VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 19 POSTED ON: 6/22/2011
Passage One Doing Business in Asia Many Westerners wanting to do business in Asian nations seek information and advice about things they need to know in order to be successful. By Westerners who have already been working in Asian nations, they are told to remember as priorities the five "Fs": family, face, fate, favors and friends. Although they do have some subtle differences in meanings and connotations in different parts of Asia, nevertheless, Western businessmen need to be sensitive to these issues if .they wish to be successful. The five "Fs" are explained in the following way. Family: This means that business is often closely connected to family and that there is a family network that branches out regionally and internationally, providing efficient political, financial and emotional support, as well as distributing knowledge. This networking is particularly obvious among Chinese who control huge business segments in Asia and are by far the most successful business group in the region. Their large presence also helps------Singapore is 77 percent Chinese; Malaysia, 45 percent; Taiwan, a Chinese province, 99 percent. Indonesia and the Philippines also have sizable(相当的) and prosperous Chinese communities. It is explained that the importance of family goes back to Confucius, who taught that family represents relationships that one can trust. Although families in the West may be connected, they're almost never as closely connected as in Confucian Asia. This family dependence is also true in Korea. The largest corporation in South Korea is Hyundai, a multibillion-dollar company. Headed by the eldest brother, the company's five major divisions are either managed by one of the five brothers, a brother-in-law or a son-in-law. Face: Two interpretations are given for the meaning of "face". One is literal------Asians like to do business face-to-face. They want to put. a face together with a business, to recognize an individual and to associate an individual with a given company. Many foreign companies have made the mistake of sending a series of different executives to Asia during lengthy contract negotiations. They are advised not to do this; that if negotiations are started by one individual they should be completed by that same person if at all possible. However, if a change must be made, then the first person should take the new one and formally present him as his successor so that the two faces are identified. The second interpretation of "face" is that in a way it means “respect”. The businessman is told that he must show the “proper respect” according to the age and position of the person he is dealing with and also take into account the size of the person's company in comparison with his own. In Western countries, age is not necessarily given respect, but in Confucian Asia, age is given great respect. Thus businessmen are told to always pay attention to any elderly persons attending a business meeting. They are also warned that it is very difficult for Japanese to speak directly and say no. This too has everything to do with "face". They will do almost anything to avoid saying no, even to the point of not giving an answer at all. By giving no answer or saying something like "I'll think about it", or "I’ll consider it", they are “saving face”, and really mean “no”. This is the opposite of the Western “yes” or “no” mentality. Thus a Western businessman is warned never to put a Japanese businessman in the position of having to say "yes" or “no”. Businessmen are also given advice about how to show "face" to someone of higher rank. Richard Tallboy, CEO of the World Coal Organization, who has had extensive experience in Asia, tells foreigners not to forget the "Chairman's 1/2 percent for the chairman's own pocket''. He says that this means they should always start negotiating at a higher price with Asians. In the first round of negotiations foreigners should allow themselves to come down in price 10 percent. In the second round of negotiations they should at last come down another five percent. Then finally when everyone is ready to sign the contract, the Westerner should allow the chairman to negotiate another 1/2 percent off. This way the chairman can say he was able to achieve more than his staff was able to. Thus he gains great "face". Tallboy concludes that this way everyone is happy and the Westerner is assured that his product will be well taken care of. Fate: Westerners are told that many Asians strongly believe that fate influences life, that certain events are destined, and that people have lived many lives and will live many more after death. Because of this philosophy, Asians are more willing than most Westerners to accept things they cannot change. Many Westerners may call these beliefs superstitious. However, they are warned to keep these thoughts to themselves and are told to learn about local customs and beliefs in Asia and to respect them. Favors: Westerners are told that "Always repay a favor" is a common saying among Asians. A favor or debt should never be forgotten. If a Western businessman gets a favor from an Asian, he should expect to repay this favor, no matter how much time passes. Asians are thus serious about the saying, "If you'll scratch my back, I'll scratch yours." In other words, Asian societies are reciprocal societies. The former deputy mayor of New York City, Kenneth Lipper, tells the following story. When he was in Japan for six months in the early 1960s, he suggested the name of a Japanese acquaintance for a possible scholarship. One day, 27 years later in New York City, he received a call from this man who was making his first trip to the United States with his family. Now a top executive in a major Japanese company, he and his family wanted to pay their respects to the man who had done him a favor so long ago. Friends: If Westerners have no relatives in Asia, they are told that the next best thing to have when doing business in Asia is to have gone to school with someone from there. Asians want to deal with people that they know well, or with people to whom they have been introduced by people they know well. One successful American business executive working in Asia tells people that he spent most of his time developing and maintaining GUANXI, which he explains as a Chinese word meaning ties, relationships, or connections. The Japanese equivalent is KONE. How can Western businessmen make the right connections in Asian countries? Hiring a consultant is one way, but the best way is to make friendships and to keep them. How can a Westerner do this? The answer for those people working in Korea, Thailand and Japan is "golf". Successful businessmen agree that it's the best way to get to know important people in society, the way to meet royalty, top government officials, and corporate chiefs. A lifetime golf membership in Tokyo can cost an incredible one million dollars, but some Western businessmen or their corporations have been willing to pay this because of the connections it will bring. So, these are the five "Fs": family, face, fate, favors, and friends. These are the priorities for Westerners when they are doing business in Asia. 1. Westerners wanting to do business successfully in Asia should be sensitive to the five "Fs". 2. Confucianism believes in that family relationship is the most trustworthy. 3. Asians like to do business face-to-face, so it is necessary for foreign company sending different negotiators to reach a contract with them. 4. It gives the higher rank person much "face" by allowing him to negotiate another 1/2 percent off. 5. It is superstitious to believe fate, so many Asians believing that certain events are destined should change their value for a more scientific one. 6. Since a generous person did an Asian a favor voluntarily, this Asian needn't remember it much long. 7. Asian people like to do business with the one they know well. 8. The two meanings of “face” in Asian business are ________. 9. Fate influences life means that ________. 10. The best way for a Western businessman to make the right connections in Asian countries is to make ________. 1Y 2Y 3N 4Y 5 NG 6N 7Y 8 face-to-face and respect 9 certain events are destined 10 friendships and to keep them Passage Two School Manners Manners in the schoolroom, as everywhere, are important to happy relations with the group. Western manners here differ only slightly from good Chinese manners. Greeting the Teacher If you are in a very large class, it may not be necessary to greet the teacher on arriving, but it is always quite proper if you happen to catch the teacher' s eyes as you enter. In a small class the teacher will probably notice each one as he arrives, and you should smile and say, "Good morning, Dr Fenn." Western manners do not require you to stand still at the door for a moment when you come in. One usually does not address one's teacher by his first name, either in speech or in writing. If one's teacher’s name is Gordon Agnew, it is not proper to say "Cordon", nor to write "Dear Mr Gordon." And one never speaks to one’s teacher as “Teacher”. It is quite proper to say "Sir" to a man, but if your teacher is a woman, you must use her surname. Coming Late It is bad manners to come late to class. If you are unavoidably late, an apology should be made to the teacher either at the time or after class. Repeated lateness is a form of rudeness based not only on carelessness of outward forms, but on real unthoughtfulness of others, as a latecomer takes away everyone's thoughts from the lesson. Talking in Class It is bad manners in the schoolroom, as elsewhere, to talk, while anyone else is talking. If you have something to say that is on the subject, wait till you have a chance and say it to the whole class. If it is not on the subject, keep it till the class is over. Who has not been annoyed by having his attention taken from something interesting he really wants to hear! And it is especially rude to the teacher, making it very difficult for him to continue the lesson. Thoughtlessness of others is bad manners at any time and in any place. Looking at Others' Work It is bad manners in the classroom, as elsewhere, to look at anything your neighbor has written, or to try to see what mark he has received without asking his permission. It is good manners for students to help each other if the desire is mutual and the teacher allows it. In examinations and in certain kinds of written work intended to measure the pupil's own progress it is not only dishonest and foolish to help or to ask help from others, it is also thoughtless of real values. For the sake of being "partial" to one student much larger values are destroyed. One may not agree with the examination system, but at present it is basically the only measure the teacher and the rest of the world can go by to determine whether a student is qualified in certain line or not. Laughing at Others It is bad manners to laugh at others' mistakes or accidents. You can realize why if you think how you feel yourself when laughed at. It is very bad manners to laugh at any unfortunate student who has a peculiarity of walking or talking or any deformity of the body. Such persons should be treated with real kindness. Make them feel that you do not notice their misfortune. And be friendly. Snobbishness------looking down on others, is one of the worst forms of rudeness, because it puts such a ridiculous value on oneself. Take it for granted that the next person is as good as or better than yourself. If he hasn' t as many brains he may be making much more of the ones he has. The chances are that you will discover qualities you can admire in the person you are tempted to laugh at, if you are friendly and openhearted. Thinking of Others Good manners are especially important in the library. The general rule is: Do not do anything that might disturb your neighbor. Scraping chairs and shuffling feet are impolite, as well as talking or laughing while others are trying to work. If you have a bad cold you might disturb people by coughing or sneezing, it is better for you to take out a book and read it at home. Helping the Teacher Most teachers are sincerely anxious to help their students in any way they can, and it is polite for the students to help the teacher when they see something they can do, especially if the teacher is a woman and the student a young man. Sometimes the blackboard needs to be erased, or the door or window shut or opened. Sometimes there are papers to collect or distribute. This kind of help is always appreciated. 1. It is a wrong way for many Chinese students to greet their teacher like that: "Good morning, teacher!" 2. One student should apologize to the teacher at once when he is late. 3. Because one doesn't know the answer, it is ok to keep silent to the teacher’s question. 4. There are sure some disadvantages of the present examination system, but it is the only measure of a student's level at present. 5. Be polite to the teachers and classmates can earn many friends for you. 6. Do not do anything that might disturb your neighbour------it is a general rule in a library. 7. According to the passage, we know there is slightly difference between western and Chinese good manners. 8. It is bad manners to come late to class, so you should ________ to the teacher in convenient time. 9. It is a courtesy for students ________ do something. 10. If you are ________ you can learn something from the one you laugh at. 1Y 2N 3 NG 4Y 5 NG 6Y 7Y 8 make an apology 9 to help teacher 10 friendly and openhearted Passage Three Advertisement Appreciation Love at first sight. It was love at first sight, I suppose. And yet it wasn' t just the way she looked. It was also the way she talked. We'd been for a stroll in the country, one lazy, hazy summer Saturday. I felt about sixteen again------walking close enough for our hands to keep touching in the hope that she might hang on. At a little country pub overlooking Evesham vale, I popped the inevitable question. "I'll have a Jameson,” she replied. "A what?" "A Jameson. You know, the famous Irish Whiskey." "Oh," I said somewhat blankly. "Haven' t you tried it?" she said, laughing, "Don’t look so amazed, it's great. Made from the finest Irish barley, the softest spring water, and it's distilled three times, so it's really smooth." "Two Jamesons, please," I said to the barman a moment later. And before going back to my partner I took a little sip just to see if she was right. "Was I right? she said, "I saw you taking a crafty swig!" "Excellent taste." I said. She raised an eyebrow quizzically and said, "Are you talking about me, or the Jameson?" Can you control how well you age? Perhaps you've noticed while some women really show age, others seem to defy it. Aging well is the result of many factors. Heredity, exposure to the elements, and, of course, the way you care for your skin. As you get older, your skin demands special care. The kind you get from Oil of Olay. The remarkable beauty fluid that works in mysterious ways. You'll notice instantly how extraordinarily sheer and greaseless it feels. As each cool, light drop disappears under your touch, precious fluids work to replenish your skin's natural fluid supply. One touch will tell you just how smooth, how silky your skin has become. Your skin will take on an altogether younger appearance as tiny lines mysteriously seem to fade from view. Discover the mystery of Oil of Olay and discover younger looks at every age. Why did you stop asking for the window seat? Frequent travelers often forget that a flight can be a breathtaking experience, not merely a means of transportation. But at Hyatt, we believe every journey should be uplifting. Even after you’ve landed. That's why we fill our hotels and resorts with so many opportunities to broaden your horizons. Unique restaurants in the sky where you can dine with sparkling cities at your feet. Meeting rooms that free your imagination by opening to grand panoramas. And lobbies that greet you with spectacular architecture and dramatic vistas. Instead of merely a place to stay at your destination, a Hyatt is a destination in itself. A place to experience. A window seat that always rewards you with a fresh perspective. So next time, ask to stay with the people of Hyatt. We think you'll like what you see. If you think it's hard getting to Mars, try getting to plaque three millimeters below the gumline. With all due respect to the Pathfinder program, exploring the farthest reaches of inner space can be almost as challenging. That is, unless you have the sonicare sonic toothbrush. Not only does it remove plaque bacteria from the surface, its 31,000 brush strokes per minute also create sonic waves which go beyond the reach of the bristles. Gently cleaning between teeth and even below the gumline. In fact, sonicare removes hidden plaque bacteria between teeth better than the leading power brush. So like the Mars Sojourner, we too like to seek our life forms in hard-to-reach places. Only we blow them away. This is the truth. Human beings do not come with odometers. So how do you tell who is a serious runner? We don't believe serious runners are defined by how many miles they cover in a week. They're defined by how important running is in their lives. It doesn't matter why you run, or how far. If it' s important to you, you' re a serious runner to us. That's why we work so hard to make great running shoes. Because the goal of a running shoe is very simple. To keep you running. The more comfortable you are, the more miles you'll run. That's the idea behind the GEL-130. LOSE FAT FAST NO DIETING Are you tired of the diet-go-round? Why torture yourself with diets that don't work? MEL- TAWAY REDUCING CANDY really works! MELTAWAY will help you lose weight the safe, natural, easy way! SHED FAT LIKE MAGIC! The unique MELTAWAY formula breaks up those stubborn fat cells and melts them away! MELTAWAY speeds up your body's natural fat burners. Eat as much as you want------you still lose weight! SAFE AND EFFECTIVE! Clinical studies have proven MELTAWAY REDUCING CANDY to be safe and effective. There are no unpleasant side effects when taken in the recommended doses. Lose 6 pounds in 48 hours! Lose 14 pounds in 7 days! Lose 21 pounds in 14 days! Turn burglary into attempted burglary. When 3M Scotchshield Ultra Safety and Security Film is applied to windows, it resists penetration and helps keep glass in place through attempted break-ins, storms, even earthquakes. It's another innovative 3M product that helps make your home more safe and comfortable. And one more result of our unique culture, which lets us make the leap from need to 3M innovation. Diversity works. It has long made sense to us at IBM to welcome and value individual differences. We prove this commitment to our workforce every day. Programs such as employees networking groups, child/elder care, domestic partner benefits and flexible work hours help us attract and retain the best and most talented individuals. And in our diverse marketplace, that's always good business. 1. The man had never heard the Irish whiskey name “Jameson” before, so he responded to the woman frankly. 2. The whole ad Love at first sight purposefully confuses the whiskey and the man’s interest in the woman. 3. Defying age means one’s appearance or behavior looks younger than he or she really is. 4. The Hyath is so wonderful that the hotel itself is worth visiting. 5. The 3M product is innovative but not effective. 6. Having diverse types of employees will block the coming of success. 7. MELTAWAY is the best choice for people wanting to lose fat said by scientists. 8. “Jameson” is a famous brand of ______ in Ireland. 9. ______ makes one feet extraordinarily sheer and greaseless. 10. Serious runners are defined by ______. 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y 5N 6N 7 NG 8 whiskey 9 The remarkable beauty fluid oil of Olay 10 how important running is in their lives Passage Four Microchips No invention in history has so quickly spread throughout the world or so deeply touched so many parts of human existence as the microchip. Today there are nearly 15 billion microchips of some kind in use. In the face of that fact who can doubt that the microchip is not only changing the products we use, but also the way we live. Will it finally change the way we view reality? If we were to take away the microchip from every application in which it is now used, we would be both stunned and frightened by the loss. The modern kitchen would become nearly useless, since the microwave, the dishwasher, and most other appliances would become unworkable. The television and VCR would fade to black, the stereo would become quiet, and most of the clocks would stop. The car wouldn't start. Airplanes would be unable to leave the ground. The phone system would go dead, as would most streetlights, thermostats, and, of course, a half-billion computers. And these are only a few of the most obvious applications. Every factory in the industrial world would also shut down, as would the electrical grid, stock exchanges, and the global banking system. Pacemakers would stop too, as would surgical equipment and various monitoring machines used in hospitals. All because of the loss of a tiny square of silicon the size of a fingernail, weighing less than a postage stamp. The modern microchip contains as many as 20 million transistors, and each finished chip is the product of processes more complicated than those used in building the atomic bomb. Yet despite an extraordinarily sophisticated manufacturing process, microchips are mass-produced at the rate of more than a billion a year. To put this complexity in perspective, imagine that within each tiny microchip there exists a structure as complex as a mid-size city, including all of its power lines, phone lines, sewer lines, buildings, streets, and homes. Now imagine that throughout that same city, millions of people are racing around at the speed of light and with perfect timing in an intricately planned dance. That is just one chip. Of all the stunning statistics used to describe the world of the microchip, none is more extraordinary than this: the total number of transistors packed onto all of the microchips produced in the world this year (1998) is equivalent to the number of raindrops that fell in the state of California during that period. Faced with such astounding numbers, it becomes even more difficult to ask what it all means for us and for the generations to come. What is remarkable, and perhaps a little frightening, is that by all indications, we are only halfway through the story of the microchip. It is not far-fetched to suggest that it will take another century of humankind to realize all of the implications of this revolution. Thus, all the miracles we see around us today resulting from the microchip may be but a tiny fraction of all the wonders that will derive from this device well into the next century. It is not merely an invention, but a meta-invention, which enables us to create yet other inventions. Thousands of new devices and products have been made possible by the existence of the microchip and by the embedded intelligence it offers. Packed in a microprocessor, the microchip is not only giving us power over our own lives, but also the greatest instrument for accessing information ever invented. It is allowing us to reach out from our desks, to grasp and share knowledge that was beyond the reach of the wealthiest man in the world just a century ago. It is freeing us to work at home, wherever we choose our home to be. By the middle of the next century, the typical microprocessor may have more computing power than today’s fastest supercomputers. It will talk, and more important, it will listen. The relationship we have with it will change in almost unimaginable ways. Yesterday, the microprocessor was a tool. Today, it is a partner and who knows what role it will play in our lives in the years to come? Just a few years ago who would have thought that in Shanghai, China, customers of the New World Department Store could try on clothes without undressing? A video camera takes a customer's picture, the image is digitized, and changes of outfits or colors are as simple as point and click. In Baltimore, Maryland, prospective astronauts simulate weightlessness by floating in water at the University of Maryland's Space Systems Lab pool. Buddhist monks in Thailand also have found important uses for computers. They use them to perform traditional tasks as well as to study the teachings of Buddha. For hundreds of years, humankind has searched for the philosophers' stone, the magical object that turns ordinary metal into gold. Who would have thought it would turn out to be a littlie sliver of crystal with etching on its surface? The microchip, in the time of a single generation, has developed from a clever technical novelty to a tireless, almost invisible partner of humanity. Today there is no place on, above, or below the Earth that it has not reached. 1. No invention in history has affected so many parts of human existence as the microchip. 2. The modern microchip contains more than 20 million transistors. 3. Microchips are mass-produced at a very high rate. 4. The microchip in a microprocessor is the greatest instrument for accessing information ever invented. 5. Microchips play so important a role in our real society that it can change our reality. 6. Microchips can turn stone into gold. 7. Microchip’s development just begins. 8. Microchip is ______ the size of a fingernail. 9. By the year 2050, microprocessors may probably ______. 10. We can see microchips from daily ______. 1Y 2N 3Y 4Y 5 NG 6N 7N 8 a tiny square of silicon 9 talk and listen 10 applications Passage Five Twins Six Years Apart Scientists in Scotland recently announced that, for the first time, they have cloned an exact copy of an adult mammal. The cloned lamb, named Dolly, has the exact same genes as the adult sheep from which she was cloned. In other words, the two are identical twins; only Dolly is six years younger. The goal of the Scottish scientist Ian Wilmut is to develop a way to raise identical sheep that produce medicines for humans. A week after Wilmut's announcement, other scientists revealed that they had used a different technique to clone monkeys, which are much more closely related to humans. These accomplishments immediately set off a worldwide debate: Should scientists be allowed to clone animals? Is cloning morally wrong and dangerous-----or is it a valuable research tool? All attempts at cloning were largely unsuccessful until 1984.That' s when a scientist in Denmark separated cells from a sheep's embryo (胚胎). An embryo is an early stage of development in which cells are busy dividing and "transforming" into specialized cells like skin, eye, or muscle cells. Unlike a skin cell, an embryo is on its way to becoming a complete living thing: The Danish scientist combined an embryo cell with an egg cell from another sheep. He put the combined cell------then a newly growing embryo into a grown female sheep. To much surprise, the embryo grew into a baby lamb. Since then, other scientists have used embryos to clone cattle, rabbits------and, now, even monkeys. So what makes Wilmut's sheep unique? Instead of using early-stage embryo cells, Wilmut used cells from the udder(乳腺) of an adult sheep. In theory, that’s like using one of your skin cells to clone a new you! Wilmut knew that each cell of the body contains a full set of genetic instructions------instructions to grow a complete individual. (The only exceptions are egg and sperm cells, each of which contains half the genes to grow a new individual.) Once cells have specialized, on their way to becoming skin or eye or udder cells, most of the genetic instructions to make a full being are turned off. Until now, scientists believed that specialized cells could not be used to form a complete living thing. Wilmut proved them wrong. He found a way to take an udder cell and make it grow into a new cloned lamb. An amazing fact: Dolly has no biologic father. Wilmut's success didn't come easily. He has been studying this problem for more than two decades. Last year, he used embryos to successfully clone two sheep. Then he went ahead to clone an adult sheep. But, of 277 udder cells he fused with egg cells, only 30 began to develop into embryos. He implanted 29 of those into female sheep, only one adult gave birth to a lamb. Other scientists have jumped in to repeat Wilmut's experiment with other animals, including cows. And that's what has scientists, animal-rights advocates, politicians------even President Clinton------up in arms. How far, they wonder, will cloning go? Wilmut maintains that cloning animals has tremendous potential for helping people. Cloned sheep, he says, could be used as living drug factories. Scientists could "engineer" sheep that produce drugs in their milk. And by altering the proteins on the surfaces of animal organs to make them more like human organs, scientists believe they may be able to create a plentiful source of organ donors for people. Why not clone humans as organ donors? Theoretically, Wilmut says, there is no reason his techniques couldn't someday be used to clone people. Think about the possibilities: a whole basketball team of Michael Jordans, a scientific panel of Albert Einsteins, a movie starring and- co-starring Brad Pitts. On a more serious note, some experts argue that couples who have difficulty having a baby could make copies of themselves. And parents whose child has a fatal disease like cancer might be able to clone the child, creating a twin who could be a bone-marrow (骨髓)donor. But even Ian Wilmut draws the line at cloning humans. "All of us would find that offensive," he says. Several countries, including Britain, Denmark, Germany, and Australia, have made all scientific work on cloning humans illegal. The U. S. has no such law, but President Clinton has set up a panel of scientists and philosophers to study the issue. In the meantime, Clinton has imposed a ban on using federal money to clone humans. Humans are more than the sum of their genes, argues a philosopher at one research institute. Though they look exactly the same, clones are not necessarily exact copies. The younger twin might grow up with different influences------say, unusual friends or special teachers. A cloned Albert Einstein might fail his physics class. A cloned pop star might sing terribly. Say you were cloned. Would your twin live a shorter life because he or she started out with DNA that was already 10, 20, or 30 years old? Scientists aren’t sure. And how could you prevent someone from taking a sample of your hair and making a clone of you? Again, no solutions. : Some people who oppose cloning also object to the use of animals as research tools. “Next, they'll be cloning foxes to make more fur (毛皮) coats,” says the president of an animal rights group. What do you think? Should scientists be allowed to clone animals? How about humans? 1. The cloned mammal was announced for the first time by Scottish scientists. 2. That Wilmut used cells from the udder of an adult sheep makes the sheep Dolly unique. 3. Each cell of the body contains a full set of genetic instructions. 4. Although Dolly is cloned by skin cells, it also has biological father. 5. It is possible to have a cloned baby for couples who can’t bear a baby naturally. 6. All countries, including Britain, Denmark, Germany, Australia and US, have made all scientific work on cloning human illegal. 7. It is never allowed to clone human beings even if being used for medical purpose. 8. It is wrongly said that ______ should not be used to form a complete living thing. 9. Couples who have difficulty ______ could make copies of themselves. This is still an argument. 10. Some people who object using animals as ______ are opposing cloning. 1Y 2Y 3N 4N 5Y 6N 7 NG 8 specialized cells 9 having a baby 10 research tools Passage Six Kennedy President Kennedy's day at the White House did not begin at any heroic predawn hour. Awakening around 7:30 a.m., he quickly read the morning papers and often placed calls on their contents. Throughout the day and night, as more newspapers and reports came in, more Presidential phone calls or terse memoranda would follow, inquiring, requesting, suggesting. Action was always expected as soon as possible. He was on the telephone, according to one estimate, more than fifty times in an average day, with a large portion of the calls taking place in the Mansion before and after his hours in the office. After a bath, shaving as always in the tub to save time, breakfast was around 8:45------sometimes with his family if they were available, sometimes in bed with the newspapers, and once or twice a week on official business, with legislative leaders, staff members or others. Between 9:00 and 9:30 a.m. he arrived in his office, checked his mail, read a three-thousand-word CIA briefing and plunged into the day's round of conferences. In addition to the official calendar of appointments released to the press, he had a far larger number of off- the-record meetings and a still larger number of informal talks with staff aides. Daily events often required new meetings to be squeezed into the schedule. He kept meetings as brief as the subject permitted, many no more than fifteen minutes, very few running over an hour, but when necessary, sitting for several hours. For long afternoon meetings, he often ordered coffee served to all hands. He kept his own comments to a minimum and often cut short others, no matter how important or friendly, who were dealing with generalities or repeating the obvious. Frequently he saw their point long before they had finished. Focusing full attention upon each speaker, even while doodling on a pad before him, he had a remarkable ability to absorb detail while keeping in view the larger picture. When he considered a subject exhausted or a decision final, he would gather up all his papers as a sign that the meeting was over and, if this hint was not taken by persistent conferees, suddenly rise to his feet to say goodbye. …the president was often an hour behind schedule by the end of the day. It was always an exhaustingly full and long day, as he remained in the office until 7:30, 8:00 or even 8:30 p.m., sometimes returning after his customarily late dinner, and usually reading reports and memoranda in the Mansion until midnight. Even when he had guests for dinner and a movie, he would often slip away after fifteen minutes of the film to work, and then rejoin them when it was over. More than once we worked in his West Wing oval office or in his bedroom or oval study in the Mansion until well past midnight. More than once after a late dinner I would invite guests to view the Presidential office only to find him there going over mail or other documents. Saturdays, when he was in Washington, were usually a shorter working day, and on Sundays, no regular office hours were kept. But it all added up to an average of forty-five to fifty-five hours of work weekly in his office and still more over in the Mansion. "He lived at such a pace," his wife has said, "because he wished to know it all." He helped himself maintain such a pace by wisely breaking his day for two hours or so at lunch. Around 1:30, and if possible, a second time in the evening, he would take a fifteen-minute swim in the heated (90-degree) White House pool, usually with Dave Powers. Even at the height of the Cuban crisis, he made time for his dip in the pool. Listening to recorded show music in the background, exchanging sports stories or anecdotes with Powers, he regenerated his energies and ideas, often giving Dave a list of messages he wanted delivered during the lunch hour. The swim, a rubdown and his calisthenics were followed by lunch------occasionally official affairs with foreign dignitaries, editors, or business or labor leaders, but more often private. He continued to read while lunching if he were alone------and then, he would read or nap in bed while easing his back on a hotpad. Between three and four o'clock he was back in his office or on his way to a press conference, refreshed and ready to act… In a larger sense, the President's office is wherever the President may be. For unlike the Congress and Supreme Court, the Presidency never recesses or adjourns. Unlike the arrangement in most departments and states, his absence from the country does not make his running mate Acting President. Wherever he went, Kennedy was linked by telephone to the White House switchboard, guarded by the Secret Service, and discreetly followed by one of an alternating team of Army warrant officers carrying in a slender black case the secret codes by which the Presidential order for nuclear retaliation would be given. Wherever he went, he received the same daily CIA briefing from a military or other aide and read most of the same daily newspapers, which were flown in to him if necessary. Wherever he went, he took with him the bulky black alligator briefcase he had carried Since his first days in the House------the same bag he often took over to the Mansion in the evening ------bulging with whatever he and his staff felt he needed to read by way of mail, magazines, books, briefing memos and assorted dispatches and documents. During absences of forty-eight hours or more, additional materials were flown to him regularly. Wherever he went, he kept in constant touch with Washington, signed bills and Executive Orders, and conferred on or contemplated current crises. 1. The reader can infer that the Presidents of the United States can leave home and arrive at their office in a matter of minutes. 2. President Kennedy, like many of his countrymen, worked an eight-hour day. 3. The reader can conclude that President Kennedy thought the telephone was a poor means of communication. 4. According to the excerpt, the President's schedule was inflexible. 5. Even during a time of great danger to his country, the President took time to exercise. 6. The reader can infer that President Kennedy suffered from backaches. 7. The Vice-President takes the place of the President when the latter is out of the country. 8. Kennedy was on the telephone ______ in an average day. 9. When Kennedy considered, ______ he would gather up all his papers. 10. In a large sense, the President’s office is wherever ______. 1Y 2N 3N 4N 5Y 6Y 7N 8 more than fifty times 9 a subject exhausted or a decision final 10 the President may be Passage Seven Alienation and the Internet The Internet provides an amazing forum for the free exchange of ideas. Given the relatively few restrictions governing access and usage, it is the communications modal equivalent of international waters. It is my personal belief that the human potential can only be realized by the globalization of ideas. I developed this position years before the Internet came into wide spread use. And I am excited at the potential for the Internet to dramatically alter our global society for the better. However, I am also troubled by the possible unintended negative consequences. There has been much talk about the "new information age." But much less widely reported has been the notion that the Internet may be responsible for furthering the fragmentation of society by alienating its individual users. At first this might sound like an apparent contradiction: how can something, that is on the one hand responsible for global unification by enabling the free exchange of ideas, alienate the participants? I had a recent discussion with a friend of mine who has what he described as a "problem" with the Internet. When I questioned him further he said that he was "addicted", and has "forced" himself to go off-line. He said that he felt like an alcoholic, in that moderate use of the Internet was just not possible for him. I have not known this fellow to be given to exaggeration, therefore when he described his internet binges, when he would spend over twenty-four hours online nonstop, it gave me pause to think. He said, "The Internet isn’t real, but I was spending all my time online, so I just had to stop." He went on to say that all of the time that he spent online might have skewed his sense of reality, and that it made him feel lonely and depressed. The fragmentation of society has been lamented for some time now. It seems to me that it probably began in earnest after World War II when a generation returned from doing great deeds overseas. They won the war, and by God they were going to win the peace. Automobile ownership became commonplace and suburbs were created. "Progress" was their mantra. So even prior to the Internet's widespread popularity, folks were already becoming distanced from their extended families and neighbors. And when we fast-forward to today we see an almost cruel irony in that people can and often do develop on-line relationships with folks on the other side of the globe, without leaving their homes. But at the expense of time that would have otherwise been available for involvement in other activities which might foster a sense of community in their villages, towns and cities. Last weekend my wife and I invited our extended family to our home to celebrate our daughter's birthday. During the celebration my young nephew spent the entire time on my computer playing a simulated war game. My brother-in-law and I were chatting near by and it struck us that in generations past, his son, my nephew, would have been outside playing with his friends. But now the little fellow goes online to play his games against his friends in cyberspace. It seems to me that the Internet is a powerful tool that presents an opportunity for the advancement of the acquisition and application of knowledge. However, based on my personal experience I can understand how, as they surf the web some folks might be confronted with cognitive overload. And I can also understand, how one might have his or her sense of reality distorted in the process. Is the Internet a real place? Depending upon how a "real place" is defined it might very well be. At the very least, I believe that when we use the Internet, we are forced to ask fundamental questions about how we perceive the world about us------perhaps another unintended consequence. Some would argue that the virtual existences created by some users who debate, shop, travel, and have romance online are in fact not real. While others would argue that, since in practical terms, folks are debating, shopping, traveling and having romance, the converse is true. All of this being said, I believe that the key to realizing the potential of the Internet is in achieving balance in our lives. This would allow us to maximize its potential without losing our sense of place. However, like most things that is easier said than done, it seems to me that we are a society that values immediate gratification above all else, and what better place to achieve it than in cyberspace, where the cyber-world is your cyber-oyster. The widespread use of the automobile forever changed our society and culture, and perhaps a similar sort of thing is occurring now. I am not at all certain where the “information superhighway” will lead us: some say to Utopia, while others feel it's the road to hell. But I do know that we all have the ability to maintain our sense of place in the world. Whether we choose to take advantage of this ability is another matter. 1. The author is very excited to see the positive effect of the Internet. 2. There is no certain answer whether attributing "the fragmentation of society" to the wide use of new technologies is justified or not. 3. It is a good example to illustrate young people being separated from their friends by the Internet when the author mentions his young nephew. 4. "The sense of community" doesn't mean the feeling of belonging to the community in this article. 5. "Progress" was the main subject of the society and people of that generation often talked about it and made it a firm belief. 6. People surfing on the Internet could get as much information as there is, even if they have little learning capacity. 7. The author believes the Internet could replace the real world. 8. It is an amazing forum to make ______ on the Internet. 9. The young nephew prefers ______ on computer to playing with his friends outside. 10. In the way to ______ in our lives can we realize what the Internet potential is. 1Y 2Y 3Y 4N 5Y 6N 7N 8 free exchange of ideas 9 playing games 10 achieving balance Passage Eight How to Cope with Crisis Coming to terms with death of a loved one, divorce, illness or loss of a job is always painful. Yet some individuals move through such transitions gracefully. What do these masters of change have going for them? Those who study the process of change have identified distinctive coping strategies: 1. Optimism pays. "A popular misconception is that an optimist is naive and wears rose-colored glasses, says Christopher Peterson, professor of psychology at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. "But it's the pessimist who's the lousy toper, the one blinded by a negative attitude to viable solutions. The optimist is happier, healthier and a better problem-solver. He says, 'I' m going to handle this thing. '" That's pretty much what Bob Dell said to himself after the initial shock of his personal crisis wore off. Soon after losing his job, Bob was visited by an insurance agent, "I said I couldn't afford anything because I was out of work," Bob recalls, "He told me the Metropolitan Insurance CO. was hiring salesmen and I should apply." First, he had to take two tests. One was the Metropolitan's career profile. The other was an experiment by Martin E. P. Seligman, professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. "Optimists believe that things will improve," Seligman says, "so they behave accordingly. These people turn whatever situation they're in to their advantage." Bob Dell was one of 130 "optimist" recruits hired by Metropolitan. In less than a year, he went from sausage-stuffer to super-sales-man, earning twice what he’d made at the packing plant. Dell learned about the experiment later from an article in magazine. With characteristic optimism, he dialed Seligman., introduced himself and sold the professor a retirement policy. 2. One step at a time. Of course, some situations are so terrible that it's difficult to view them optimistically or put a good face on them. What do you do then? Grace Shafir of Englewood Cliffs, N. J. was 35 when her husband, Jere, died unexpectedly, leaving her with four young daughters and a foundering family business, "After grief," says Shafir, "came a wave of terror. How could I keep the business going and put food in my children's mouths? I worded until I realized I was wasting energy. My new strategy was to be too busy with my children and the business to think about anything else. I lived one day at a time. No five-year plan, or one-year plan. Just a plan for each day." This approach keeps us from being overwhelmed by the "big picture". 3. Keep the faith. New York psychiatrist Frederic Flach calls this the "most vital ingredient'' of the resilience we need to cope with personal crisis. Faith fosters hope. "Prayer," Dr. Flach says in his book Resilience, "reminds us that there can be a design for our lives that we may not fully grasp but that we can live up to if we move with events as they evolve." In the Old Testament, Job suffered repeated personal calamities yet steadfastly refused to turn against Cod. When Job's trials ended at last, his faith was rewarded. Similarly, individuals in crisis often share a sense of "being tested," the purposes and rewards of which are revealed only much later------if ever. For Grace Shafir, awareness of the true purpose of her life came as she awaited a memorial service for her husband. 4. Take stock. Being hopeful doesn't mean being blind. Success in coping depends on accurately analyzing the situation. "Don't soft-pedal hard facts," Peterson cautions. "Upbeat beliefs are helpful, but they don't change realities." Alone, depressed and under tremendous financial pressure, she examined her situation and concluded that she must stand up for herself. She accepted the necessity of working seven days a week never taking vacations until she was on firm ground. Facing up to changed demands of her new situation helped Marsha cope. Take inventory of your assets as well. In a crisis the practical role of money is often overlooked. Money is extremely important in difficult circumstances. It increases your options. For instance, someone unemployed, but with money in the bank, can hold out for a more suitable job offer instead of accepting the first opening that comes along. Relatives, friends, neighbors or members of the clergy who can offer advice and moral support are another kind of asset. Expect your social support networks and friendships to change, however, says Robert D. Felner, professor of psychology at the University of Illinois. "When you retire, you no longer have contact with the people you saw every day at work. If you get divorced, you may not see a lot of the married couples you hung around with." 5. Take action. Businessman Jim Bluett felt helpless when a heart attack nearly killed him at age 31. Doctors said that if he didn't alter his habits and shed some of his 285 pounds, he might not be able to walk upstairs or even play with his two kids. "I didn't like the idea of becoming a cardiac cripple," Jim says, "I knew it was time to make some changes. " Jim quit smoking, gave up coffee and went on a diet. Then with the advice of his cardiologist, he took up walking and, later, jogging. A year and a half later, Jim had lost 125 pounds and was in such sound health that he ran a marathon. Jim might have followed any number of routes to recovery. However, as Prof. Nancy K. Schlossberg of the University of Maryland at College Park points out in her book Overwhelmed: ''Coping with Life's Ups and Downs. It's not the commitment to a particular strategy that makes the difference, it's the commitment to mobilizing your resources to trying new things." Not everyone benefits from every crisis, but many who go through the tempering fires of. change successfully emerge better prepared to meet whatever challenges come their way. 1. It is strategical to deal with crisis. 2. If one is optimistic, he can handle things on a large part. 3. Bob Dell's story is a good example that pessimistic person also could make success. 4. It's better to do one thing at a time and then another for facing terrible situations. 5. Facing personal crisis, faith gives people hope. 6. Among many things, money plays a practical role dealing with crisis. 7. People who have been met crisis all can prepare better to face challenges. 8. There are ______ kinds of strategies to cope with crisis. 9. ______ said that, when job’s trials ended at last, his faith was rewarded. 10. Besides taking inventory, another kind of assets are ______ from the people around you. 1Y 2Y 3N 4Y 5Y 6Y 7N 85 9 The old Testament 10 advice and moral support Passage Nine The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken to break to her as gently as possible the news of her husband's death. It was her sister Josephine who told her, in broken sentences; veiled hints that revealed in half concealing. Her husband's friend Richards was there, too, near her. It was he who had been in the newspaper office when intelligence of the railroad disaster was received, with Brently Mallard's name leading the list of "killed." He had only taken the time to assure himself of its truth by a second telegram, and had hastened to forestall any less careful, less tender friend in bearing the sad message. She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms. When the storm of grief had spent itself she went away to her room alone. She would have no one follow her. There stood, facing the open window, a comfortable, roomy armchair. Into this she sank, pressed down by a physical exhaustion that haunted her body and seemed to reach into her soul. She could see in the open square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life. The delicious breath of rain was in the air. In the street below a peddler was crying his wares. The notes of a distant song which some one was singing reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves. There were patches of blue sky showing here and there through the clouds that had met and piled one above the other in the west facing her window. She sat with her head thrown back upon the cushion of the chair, quite motionless, except when a sob came up into her throat and shook her, as a child who has cried itself to sleep continues to sob in its dreams. She was young, with a fair, calm face, whose lines bespoke repression and even a certain strength. But now there was a dull stare in her eyes, whose gaze was fixed away off yonder on one of those patches of blue sky. It was not a glance of reflection, but rather indicated a suspension of intelligent thought. There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name. But she felt it, creeping out of the sky, reaching toward her through the sounds, the scents, the color that filled the air. Now her bosom rose and fell tumultuously. She was beginning to recognize this thing that was approaching to possess her, and she was striving to beat it back with her will--as powerless as her two white slender hands would have been. When she abandoned herself a little whispered word escaped her slightly parted lips. She said it over and over under her breath: "free, free, free!" The vacant stare and the look of terror that had followed it went from her eyes. They stayed keen and bright. Her pulses beat fast, and the coursing blood warmed and relaxed every inch of her body. She did not stop to ask if it were or were not a monstrous joy that held her. A clear and exalted perception enabled her to dismiss the suggestion as trivial. She knew that she would weep again when she saw the kind, tender hands folded in death; the face that had never looked save with love upon her, fixed and gray and dead. But she saw beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely. And she opened and spread her arms out to them in welcome. There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself. There would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature. A kind intention or a cruel intention made the act seem no less a crime as she looked upon it in that brief moment of illumination. And yet she had loved him--sometimes. Often she had not. What did it matter! What could love, the unsolved mystery, count for in face of this possession of self-assertion which she suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being! "Free! Body and soul free!" she kept whispering. Josephine was kneeling before the closed door with her lips to the keyhole, imploring for admission. "Louise, open the door! I beg, open the door--you will make yourself ill. What are you doing Louise? For heaven's sake open the door." "Go away. I am not making myself ill." No; she was drinking in a very elixir of life through that open window. Her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of her. Spring days, and summer days, and all sorts of days that would be her own. She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long. It was only yesterday she had thought with a shudder that life might be long. She arose at length and opened the door to her sister's importunities. There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory. She clasped her sister's waist, and together they descended the stairs. Richards stood waiting for them at the bottom. Some one was opening the front door with a latchkey. It was Brently Mallard who entered, a little travel-stained, composedly carrying his grip-sack and umbrella. He had been far from the scene of accident, and did not even know there had been one. He stood amazed at Josephine's piercing cry; at Richards' quick motion to screen him from the view of his wife. But Richards was too late. When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease------ of joy that kills. 1. There are two hints at the very beginning: Mrs. Mallard suffers from a heart trouble, and she was to learn of her husband's death. 2. The news that Mr. mallard died was not true. And there was a dramatic irony. 3. Just like many other women did that Mrs. Mallard was paralyzed, unable to accept the accident. 4. The writer describes a lot of scenes to help readers know Mrs. Mallard' s true feeling. 5. Mrs. Mallard loved her husband so much that she couldn' t accept the result of the accident. 6. Mrs. Mallard was shocked to death at the return of her husband. 7. Mrs. Mallard carries herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory. 8. Richards assured the death by ______ . 9. Mrs. Mallard chased for ______. 10. Mr. Mallard even didn’t know what happened because he had been far from ______. Passage Ten How to be Chinese Chinese youth were turning their backs on many aspects of Chinese culture------he mentioned Beijing opera, paper cutting, tea ceremonies, kite flying, and folk dancing------and were embracing such "foreign" things as hip-hop fashions, rock music, fast food, business techniques and foreign sports and hobbies. He wrote that if this continued, soon Chinese culture will have disappeared in China. Although I understand that it is natural to be concerned about change when a country is changing rapidly, I don't agree with these opinions that see Chinese youth rejecting China. I think these concerns reflect a misunderstanding not only of Chinese and Western cultures, but, more importantly, of how cultures change and evolve. As China changes and modernizes, it is perfectly normal that the tastes and interests of China's youth should change to reflect new conditions. This is happening in many countries in Asia, North and South America, Europe and Africa, and in each of these places a culture of urban is developing that shares many characteristics. These characteristics are shared not because some countries are copying others, but rather because young people are reacting in similar ways to similar conditions. No matter what changes take place, however, China' s youth will never stop being Chinese, and the new styles and activities they pick up will be just as Chinese as the activities of their parents, this is because every boy or girl who grows up in China takes in Chinese culture every minute that he or she is awake, and this culture marks everything that he or she will ever do. People often confuse a culture with its temporary cultural expressions. Although a culture is usually expressed in certain cultural forms, like dances, songs, and other leisure activities, these forms are just an expression of the culture------they are not the culture itself, which is a way of thinking, understanding, believing and behaving. If you are Chinese, everything you do will be Chinese, even when you are rejecting old Chinese cultural activities. This is true for other countries too. American youth didn't stop being American when they gave up such old-fashioned American habits as barn dancing or quilting bees. Those old cultural activities reflected the social needs of a primarily rural and slow-paced society, and as the US modernized, it was only natural that old habits were dropped. The same will happen in China. Chinese youth give up paper cutting and Beijing opera not because they prefer Western things, but rather because these old activities are no more meaningful or understandable to young people growing up in China today than barn dancing or quilting bees are to young people growing up in the USA. The old habits will die because the conditions that created them have changed, but that does not mean the culture will die. At any rate when Americans absorb aspects of foreign culture, they are not accused of giving up their own culture, so why cannot the Chinese? The famous film-maker Quentin Tarantino is known for his great love of Chinese films, and he has used many ideas and styles developed by Chinese film-makers into his own movies, but he continues to be profoundly American, and no one would ever say that he is becoming too Chinese. For the same reason, when a Chinese musician learns ideas from the New York band Sonic Youth, he is going through the same process. He is taking something from abroad and making it Chinese. Young people in the West and China have many things in common. They are growing up in a very fast-paced world in which instant communication across hundreds of miles is normal, in which huge amounts of information is available instantly, in which certain ideas, movies, sports, foods, etc. are widely shared. When they show common interest in certain types of activity, like playing computer games, practicing kung fu, competing in basketball, or listening to pop music, it is not because one country is imitating another but rather because these activities complement modem lifestyles. When they reject the activities of their grandparents it is not because they are rejecting their cultures, but rather because those old activities no longer resonate in today's environment. So don't worry too much about how to be Chinese or about losing your Chinese culture. You will always be Chinese. Chinese culture is too deep and too strong to fade away, and because it is so strong, of course, it will change and adapt to the huge changes taking place today. The best way to express your Chinese culture is to be part of the way in which Chinese culture changes and develops. If you are afraid of change because it seems foreign, you will only help to weaken Chinese culture. If you embrace change and eagerly pursue the things that interest you and other young people around the world, you will strengthen Chinese culture and increase the influence of China on the rest of the world. You don't need to be like your grandparents to be Chinese. 1. The author complained that Chinese youth were turning their backs on many aspects of Chinese culture. 2. According to the passage, many parents also like Western cultures. 3. The tastes and interests of China s youth should not change to reflect new conditions. 4. Cultural forms, like dances, songs, are the culture itself. 5. Chinese youth give up paper cutting and Beijing opera because they prefer Western things. 6. We should not worry too much about how to be Chinese or about losing our Chinese culture. 7. To reject Chinese culture changes and develops is the best way to express our Chinese culture. 8. I think these concerns reflect a misunderstanding not only of Chinese and Western cultures, but, more importantly, ______. 9. People often confuse a culture with ______ . 10. The best way to express your Chinese culture is to be part of the way in which Chinese culture ______. 1N 2 NG 3N 4N 5N 6Y 7N 8 of how cultures change and evolve 9 its temporary cultural expressions 10 changes and develops
"Doing Business in Asia"