Demystifying RDA

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					Demystifying RDA
Similarities and Differences between
                                    Chris Oliver
                                 June 2nd, 2010
                             CLA Preconference
              AACR2 to RDA
AACR2                 • rules and framework

AACR2 deconstructed   • rules minus AACR2

 RDA            • instructions – many derived from
                • in a new framework
RDA: similarities & differences
                AACR2 deconstructed

                new vocabulary

                new concepts

                new structure

                some new instructions

                some changed instructions
             AACR2 deconstructed
• some RDA instructions very similar to AACR2 rules
1.6B1 If an item is issued in a series, transcribe the title proper
      of the series as instructed in 1.1B

RDA If the resource is issued in a series, record the title
   proper of the series applying the basic instructions on
   recording titles given under 2.3.1

                       and 2.3.1 instructs one to transcribe
             AACR2 deconstructed
21 Choice of Access Points
21.30J2 Variant title. If considered necessary for access, make an
    added entry for any version of the title (e.g., cover title …) that
    is significantly different from the title proper.

2 Identifying Manifestation and Item
2.3 Title Recording Variant Titles
  Record variant titles that are considered to be important for
  identification or access applying the basic instructions on
  recording titles given under 2.3.1
           Almost identical, but …
RDA’s variant title:
• it is an attribute of the manifestation; it is a type of title
• with all the instructions for recording the title of the
• precise definition:
              a title associated with a resource that differs from a
              title recorded as the title proper, a parallel title
              proper, other title information, parallel other title
              information, earlier title proper, later title proper, key
              title, or abbreviated title
              Almost identical, but …
• 7 listed categories of variant titles:
   •   on resource itself (spine title, etc.)
   •   from reference sources
   •   assigned by agency doing the description
   •   assigned by an owner or custodian
   •   corrections
   •   part of title
   •   variations in parallel title, other title info. for earlier iteration
       or later part
              AACR2 deconstructed
1.5B. Extent of Item (including Specific Material Designation)
1.5B1. Record the extent of the item by giving the number of physical
   units in arabic numerals and the specific material designation as
   instructed in subrule .5B in the chapter dealing with the type of
   material to which the item belongs.

RDA Recording Extent
   Record the extent of the resource by giving the number of units
   and an appropriate term for the type of carrier as listed under . …
            Almost identical, but …
• numerals and internationalization (RDA 0.11.3)
• no more gmds and smds different way of categorizing types
  of content, types of media and types of carriers
• concept of “class of material” is gone
• consistent set of general rules that apply to all resources,
  followed by special rules only when needed
• generally no longer use abbreviations for extent
       AACR2                  RDA
       213 p.                 213 pages
              AACR2 deconstructed
AACR2 1.5B continued
1.5B4. If the item being described has a playing time, give that
   playing time as follows. …

7.22 Duration                  in chapter: Describing Content Playing Time, Running Time, Etc.
   If the resource has a playing time, running time, etc., record the
   time as follows, abbreviating terms for units of time as instructed
   in appendix B
           Almost identical, but …
RDA rigorously separates content and carrier:

  AACR2:    extent = 1 sound cassette (40 min.)
            content and carrier information together

  RDA :     extent of carrier = 1 audiocassette         chap. 3
            duration of content = 40 min.               chap. 7
            careful separation of content and carrier
              On the surface …
similar instructions
      but different framework

• instructions found in totally
   different places
• new vocabulary, new concepts,
  new theoretical framework
       What you need to know to
       understand the differences
• user tasks
• entities, attributes, relationships
• organization and structure of RDA

• objectives and principles

• data elements
• core elements
• extensible framework

 User tasks
 Entities, Attributes & Relationships
 Organization & Structure of RDA
FRBR/FRAD User tasks in RDA
Bibliographic data       Authority data

•   Find             •    Find
•   Identify         •    Identify
•   Select           •    Clarify    (Justify)
•   Obtain           •    Understand (Contextualize)
   Consistent focus on the user
Throughout RDA:
 data             why include this data?

                  to support the user in
                  completing one of the
                  user tasks
           Functional objectives
• RDA divided into 10 sections
• Each section begins with general guidelines
• Functional objectives and principles specific to the
• Functional objectives =
      the data              (recorded or formulated according
                            to the instructions in that section)

      the user tasks
            Example from Section 1
Section 1= Recording attributes of manifestations & items

1.2    Functional Objectives and Principles
The data describing a manifestation or item should enable the user to:
a) find manifestations and items that correspond to the user’s stated
   search criteria
b) identify the resource described …
c) select a resource that is appropriate to the user’s requirements
    with respect to the physical characteristics of the carrier and the
    formatting and encoding of information stored on the carrier
d) obtain a resource …
   Basis for Cataloguer Judgment
• introduction begins with focus on user and user tasks
• functional objectives in each section
• instructions open to cataloguer judgment within the
  parameters of enabling the successful completion of
  user tasks
  for example, from 3.7 Applied material
  Record the applied material used in the resource if it
  is considered important for identification or
  selection …
 Entities, attributes, relationships
• entity = the object of a user’s interest
• entities that are of interest to someone who
  uses bibliographic and authority data

Scope of RDA:
  bibliographic entities
           entities specific to authority control
   Bibliographic entities in RDA
                 FRBR Group 1
expression       products of intellectual or artistic
manifestation    endeavor
family           FRBR/FRAD Group 2
corporate body   responsible for group 1 entities

                 FRBR Group 3
                 subjects (includes group 1 & 2)
        Authority entities in RDA
bibliographic entities    entities on which
                          authority data is focused
identifier                entities for authority
controlled access point   control

not in RDA:
  rules                   entities that determine
  agency                  the content and form of
                          access points
       Attributes & Relationships
• instructions how to record the attributes of entities
      e.g. entity =         a manifestation

      attributes we record: title proper
                            statement of responsibility
                            edition statement
                            place of publication

• how to record relationships between entities
            Relationships in RDA
• basis for navigation and support collocation
• primary relationships:
      between work, expression, manifestation and item
• 3 other major types of relationships:
  1. between a person, family or corporate body and a resource
  2. between one resource and another resource
  3. between a person, family or corporate body and another
     person, family or corporate body
              Relationships in RDA
• not just recording relationship
• specify exact nature of the relationship
for example
AACR2         name of a person ------- title of book
• type of relationship may be embedded in text of description
• bibliographic record contains name of person and title

RDA      name of a person --- type of relationship --- work
• add relationship designators
• use controlled vocabulary to designate relationship
• clear identification of where this data is recorded
  Defining the Relationship: AACR2
• designation of relationship is optional and narrow
21.0D. Optional addition. Designations of Function
21.0D1. In the cases noted below, add an abbreviated designation
   of function to an added entry heading for a person.
   Function Performed                   Designation
        Compiler                        comp.
        Editor                          ed.
        Illustrator                     ill.
        Translator                      tr.
   Add other designations to headings as instructed in particular
   In specialist or archival cataloguing …
    Defining the Relationship: RDA
RDA         Recording Relationship Designators
  Record one or more appropriate terms from the list in
  appendix I with an identifier and/or authorized access point
  representing the person, family, or corporate body to indicate
  the nature of the relationship more specifically than is
  indicated by the defined scope of the relationship element
  also 24.5 and 29.5
 not a core element but also not an option or alternative
 3 appendices of relationship designator terms for relationships:
   •   between resource and person, family or corporate body
   •   between works, expressions, manifestations and items
   •   between persons, families and corporate bodies
      Defining the Relationship: RDA
examples with MARC 21 coding:
245 10 $a National Geographic atlas of the world / $c Melville Bell
  Grosvenor, editor-in-chief; Wellman Chamberlin, chief
700 1# $a Chamberlin, Wellman , $e cartographer

245 00 $a Alice in Wonderland, or, What's a nice kid like you doing in
  a place like this? /$cHanna-Barbera Productions.
700 1# $i parody of (work) $a Carroll, Lewis, $d 1832-1898. $t
  Alice's adventures in Wonderland.

authority record
510 3# $a Adams family, $e descendant family
Organization and Structure of RDA

 2 main parts
     Recording attributes                   sections 1-4
      Recording relationships               sections 5-10

 Divided into 10 sections
  sections are organized according to the bibliographic entities
Organization and Structure of RDA
Section 1-4 = Recording attributes

Section 1.   Recording attributes of manifestation and item
Section 2.   Recording attributes of work and expression
Section 3.   Recording attributes of person, family, and
             corporate body
Section 4.   Recording attributes of concept, object, event, and
             place                                   [placeholder]
  Organization and Structure of RDA
Sections 5-10 = Recording Relationships
Section 5.    Recording primary relationships between
              work, expression, manifestation, and item
Section 6.    Recording relationships to persons, families,
              and corporate bodies associated with a resource
Section 7.    Recording subject relationships          [placeholder]
Section 8.    Recording relationships between works,
              expressions, manifestations, and items
Section 9.    Recording relationships between persons,
              families, and corporate bodies
Section 10.   Recording relationships between concepts,
              objects, events, and places           [placeholder]
Organization and Structure of RDA
• each chapter associated with a user task
Chapter 1:   General guidelines on recording attributes of
             manifestations and items
Chapter 2:   Identifying manifestations and items
             FRBR task = Identify
Chapter 3:   Describing carriers
             FRBR task = Select
Chapter 4:   Providing acquisition and access information
             FRBR task = Obtain
Organization and Structure of RDA

Chapter 5:   General guidelines on recording attributes of works
             and expressions
Chapter 6:   Identifying works and expressions
             FRBR task = Identify
Chapter 7:   Describing content
             FRBR task = Select

 Objectives & Principles
       RDA Objectives & Principles
Objectives                 Principles
• responsiveness to user   • differentiation
                           • sufficiency
• cost efficiency
                           • relationships
• flexibility
                           • representation
• continuity
                           • accuracy
                           • attribution
                           • common usage or practice
                           • uniformity
   Role of Objectives & Principles
• instructions must be defensible + not arbitrary
• real impact on the content of RDA

for example
  objective = flexibility
              The data should function independently of the
              format, medium, or system used to store or
              communicate the data. They should be amenable
              to use in a variety of environments.
  result = RDA is a “content standard”
 RDA as a Content Standard
 “what data should I record?”

RDA can be encoded using different encoding
       e.g. MARC 21, MODS, Dublin Core, etc.

RDA data can be displayed using different display
       e.g. ISBD, label display, etc.
  RDA = content standard
not locked into MARC 21 encoding

not locked into MARC 21 record structure

can be used with web-friendly encoding schema,
based on XML

 can be used in new types of database

can be used by other metadata communities
      AACR2 Rule + RDA principles
 1.2B1. Transcribe the edition statement as found on the item.
 Use abbreviations as instructed in appendix B and numerals as
 instructed in appendix C.

RDA Transcribe an edition statement as it appears on the
 source of information.
      No instruction to abbreviate.

 Appendix B Abbreviations
 B.4. Transcribed Elements
 For transcribed elements, use only those abbreviations found
 in the sources of information for the element.
          Almost identical, but …
for example
       principle = representation
                   The data describing a resource should reflect
                     the resource’s representation of itself.
      result = simplify transcription

   RDA Recording Edition Statements
    no instruction to use abbreviations
    transcribe exactly what is on the source of information
       Principle of Representation
Appendix B Abbreviations
  B.4 Transcribed elements
  For transcribed elements, use only those abbreviations found in
  the sources of information for the element.

       t.p.                                data recorded

       3rd ed.                             3rd ed.

   Second edition                          Second edition
               Take what you see
 1.1F7. [4 conditions when you do record titles of nobility,
 address, etc.]
 … Otherwise, omit all such data from statements of

RDA Transcribe a statement of responsibility in the form in
 which it appears on the source of information. Apply the general
 guidelines on transcription given under 1.7.
      no instructions to omit data Optional Omission
 Abridge a statement of responsibility only if it can be abridged
 without loss of essential information.
                Take what you see
title page              by the Reverend John Clarke
AACR2                   by John Clarke
RDA                     by the Reverend John Clarke

“Take what you see. Accept what you get.”              (from LC)

•   based on principle of representation
•   simplifies transcription
•   allows for automated data capture or scanning
•   no longer limited by the small space of the catalogue card
Principles also lead to new instructions
AACR2           1.0F. Inaccuracies
1.0F1. In an area where transcription from the item is required,
   transcribe an inaccuracy or a misspelled word as it appears in
   the item. Follow such an inaccuracy either by [sic] or by i.e. and
   the correction within square brackets. Supply a missing letter or
   letters in square brackets.

RDA 1.7.9 Inaccuracies
  When instructed to transcribe an element as it appears on the
  source of information, transcribe an inaccuracy or a misspelled
  word as it appears on the source, except where instructed
                Inaccuracy in RDA
1.7.9 continued
Make a note correcting the inaccuracy if it is considered to be
important for identification or access (see 2.20 ).
If the inaccuracy appears in a title, record a corrected form of the
title as a variant title (see 2.3.6 ) if it is considered to be important
for identification or access.

Exceptions: Inaccuracies. When transcribing the title proper of a
serial or integrating resource, correct obvious typographic errors,
and make a note giving the title as it appears on the source of
information (see ). In case of doubt about whether the
spelling of a word is incorrect, transcribe the spelling as found.
                                   RDA = Take what you see
title page                                                =                            The wolrd of television
AACR2                                                     =                            The wolrd [sic] of television
                                                          or                           The wolrd [i.e. world] of television
RDA                                                       =                              The wolrd of television

title page                                                =                            The wold of television
AACR2                                                                                  The wo[r]ld of television
RDA                                                       =                            The wold of television

 Data elements
 Core elements
 Extensible framework
               Data Elements

element = A word, character, or group of words
          and/or characters representing a distinct
          unit of bibliographic information.

 appears similar to AACR2 definition, minus “forming
  part of an area”
       actually quite different from AACR2
                Data Elements
 each element is discrete and precisely defined
 each element contains data about a single attribute or
  a single relationship
 data is not embedded in long character strings
for example
AACR2: information embedded in a non-specific note
      physical                       video format characteristics
      description note               font
      MARC 500                       base and applied materials
                                     sound characteristics

 requires that a human interpret information in record
    cannot be used reliably to search or to limit a search
    cannot be used for automated processing
    cannot generate a meaningful display
               RDA Data Elements
RDA: distinct and precise elements for each kind of data

                                    video format characteristics
  different element                 font
  for each type of                  base material
  data                              applied material
                                    sound characteristics

RDA: recommended controlled vocabulary for content of
     many elements
video format characteristics: beta, betacam, betacam SP, CED, D-2 …
font: large print, giant print
base material: bristol board, canvas, cardboard, ceramic, glass …
             RDA Data Elements
RDA: precise elements – only one kind of data in an

  AACR2:          date of publication, distribution, etc.
  MARC 21:        260 $c
  RDA:            4 different elements:
                               date of production
                               date of publication
                               date of distribution
                               date of copyright
              RDA Data Elements
 each element has the potential to be usable:
           to index
           to search
           to build meaningful displays of data

 data in element can be used by humans and machines
    can be used reliably to search or to limit a search
    can be used for automated processing
    can be used to generate a meaningful display
        Day 1 of Implementation
 implementation in MARC 21 environment
 continue with ambiguity
      many RDA elements will map to one MARC subfield

 potential for the future
 designed to be in line with metadata that can be used
  in the online networked environment
                Core Elements
     many new elements but don’t have to use them all
    core elements
 not a level of description
 core elements are a minimum      “a floor, not a ceiling”
 must include any additional elements required to
  differentiate the resource or entity from a similar one
 inclusion of other elements is discretionary
                 Core Elements
 core elements support a subset of user tasks
      • identify and select a manifestation
      • identify works and expressions embodied in a
      • identify the creator or creators of a work
      • find a person, family, or corporate body associated with
        a resource
      • identify a person, family, or corporate body

 summary of core elements in introduction: 0.6
 general guidelines for each section: core elements
                  Core Elements
 certain elements are flagged as “core”
      title proper
      designation of edition
      preferred name for the person

 certain elements are flagged as “core if”
      date of distribution if date of publication not identified
      extent if resource is complete or if the total extent is
 element is core but can omit some data
      place of publication (if more than one, only the first)
        Extensible Framework
 framework to describe all known resources
 framework that can be extended to describe
  resources yet to be developed
         Extensible Framework
 many data elements – each precisely defined
 data elements can be used in any combination
 clear distinction between content and carrier

      work                     content
      expression               content

      manifestation            carrier
      item                     carrier
         Extensible Framework
 room for growth with framework of attributes and

 RDA framework can describe
      any content        any carrier

 in addition, new framework for categorizing
Categorization of Content & Carrier
consists of three elements:    content type
                               media type
                               carrier type
 replaces the gmd
 can use as many of each type as needed
 can use in any combination
 each element has a set of controlled vocabulary
 clear distinction between content and carrier

            not a display standard
Categorization of Content & Carrier
content type   expression      notated music
                               performed music
                               still image
                               spoken word
media type     manifestation   audio
carrier type   manifestation   audio cartridge
                               audio disc
Categorization of Content & Carrier
 Content type = text
 Media type = unmediated
 Carrier type = volume
 music CD
 Content type = performed music
 Media type = audio
 Media type = computer
 Carrier type = audio disc
 Carrier type = computer disc
Categorization of Content & Carrier
 web page
 Content type = text
 Media type = computer
 Carrier type = online resource

 online video
 Content type = two dimensional moving image
 Media type = computer
 Carrier type = online resource
Categorization of Content & Carrier
 not a display standard
 consistent values in the elements that can then be
  mapped in various ways
    map to icons
    map to terms preferred by the user group
    map to terms in different languages
    map to newly developed terms
 in contrast to AACR2 gmds -- consistency
      Similarities and Differences
• intentional continuity and compatibility with AACR2
• many instructions remain similar, but …

    new theoretical framework shapes RDA instructions
            user tasks
            entities, attributes, relationships
            organization and structure of RDA
            objectives and principles
            data elements
            core elements
            extensible framework
                 Thank you
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