid in the knee as a
 treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee for the past 20 years. There is, however, an ongoing
 debate as to the efficacy of this treatment.


                                 Collagen Benefits
    Collagen is a natural protein that provides our bodies with structural support. Twenty-five per
cent of the dry protein weight of the human body is collagen —the fibrous, elastic,
connective tissue in our bodies that holds us together. Seventy-five per cent of our skin is made
up of collagen, providing texture, resiliency, and shape; and in total about 30 per cent of our body
is collagen. As you can see it’s part of the natural make-up of our tendons, ligaments, joints,
muscles, hair, skin, etc. Fibers of collagen are woven together like threads in fabric to form a
framework into which new cells can grow. When the body needs to build any new cellular
structure, as in the healing process, collagen and collagen fragments play a central role. As we
age, our body’s production of collagen slows down. On the outside, we see our skin start to
wrinkle and lose its youthful radiance. On the inside we experience this as the weakening of our
skeletal structure due to the breakdown of connective tissue, including muscle tissue. Collagen
supplementation is essential to support the body during these natural processes. When our
body’s essential supply of collagen is low many areas are affected causing weakness, fatigue and
overall lack of performance. Taking a collagen supplement may help with much more than just fat
and inch loss. Most people experience many welcome side-benefits which notifies them that the
collagen supplementation is working – including improved sleep, increased energy, overall toning,
rejuvenation and a greater overall sense of wellness. On your path to a more beautiful body,
there will likely be many positive indicators that collagen supplementation is working on the
inside! Remember —collagen supports most of your body’s functions. Therefore nice results
could show up in any number of areas – expect a lot and you may get it.

Liquid collagen is the active key ingredient in this collagen product . It helps the body to restore its
collagen base by providing highly absorbable collagen protein that nourishes the body. this
collagen product is the most powerful bioavailable collagen supplementation available today!


When looking for signs that collagen is working, ask yourself:
Am I sleeping better?
Do I have more energy?
Do I have fewer cravings?
Has my skin’s appearance improved?
Are my fingernails stronger?
Has my hair gained more luster and strength?


                                          Collagen
 Collagen is a family of highly characteristic fibrous proteins found in all multicellular animals
which are the most abundant proteins found in mammals, constituting 25 percent of the total
protein mass. The characteristic feature of a typical protein molecule is its long, stiff, triple-
stranded helical structure in which three collagen polypeptide chains (called a [alpha] chains) are
wound around each other forming a rope-like super helix. Collagen is extremely rich in the amino
acids Proline and Glycine.

   Collagen is a natural protein that provides our bodies with structural support. Twenty-five per
cent of the dry protein weight of the human body is collagen —the fibrous, elastic,
connective tissue in our bodies that holds us together. Seventy-five per cent of our skin is made
up of collagen, providing texture, resiliency, and shape; and in total about 30 per cent of our body
              is collagen. As you can see it’s part of the natural make-up of our tendons, ligaments, joints,
              muscles, hair, skin, etc.

                 When the body needs to build any new cellular structure, as in the healing process, collagen
              and collagen fragments play a central role. As we age, our body’s production of collagen slows
              down. On the outside, we see our skin start to wrinkle and lose its youthful radiance. On the
              inside we experience this as the weakening of our skeletal structure due to the breakdown of
              connective tissue, including muscle tissue. Collagen supplementation is essential to support the
              body during these natural processes. When our body’s essential supply of collagen is low many
              areas are affected causing weakness, fatigue and overall lack of performance. Taking a collagen
              supplement may help with much more than just fat and inch loss. Most people experience many
              welcome side-benefits which notifies them that the collagen supplementation is working –
              including improved sleep, increased energy, overall toning, rejuvenation and a greater overall
              sense of wellness. On your path to a more beautiful body, there will likely be many positive
              indicators that collagen supplementation is working on the inside! Remember —collagen supports
              most of your body’s functions. Therefore nice results could show up in any number of areas –
              expect a lot and you may get it.

Joint & Collagen

                                    Role of Collagen Hydrolysate in Cartilage Metabolism & Regeneration

Berlin, Germany 17th October 2003 – There are nearly 70 million people in the United States affected by arthritis and related joint health conditions.
Health experts estimate that there will be a dramatic increase in the prevalence of joint disease over the next 20 years as the population of Americans
living beyond their 70s is expected to double. Degenerative joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis (OA), have many causes but there are currently no
cures, only palliative treatments to reduce pain and disability. It is therefore prudent to examine promising and relatively inexpensive interventions –
including nutrients and proteins such as collagen hydrolysate – that may help slow down the onset of disease, improve symptoms and delay disease
progression.
To recognize the advances in nutrition research (and OA) and discuss its relevance, health care professionals specializing in joint health gathered at an
educational session titled, ―Role of Collagen Hydrolysate in Cartilage Metabolism & Regeneration‖ at the eighth annual World Congress on Osteoarthritis
held in Berlin, Germany. To recognize the advances in nutrition research (and OA) and discuss its relevance, health care professionals specializing in joint
health gathered at an educational session titled, ―Role of Collagen Hydrolysate in Cartilage Metabolism & Regeneration‖ at the eighth annual World
Congress on Osteoarthritis held in Berlin, Germany.


                                                               Nutrition and Joint Health

Osteoarthritis is a progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by a breakdown of the joint's cartilage (tough, flexible connective tissue), causing
bones to rub against one another, which may lead to loss of movement and pain. Degenerative joint diseases have many causes including normal wear
and tear of the cartilage with age, overweight or obesity, acute or chronic stress to the cartilage, joint abnormalities or mal-aligned joints and infectious or
neuropathological changes.
A focus on weight management and the nutrients beneficial to joint health may help in the fight against joint diseases. The United States may be
particularly vulnerable to joint trauma from overweight and/or obesity, since 64 percent of all American adults are either overweight or obese, with
numbers expected to rise dramatically within the next decade. In addition, physiology of the body's joints shows that obtaining a balanced diet that
contains dietary protein, vitamins C and D, and minerals calcium and phosphorus can contribute to normal development of the cartilage and joint tissues
required for healthy movement.
Though additional clinical research is necessary to identify efficacy of various dietary supplements, accumulating research on beneficial nutrients and their
association with joint health brings several to the forefront. One of the more promising supplemental nutrients to date is collagen hydrolysate. Collagen is
the most abundant protein in the body and gives structure to tendons, cartilage tissue, bones and connective tissue; collagen hydrolysate (CH) is collagen
derived from animals and is similar in composition to that found in human cartilage.
Other nutrients have also been cited in joint health research. Dr. Kristine Clark, PhD, RD, a sports nutritionist with Pennsylvania State University
Orthopedics presented the findings of a meta-analysis on glucosamine and chondroitin reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association
(2000). Authors reviewed more than 15 double blind randomized, placebo controlled trials of four weeks or more and concluded that glucosamine and
chondroitin trials on people who suffer from OA demonstrate moderate to large benefits in terms of pain measurement. She added, ―Studies on dietary
supplements have generated numerous options for people with degenerative joint disease. Further research on CH should only continue to provide new
opportunities.‖

                                                 Why is collagen hydrolysate helpful for osteoarthritis?

Research suggests that CH can stimulate the synthesis of collagen, which is important for maintaining healthy joints. Steffen Oesser, PhD, of the
Department of General Surgery and Thoracic Surgery, University of Kiel, Germany, provided a summary of CH findings as presented at the conference. In
order to determine whether CH can, in fact, reach and affect the joint tissue, scientists at the University of Kiel studied the absorption rate and
accumulation levels of collagen hydrolysate in subjects by monitoring its uptake in the body. Results indicated that upon rapid intestinal absorption of
supplemental CH, subjects experienced a doubling in the quantity of the nutrient accumulated within their cartilage tissue as compared to the control
group. The findings imply that CH does reach the tissue and long-lasting accumulation is possible.
The next phase of the research was to determine whether CH may positively affect the joint tissue once it has accumulated. This would require one of two
actions to take place: inhibition of the degradation of the supportive joint tissue and/or stimulation of new cartilage cells to compensate for naturally
degraded tissues. In a cell culture model, researchers have been able to demonstrate that the presence of CH in the culture stimulated collagen
production. When compared with collagen that is naturally present in the cells, the native collagen did not lead to this stimulatory effect. The supportive
joint tissues were also stimulated to reproduce when in the presence of CH, implying that CH may be able to reduce degenerative changes in the joint
tissue. Dr. Oesser highlighted that, ―These are significant findings because we are beginning to learn that collagen hydrolysate is not only reaching the
targeted joint tissue, but we are able to observe that its presence can also create a positive change in the joint.‖
Additionally, Hans-Konrad Selbmann, PhD, from the German University in Tuebingen, presented the findings from his review of the literature on collagen
hydrolysate and its effect on joint health. Among his research, including 16 clinical studies, two within the last decade stand out as highly significant
double blind, placebo controlled clinical studies. The first was a study from 1991 by Adam, et al., which compared four treatments (CH, gelatine, a
gelatine-glycine-calcium-fluid combination and albumin proteins) to reduce the patients' levels of pain and their need for pain medications.
The study found that all three of the gelatine treatments were effective and significantly superior to the protein supplementation.
The second study Dr. Selbmann featured was that by Moskowitz, et al. Moskowitz's multinational study of subjects in the United States, Germany and in
the United Kingdom was a two-arm, double blind design, using 10 grams of CH daily or placebo for 24 weeks. Evaluation of three primary efficacy
variables – pain, physical function and overall evaluation – indicated that all variables showed a significant improvement in the German subjects.
However, there were no significant differences for the total study group across the three variables, indicating that there are multinational influences that
couldn't be standardized in the study protocol. Dr. Selbmann concluded that, ―The efficacy results in these studies demonstrate a distinct clinical impact of
CH in patients suffering from OA that warrants further clinical trial and examination.‖


              Health Benefits

              In addition to functioning as an antioxidant, this hard-working nutrient assists the B
              vitamins in producing energy from the proteins, carbohydrates, and fats consumed
              through foods.

              Intravenous forms of alpha-lipoic acid are administered in hospitals to treat cases of
              acute mushroom poisoning and for other cases of acute poisoning that affect the
              liver.

              Studies indicate that alpha-lipoic acid supplements hold promise for treating various
              disorders, including HIV infection, liver ailments, and glaucoma. But it has been most
              intensively studied for preventing complications from diabetes.

              Specifically, alpha-lipoic acid may help to:

               Treat symptoms of nerve damage in people with diabetes. Alpha-lipoic acid
              has been used for decades in Europe to counter nerve damage in people with
              diabetes (types 1 and 2). Known as diabetic neuropathy, this often very painful
              condition tends to develop in people who have had uncontrolled diabetes for a long
              time. The neuropathy may be caused in part by free-radical damage to nerves
              resulting from poorly regulated blood sugar (glucose). As an antioxidant, alpha-lipoic
              acid helps to block such damage. In addition, because of its effect on glucose
              metabolism, lipoic acid my improve the glucose-lowering action of insulin (the
              hormone that regulates blood sugar).

              In one clinical trial, 328 people with diabetic neuropathy received either 100 mg, 600
              mg, or 1,200 mg a day of alpha-lipoic acid for three weeks. Participants who took
              600 mg daily had the greatest reduction in pain and numbness. And in a separate
              study, blood sugar levels dropped in 74 people with type 2 diabetes who took 600
              mg or more of alpha-lipoic acid daily.

              Alpha-lipoic acid may also aid the large percentage (approximately 25%) of people
              with diabetes who risk sudden death from nerve-related heart damage. In one study,
improved heart function was observed in people at risk for this complication who
took 800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid daily for four months.

 Preserve brain function in aging adults. Results from animal studies indicate
that alpha-lipoic acid may improve long-term memory. Much remains to be learned
about whether this occurs in humans, but it may be worth trying this powerful
antioxidant when a disease such as Alzheimer's starts to erode memory. In addition,
alpha-lipoic acid holds promise for preserving brain cells following a stroke or other
type of trauma that restricts blood flow to the brain.
 Prevent cancer. As an antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid holds promise for protecting
the body against changes in healthy cells that lead to cancer. The evidence for this
cancer-preventive effect is still preliminary, however.
 Lessen numbness and tingling. Alpha-lipoic acid may benefit anyone whose
limbs tend to tingle or become numb, or "fall asleep" due to nerve compression. In
animal studies, alpha-lipoic acid increased blood flow to the nerves and improved
transmission of nerve impulses.
 Protect the liver in cases of hepatitis and other types of liver disease. As
an antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid shields the liver from potentially harmful cell
changes and assists it in flushing toxins from the body. This makes it useful in
treating such liver disorders as chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Alpha-lipoic acid
supplements have also proved effective in minimizing liver toxicity following
exposure to poisons such as heavy metals (including lead) and toxic industrial
chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride.
 Combat chronic fatigue syndrome. Because it plays a part in cellular energy
production, some nutritionally oriented physicians recommend alpha-lipoic acid for
the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. While evidence of its effectiveness for
this condition is anecdotal, alpha-lipoic acid is a broad-spectrum antioxidant and
immune system booster. This means it may be able to play a valuable role in
increasing energy and maintaining overall health in chronic fatigue syndrome
sufferers.
 Reduce the incidence of cataracts. Alpha-lipoic acid has kept cataracts from
forming in animals, an effect that may occur in humans, too, but still requires more
investigation. The compound also increases the potency of vitamins C and E, both
nutrients that protect the eye's lens from harmful ultraviolet light.

Lipoic acid, also known as alpha-lipoic acid, is a sulfur-containing fatty acid. It is found inside
every cell of the body, where it helps generate the energy that keeps us alive and functioning.
Lipoic acid is a key part of the metabolic machinery that turns glucose (blood sugar) into energy
for the body's needs.

Lipoic acid is an antioxidant, which means that it neutralizes naturally occurring, but harmful,
chemicals known as free radicals. Unlike other antioxidants, which work only in water or fatty
                                                                           1,2
tissues, lipoic acid is unusual in that it functions in both water and fat. By comparison, vitamin E
works only in fat and vitamin C works only in water. This gives lipoic acid an unusually broad
spectrum of antioxidant action.

Antioxidants are a bit like kamikaze pilots, sacrificing themselves to knock out free radicals. One
of the more interesting findings about lipoic acid is that it may help regenerate other antioxidants
that have been used up. In addition, lipoic acid may be able to do the work of other antioxidants
                                    3,4
when the body is deficient in them.

It is thought that certain nerve diseases are at least partially caused by free radical damage.
Thanks to its combined fat and water solubility, lipoic acid can get into all the parts of a nerve cell
and potentially protect it against such damage. This is the rationale for studies on the potential
benefits of lipoic acid for diabetic neuropathy.


Sources

A healthy body makes enough lipoic acid to supply its requirements; external sources are not
necessary. However, several medical conditions appear to be accompanied by low levels of lipoic
    5
acid —specifically, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, and atherosclerosis—which suggests (but definitely
does not prove) that supplementation would be helpful.

Liver and yeast contain some lipoic acid. Nonetheless, supplements are necessary to obtain
therapeutic dosages.


Therapeutic Dosages

The typical dosage of oral lipoic acid for treating complications of diabetes is 100 – 200 mg three
times daily. In studies that found benefits, several weeks of treatment were often necessary for
full effects to develop.

For use as a general antioxidant, a lower dosage of 20 to 50 mg daily is commonly
recommended, although there is no evidence that taking lipoic acid in this way offers any health
benefit.


Therapeutic Uses

Lipoic acid has been widely used for decades in Germany to treat diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
This is a condition caused by diabetes in which nerves leading to the arms and legs become
damaged, leading to numbness, pain, and other symptoms. Free radicals are hypothesized to
play a role in neuropathy, and on this basis lipoic acid has been tried as a treatment. However,
the evidence for benefit is largely limited to studies that used the intravenous form of this
              6,7,8
supplement.

Another set of nerves may become damaged in diabetes as well: the ―autonomic nerves‖ that
control internal organs. When this occurs in the heart ("cardiac autonomic neuropathy") it leads to
irregularities of heart rhythm. There is some evidence that lipoic acid supplements may be helpful
                    9
for this condition.

Preliminary and sometimes contradictory evidence suggests that lipoic acid may improve other
aspects of diabetes, including blood sugar control and the development of long term
                                                                            10–14,28,29
complications such as disease of the heart, kidneys and small blood vessels.

In addition, lipoic acid may be helpful for burning mouth syndrome (BMS), a condition
                                                                30
characterized by unexplained scalding sensations in the mouth.

                                                                                          15
One animal study suggests that lipoic acid might help prevent age-related hearing loss.
                                                                             31
Similarly weak evidence hints that lipoic acid might be helpful for glaucoma. Other uses for
which lipoic acid has been proposed include preventing cancer and heart disease, and treating or
preventing cataracts.
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Lipoic Acid?
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

There is some evidence that intravenous lipoic acid can reduce symptoms of diabetic peripheral
neuropathy, at least in the short term. However, the evidence for oral lipoic acid remains weak
and contradictory.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 500 people with diabetic neuropathy found that
intravenous lipoic acid helped reduce symptoms over a 3-week period; however, long-term oral
                                         16
supplementation did not prove effective.

A previous double-blind, placebo-controlled study also found benefit with intravenous lipoic
     17,18
acid.

A few studies found oral lipoic acid effective; however, they were too small or too poorly designed
               19–23
to mean much.

There is some preliminary evidence that lipoic acid may be more effective if it is combined with
                                                                                           24,25
GLA (gamma-linolenic acid), another supplement used for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

There is better evidence for oral lipoic acid in a form of diabetic neuropathy affecting the nerves
that supply the heart: autonomic neuropathy.

Not only does diabetes damage the nerves in the arms and legs, but it can also affect deep
nerves that control organs such as the heart and digestive tract. The DEKAN (Deutsche Kardiale
Autonome Neuropathie) study followed 73 people with diabetes who had symptoms caused by
nerve damage affecting the heart. Treatment with 800 mg daily of oral lipoic acid showed
                                                                                                  26
statistically significant improvement compared to placebo and caused no significant side effects.

Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS)

Individuals with BMS feel chronic scalding pain in the mouth, as if they had consumed an
excessively hot drink. Although the cause of BMS is not known, the symptoms resemble those of
neuropathy, and for that reason researchers have investigated the potential benefits of lipoic acid.

In a two-month, double-blind trial involving 60 people with BMS, use of lipoic acid significantly
                                              30
reduced symptoms as compared to placebo.

				
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