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					Dayton ASHRAE Chapter

Climate Change & Ozone Depletion
         Tom Werkema
         March 10, 2008
                 Agenda
1.   Climate Science – Known & Unknowns
2.   Climate International
3.   Climate Country Specific
4.   Ozone Science
5.   Ozone International
6.   Ozone Country Programs
7.   Industry Response
8.   Personal Responses to Climate Change
Climate Change Science
    What is the “greenhouse effect”?

Like the sun, the Earth also emits radiation. It is much cooler
than the sun, though, so it emits in the infrared, just like a
person, a cat, or any other body. Some of that infrared energy
may be absorbed by molecules in the atmosphere, affecting the
global energy balance.
                                             Venus has an atmosphere
                                             with more than 90% CO2.
                                             It also has sulfuric acid
                                             clouds. Its planetary
                                             greenhouse effect is about
                                             500°C (the atmosphere
                                             raises the temperature by
                                             that much).


Earth has an atmosphere with much less
CO2 than Venus. The greenhouse effect
raises its average temperature by about
30°C.
The greenhouse effect is basic physics and
it is real. What about greenhouse warming?
The Atmosphere




                 CCS-2
The 1990s were warmer than at anytime during
              the last 1000 years




                                           CCS-3
CO2 Emissions




                10/28/02-cc5
Extent of Arctic Sea Ice 1979 and
2005
    Changes to clouds: the biggest cause of
          uncertainty in predictions

                           Low clouds cool climate



                           High clouds warm climate

  Global warming will change cloud characteristics
     and, hence, their warming or cooling effect.
This will exert a powerful feedback on climate change,
  but this feedback will differ from model to model.
Antarctic Temperature Trends,
1966–2000
Components of sea-level rise
Ocean circulation in the North Atlantic
US Hurricane Cycles Wax and Wane

     6             12

     5             14

     5             15

     4        12

     6             14

         8                   17

         10                             24

         8                    19

     5                       13

         7                         21

     4                  18
                                 8.4


                       5.1


                3.4




REF: Nat’l Center for Atm. Presearch July, 2007
               Global Emissions Scenario




Current estimates for emissions growth in   IS92 a IPCC 1992
Non-Annex 1 countries are even higher
         Global Emissions for 550 PPM
                 Stabilization




Stabilization is not feasible without
Non-Annex 1 countries’ participation
                                        IPCC
                                          1994
Radiative Forcing




                    CCS-7
        Halocarbon Emissions, continued
Combined CO2-
  equivalent emissions
  from halocarbons:

~7.5 Gt near 1990, about
   33% of that year's
   CO2 emissions from
   global fossil fuel
   burning

~2.5 Gt near 2000, about
   10% of that year’s
   CO2 emissions from
   global fossil fuel
   burning
  1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4                                           CO2
0.3

0.2

0.1

  0
   1500   1600   1700                  1800     1900   2000
                    Date (year A.D.)
Decay of tetrafluoroethane (T = 14 years) in
the atmosphere compared to CO2

    1
   0.9

   0.8

   0.7
   0.6
   0.5
   0.4                                            CO2
   0.3
   0.2
           HFC-134a
   0.1
    0
    2000       2100   2200                 2300         2400   2500
                             Date (year A.D.)
Cut-off at a 100 year Integration
Time Horizon
  1
 0.9

 0.8

 0.7
 0.6
 0.5
 0.4                                        CO2
 0.3
 0.2
         HFC-134a
 0.1
  0
  2000       2100   2200             2300         2400   2500

                       Date (year A.D.)
Climate Change International
  Climate Change International
August 1990        First IPCC Assessment
June 1992          Rio de Janeiro, Framework
                    Convention on Climate
                    Change
March/April 1995   Conference of Parties (1),
                    Berlin
December 1995      Second IPCC Assessment
July 1996          Conference of Parties (II),
                    Geneva
December 1997      Conference of Parties (III),
                    Kyoto
              Kyoto Protocol


• Controls Emissions
• 6 Greenhouse Gases
  – CO2, N2O, CH4, HFCs, PFCs, SF6
• Avg. reduction for developed countries
  – 5.2% from 1990 level
• 2015 reduction-1.7ppm to 381.3 ppm
   Climate Change - International

• First Meeting of Kyoto Protocol Parties in
  Montreal, November, 05
  –   US non Party
  –   First Commitment Period – 2008 thru 2012
  –   No Second Commitment or Period defined
  –   Canadian Environment Minister was President
    Kyoto Protocol Meeting 2006 Nairobi

• Adaptation Fund creation
  – Significant discussion by developing countries.
  – May be used as tradeoff for developing country
    commitments
  – Administrative rules were agreed
                     Bali - 2007
• Largest attended meeting ever
   – More new NGO’s
      • Youth, Indigenous Peoples, Civil Society
• Agreement for 2 year negotiations
   – Inclusive of US
      • Under both UNFCCC and KP – 2 tracks
   – No developing country commitments
      • Weak, voluntary language
• Negotiations completed in 2009
   – Commitments commence in 2013
          Other Climate Change
• Achim Steiner, UNFCCC Ex. Sec. requested
  emergency meeting General Assembly on climate
   – Moon agreed – September 24, 2007
• White House conference 13 countries 9/27.9/28/07
• IPCC – released first 3 Working Group reports
   – “…globally average net effect of human activities since
     1750 has been one of warming…”
   – 90% probability that climate change is manmade
   – Massive populations at risk, plan/animal species
• Steiner noted MP contribution to KP goals – MP 8
  GT, KP 2 GT, substitute HCFCs/HFCs add 1 GT
         Other Climate Change
• G8 Climate Focus
   – Aim to cut ghgs 50% by 2050
   – Incorporate India/China
• 16 largest cities to reduce energy consumption in
  existing buildings –Clinton Climate Initiative
   – Houston, Chicago, NY
   – ASHRAE – Honeywell, Trane, Siemens, Johnson
     Controls conduct audits
   – Clinton will attend Nov 1,2 Mayor’s Conference in
     Seattle
Country Climate Programs
USA
            EU F Gas Regulation
Key sectors – refrigeration, air-conditioning,
  heat pumps, high-voltage switchgear
• Reporting
  – Production,imports, exports
• Marketing & use bans limited
  – Non-refillable containers
• Entered into force July 4, 2007
  – Rules still being written
              EU F Gas Regulation

• CONTAINMENT
  – Stationary applications prevent/minimize leakage
  – Number of annual checks depends on equipment size
  – Maintain records of inspections
• RECOVERY
  – Recover gases at end of life
  – Certified personnel for recycling, reclamation, destruction
  – Commission establish minimum requirements by 7/08
• LABELLING
  – Containers of F gases
  – Refrigeration, A/C equipment
              EU F Gas Regulation
• 2010 REVIEW
  – Whether containment can extend to MAC
  – Assess need for emission control from
    products/equipment
     • Foam
     • Technical product design
  – Assess BAT/BEP
  – Assess state of technology, particularly for foams
  – Assess marketing prohibitions
     • Technical feasibility
     • Energy efficiency considerations
           EU Mobile A/C Directive
• <50 gms HFC/year Emission
    – If GWP > 150
    – Hammonized leak detection test
•   < 60 gms/year dual evaporation
•   1/1/11 no new model MAC > 150 GWP
•   1/1/17 no new MAC > 150 GWP
•   Service allowed
    – “Abnormal” leakage requires repair
    – Review Procedure 12 months or 5 years after entry into
      force
    – Honeywell/Dupont/Others announced low GWP
      alternatives
• Tailpipe emissions separate regulation
        EU Emissions Trading

2005-7 covers: energy, oil steel & paper
2008 covers all large emitters
  MS allocate individually
EU is bringing aviation into ETS.
Price development in the EU
            ETS
         HFC’s – Country Program
• Denmark
  – EC is pursuing infringement proceeding
  – Law effective July 1, 2002
  – Tax $7.90/LB HFC – 134a
  – General Use, including recycle use, in new products
    P/O 1/1/06
  – Exceptions:     1/1/02 District Heat Pumps
                            Foam for joints
                            Aerosol
                   1/1/06 Flexible foam
                   1/1/07 Cooling Plants, Heat Pumps,
                                     dehumidifiers, Refrigeration
              & A/C over
                           10Kg                           CCEU-6
    HFC’s – Country Program
• Denmark (con’t)
  – Exceptions: Refrigeration & A/C 0.15-10Kg
  – A/C in Hermetic systems to 50Kg
     •   MAC’s
     •   Medical
     •   Lab
     •   Military
     •   Onboard Ships
     •   Servicing

                                         CCEU-7
      HFC’s Country Programmes

• Norway
  – 180 NKr per ton CO2 equivalent
  – Norwegian Industry Attempted to Overturn
    • Got Agreement as “Deposit”




                                           CCEU-9
         HFC’s – Country Program

• Switzerland – HFC’s Phase/Out
  –   1/1/03 Aerosols, except MDI
  –   1/1/03 Domestic refrigeration and freezers
  –   1/1/03 Extinguishing agents (some exemptions)
  –   1/1/03 Foams unless efficacy proven
  –   1/1/03 Solvents
  –   1/1/05 A/C (checked annually)
  –   1/1/08 MAC’s (check annually)
  –   Existing Domestic A/C not included


                                                      CCEU-10
        HFC’s – Country Program
• Switzerland – Ban HFCs effective July 1, 03
  – Does Not Apply:
     • Some spray cans
     • 1/1/04 – Foams Manufacture
        – Can Grant “Derogation”
            » No Substitutes
     • Solvents – can grant “derogation”
        – Limited time frame
        – No alternatives
        – Measures to avoid emissions
                     Canada

•   HFC restricted to ODS substitutes - whitepaper
•   Concern over cross border influence under KP
•   Harper versus Dion – early summer election??
•   Mandatory reporting in 2005
•   Declared all GHGs CEPA Toxic
                      Canada

• $2B over 5 years for implementation
  –   $1.3B for public transportation
  –   $0.77B for transit tax credits
  –   5% ethanol fuel by 2010
  –   CAPS and absolute reductions by 2025
       • 40-65% reductions from 2002 baseline by 2050
       • Upstream & oil shale produce 1/3rd Canada’s GHG
         emissions –26.6% growth since 1990
                   Canada

• 18% emissions intensity reduction by 2010,
  based on 2006
  – 2% per year additional thereafter to 2020
• $15-$20 “safety valve” for industry
• Alberta has proposed 12% intensity
  reduction between 7/1 and 12/31/07!!
            Why not Kyoto?

• The United States does NOT intend to
  undermine the efforts of Kyoto countries
                 BUT
• Short time frames are not realistic
• Too few countries signed on to Kyoto;
  emissions would just shift to others
            What is the U.S. view?

• Climate change is a serious issue
• It took decades to develop and may
       take decades to address
• Real, global environmental progress
     requires economic growth

The key is to invest in cleaner,
            more efficient technologies
    US Climate Change – 2006
           emission
• Since 1990, intensity down 2% per year
• Total emissions have grown 0.9%/yr
  – 14.4% increase
  – KP – 7% decrease
  – CO2 – 83.8%, CH4 8.6%, N2O 5.4%,
    HFCs+PFCs+SF6 2.2%
     US Legislative/Regulatory
             Process
• Legislative – any Congressman/Senator introduce
  a bill
   – Referred to House/Senate Committee
   – After deliberation, Committee moves to Floor
   – Floor debate
      • Sent back to Committee
      • Voted and Approved
   – Corresponding Bill in opposite Chamber
   – Conference Committee resolves differences
    US Regulatory/Legislative
            Process
• Common Bill forwarded to President for
  Signature
  – Veto
  – Approve
• Implements Law
  – EPA/DOE develop Regulations to implement
  US Congressional Discussions
• 2007 - 4 Major Bills in Senate – same in
  House
• Do “Ds” give Bush this legislation?
• White House may be ready to discuss
• Lieberman-Warner out of Senate Envr &
  Public Works Dec., 2007
 US Congressional Discussions
• Senate Bills include CAP & Trade, reduction
  targets
   – Lieberman/McCain
      • Economy wide
      • 2004 levels in 2012, 1990 by 2020
      • 20% below 1990 in 2030, 60% below in 2050
   – Sanders/Boxer
      • 1990 level in 2020
      • 27% below 1990 in 2030, 53% below in 2040, 80% below in
        2050
   – Bingamen/Specter – introduced July 13
      • “upstream” cap & trade in 2012 – 76% “free”
      • 2006 by 2020, 1990 by 2030
              Lieberman-Warner
• Allowances – emissions based per MT CO2e
• Track emissions – EPA registry, regulations
   –   Registry w/I 180 days, rules by July 1, 2008
   –   Production, importation, exportation, consumption
   –   Annual and quarterly data
   –   2004-=2007 facility data required by March 31, 2009
   –   2008 and beyond–quarterly data w/i 60 days EOQ
        • Annual w/i 90 days EOY
   – Subject to verification
           Lieberman-Warner
• Enforcement
  – $25,000 per day per violation
• Emissions Allowances
  –   2012 – 2005 levels
  –   2020 – 15% below 2005
  –   2030 – 33% below 2005
  –   2040 – 52% below 2005
  –   2050 – 70% below 2005
       Climate Change - States
• RGGI announced by 7 NE States
   – CAP and Trade system CO2
   – Begins 2009 w/current level CAP
      • Frozen until 2015, then gradual reduction
   – 10% reduction by 2019
   – Focus on utilities
• Western states announced 2/07
   – Links to RGGI
   – 15% below 2005 in 2020
• Midwest states also considering
• US Mayors announced Clinton Climate Initiative,
  Nov 2007
      Climate Change - States
• Calif., NM, Oregon, Wash. develop low-
  carbon technologies and renewables
• NJ introduced Climate Legislation – July
  – 1990 levels by 2020
  – 80% below 2006 in 2050
  – California emissions reductions programs
     US Climate Change - Other
• Following Action in 26 Other States
   – Executive orders
   – Pending Legislation
• 32 States announced common Registry
• States implementing/working on reduction plans:
   – Emissions reductions: Arizona, California, Illinois,
     Iowa, Maine, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York,
     Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas,
     Washington, Wisconsin
   – Energy reductions only: Colorado, New Hampshire
   California Climate Action–AB 32

• Reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels by
  12/31/20
  – Interim reductions 7/1/12, 7/1/16
• Multi-sector, market-based program
• Establishes multi-Agency Climate Action Board
  – CAB establishes GHG Emissions Reduction Plan
     • Includes economics and benefits
     • Multi-sector, market-based compliance
• 8.2MT CO2 equiv for F Gases
  – Out of 170MT CO2 Total
  California Climate Action–AB 32

• CARB maintain GHG inventory
• Beginning 1/1/08, annual reports
• “Largest stationary source” Mandatory
  Reporting
  – Oil & gas extraction, oil refining, electricity,
    cement, landfills
• CARB can adopt fee schedule
• Multiple workshops Dec 06-July 07
   California Climate Action
             AB 32
• Discrete Early Action Strategies – implement by
  1/1/10
   – Low carbon fuel standard
   – Reduction of MAC refrigerant loss from non-
     professionals
   – Increased landfill methane capture
   – Green ports
   – Reduction consumer products high GWP gases
   – Reduction PFC in electronics
   – Truck efficiency
   – Tire inflation program
   – SF6 reduction in non electrical
     California Climate Action
•
                       AB 32
    Other discrete early actions (direct regulatory
    action – 44 measures total)
    –   HFC Venting control
    –   Ban HFC release servicing/dismantling
    –   A/C tightness checking
    –   Heavy duty vehicle emissions reduction
    –   Cool automobile paints
    –   Transport refrigeration, standby electric
    –   Business GHG reduction/guidance
    –   Anti-idling enforcement
    –   High GWP refrigerant tracking/reporting
    –   Alternative suppressants in fire suppression systems
California Climate Action–AB
              32
• Other discrete early actions (direct regulatory
  action – 23 measures – cont’d)
   –   Tire inflation
   –   Low GWP MVACs
   –   Port electrification
   –   Reduction of HFCs in foam
   –   Green ships
   –   Energy savings from cement mfg
• Workshop on Feb 15, 2008 – HVAC & R
Climate Change Alliance &
         Others
BAU Scenario of HFC and HCFC
   Market Demand in U.S.


      HCFCs                                 HFC Aftermarket



           Proposed cap
   HFC allocation under L-W


               HFCs in original equipment and products
       Forms of Regulation for HFCs
• Command & Control – Regulations dictate form of solution
   – Technology Standard; e.g. California Proposed Early Action measures
   – Ban/Phase-out; e.g. MAC directive
   – Inspection, repair, refrigerant recover; e.g. HCFC rules in U.S., f-gas
     regulation
• Performance Standards – Probably not applicable to HFCs
• Labeling – Probably viewed as not sufficient
• Voluntary Programs – Probably viewed as not sufficient
      Forms of Regulation for HFCs
• Market Based Mechanisms – Allows market to decide
  – Carbon Tax – Government sets the price

   – Carbon trading (cap and trade) – Likely to be disruptive due to
     carbon price
   – HFC cap with allocation; similar to HCFC allocation – Would allow
     maximum flexibility for market
Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) & Carbon
                 Prices
    Refrigerant/Compound    IPCC SAR GWP         IPCC/AR4 GWP
                           (Carbon price/kg @   (Carbon price/kg @
                             $20/tonne CO2)       $20/tonne CO2)
         HCFC-22                                      1820
        HCFC-142b                                     2310
         HFC-152a             140 ($2.80)          124 ($2.48)
          HFC-32              650 ($13.00)         675 ($13.50)
         HFC-245fa                                1020 ($20.60)
         HFC-134a            1300 ($26.00)        1430 ($28.60)
       HFC-4310mee           1300 ($26.00)        1640 ($32.80)
         HFC-125             2800 ($56.00)        3500 ($70.00)
        HFC-227ea            2900 ($58.00)        3220 ($64.40)
         HFC-143a            3800 ($76.00)        4470 ($89.40)
          R-410A             1725 ($34.50)        2088 ($41.76)
          R-404A             3260 ($65.20)        3922 ($78.44)
    Alliance & Others Activity
• Montreal Protocol allocation
  – Essentially CAP & Trade
  – Declining CAP brought steady rise in product
    prices, which passed through market
  – Customers demanded and producers brought
    lower ODP products to market
                 L- W Title X
• Applies to Production, Import including Products
  or Equipment
• Baseline – 300,000,000 MT CO2
• GWPs based on 4th Science Assessment
• Excludes recycled, recovered
• Destruction credits allowed (HFCs today, ODS?)
• Baseline year 2005
   – HFC producer, importer, product/equipment importer
               L-W Title X
• Banking (5 year, destruction credit only) and
  Borrowing (3 year) allowed; borrowing brings
  10% interest, 15% quantity limitation
• Commences 2010 – 2% prior year declining CAP
  thru 2050 (70% total decline)
• Allocation to: Producers/Importers 2004-2006
  and on date of enactment
  – Basis 100% of HFCs + 60% of HCFCs, GWP weighted
    avg. 2004-2006
                     L-W Title X
• Auction
  – 5% of above in 2010, increasing to 100% in 2031
  – Proceeds used for:
     • Recovery/destruction of ODS and GWP gases
     • Consumer incentives for refrig./cooling equipment
         –   Refrigerants with low or no GWP
         –   Energy efficiency >30% Fed. Energy std and Energy Star
         –   Development of low GWP HFCs
         –   Development of energy efficient technologies
         –   Programs under the broader auction
             L-W Title X
• Permanent retirement not allowed, EPA can
  reclaim allocations
• Allowances not exchangeable with broader
  program
• Regulations 18 months after enactment
• No destruction credit for byproducts
• Ban on small containers of HFCs (<20
  pounds) for MAC
   Alliance & Others Activities
• HFC CAP & Trade Benefits
  – Orderly transition to next generation technology,
    including HCFC to HFC transition
  – Allows strategic business planning for both
    suppliers/users due to supply/pricing stability
  – System familiar to regulated community
  – Provides incentives for technology evolution
  – Encourages recover/recycling
  – Discourages frivolous uses
Ozone -Science
                                  The Ozone Layer

         Sun


 Ultraviolet
 Radiation


             Ozone
             layer

The ozone layer is a protective blanket that filters out most of the harmful ultraviolet
Radiation from the sun. The ozone layer lies in the stratosphere typically between 8 and
25 miles (13 to 40 km) above the Earth’s surface.
                                                                                           AFEAS
                                                                                           September 1993
 Production/Destruction of Stratospheric
 Ozone
        O2                                 Solar                   Reservoir
     (molecular                          Ultraviolet              Components
      Oxygen)                             energy
                  Solar                                   Cl
                Ultraviolet     Source                                             Solar
                                                        (active
                 energy          gases                 Species)                  Ultraviolet
        O                                                                         energy
     (atomic                                O3
     Oxygen)
                    Solar                            Ozone
O2                Ultraviolet     O2               Destruction            O2     Cl2O2
                                                     cycle
                   energy
        O3
      (ozone)                                                         O
                                                       ClO                     ClO


Production                         Destruction (e.g., by chlorine
        Variability in the ozone hole




Unusual ozone hole in 2002 due to dynamical variability
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Ozone Hole 2007
Global Ozone Depletion
Montreal Protocol International
       Montreal Protocol 2007
 HCFC Adjustments Developed Countries

• New Schedule       • Old Schedule
• 2010 – 75%         • 65% Reduction
  Reduction
• 2015 – 90 %        • 90% reduction
  Reduction
• 2020-2030 – 0.5%   • 0.5% service
  service
       Montreal Protocol 2007
 HCFC Adjustments Developing Countries

• New Schedule           • Old Schedule
• 2013 Freeze @ 2009,    • 2016 – Freeze @ 2015
  2010 average             levels
• 2015 10% reduction
• 2020 35% reduction
• 2025 67.5% reduction
• 2030-2040 2.5%
  service
• 2040 phase out         • 2040 – phase out
                    Mexico
• Considering HCFC Allocation Program
  – License=Allocation=Cap and Trade
  – Focus on HCFC-141b, HCFC-22
  – Encouraging consistency with US/Canada
     • 10 year delay
     • Incorporate new MP requirements
• First in any Developing Country
Refrigerant Responsible Use
Responsible Use


                  RUP’s – endorsed by
                  Over 30 government
                  & Trade associations
           Responsible Use Guide

• Current steps
  –   Works w/i framework of RUP
  –   Market Sector Specific
  –   Being developed by each sector
  –   Target audiences in developing countries
  –   Voluntary development and implementation
Responsible Use Guide Update



                Fire Protection – first
                Guide, will be revised
Responsible Use Guide



               Air conditioning &
               Refrigeration –
               The newest guide
Responsible Use Guides



              Refrigerators – very
              Comprehensive for
              Foams & refrigeration
    Responsible Use Guide Update
• Mobile Air Conditioning – part of IMAC?
• HFC Producers
  – Survey complete
  – Draft RUG complete
     • Circulating for company endorsement – Europe, US, Far East
• Foams
  – Survey complete 2005
  – Summary complete late 2005
  – Yet to find Association to take forward
Personal Responses to Climate
           Change
                Driving
• Drive 10% less –walk, carpool, public
  transit, in-line skate, telework
• Don’t use car A/C, or use sparingly
• Give up 2nd vehicle
• Don’t idle – stop more than 10 seconds
  (except in traffic) turn off engine
• Drive at posted speed limit 62 mph to 75
  mph + 20% more fuel
• Cruise Control
                Driving
• Block heater when temp below 32°F
  – Winter fuel economy  10%
• Vehicle maintenance
• Tire inflation – 70% of vehicles have one
  tire over/under inflated
• Hybrid-electric vehicles
• Remove roof racks when not in use
                         Home

• Install energy-efficient furnace
• Caulking/weather stripping – could be 20% of heat/ac
  loses
• Energy Star Label – windows/sliding doors
• Install storm windows – could be 25% of heat/ac loses
• Replace exterior doors
• Use window blinds
• Furnace maintenance every 2 years
   – 1o = 5% energy savings – programmable thermostat
• Seal/insulate warm air ducts
• Upgrade insulation
                          Home
• Lower thermostat - 2°F=2%  heat bill
• Shut off pilot lights
• Ceiling Fans - 8¢ - $1.50/month (a/c $6-$40)
• Remove window a/c in winter
• Florescent light bulbs – light dimmers, occupancy sensors
• Window curtains: open in winter, closed in summer
• Clean/replace a/c-heating filters
• Turn off all sources of heat in summer: lights, appliances,
  electrical equipment
• Baking/washing/drying/ironing early morning or evening
                      Appliances
•   Clean refrigerator coils regularly
•   Energy Star
•   Unplug second refrigerator or freezer
•   Dishwasher no-heat/air dry cycle, not hand wash
•   Maintain refrigerator @ 35°F, freezer @ 0°F
•   Cloths rinse in cold, wash in warm water
•   Don’t overdry, hang clothes to dry
    – Purchase dryer with moisture sensor
• Hot water tank pre 2004, insulate
                  Appliances
•   Purchase front load washer – 40% less water per load
•   Efficient light bulbs-LED or fluorescent
•   Install outdoor automatic timers
•   Computer system with energy-saver option
     – Computer running full time: $70-$100 energy per year
     – Use “sleep” or “hibernate” mode
     – Smart Strip Power Strip
•   Use as little paper as possible
•   Buy right size monitor
•   Turn off computer at night – 1/3rd left on
•   40% of appliance energy used when off
                  Lawn

•   Capture/reuse rainwater
•   Leave grass clippings on lawn
•   Water early in morning
•   Avoid chemical use
•   Limit use of gas powered mowers, tools
•   Pool efficiency
•   Plant trees
              Home Water
• Low-flow showerheads
• High-efficiency water heaters
• Quick showers
• Avoid running the tap
• Insulate water pipes – (not w/i 6” of exhaust
  pipe)
• Turn off cottage water heater
• Turn water off when shaving/brushing teeth

				
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