Noninfectious Diseases

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					Chronic Diseases

    Chapter 23
             Chronic Disease
   A disease that is not infectious .Can not be
    transmitted to another person- not contagious
   Usually caused by a risk factor that is
    behavioral, environmental, or genetic.
   They persist for a long period or recur
    throughout life
   Some of these diseases can be prevented,
    some can not
   Many of these diseases have no cure but can be
    managed
        Causes of noninfectious diseases
   Genetics:
     Can inherit the gene that causes the disease
     Can be born with it
     Can be a characteristic that is a risk factor for
      a particular disease (race, skin color, age,
      gender)
   Can not control what we inherit BUT we
    can be aware of our risks and get early
    checkups and adjust our lifestyle
   Behavioral
     The way you live your life
     Your habits – good and bad
     Diet, exercise, smoking, drugs, wearing
      sunscreen, stress management, seatbelts,
      helmets, medical check ups
     Your lifestyle can also be the cause of certain
      risk factors like obesity, high blood pressure,
      high cholesterol
   Environment
       Smog
       Radiation
       Pollution
       Lead
       Asbestos
       Chemical waste
       X-rays
       UV rays
      Common Noninfectious Diseases
   Allergies               Arthritis/rheumatoid
   Alzheimer’s             Parkinson’s disease
   Asthma                  Cystic Fibrosis
   Cancer                  Sickle cell anemia
   Cardiovascular          Anemia
    diseases                Diabetes type 1 & 2
   Muscular Dystrophy
   Multiple Sclerosis
    (MS)
                           Cancer
        A group of diseases that involves the rapid,
     uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
    Harms the body by destroying healthy body tissues.
   Tumor: an abnormal mass of tissue
   Biopsy: procedure done to determine if tumor
    is      cancerous
        Malignant – cancerous tumor
        Benign – non cancerous tumor
        Metastasis – the spread of cancer from where it first
         develops to other parts of the body
               Treatment
 Surgery – can remove part or all of the
  malignant tumor
 Radiation – can kill cancer cells or slow
  growth
 Chemotherapy – chemicals that kills the
  cells in an effort to kill cancerous ones
          Detecting Cancer
 Early detection is key to successful
  treatment.
 Regular screenings
 Know your family health history
 Avoid behaviors that are associated with
  cancer: tobacco, high fat diet, UV rays,
  carcinogens, alcohol, sedentary lifestyle
       Top 10 Cancers in Women
1.    Breast (70% of diagnosed non hereditary) 1:8
2.    Lung
3.    Colon
4.    Uterine
5.    Thyroid
6.    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
7.    Melanoma
8.    Ovarian
9.    Kidney
10.   Pancreatic
        Top 10 Cancers in Men
1.    Prostate 1:6
2.    Lung
3.    Colon
4.    Bladder
5.    Melanoma
6.    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
7.    kidney
8.    Oral
9.    Leukemia
10.   Pancreatic
  7 Warning Signs of Cancer
 Change in bowel or bladder habits
 A sore that doesn’t heal
 Unusual bleeding or discharge
 Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
 Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
 Obvious change in a wart or mole
 Nagging cough or hoarseness
                    Skin Cancer
     3 Types of skin cancer

1.    Basal Cell: most
      common, most treatable
2.    Squamous Cell: very
      treatable but can spread
      and be deadly
3.    Melanoma: Most
      dangerous, least
      common
     ABCDE’s of Skin Cancer
A – asymmetrical
B – border
  irregularities
C – color variations
D – diameter (bigger
  than1/4 inch and/or
  growing rapidly)
E – evolving,
  changing
        Protecting Your Skin
 Always wear sun block, at least 15 SPF
 Avoid peak sun hours
 Protect your eyes
 Be familiar with moles, freckles, and any
  other skin imperfection
 See a dermatologist yearly, especially if
  skin cancer runs in the family or you spend
  a lot of time in the sun
                          SPF
   SPF means skin protective factor meaning the degree of
    which sunscreen protects your skin from direct rays.
   An SPF 10 means it protects you from 90% of the direct
    rays and that if you apply a SPF 10 then theoretically
    you can lay stay in the sun for 10 hours and get the
    equivalent of one hour unprotected sun.
   An SPF of 15 gives you 93% protection from the sun,
    An SPF of 30 gives you 97% as well as SPF 40.
   Apply liberally (1 ounce should cover entire body) and
    reapply after swimming or excessive sweating.
        Sunscreen vs Sunblock
   There are 2 types of rays:
     UVA which causes premature aging
     UVB causes cancer

 Sunscreen only protects you from UVA
 Sun block protects from both types of rays
 To protect your skin from both types of
  rays, look for ingredients: zinc oxide,
  titanium dioxide, and octocrylene

				
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