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Doing Business in Asia

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					Passage One
                                       Doing Business in Asia
       Many Westerners wanting to do business in Asian nations seek information and advice
about things they need to know in order to be successful. By Westerners who have already been
working in Asian nations, they are told to remember as priorities the five "Fs": family, face, fate,
favors and friends. Although they do have some subtle differences in meanings and connotations
in different parts of Asia, nevertheless, Western businessmen need to be sensitive to these issues
if .they wish to be successful. The five "Fs" are explained in the following way.
       Family: This means that business is often closely connected to family and that there is a
family network that branches out regionally and internationally, providing efficient political,
financial and emotional support, as well as distributing knowledge. This networking is particularly
obvious among Chinese who control huge business segments in Asia and are by far the most
successful business group in the region. Their large presence also helps------Singapore is 77
percent Chinese; Malaysia, 45 percent; Taiwan, a Chinese province, 99 percent. Indonesia and the
Philippines also have sizable(相当的) and prosperous Chinese communities. It is explained that
the importance of family goes back to Confucius, who taught that family represents relationships
that one can trust. Although families in the West may be connected, they're almost never as closely
connected as in Confucian Asia. This family dependence is also true in Korea. The largest
corporation in South Korea is Hyundai, a multibillion-dollar company. Headed by the eldest
brother, the company's five major divisions are either managed by one of the five brothers, a
brother-in-law or a son-in-law.
       Face: Two interpretations are given for the meaning of "face". One is literal------Asians like
to do business face-to-face. They want to put. a face together with a business, to recognize an
individual and to associate an individual with a given company. Many foreign companies have
made the mistake of sending a series of different executives to Asia during lengthy contract
negotiations. They are advised not to do this; that if negotiations are started by one individual they
should be completed by that same person if at all possible. However, if a change must be made,
then the first person should take the new one and formally present him as his successor so that the
two faces are identified. The second interpretation of "face" is that in a way it means “respect”.
The businessman is told that he must show the “proper respect” according to the age and position
of the person he is dealing with and also take into account the size of the person's company in
comparison with his own. In Western countries, age is not necessarily given respect, but in
Confucian Asia, age is given great respect. Thus businessmen are told to always pay attention to
any elderly persons attending a business meeting. They are also warned that it is very difficult for
Japanese to speak directly and say no. This too has everything to do with "face". They will do
almost anything to avoid saying no, even to the point of not giving an answer at all. By giving no
answer or saying something like "I'll think about it", or "I’ll consider it", they are “saving face”,
and really mean “no”. This is the opposite of the Western “yes” or “no” mentality. Thus a Western
businessman is warned never to put a Japanese businessman in the position of having to say "yes"
or “no”.
       Businessmen are also given advice about how to show "face" to someone of higher rank.
Richard Tallboy, CEO of the World Coal Organization, who has had extensive experience in Asia,
tells foreigners not to forget the "Chairman's 1/2 percent for the chairman's own pocket''. He says
that this means they should always start negotiating at a higher price with Asians. In the first round
of negotiations foreigners should allow themselves to come down in price 10 percent. In the
second round of negotiations they should at last come down another five percent. Then finally
when everyone is ready to sign the contract, the Westerner should allow the chairman to negotiate
another 1/2 percent off. This way the chairman can say he was able to achieve more than his staff
was able to. Thus he gains great "face". Tallboy concludes that this way everyone is happy and the
Westerner is assured that his product will be well taken care of.
        Fate: Westerners are told that many Asians strongly believe that fate influences life, that
certain events are destined, and that people have lived many lives and will live many more after
death. Because of this philosophy, Asians are more willing than most Westerners to accept things
they cannot change. Many Westerners may call these beliefs superstitious. However, they are
warned to keep these thoughts to themselves and are told to learn about local customs and beliefs
in Asia and to respect them.
        Favors: Westerners are told that "Always repay a favor" is a common saying among Asians.
A favor or debt should never be forgotten. If a Western businessman gets a favor from an Asian, he
should expect to repay this favor, no matter how much time passes. Asians are thus serious about
the saying, "If you'll scratch my back, I'll scratch yours." In other words, Asian societies are
reciprocal societies. The former deputy mayor of New York City, Kenneth Lipper, tells the
following story. When he was in Japan for six months in the early 1960s, he suggested the name of
a Japanese acquaintance for a possible scholarship. One day, 27 years later in New York City, he
received a call from this man who was making his first trip to the United States with his family.
Now a top executive in a major Japanese company, he and his family wanted to pay their respects
to the man who had done him a favor so long ago.
        Friends: If Westerners have no relatives in Asia, they are told that the next best thing to have
when doing business in Asia is to have gone to school with someone from there. Asians want to
deal with people that they know well, or with people to whom they have been introduced by
people they know well. One successful American business executive working in Asia tells people
that he spent most of his time developing and maintaining GUANXI, which he explains as a
Chinese word meaning ties, relationships, or connections. The Japanese equivalent is KONE. How
can Western businessmen make the right connections in Asian countries? Hiring a consultant is
one way, but the best way is to make friendships and to keep them. How can a Westerner do this?
The answer for those people working in Korea, Thailand and Japan is "golf". Successful
businessmen agree that it's the best way to get to know important people in society, the way to
meet royalty, top government officials, and corporate chiefs. A lifetime golf membership in Tokyo
can cost an incredible one million dollars, but some Western businessmen or their corporations
have been willing to pay this because of the connections it will bring.
        So, these are the five "Fs": family, face, fate, favors, and friends. These are the priorities for
Westerners when they are doing business in Asia.
1. Westerners wanting to do business successfully in Asia should be sensitive to the five "Fs".
2. Confucianism believes in that family relationship is the most trustworthy.
3. Asians like to do business face-to-face, so it is necessary for foreign company sending different
   negotiators to reach a contract with them.
4. It gives the higher rank person much "face" by allowing him to negotiate another 1/2 percent
   off.
5. It is superstitious to believe fate, so many Asians believing that certain events are destined
    should change their value for a more scientific one.
6. Since a generous person did an Asian a favor voluntarily, this Asian needn't remember it much
    long.
7. Asian people like to do business with the one they know well.
8. The two meanings of “face” in Asian business are ________.
9. Fate influences life means that ________.
10. The best way for a Western businessman to make the right connections in Asian countries is to
       make ________.
1Y             2Y       3N          4Y          5 NG          6N          7Y
8 face-to-face and respect
9 certain events are destined
10 friendships and to keep them
Passage Two
                                             School Manners
        Manners in the schoolroom, as everywhere, are important to happy relations with the group.
Western manners here differ only slightly from good Chinese manners.
                                           Greeting the Teacher
        If you are in a very large class, it may not be necessary to greet the teacher on arriving, but
it is always quite proper if you happen to catch the teacher' s eyes as you enter. In a small class the
teacher will probably notice each one as he arrives, and you should smile and say, "Good morning,
Dr Fenn." Western manners do not require you to stand still at the door for a moment when you
come in.
        One usually does not address one's teacher by his first name, either in speech or in writing.
If one's teacher’s name is Gordon Agnew, it is not proper to say "Cordon", nor to write "Dear Mr
Gordon." And one never speaks to one’s teacher as “Teacher”. It is quite proper to say "Sir" to a
man, but if your teacher is a woman, you must use her surname.
                                               Coming Late
        It is bad manners to come late to class. If you are unavoidably late, an apology should be
made to the teacher either at the time or after class. Repeated lateness is a form of rudeness based
not only on carelessness of outward forms, but on real unthoughtfulness of others, as a latecomer
takes away everyone's thoughts from the lesson.
                                             Talking in Class
         It is bad manners in the schoolroom, as elsewhere, to talk, while anyone else is talking. If
you have something to say that is on the subject, wait till you have a chance and say it to the
whole class. If it is not on the subject, keep it till the class is over. Who has not been annoyed by
having his attention taken from something interesting he really wants to hear! And it is especially
rude to the teacher, making it very difficult for him to continue the lesson. Thoughtlessness of
others is bad manners at any time and in any place.
                                        Looking at Others' Work
        It is bad manners in the classroom, as elsewhere, to look at anything your neighbor has
written, or to try to see what mark he has received without asking his permission. It is good
manners for students to help each other if the desire is mutual and the teacher allows it. In
examinations and in certain kinds of written work intended to measure the pupil's own progress it
is not only dishonest and foolish to help or to ask help from others, it is also thoughtless of real
values. For the sake of being "partial" to one student much larger values are destroyed. One may
not agree with the examination system, but at present it is basically the only measure the teacher
and the rest of the world can go by to determine whether a student is qualified in certain line or
not.
                                          Laughing at Others
        It is bad manners to laugh at others' mistakes or accidents. You can realize why if you think
how you feel yourself when laughed at. It is very bad manners to laugh at any unfortunate student
who has a peculiarity of walking or talking or any deformity of the body. Such persons should be
treated with real kindness. Make them feel that you do not notice their misfortune.
        And be friendly. Snobbishness------looking down on others, is one of the worst forms of
rudeness, because it puts such a ridiculous value on oneself. Take it for granted that the next
person is as good as or better than yourself. If he hasn' t as many brains he may be making much
more of the ones he has. The chances are that you will discover qualities you can admire in the
person you are tempted to laugh at, if you are friendly and openhearted.
                                          Thinking of Others
        Good manners are especially important in the library. The general rule is: Do not do
anything that might disturb your neighbor. Scraping chairs and shuffling feet are impolite, as well
as talking or laughing while others are trying to work. If you have a bad cold you might disturb
people by coughing or sneezing, it is better for you to take out a book and read it at home.
                                         Helping the Teacher
        Most teachers are sincerely anxious to help their students in any way they can, and it is
polite for the students to help the teacher when they see something they can do, especially if the
teacher is a woman and the student a young man. Sometimes the blackboard needs to be erased, or
the door or window shut or opened. Sometimes there are papers to collect or distribute. This kind
of help is always appreciated.
1. It is a wrong way for many Chinese students to greet their teacher like that: "Good morning,
   teacher!"
2. One student should apologize to the teacher at once when he is late.
3. Because one doesn't know the answer, it is ok to keep silent to the teacher’s question.
4. There are sure some disadvantages of the present examination system, but it is the only measure
   of a student's level at present.
5. Be polite to the teachers and classmates can earn many friends for you.
6. Do not do anything that might disturb your neighbour------it is a general rule in a library.
7. According to the passage, we know there is slightly difference between western and Chinese
   good manners.
8. It is bad manners to come late to class, so you should ________ to the teacher in convenient
   time.
9. It is a courtesy for students ________ do something.
10. If you are ________ you can learn something from the one you laugh at.
1Y            2N         3 NG        4Y          5 NG         6Y        7Y
8 make an apology
9 to help teacher
10 friendly and openhearted
Passage Three
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2. The whole ad Love at first sight purposefully confuses the whiskey and the man’s interest in the
    woman.
3. Defying age means one’s appearance or behavior looks younger than he or she really is.
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1Y          2Y         3Y          4Y         5N         6N           7 NG
8 whiskey
9 The remarkable beauty fluid oil of Olay
10 how important running is in their lives
Passage Four
                                             Microchips
       No invention in history has so quickly spread throughout the world or so deeply touched so
many parts of human existence as the microchip. Today there are nearly 15 billion microchips of
some kind in use. In the face of that fact who can doubt that the microchip is not only changing
the products we use, but also the way we live. Will it finally change the way we view reality?
       If we were to take away the microchip from every application in which it is now used, we
would be both stunned and frightened by the loss. The modern kitchen would become nearly
useless, since the microwave, the dishwasher, and most other appliances would become
unworkable. The television and VCR would fade to black, the stereo would become quiet, and
most of the clocks would stop. The car wouldn't start. Airplanes would be unable to leave the
ground. The phone system would go dead, as would most streetlights, thermostats, and, of course,
a half-billion computers. And these are only a few of the most obvious applications. Every factory
in the industrial world would also shut down, as would the electrical grid, stock exchanges, and
the global banking system. Pacemakers would stop too, as would surgical equipment and various
monitoring machines used in hospitals. All because of the loss of a tiny square of silicon the size
of a fingernail, weighing less than a postage stamp.
       The modern microchip contains as many as 20 million transistors, and each finished chip is
the product of processes more complicated than those used in building the atomic bomb. Yet
despite an extraordinarily sophisticated manufacturing process, microchips are mass-produced at
the rate of more than a billion a year. To put this complexity in perspective, imagine that within
each tiny microchip there exists a structure as complex as a mid-size city, including all of its
power lines, phone lines, sewer lines, buildings, streets, and homes. Now imagine that throughout
that same city, millions of people are racing around at the speed of light and with perfect timing in
an intricately planned dance. That is just one chip.
       Of all the stunning statistics used to describe the world of the microchip, none is more
extraordinary than this: the total number of transistors packed onto all of the microchips produced
in the world this year (1998) is equivalent to the number of raindrops that fell in the state of
California during that period. Faced with such astounding numbers, it becomes even more difficult
to ask what it all means for us and for the generations to come.
       What is remarkable, and perhaps a little frightening, is that by all indications, we are only
halfway through the story of the microchip. It is not far-fetched to suggest that it will take another
century of humankind to realize all of the implications of this revolution. Thus, all the miracles we
see around us today resulting from the microchip may be but a tiny fraction of all the wonders that
will derive from this device well into the next century.
       It is not merely an invention, but a meta-invention, which enables us to create yet other
inventions. Thousands of new devices and products have been made possible by the existence of
the microchip and by the embedded intelligence it offers.
       Packed in a microprocessor, the microchip is not only giving us power over our own lives,
but also the greatest instrument for accessing information ever invented. It is allowing us to reach
out from our desks, to grasp and share knowledge that was beyond the reach of the wealthiest man
in the world just a century ago. It is freeing us to work at home, wherever we choose our home to
be.
       By the middle of the next century, the typical microprocessor may have more computing
power than today’s fastest supercomputers. It will talk, and more important, it will listen. The
relationship we have with it will change in almost unimaginable ways. Yesterday, the
microprocessor was a tool. Today, it is a partner and who knows what role it will play in our lives
in the years to come? Just a few years ago who would have thought that in Shanghai, China,
customers of the New World Department Store could try on clothes without undressing? A video
camera takes a customer's picture, the image is digitized, and changes of outfits or colors are as
simple as point and click. In Baltimore, Maryland, prospective astronauts simulate weightlessness
by floating in water at the University of Maryland's Space Systems Lab pool. Buddhist monks in
Thailand also have found important uses for computers. They use them to perform traditional
tasks as well as to study the teachings of Buddha.
       For hundreds of years, humankind has searched for the philosophers' stone, the magical
object that turns ordinary metal into gold. Who would have thought it would turn out to be a littlie
sliver of crystal with etching on its surface? The microchip, in the time of a single generation, has
developed from a clever technical novelty to a tireless, almost invisible partner of humanity.
Today there is no place on, above, or below the Earth that it has not reached.
1. No invention in history has affected so many parts of human existence as the microchip.
2. The modern microchip contains more than 20 million transistors.
3. Microchips are mass-produced at a very high rate.
4. The microchip in a microprocessor is the greatest instrument for accessing information ever
   invented.
5. Microchips play so important a role in our real society that it can change our reality.
6. Microchips can turn stone into gold.
7. Microchip’s development just begins.
8. Microchip is ______ the size of a fingernail.
9. By the year 2050, microprocessors may probably ______.
10. We can see microchips from daily ______.
1Y           2N         3Y         4Y         5 NG         6N           7N
8 a tiny square of silicon
9 talk and listen
10 applications
Passage Five
                                        Twins Six Years Apart
       Scientists in Scotland recently announced that, for the first time, they have cloned an exact
copy of an adult mammal. The cloned lamb, named Dolly, has the exact same genes as the adult
sheep from which she was cloned. In other words, the two are identical twins; only Dolly is six
years younger. The goal of the Scottish scientist Ian Wilmut is to develop a way to raise identical
sheep that produce medicines for humans.
         A week after Wilmut's announcement, other scientists revealed that they had used a
different technique to clone monkeys, which are much more closely related to humans. These
accomplishments immediately set off a worldwide debate: Should scientists be allowed to clone
animals? Is cloning morally wrong and dangerous-----or is it a valuable research tool?
         All attempts at cloning were largely unsuccessful until 1984.That' s when a scientist in
Denmark separated cells from a sheep's embryo (胚胎). An embryo is an early stage of
development in which cells are busy dividing and "transforming" into specialized cells like skin,
eye, or muscle cells.
         Unlike a skin cell, an embryo is on its way to becoming a complete living thing: The
Danish scientist combined an embryo cell with an egg cell from another sheep. He put the
combined cell------then a newly growing embryo into a grown female sheep. To much surprise,
the embryo grew into a baby lamb. Since then, other scientists have used embryos to clone cattle,
rabbits------and, now, even monkeys.
       So what makes Wilmut's sheep unique? Instead of using early-stage embryo cells, Wilmut
used cells from the udder(乳腺) of an adult sheep. In theory, that’s like using one of your skin
cells to clone a new you!
       Wilmut knew that each cell of the body contains a full set of genetic
instructions------instructions to grow a complete individual. (The only exceptions are egg and
sperm cells, each of which contains half the genes to grow a new individual.) Once cells have
specialized, on their way to becoming skin or eye or udder cells, most of the genetic instructions
to make a full being are turned off. Until now, scientists believed that specialized cells could not
be used to form a complete living thing.
       Wilmut proved them wrong. He found a way to take an udder cell and make it grow into a
new cloned lamb. An amazing fact: Dolly has no biologic father.
Wilmut's success didn't come easily. He has been studying this problem for more than two decades.
Last year, he used embryos to successfully clone two sheep. Then he went ahead to clone an adult
sheep. But, of 277 udder cells he fused with egg cells, only 30 began to develop into embryos. He
implanted 29 of those into female sheep, only one adult gave birth to a lamb.
Other scientists have jumped in to repeat Wilmut's experiment with other animals, including cows.
And that's what has scientists, animal-rights advocates, politicians------even President
Clinton------up in arms. How far, they wonder, will cloning go?
       Wilmut maintains that cloning animals has tremendous potential for helping people. Cloned
sheep, he says, could be used as living drug factories. Scientists could "engineer" sheep that
produce drugs in their milk. And by altering the proteins on the surfaces of animal organs to make
them more like human organs, scientists believe they may be able to create a plentiful source of
organ donors for people.
       Why not clone humans as organ donors? Theoretically, Wilmut says, there is no reason his
techniques couldn't someday be used to clone people. Think about the possibilities: a whole
basketball team of Michael Jordans, a scientific panel of Albert Einsteins, a movie starring and-
co-starring Brad Pitts.
        On a more serious note, some experts argue that couples who have difficulty having a baby
could make copies of themselves. And parents whose child has a fatal disease like cancer might be
able to clone the child, creating a twin who could be a bone-marrow (骨髓)donor.
        But even Ian Wilmut draws the line at cloning humans. "All of us would find that
offensive," he says. Several countries, including Britain, Denmark, Germany, and Australia, have
made all scientific work on cloning humans illegal. The U. S. has no such law, but President
Clinton has set up a panel of scientists and philosophers to study the issue. In the meantime,
Clinton has imposed a ban on using federal money to clone humans.
        Humans are more than the sum of their genes, argues a philosopher at one research institute.
Though they look exactly the same, clones are not necessarily exact copies. The younger twin
might grow up with different influences------say, unusual friends or special teachers. A cloned
Albert Einstein might fail his physics class. A cloned pop star might sing terribly.
        Say you were cloned. Would your twin live a shorter life because he or she started out with
DNA that was already 10, 20, or 30 years old? Scientists aren’t sure. And how could you prevent
someone from taking a sample of your hair and making a clone of you? Again, no
solutions.                                          :
        Some people who oppose cloning also object to the use of animals as research tools. “Next,
they'll be cloning foxes to make more fur (毛皮) coats,” says the president of an animal rights
group.
        What do you think? Should scientists be allowed to clone animals? How about humans?
1. The cloned mammal was announced for the first time by Scottish scientists.
2. That Wilmut used cells from the udder of an adult sheep makes the sheep Dolly unique.
3. Each cell of the body contains a full set of genetic instructions.
4. Although Dolly is cloned by skin cells, it also has biological father.
5. It is possible to have a cloned baby for couples who can’t bear a baby naturally.
6. All countries, including Britain, Denmark, Germany, Australia and US, have made all scientific
   work on cloning human illegal.
7. It is never allowed to clone human beings even if being used for medical purpose.
8. It is wrongly said that ______ should not be used to form a complete living thing.
9. Couples who have difficulty ______ could make copies of themselves. This is still an argument.
10. Some people who object using animals as ______ are opposing cloning.
1Y           2Y         3N         4N          5Y         6N          7 NG
8 specialized cells
9 having a baby
10 research tools
Passage Six
                                               Kennedy
        President Kennedy's day at the White House did not begin at any heroic predawn hour.
Awakening around 7:30 a.m., he quickly read the morning papers and often placed calls on their
contents. Throughout the day and night, as more newspapers and reports came in, more
Presidential phone calls or terse memoranda would follow, inquiring, requesting, suggesting.
Action was always expected as soon as possible. He was on the telephone, according to one
estimate, more than fifty times in an average day, with a large portion of the calls taking place in
the Mansion before and after his hours in the office.
       After a bath, shaving as always in the tub to save time, breakfast was around
8:45------sometimes with his family if they were available, sometimes in bed with the newspapers,
and once or twice a week on official business, with legislative leaders, staff members or others.
       Between 9:00 and 9:30 a.m. he arrived in his office, checked his mail, read a
three-thousand-word CIA briefing and plunged into the day's round of conferences. In addition to
the official calendar of appointments released to the press, he had a far larger number of off-
the-record meetings and a still larger number of informal talks with staff aides. Daily events often
required new meetings to be squeezed into the schedule.
       He kept meetings as brief as the subject permitted, many no more than fifteen minutes, very
few running over an hour, but when necessary, sitting for several hours. For long afternoon
meetings, he often ordered coffee served to all hands. He kept his own comments to a minimum
and often cut short others, no matter how important or friendly, who were dealing with generalities
or repeating the obvious. Frequently he saw their point long before they had finished. Focusing
full attention upon each speaker, even while doodling on a pad before him, he had a remarkable
ability to absorb detail while keeping in view the larger picture. When he considered a subject
exhausted or a decision final, he would gather up all his papers as a sign that the meeting was over
and, if this hint was not taken by persistent conferees, suddenly rise to his feet to say goodbye.
       …the president was often an hour behind schedule by the end of the day. It was always an
exhaustingly full and long day, as he remained in the office until 7:30, 8:00 or even 8:30 p.m.,
sometimes returning after his customarily late dinner, and usually reading reports and memoranda
in the Mansion until midnight. Even when he had guests for dinner and a movie, he would often
slip away after fifteen minutes of the film to work, and then rejoin them when it was over. More
than once we worked in his West Wing oval office or in his bedroom or oval study in the Mansion
until well past midnight. More than once after a late dinner I would invite guests to view the
Presidential office only to find him there going over mail or other documents. Saturdays, when he
was in Washington, were usually a shorter working day, and on Sundays, no regular office hours
were kept. But it all added up to an average of forty-five to fifty-five hours of work weekly in his
office and still more over in the Mansion. "He lived at such a pace," his wife has said, "because he
wished to know it all."
       He helped himself maintain such a pace by wisely breaking his day for two hours or so at
lunch. Around 1:30, and if possible, a second time in the evening, he would take a fifteen-minute
swim in the heated (90-degree) White House pool, usually with Dave Powers. Even at the height
of the Cuban crisis, he made time for his dip in the pool. Listening to recorded show music in the
background, exchanging sports stories or anecdotes with Powers, he regenerated his energies and
ideas, often giving Dave a list of messages he wanted delivered during the lunch hour. The swim,
a rubdown and his calisthenics were followed by lunch------occasionally official affairs with
foreign dignitaries, editors, or business or labor leaders, but more often private. He continued to
read while lunching if he were alone------and then, he would read or nap in bed while easing his
back on a hotpad. Between three and four o'clock he was back in his office or on his way to a
press conference, refreshed and ready to act…
       In a larger sense, the President's office is wherever the President may be. For unlike the
Congress and Supreme Court, the Presidency never recesses or adjourns. Unlike the arrangement
in most departments and states, his absence from the country does not make his running mate
Acting President. Wherever he went, Kennedy was linked by telephone to the White House
switchboard, guarded by the Secret Service, and discreetly followed by one of an alternating team
of Army warrant officers carrying in a slender black case the secret codes by which the
Presidential order for nuclear retaliation would be given. Wherever he went, he received the
same daily CIA briefing from a military or other aide and read most of the same daily newspapers,
which were flown in to him if necessary. Wherever he went, he took with him the bulky black
alligator briefcase he had carried Since his first days in the House------the same bag he often took
over to the Mansion in the evening ------bulging with whatever he and his staff felt he needed to
read by way of mail, magazines, books, briefing memos and assorted dispatches and documents.
During absences of forty-eight hours or more, additional materials were flown to him regularly.
Wherever he went, he kept in constant touch with Washington, signed bills and Executive Orders,
and conferred on or contemplated current crises.
1. The reader can infer that the Presidents of the United States can leave home and arrive at their
   office in a matter of minutes.
2. President Kennedy, like many of his countrymen, worked an eight-hour day.
3. The reader can conclude that President Kennedy thought the telephone was a poor means of
    communication.
4. According to the excerpt, the President's schedule was inflexible.
5. Even during a time of great danger to his country, the President took time to exercise.
6. The reader can infer that President Kennedy suffered from backaches.
7. The Vice-President takes the place of the President when the latter is out of the country.
8. Kennedy was on the telephone ______ in an average day.
9. When Kennedy considered, ______ he would gather up all his papers.
10. In a large sense, the President’s office is wherever ______.
1Y          2N          3N         4N             5Y        6Y         7N
8 more than fifty times
9 a subject exhausted or a decision final
10 the President may be
Passage Seven
                                     Alienation and the Internet
       The Internet provides an amazing forum for the free exchange of ideas. Given the relatively
few restrictions governing access and usage, it is the communications modal equivalent of
international waters. It is my personal belief that the human potential can only be realized by the
globalization of ideas. I developed this position years before the Internet came into wide spread
use. And I am excited at the potential for the Internet to dramatically alter our global society for
the better. However, I am also troubled by the possible unintended negative consequences.
       There has been much talk about the "new information age." But much less widely reported
has been the notion that the Internet may be responsible for furthering the fragmentation of society
by alienating its individual users. At first this might sound like an apparent contradiction: how can
something, that is on the one hand responsible for global unification by enabling the free exchange
of ideas, alienate the participants?
       I had a recent discussion with a friend of mine who has what he described as a "problem"
with the Internet. When I questioned him further he said that he was "addicted", and has "forced"
himself to go off-line. He said that he felt like an alcoholic, in that moderate use of the Internet
was just not possible for him. I have not known this fellow to be given to exaggeration, therefore
when he described his internet binges, when he would spend over twenty-four hours online
nonstop, it gave me pause to think. He said, "The Internet isn’t real, but I was spending all my
time online, so I just had to stop." He went on to say that all of the time that he spent online might
have skewed his sense of reality, and that it made him feel lonely and depressed.
        The fragmentation of society has been lamented for some time now. It seems to me that it
probably began in earnest after World War II when a generation returned from doing great deeds
overseas. They won the war, and by God they were going to win the peace. Automobile ownership
became commonplace and suburbs were created. "Progress" was their mantra. So even prior to the
Internet's widespread popularity, folks were already becoming distanced from their extended
families and neighbors. And when we fast-forward to today we see an almost cruel irony in that
people can and often do develop on-line relationships with folks on the other side of the globe,
without leaving their homes. But at the expense of time that would have otherwise been available
for involvement in other activities which might foster a sense of community in their villages,
towns and cities.
        Last weekend my wife and I invited our extended family to our home to celebrate our
daughter's birthday. During the celebration my young nephew spent the entire time on my
computer playing a simulated war game. My brother-in-law and I were chatting near by and it
struck us that in generations past, his son, my nephew, would have been outside playing with his
friends. But now the little fellow goes online to play his games against his friends in cyberspace.
        It seems to me that the Internet is a powerful tool that presents an opportunity for the
advancement of the acquisition and application of knowledge. However, based on my personal
experience I can understand how, as they surf the web some folks might be confronted with
cognitive overload. And I can also understand, how one might have his or her sense of reality
distorted in the process. Is the Internet a real place? Depending upon how a "real place" is defined
it might very well be. At the very least, I believe that when we use the Internet, we are forced to
ask fundamental questions about how we perceive the world about us------perhaps another
unintended consequence. Some would argue that the virtual existences created by some users who
debate, shop, travel, and have romance online are in fact not real. While others would argue that,
since in practical terms, folks are debating, shopping, traveling and having romance, the converse
is true.
        All of this being said, I believe that the key to realizing the potential of the Internet is in
achieving balance in our lives. This would allow us to maximize its potential without losing our
sense of place. However, like most things that is easier said than done, it seems to me that we are a
society that values immediate gratification above all else, and what better place to achieve it than
in cyberspace, where the cyber-world is your cyber-oyster. The widespread use of the automobile
forever changed our society and culture, and perhaps a similar sort of thing is occurring now. I am
not at all certain where the “information superhighway” will lead us: some say to Utopia, while
others feel it's the road to hell. But I do know that we all have the ability to maintain our sense of
place in the world. Whether we choose to take advantage of this ability is another matter.
1. The author is very excited to see the positive effect of the Internet.
2. There is no certain answer whether attributing "the fragmentation of society" to the wide use of
   new technologies is justified or not.
3. It is a good example to illustrate young people being separated from their friends by the Internet
   when the author mentions his young nephew.
4. "The sense of community" doesn't mean the feeling of belonging to the community in this
    article.
5. "Progress" was the main subject of the society and people of that generation often talked about
    it and made it a firm belief.
6. People surfing on the Internet could get as much information as there is, even if they have little
    learning capacity.
7. The author believes the Internet could replace the real world.
8. It is an amazing forum to make ______ on the Internet.
9. The young nephew prefers ______ on computer to playing with his friends outside.
10. In the way to ______ in our lives can we realize what the Internet potential is.
1Y            2Y         3Y         4N         5Y         6N         7N
8 free exchange of ideas
9 playing games
10 achieving balance
Passage Eight
                                        How to Cope with Crisis
        Coming to terms with death of a loved one, divorce, illness or loss of a job is always painful.
Yet some individuals move through such transitions gracefully. What do these masters of change
have going for them?
        Those who study the process of change have identified distinctive coping strategies:
         1. Optimism pays. "A popular misconception is that an optimist is naive and wears
rose-colored glasses, says Christopher Peterson, professor of psychology at the University of
Michigan at Ann Arbor. "But it's the pessimist who's the lousy toper, the one blinded by a negative
attitude to viable solutions. The optimist is happier, healthier and a better problem-solver. He says,
'I' m going to handle this thing. '"
        That's pretty much what Bob Dell said to himself after the initial shock of his personal crisis
wore off. Soon after losing his job, Bob was visited by an insurance agent, "I said I couldn't afford
anything because I was out of work," Bob recalls, "He told me the Metropolitan Insurance CO.
was hiring salesmen and I should apply."
         First, he had to take two tests. One was the Metropolitan's career profile. The other was an
experiment by Martin E. P. Seligman, professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania.
         "Optimists believe that things will improve," Seligman says, "so they behave accordingly.
These people turn whatever situation they're in to their advantage." Bob Dell was one of 130
"optimist" recruits hired by Metropolitan. In less than a year, he went from sausage-stuffer to
super-sales-man, earning twice what he’d made at the packing plant. Dell learned about the
experiment later from an article in magazine. With characteristic optimism, he dialed Seligman.,
introduced himself and sold the professor a retirement policy.
         2. One step at a time. Of course, some situations are so terrible that it's difficult to view
them optimistically or put a good face on them. What do you do then?
        Grace Shafir of Englewood Cliffs, N. J. was 35 when her husband, Jere, died unexpectedly,
leaving her with four young daughters and a foundering family business, "After grief," says Shafir,
"came a wave of terror. How could I keep the business going and put food in my children's mouths?
I worded until I realized I was wasting energy. My new strategy was to be too busy with my
children and the business to think about anything else. I lived one day at a time. No five-year plan,
or one-year plan. Just a plan for each day."
        This approach keeps us from being overwhelmed by the "big picture".
        3. Keep the faith. New York psychiatrist Frederic Flach calls this the "most vital ingredient''
of the resilience we need to cope with personal crisis. Faith fosters hope. "Prayer," Dr. Flach says
in his book Resilience, "reminds us that there can be a design for our lives that we may not fully
grasp but that we can live up to if we move with events as they evolve."
        In the Old Testament, Job suffered repeated personal calamities yet steadfastly refused to
turn against Cod. When Job's trials ended at last, his faith was rewarded. Similarly, individuals in
crisis often share a sense of "being tested," the purposes and rewards of which are revealed only
much later------if ever.
        For Grace Shafir, awareness of the true purpose of her life came as she awaited a memorial
service for her husband.
        4. Take stock. Being hopeful doesn't mean being blind. Success in coping depends on
accurately analyzing the situation. "Don't soft-pedal hard facts," Peterson cautions. "Upbeat
beliefs are helpful, but they don't change realities."
        Alone, depressed and under tremendous financial pressure, she examined her situation and
concluded that she must stand up for herself. She accepted the necessity of working seven days a
week never taking vacations until she was on firm ground. Facing up to changed demands of her
new situation helped Marsha cope.
        Take inventory of your assets as well. In a crisis the practical role of money is often
overlooked. Money is extremely important in difficult circumstances. It increases your options.
For instance, someone unemployed, but with money in the bank, can hold out for a more suitable
job offer instead of accepting the first opening that comes along.
        Relatives, friends, neighbors or members of the clergy who can offer advice and moral
support are another kind of asset.
        Expect your social support networks and friendships to change, however, says Robert D.
Felner, professor of psychology at the University of Illinois. "When you retire, you no longer have
contact with the people you saw every day at work. If you get divorced, you may not see a lot of
the married couples you hung around with."
        5. Take action. Businessman Jim Bluett felt helpless when a heart attack nearly killed him at
age 31. Doctors said that if he didn't alter his habits and shed some of his 285 pounds, he might
not be able to walk upstairs or even play with his two kids. "I didn't like the idea of becoming a
cardiac cripple," Jim says, "I knew it was time to make some changes. " Jim quit smoking, gave
up coffee and went on a diet. Then with the advice of his cardiologist, he took up walking and,
later, jogging. A year and a half later, Jim had lost 125 pounds and was in such sound health that
he ran a marathon.
        Jim might have followed any number of routes to recovery. However, as Prof. Nancy K.
Schlossberg of the University of Maryland at College Park points out in her book Overwhelmed:
''Coping with Life's Ups and Downs. It's not the commitment to a particular strategy that makes
the difference, it's the commitment to mobilizing your resources to trying new things."
        Not everyone benefits from every crisis, but many who go through the tempering fires of.
change successfully emerge better prepared to meet whatever challenges come their way.
1. It is strategical to deal with crisis.
2. If one is optimistic, he can handle things on a large part.
3. Bob Dell's story is a good example that pessimistic person also could make success.
4. It's better to do one thing at a time and then another for facing terrible situations.
5. Facing personal crisis, faith gives people hope.
6. Among many things, money plays a practical role dealing with crisis.
7. People who have been met crisis all can prepare better to face challenges.
8. There are ______ kinds of strategies to cope with crisis.
9. ______ said that, when job’s trials ended at last, his faith was rewarded.
10. Besides taking inventory, another kind of assets are ______ from the people around you.
1Y           2Y         3N           4Y         5Y         6Y         7N
85
9 The old Testament
10 advice and moral support
Passage Nine
                                          The Story of an Hour
                                             by Kate Chopin
         Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken to
break to her as gently as possible the news of her husband's death.
         It was her sister Josephine who told her, in broken sentences; veiled hints that revealed in
half concealing. Her husband's friend Richards was there, too, near her. It was he who had been in
the newspaper office when intelligence of the railroad disaster was received, with Brently
Mallard's name leading the list of "killed." He had only taken the time to assure himself of its truth
by a second telegram, and had hastened to forestall any less careful, less tender friend in bearing
the sad message.
         She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability
to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms.
When the storm of grief had spent itself she went away to her room alone. She would have no one
follow her.
         There stood, facing the open window, a comfortable, roomy armchair. Into this she sank,
pressed down by a physical exhaustion that haunted her body and seemed to reach into her soul.
She could see in the open square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the
new spring life. The delicious breath of rain was in the air. In the street below a peddler was
crying his wares. The notes of a distant song which some one was singing reached her faintly, and
countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves.
         There were patches of blue sky showing here and there through the clouds that had met
and piled one above the other in the west facing her window.
         She sat with her head thrown back upon the cushion of the chair, quite motionless, except
when a sob came up into her throat and shook her, as a child who has cried itself to sleep
continues to sob in its dreams.
         She was young, with a fair, calm face, whose lines bespoke repression and even a certain
strength. But now there was a dull stare in her eyes, whose gaze was fixed away off yonder on one
of those patches of blue sky. It was not a glance of reflection, but rather indicated a suspension of
intelligent thought.
         There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She
did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name. But she felt it, creeping out of the sky,
reaching toward her through the sounds, the scents, the color that filled the air.
         Now her bosom rose and fell tumultuously. She was beginning to recognize this thing that
was approaching to possess her, and she was striving to beat it back with her will--as powerless as
her two white slender hands would have been.
         When she abandoned herself a little whispered word escaped her slightly parted lips. She
said it over and over under her breath: "free, free, free!" The vacant stare and the look of terror
that had followed it went from her eyes. They stayed keen and bright. Her pulses beat fast, and the
coursing blood warmed and relaxed every inch of her body.
         She did not stop to ask if it were or were not a monstrous joy that held her. A clear and
exalted perception enabled her to dismiss the suggestion as trivial.
         She knew that she would weep again when she saw the kind, tender hands folded in death;
the face that had never looked save with love upon her, fixed and gray and dead. But she saw
beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely.
And she opened and spread her arms out to them in welcome.
         There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself.
There would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and
women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature. A kind intention
or a cruel intention made the act seem no less a crime as she looked upon it in that brief moment
of illumination.
         And yet she had loved him--sometimes. Often she had not. What did it matter! What could
love, the unsolved mystery, count for in face of this possession of self-assertion which she
suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being!
         "Free! Body and soul free!" she kept whispering.
         Josephine was kneeling before the closed door with her lips to the keyhole, imploring for
admission. "Louise, open the door! I beg, open the door--you will make yourself ill. What are you
doing Louise? For heaven's sake open the door."
         "Go away. I am not making myself ill." No; she was drinking in a very elixir of life
through that open window.
         Her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of her. Spring days, and summer days,
and all sorts of days that would be her own. She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long. It
was only yesterday she had thought with a shudder that life might be long.
         She arose at length and opened the door to her sister's importunities. There was a feverish
triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory. She clasped her
sister's waist, and together they descended the stairs. Richards stood waiting for them at the
bottom.
         Some one was opening the front door with a latchkey. It was Brently Mallard who entered,
a little travel-stained, composedly carrying his grip-sack and umbrella. He had been far from the
scene of accident, and did not even know there had been one. He stood amazed at Josephine's
piercing cry; at Richards' quick motion to screen him from the view of his wife.
         But Richards was too late.
         When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease------ of joy that kills.
1. There are two hints at the very beginning: Mrs. Mallard suffers from a heart trouble, and she
   was to learn of her husband's death.
2. The news that Mr. mallard died was not true. And there was a dramatic irony.
3. Just like many other women did that Mrs. Mallard was paralyzed, unable to accept the accident.
4. The writer describes a lot of scenes to help readers know Mrs. Mallard' s true feeling.
5. Mrs. Mallard loved her husband so much that she couldn' t accept the result of the accident.
6. Mrs. Mallard was shocked to death at the return of her husband.
7. Mrs. Mallard carries herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory.
8. Richards assured the death by ______ .
9. Mrs. Mallard chased for ______.
10. Mr. Mallard even didn’t know what happened because he had been far from ______.
Passage Ten
                                         How to be Chinese
       Chinese youth were turning their backs on many aspects of Chinese culture------he
mentioned Beijing opera, paper cutting, tea ceremonies, kite flying, and folk dancing------and
were embracing such "foreign" things as hip-hop fashions, rock music, fast food, business
techniques and foreign sports and hobbies. He wrote that if this continued, soon Chinese culture
will have disappeared in China.
       Although I understand that it is natural to be concerned about change when a country is
changing rapidly, I don't agree with these opinions that see Chinese youth rejecting China. I think
these concerns reflect a misunderstanding not only of Chinese and Western cultures, but, more
importantly, of how cultures change and evolve.
       As China changes and modernizes, it is perfectly normal that the tastes and interests of
China's youth should change to reflect new conditions. This is happening in many countries in
Asia, North and South America, Europe and Africa, and in each of these places a culture of urban
is developing that shares many characteristics. These characteristics are shared not because some
countries are copying others, but rather because young people are reacting in similar ways to
similar conditions.
       No matter what changes take place, however, China' s youth will never stop being Chinese,
and the new styles and activities they pick up will be just as Chinese as the activities of their
parents, this is because every boy or girl who grows up in China takes in Chinese culture every
minute that he or she is awake, and this culture marks everything that he or she will ever do.
       People often confuse a culture with its temporary cultural expressions. Although a culture is
usually expressed in certain cultural forms, like dances, songs, and other leisure activities, these
forms are just an expression of the culture------they are not the culture itself, which is a way of
thinking, understanding, believing and behaving.
       If you are Chinese, everything you do will be Chinese, even when you are rejecting old
Chinese cultural activities. This is true for other countries too. American youth didn't stop being
American when they gave up such old-fashioned American habits as barn dancing or quilting bees.
Those old cultural activities reflected the social needs of a primarily rural and slow-paced society,
and as the US modernized, it was only natural that old habits were dropped.
         The same will happen in China. Chinese youth give up paper cutting and Beijing opera not
because they prefer Western things, but rather because these old activities are no more meaningful
or understandable to young people growing up in China today than barn dancing or quilting bees
are to young people growing up in the USA. The old habits will die because the conditions that
created them have changed, but that does not mean the culture will die.
       At any rate when Americans absorb aspects of foreign culture, they are not accused of
giving up their own culture, so why cannot the Chinese? The famous film-maker Quentin
Tarantino is known for his great love of Chinese films, and he has used many ideas and styles
developed by Chinese film-makers into his own movies, but he continues to be profoundly
American, and no one would ever say that he is becoming too Chinese. For the same reason, when
a Chinese musician learns ideas from the New York band Sonic Youth, he is going through the
same process. He is taking something from abroad and making it Chinese.
        Young people in the West and China have many things in common. They are growing up in
a very fast-paced world in which instant communication across hundreds of miles is normal, in
which huge amounts of information is available instantly, in which certain ideas, movies, sports,
foods, etc. are widely shared. When they show common interest in certain types of activity, like
playing computer games, practicing kung fu, competing in basketball, or listening to pop music, it
is not because one country is imitating another but rather because these activities complement
modem lifestyles. When they reject the activities of their grandparents it is not because they are
rejecting their cultures, but rather because those old activities no longer resonate in today's
environment.
        So don't worry too much about how to be Chinese or about losing your Chinese culture. You
will always be Chinese. Chinese culture is too deep and too strong to fade away, and because it is
so strong, of course, it will change and adapt to the huge changes taking place today. The best way
to express your Chinese culture is to be part of the way in which Chinese culture changes and
develops. If you are afraid of change because it seems foreign, you will only help to weaken
Chinese culture. If you embrace change and eagerly pursue the things that interest you and other
young people around the world, you will strengthen Chinese culture and increase the influence of
China on the rest of the world. You don't need to be like your grandparents to be Chinese.
1. The author complained that Chinese youth were turning their backs on many aspects of Chinese
   culture.
2. According to the passage, many parents also like Western cultures.
3. The tastes and interests of China s youth should not change to reflect new conditions.
4. Cultural forms, like dances, songs, are the culture itself.
5. Chinese youth give up paper cutting and Beijing opera because they prefer Western things.
6. We should not worry too much about how to be Chinese or about losing our Chinese culture.
7. To reject Chinese culture changes and develops is the best way to express our Chinese culture.
8. I think these concerns reflect a misunderstanding not only of Chinese and Western cultures, but,
   more importantly, ______.
9. People often confuse a culture with ______ .
10. The best way to express your Chinese culture is to be part of the way in which Chinese culture
      ______.
1N           2 NG         3N         4N         5N           6Y       7N
8 of how cultures change and evolve
9 its temporary cultural expressions
10 changes and develops

				
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