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Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuits _MMICs_ Realization

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					            Computing
Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuits
(MMICs) Realization for Speck-net Applications
                     Khaled Elgaid
                      Iain Thayne

             Nanoelectronics Research Centre
                 Ultrafast System Group
                  University of Glasgow

                  Phone : 0141 330 6678
                 Kelgaid@elec.gla.ac.uk
                    w : www.ufast.org
 Presentation Outline
• Glasgow Task

• Speck-net Requires MMICs Technology (Why Millimetre-wave?)

• MMICs at Glasgow

• MMICs Progress at Glasgow for the Speck-net Project

• Folding passive for MMICs to Reduce Size and Power Consumption
  (Collaboration with Communications Research centre (CRC) -
  Canada)

• Summary
 Speckled Computing
  Glasgow Task ?
To transform from lab bench equipment to (?mmx?mm)

                       Carrier Base System




                       NON-Carrier Base System



  Speckled Computing
  Why millimetre-wave ?
• Smaller chip size




• Smaller antenna size




• Large bandwidth can be achieved at higher frequencies



  Speckled Computing
 Why millimetre-wave ?
Smaller Chip Size

       10 GHz Single Stage Amplifier           94 GHz Single Stage Amplifier




                                       Less than one
                                         division

                                                       300µM


 Speckled Computing
  Why millimetre-wave ?
Smaller Antenna Size
Antenna Size is Proportional to the Wavelength

                                                 2.45 GHz Patch Antenna


    10 GHz Patch Antenna




                                8 cm
  Speckled Computing
  Why millimetre-wave ?
                       Planar slot-dipole antenna on silicon


                  Silicon    Gold

Signal                                 ~0.8mm
  in




                                           Reflected power
                                                 dB




  Speckled Computing
   Why millimetre-wave ?
Large bandwidth can be achieved at higher frequencies

Example
Bandwidth of one TV channel = 6MHz

Operating at 600MHZ
1% bandwidth at 600MHz is 6MHz
bandwidth of one TV channel


Operating at 94GHz is 940MHz
1% bandwidth at 94GHz is 940MHz
bandwidth of about 156 TV channels



   Speckled Computing
            MMICs @ Glasgow: InP versus silicon CMOS

            30                                                            10
                                 Glasgow




                                                      Noise Figure (dB)
            24                                                            8                    ???
                                                                                           No data
            18                                                            6
Gain (dB)




                     CMOS
            12                                                            4
                                                                                   CMOS
                                                                                                     InP
            6                                                             2

            0                                                             0
                 1                10            100                            1      10                   100
                                  Frequency (GHz)                                     Frequency (GHz)



            Speckled Computing
MMICs @ Glashow: Why UFS @ Glasgow ?
  • Unique robust mm-wave 120nm IC technology
                  Varactor bank
        Thin-film (Schottky diodes)
        resistor                                Lange Metal-Insulator-    Wilkinson
                          Interdigitated
Negative                                        coupler Metal capacitor   power
Resistance                capacitor
                                                                          combiner
Circuit
(GaAs
pHEMTs)




Semi-
conductor
resistor
                                                                    Coplanar
                                             Thin-film              waveguide
               Metal-Insulator-   Spiral     resistor    InP HEMT   transmission
               Metal capacitor    inductor               switch     line
Speckled Computing
   Progress @ Glasgow ?
50nm T-gate profile after metallisation and lift-off
• Short gate length is required for high speed devices
• T-gate shape is required for high gain)
                                                     60                                    150nm


RF performance of a 2-finger       H21 (dB) (Gain)   40
50m gate width a 50nm                                                 De_embedded model

gate length T-gate InP-HEMT
                                                     20
Measured RF, full model and                                   fT = 480 GHz
de-embeded model, the
                                                     0
device showed a superior fT                               1       10             100          1000

of 480GHz                                                         Frequency (GHz)

   Speckled Computing
     Progress @ Glasgow ?
Performance of a W-Band MMMICs one-stage amplifier based on
Glasgow 50nm gate length T-gate InP-HEMT Technology
The designed and measured response of the MMMIC amplifier
exhibits a gain of 8dB and a return loss of better than –6dB across a
bandwidth of 7GHz from 89GHz to 96GHz and are well in agreement,
The biased operating point of the amplifier is Vd of 1.0V and Vg of -
0.2Vpoint, with an output current of 39mA (DC Power 39mW)
       10
  dB
        5
                                     S21
        0
                                                     S22
       -5
    -10
                                                                         S11               300µM
    -15
    -20                                                                                   Chip Photograph of the
                                       S12
    -25
                                                                                         W-Band MMMIC Amplifier
    -30
    -35          Measured are the doted lines
    -40
            67   70   73   76   79    82   85   88    91   94   97 100 103 106 109 110
    Speckled Computing               Frequency (GHz)
   Radar Sub-systems (Example of Existing System)
                                          3dB                                        Active
                                         Coupler                                   Circulator
                                                        Tx Modulator
         VCO
                     Buffer Amplifier                                  Power Amplifier

           Loop




                                                        Signals
         Amplifier
                           DRO                                        Address
                                                                                         University
                                        3dB               Direct                              of
                                                          Digital               MCU
                                       Coupler
                                                        Synthesizer                      Strathclyde
Loop                                                               Control DSP-Components
                          SHM
                                                        Signals

Filter                              Buffer
                                   Amplifier




                                 FFT                    Rx Modulator
                                             Rx Mixer                   Low Noise Amplifier
  Speckled Computing
Preliminary Link Budget Analysis
                     Radar Transceiver                  SpeckNet Transceiver
                                                   (Predecited for InP 50nm Technology,
                                                    based on lower operating bias, and
                                                           smaller device size)
Technology                  120 nm 2 V                         50 nm 0.5 V

Frequency                      77 GHz                             94 GHz

   Range                       100 m                              10 cm

Dimensions           3 x 4 x 0.1 mm = 1.2mm3 !!!                   ???

  TX Power                     10 mW                              < 1 W

TX DC Power                   180 mW                             < 20 W

RX DC Power                   60 mW                            ~ few 100 W
Speckled Computing
   What is Next @ Glasgow Toward the Final Aim?
To Realise a Transceiver Demonstrator Operates @ W-Band
Aim: Test Digital Transceiver Functions
                                        Q Q                          Q Q
                            + x dBm                      + x dBm                - x dBm
                    Input              Vector                         Vector
                                      Modulator                     Modulator
                                                  Isolation Amplifier              Output
Components
• Isolation Amplifier
• Two Vector Modulators
  (Active Device 18 Transistors)


• Bias Pads: 4
• Modulation Pads: 8
• Dimensions 2.8mm x 4.1mm
   Speckled Computing
 Folding passive for MMMICs to Reduce Size and Power Consumption (Collaboration
 with Communications Research centre (CRC) - Canada)




Comparison between the layout of:
(a) conventional CPW shunt stubs
(b) shunt stubs patterned in the center conductor

Up to a 30% size reduction

 Speckled Computing
 Summary
• Glasgow has established the base technology for The
  MMMICs for the Speck-net Project

• High speed, High gain devices been realised using the
  Lowest Noise Technology

• MMMICs Demonstrators have been Realised at w_band

• Transceiver at W-band is in Progress

• Links with CRC-Canada been Establish to Realise
  Reduced size Passives for MMMICs, hence reducing chip
  size and reducing power consumption
 Speckled Computing

				
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