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					              Reality Computing


                                                        Handheld Computing
                                                                                                                       Col. Kenneth L. Alford, Ph.D.
                                                                                                                                          U.S. Army

                Handheld computers, especially personal digital assistants (PDAs), are increasingly being used throughout the Department
                of Defense. This article highlights some of the ways that PDAs are used today and are envisioned for the future. It outlines
                some of the considerations involved in a PDA procurement, discusses four tools for developing PDA resource materials – pro-
                gramming tools, hypertext markup language- and eXtensible markup language-based tools, text tools, and calendar tools –
                outlines some of the benefits and challenges associated with using PDAs, and shares several lessons learned.


C    omputing power continues to increase
     in capacity and decrease in cost and
size. Today’s low-cost handheld comput-
                                                                 copy of the complete daily list. Using
                                                                 their PDAs, guards can also provide
                                                                 visitors with maps and directions to
                                                                                                               requirement, the PDA displays detailed
                                                                                                               specifications. Officers then check off
                                                                                                               whether items are found to be satisfac-
ers and personal digital assistants (PDAs)                       their destination on base [4].                tory or are in violation of federal law.
allow computing resources to be almost                      •    The Commanders Digital Assistant is a         Instead of laboring to determine
ubiquitous. This article illustrates how                         ruggedized PDA that is being fielded          whether the law requires a particular
handheld computing is changing the way                           to combat troops; it has already seen         ship to carry one of three different
some Department of Defense (DoD)                                 field use with the 82nd Airborne in           types of life rafts, an inflatable buoyant
organizations do business and discusses how                                                                    apparatus, life float, or nothing at all,
you may take advantage of the capabilities                                                                     boarding officers, with PDAs in hand,
that are available through this technology.                      “… I sat down with a                          now spend their energy on, for exam-
                                                                                                               ple, inspecting life rafts to ensure that
Example Handheld Programs                                         group of Marines in                          they are properly set up to release
PDAs, which are defined in DoD                                                                                 should a ship sink [7].
Directive 8100.2 as “a generic term for a                        California who had just                   • In 2004, the Marine Corps awarded a
class of small, easily carried electronic                                                                      $2.9 million contract to purchase
devices used to store and retrieve infor-                        returned from the Iraq                        rugged PDAs (RPDAs) designed to
mation” [2], were at one time viewed as lit-                                                                   increase tactical awareness. This fol-
tle more than novelties. Yet, with approxi-                     war. At one point in our                       lows a previous $12 million award that
mately 20 million PDAs shipped last year,                                                                      supplied RPDAs to several branches
business and government groups continue                         conversation, I asked the                      of the U.S. military. These devices
to find new ways to use them.                                                                                  offer navigation, tactical digital mes-
    Here are some of the many ways that                          Marines in the room to                        saging, remote radio control, GPS,
PDA technology is currently being used                                                                         wireless local area network (LAN) and
within the DoD:                                                 raise their hands if they                      Bluetooth capabilities [8].
• The Pocket-Sized Forward Entry                                                                           • All West Point cadets purchase a PDA.
    Device (PFED) is a ruggedized PDA                             had either a cellular                        Students and faculty members use
    designed for forward observers,                                                                            PDAs to store schedules, class assign-
    artillery fire direction, and target acqui-                   telephone or a PDA.                          ments, reference documents, and other
    sition missions. With built-in laser                                                                       instructional materials. PDAs have also
    range-finding and global positioning                                                                       been incorporated into some senior
                                                                 Every hand went up.”
    system (GPS) hardware, PFED users                              —Vice Adm. Herbert A. Browne,               engineering design projects.
    can issue a call-for-fire request in less                                                              • Army medical units in Iraq use PDAs
    than 10 seconds – compared to 45 sec-                                                                      to collect patient information.
                                                                             U.S. Navy (Ret.) [1]
    onds or more when using other sys-                                                                     • Los Alamos National Laboratory’s
    tems [3].                                                    Iraq. It integrates dismounted troops         researchers have developed a PDA
• Security guards at Wright-Patterson                            into the Blue Force Tracking system,          radiation detector [4].
    Air Force Base use PDAs at the gates                         enables commanders to distribute              There are many other programs and
    and on patrols. Prior to receiving                           orders, and provides several additional   projects throughout the DoD that could
    PDAs, guards were provided thick                             capabilities [5, 6].                      also be listed. Many service members even
    binders containing daily event lists                    •    The Coast Guard uses PDAs to help         receive a PDA as part of their unit’s stan-
    with guest and sponsor contact infor-                        automate the task of inspecting fishing   dard issue.
    mation. Only three of the 10 gates on                        vessels. Based on answers to 16 ques-
    base received a binder each day.                             tions, the PDA generates a customized
                                                                 checklist of safety requirements for
                                                                                                           Benefits
    Visitors who arrived at one of the                                                                     As the previous examples illustrate, there
    other seven gates had to wait for                            firefighting, lifesaving, and bridge      are many ways to effectively incorporate
    someone to confirm if they were                              equipment appropriate to each vessel.     PDAs into the workplace and many rea-
    allowed on base. Now each guard has a                        As boarding officers click on each        sons for doing so. PDAs offer a variety of

4 CROSSTALK The Journal of   Defense Software Engineering                                                                                        June 2005
                                                                                                                        Handheld Computing

advantages over other automated solu-          “Use of Commercial Wireless Devices,           operating systems:
tions. For example, given the right work       Services, and Technologies in the              1. Palm OS (the latest version is Palm
environment, PDAs can do the following:        Department of Defense (DoD) Global                OS Cobalt, previously known as Palm
• Increase worker productivity.                Information Grid (GIG)” [2]. The direc-           OS 6).
• Improve customer support.                    tive’s guidelines apply to all commercial      2. Windows Mobile (which comes in
• Reduce time spent searching for infor-       wireless devices (including PDAs). It             three profiles: Pocket PCs, Pocket PC
    mation.                                    establishes “policy and assigns responsi-         Phone Edition, and Windows Mobile
• Allow users to take computing power          bilities for the use of commercial wireless       for Smartphones).
    and large amounts of information to        devices, services, and technologies in the     3. Symbian OS (the leading operating
    places where they could not previous-      DoD GIG.”                                         system for Smartphones).
    ly go.                                                                                    4. RIM (used in Blackberry devices).
• Increase accuracy.                           Hardware Considerations
• Save lives.                                  The use of business and government
This is because PDAs are versatile,            (enterprise) PDAs has been on the rise for     An increasing number of PDAs are being
                                                                                              Wireless Technologies

portable, inexpensive, and easy to use.        the past several years. The Gartner            sold with one or more of these wireless
    Retired Vice Adm. Herbert A. Browne        Group’s research estimates that more than      technologies [10]:
recently noted the following:                  4 million enterprise PDAs were in service      1. Bluetooth. This is an industry specifi-
                                               during 2004, and they estimate that num-           cation for wireless communications
    Virtually all of the lessons learned       ber will rise to 6 million by 2008. At the         that uses short-range radio technology.
    from Operation Iraqi Freedom               same time, the total cost of ownership             Bluetooth version 1.2 throughput is
    include comments about the speed           (TCO) per year of a business PDA has               typically in the 400-500 kilobytes per
    of the forces’ advance exceeding           dropped 28 percent – from almost $2,700            second (Kbps) range. Bluetooth does
    the speed with which line-of-sight         in 1999 to $1,946 in 2004 [9]. (These fig-         not have any native support for
    communications could keep up.              ures are based on a two-year amortization          Internet Protocol (IP) that means it
    Command and control (C2) of our            rate.)                                             does not currently support tactical
    forces was challenged by this rapid                                                           computer processor (TCP)/IP or
    mobility, and wireless technology is                                                          wireless LAN applications very well. It
    viewed as the most likely solution               “The Commanders                              is better suited for connecting PDAs,
    to getting collected information                                                              cell phones, and PCs during short
    and C2 down to the tactical, trigger-           Digital Assistant is a                        intervals. Bluetooth certification
    pulling level. [1]                                                                            means that an individual product has
                                                   ruggedized PDA that                            been tested for compliance with the
PDAs can offer solutions to some of                                                               Bluetooth specification; it does not
those challenges.                                                                                 guarantee that it will be compatible
                                                     is being fielded to
                                                                                                  with other Bluetooth-enabled prod-
                                                                                                  ucts.
Concerns
                                                   combat troops; it has
Like other forms of automation, intro-                                                        2. 802.11/ Wireless LAN (WLAN). On
ducing PDAs into the work environment                                                             an 802.11 WLAN, most PDAs adhere
                                                   already seen field use
comes with a potential downside as well.                                                          to the 802.11b specification that pro-
Here are some of the concerns associated                                                          vides 11 megabytes per second (Mbps)
                                                       with the 82nd
with using PDAs:                                     Airborne in Iraq.”                           transmission rates and throughput in
• PDAs have limited data input capabili-                                                          the 4-6 Mbps range.
   ties, especially for typing-intensive                                                      3. Global System for Mobile commu-
   work.                                           The popularity of PDAs has resulted            nications (GSM), General Packet
• There are additional maintenance and         in a wide variety of devices being offered         Radio Service (GPRS), and GSM
   cost requirements.                          in the marketplace. Government users               Evolution. The GSM is a European
• Non-ruggedized PDAs can be easily            considering PDA purchases have several             digital cellular phone standard. GSM
   broken.                                     decisions they must make regarding the             1900, the North American version of
• PDAs may introduce additional train-         device they will use. Decisions must be            GSM, generally provides throughput
   ing costs in both time and dollars.         made regarding the processor, operating            in the 56 Kbps (or less) range. GPRS is
• It is difficult for many users to separate   system, wireless technologies, screen char-        an overlay to GSM networks; the max-
   business and personal use of PDAs.          acteristics, battery life, expansion memory,       imum speed is theoretically 171.2
• There are numerous security concerns.        input options, and durability (business ver-       Kbps, but actual user experience is
                                               sus ruggedized models), among other                usually limited to 56 Kbps or less.
Security                                       questions.                                         GSM Evolution is a radio interface
PDAs can introduce multiple security                                                              technology for mobile services; while
challenges. Due to their small size, for                                                          data throughput rates of approximate-
                                               Most PDA processors are made by Intel,
                                               Processor
example, PDAs have an increased risk of                                                           ly 384 Kbps are theoretically possible,
loss or theft. PDAs that wirelessly connect    Samsung, or Texas Instruments; PDA                 users more frequently report through-
to government networks create additional       processor speeds currently range from              put closer to 64 Kbps.
obvious security concerns.                     16MHz to over 500MHz.                          4. Code-Division Multiple Access
    On April 14, 2004, Deputy Secretary                                                           (CDMA). This is a spread-spectrum
of Defense Paul Wolfowitz signed                                                                  digital cellular technology. It was first
                                               Most PDAs run on one of the following
                                               Operating System
Defense Department Directive 8100.2                                                               used during World War II and became

June 2005                                                                                                                 www.stsc.hill.af.mil   5
Reality Computing

    commercially available in 1995. The                     attachable QWERTY (standard) key-              coming together of two or more technolo-
    latest CDMA standard provides voice                     boards. At least one company has devel-        gies – is rapidly occurring in the field of
    and data rates up to 2 Mbps.                            oped an exciting prototype technology:         handheld computing. In many cases,
                                                                                                           PDAs and cellular phones have merged
Screen Characteristics                                         … that lets users of PDAs and               and are sold in a single device known as a
The screen size, resolution, backlighting                      similar mobile devices put data             Smartphone. In the third quarter of
capability, and color should all be consid-                    into their handheld systems simply          2004, Smartphone shipments exceeded
ered during any purchase evaluation.                           by typing on an image of a stan-            those of PDAs (3.96 million to 2.86 mil-
                                                               dard-size keyboard projected onto           lion units) [13].
Battery Life                                                   a desktop or other surface. The                 New devices, new capabilities, and
Battery life is an important element in                        electronic perception technology cap-       new technology will continue to appear.
determining which PDA to purchase.                             tures the user’s finger motions via         The DoD should embrace and incorpo-
Nearly all PDAs today offer rechargeable                       emitted light photons that form 3-          rate, whenever possible, the new oppor-
batteries. The two main battery types are                      D real-time images that are then            tunities that these advances will provide.
lithium ion and lithium polymer. Most                          processed and translated into key-
PDAs offer a rechargeable lithium ion                          strokes. [12]                               Developing PDA Tools
battery.                                                                                                   PDAs are increasingly being used
     As would be expected, actual battery                                                                  throughout the DoD, and this is especial-
life depends on a wide variety of factors:                  Ruggedized PDAs (also known as indus-          ly true at many educational and training
                                                            Durability

screen size, resolution, use of backlight-                  trial handhelds) must meet additional          locations. For example, at the U.S.
ing, data intensity of applications, etc.                   specifications. For example, they must be      Military Academy, PDAs are becoming
                                                                                                           an effective instrument in an instructor’s
Expansion Memory                                                                                           toolkit.
While PDAs have generally offered a rel-                     “Every decade has some                            There are several no-cost, low-cost,
atively small amount of memory (in the                                                                     and commercial products available to
8-64 megabytes range), new models are                         word associated with it.                     increase the functionality and usability of
offering 256 megabytes with forecasts                                                                      personal digital assistants in work and
and expectations for more. Data-inten-                        In the ’80s, it was the                      training settings. There are four basic
sive PDA applications often require addi-                                                                  ways that PDA resource materials can be
tional memory, and most PDAs offer at                          PC. In the ’90s, it was                     developed: (1) programming tools, (2)
least one external expansion slot for addi-                                                                hypertext markup language (HTML)- and
tional memory. Several memory card                           the Internet. For the rest                    eXtensible markup language (XML)-
expansion options are available [9]:                                                                       based tools, (3) text tools, and (4) calen-
1. Secure Digital (SD) cards are small                        of this decade, the key                      dar tools.
    and are used in PDAs, digital video
    camcorders, digital cameras, audio                          word is going to be
    players and mobile phones. Cards are                                                                   Several software development environ-
                                                                                                           Programming Tools

    currently available to store up to 1                           convergence.”                           ments exist for creating applications for
    gigabyte.                                                                                              personal digital assistants. Introductory
2. Secure Digital Input/Output                                                                             information can be found online at
                                                                —Steve Case, AOL Time Warner,
    (SDIO) provides improved multime-                              Chairman of the Board [11]              numerous Web sites1. Java – whether in
    dia and device management. SDIO                                                                        the form of Kilobyte Virtual Machine
    cards generally support PDA periph-                     able to survive significant drops (from        (KVM), Kawt (an implementation of the
    erals (such as GPS receivers, Wi-Fi,                    one meter or greater) onto a concrete          Abstract Window Toolkit for the KVM),
    digital cameras, and Bluetooth).                        floor, water tests, heat and cold tests, and   J9 (IBM’s virtual machine that is support-
3. Multimedia         Memory        Cards                   tolerance for electromagnetic shock.           ed by Visual Age Micro Edition), or any
    (MMC) expansion slots are support-                      Ruggedized handhelds generally cost            number of other flavors – is currently
    ed by many PDAs and are available in                    between 50 percent and 200 percent             one of the most popular languages for
    storage sizes up to 1 gigabyte.                         more than business PDAs.                       programming handheld applications. C,
4. Compact Flash (CF), at one time,                             The Gartner Group estimates that the       C++, versions of Basic and Visual Basic,
    was the most popular PDA expansion                      TCO in 2004 of a ruggedized PDA was            Compact Application Solution Language
    card format. Some PDAs allow users                      $2,002 per year (almost the same as the        (CASL), Pascal, Forth, Scheme, Smalltalk,
    to add up to 6 gigabytes of expansion                   $1,946 TCO for a business PDA) [9].            and several other proprietary scripting
    memory.                                                 These figures are based on a three-year        tools are also available [14].
5. Memory Stick. This is a proprietary                      product life, but many ruggedized users            Application development is appropri-
    format (from Sony). Memory sticks                       keep their PDAs longer than three years,       ate when existing PDA software
    currently have a storage capacity up to                 which lowers the ruggedized TCO cost.          resources cannot adequately satisfy exist-
    2 gigabytes.                                            Because they are designed to withstand         ing requirements. At West Point, for
                                                            rougher treatment, ruggedized PDAs             example, plebes (freshmen) must be able
                                                            tend to have a longer useful life than         to recite the number of days that remain
In addition to standard PDA touch-screen                    business PDAs.                                 until each football game, spring leave,
Input Options

data entry (either through point-and-                                                                      graduation, and other notable cadet activ-
touch or PDA graffiti recognition soft-                     Convergence                                    ities. Faculty in the Department of
ware), many PDAs offer small built-in or                    Digital convergence – defined here as the      Electrical Engineering and Computer

6 CROSSTALK The Journal of   Defense Software Engineering                                                                                      June 2005
                                                                                                                       Handheld Computing

Science created a small PDA program           and limited graphics. Copies of the read-       content for several years. Here are some
called The Days that automates and sim-       er software are available for the               of the lessons they have learned in devel-
plifies this daily ritual for freshmen stu-   Windows, Macintosh, Palm OS, and                oping applications and resources for
dents.                                        Windows Mobile operating systems. An            PDAs:
                                              advantage of using PalmReader or                • Be aware of size constraints. PDA
                                              Adobe Acrobat is that the same docu-               storage capacity is rapidly improving,
HTML and XML files can be easily for-         ment can be read on platforms with all             but it is still a constrained develop-
HTML- and XML-Based Tools

matted to be viewed on a PDA. There are       four supported operating systems.                  ment environment.
numerous ways this capability can be          PalmReader uses a unique tag-based              • Use graphics sparingly and ensure
used to support teaching and other mili-      description language that supports text            that they have been optimized.
tary training. For example, instructors at    styles, links, graphics, sidebars, footnotes,   • Double-check everything, especially
West Point have formatted all of the fol-     bookmarking, notes, and other features.            links and graphics, before you distrib-
lowing into HTML and/or XML pages                 PalmReader, Adobe Acrobat, and a               ute PDA programs and products.
to be read on PDAs: course syllabus and       variety of similar programs can be used         • Whenever possible, provide non-
guidelines, course schedules, reading         to create functional and extremely useful          handheld alternatives for resources
assignments, project and other course         documents and electronic books for                 you develop for PDAs.
assignment files, supplemental reading        handheld computers.                             • Recognize different PDA operating
assignments, class handouts, review                                                              systems, screen resolutions, and color
information for exams, self-administered                                                         capability. Reference to specific colors
non-graded quizzes, Web pages, Web            The ability of handheld computers to hot           in images, for example, is meaningless
                                              Calendar Tools

sites, other HTML documents, and stu-         synch with personal information man-               for users who have a 16-grayscale
dent projects. In other work environ-         agement software, calendar software, and           PDA screen.
ments, it may be appropriate to place                                                         • Eliminate screen scrolling on PDAs
copies of regulations, field manuals,                                                            whenever possible; it is tedious and
directives, maps, and directions on PDAs.           “It is important to                          time-consuming.
    Two of the most popular programs                                                          • Limit the number of PDA file-read-
for transforming Web-ready pages into             realize that the next                          ing programs you require users to
PDA documents are Plucker2, a freeware                                                           load on their PDA. PalmReader,
program, and AvantGo3, a commercial               generation of federal                          Plucker, and Adobe Acrobat, for
product. Plucker software, for example,                                                          example, are all excellent programs,
allows users to easily create and update            workers will not                             but requiring users to load all of them
PDA-readable versions of a single Web                                                            in order to read a wide variety of
page, multiple Web pages, or entire Web         remember a time when                             materials could require an unreason-
sites. Users can configure graphic quality                                                       able amount of valuable PDA memo-
and size, timing of file updates, depth of                                                       ry space.
                                                     computers and
search, and numerous other options.                                                           • Concentrate first and foremost on
                                                                                                 usability. The best content available
                                                connected environments
                                                                                                 can be rendered almost useless by a
As an alternative to formatting text into
Text Tools                                           did not exist.”                             poor presentation.
an HTML or XML formatted document,
there are several text-based tools, each      other information located on personal           Future Handheld Programs
with its own unique file format that can      computers makes calendar and schedule           Numerous DoD handheld computing
be used to develop PDA-readable docu-         applications a natural target for course-       applications are currently being devel-
ments.                                        work development.                               oped. Here is a glimpse of some of the
    There are several no-cost and low-            Faculty and students at the U.S.            applications that we should see in the
cost alternatives available for developing    Military Academy use Course Hour                future:
PDA documents. One of the quickest            Appointment for Outlook Scheduler               • The Protect America system is being
and easiest ways to send text and small       (CHAOS) – a Microsoft Visual Basic pro-            designed to give military commanders
documents to many PDAs is to use the          gram for entering lesson dates, titles, and        and force protection personnel from
Memo Pad feature found in Microsoft           assignment information into their per-             U.S. Customs, the Secret Service, the
Outlook and several PDA synchroniza-          sonal and handheld computers. CHAOS-               U.S. Coast Guard, the Transportation
tion programs. Using Memo Pad is a very       generated files are loaded into the                Security Administration, the Federal
basic solution, but it does have the advan-   Microsoft Outlook calendar and then                Bureau of Investigation, and others a
tage that students can modify original        synchronized with the calendar program             common information-sharing tool [15].
text they receive. Memo notes are useful      on student and faculty PDAs. Faculty and        • The Seismic Landmine Detection
when students are asked to modify and         students at the U.S. Military Academy              System would send seismic waves
return a document or assignment.              have used this method to create and dis-           through a minefield, slightly moving
    To obtain increased document func-        tribute calendars and schedules for stu-           the earth and items buried beneath. A
tionality, instructors can turn to freeware   dent clubs, student project teams, and a           radar sensor, connected to a PDA,
or commercial software products, such as      variety of other groups.                           will measure ground displacement to
PalmReader4 or Adobe Acrobat 5.                                                                  locate plastic anti-personnel or anti-
PalmReader provides all of the software       Lessons Learned                                    tank mines [16].
and instructions necessary to create fin-     Instructors at the U.S. Military Academy        • Technologies are being developed
ished PDA-readable documents with text        have been creating PDA instructional               that will enable computers and PDAs

June 2005                                                                                                               www.stsc.hill.af.mil   7
Reality Computing

   “to accept gestures, motions, speech,                    their mission. In many instances, the best       Information Technology.” Signal June
   and facial expressions as data input                     tool available will be a handheld comput-        2003. <www.afcea.org/signal/articles/
   methods … designed to facilitate                         ing device such as a PDA. Security con-          anmviewer.asp?a=207>.
   silent troop communication during                        cerns regarding the use of PDAs can and      16. Lilie, Cheryl. “Land Mine Detector
   combat” [11].                                            must be resolved.N                               Makes Waves.” Signal July 2004.
• PDAs are being tested to serve                                                                             <www.afcea.org/signal/articles/anm
   nuclear, biological, and chemical                        References                                       viewer.asp?a=222>.
   detection roles in future conflicts.                     1. Browne, Herbert A. “Wireless Tech-        17. Baum, C., et al. “Predicts 2005:
   Many other exciting applications will                        nologies Are the New Information             Government Ramps Up IT.” Gartner
be delivered, as well.                                          Revolution.” Signal Dec. 2003 <www.          Commentary 1 Nov. 2004.
                                                                afcea.org/signal/articles/anmviewer.
Conclusion                                                      asp?a=46>.
A great deal is being written about the                     2. Department of Defense. “DoD
                                                                                                         Notes
                                                                                                         1. See <www.onjava.com/pub/-a/on
large personnel turnover that the federal                       Directive 8100.2: Use of Commercial         java/2001/03/15/java_palm.html>,
government will experience during the                           Wireless Devices, Services, and Tech-       for example.
next decade as the existing workforce                           nologies in the Department of De-        2. The Plucker software home page
retires in substantial numbers. It is                           fense (DoD) Global Information Grid         (which contains programs, instruc-
important to realize that the next genera-                      (GIG).” Washington: DoD, 14 Apr.            tions, samples, and source code) is
tion of federal workers will not remem-                         2004. <www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/         <www.plkr.org/index.plkr>.
ber a time when computers and connect-                          corres/html/81002.htm>.                  3. AvantGo, a commercial software
ed environments did not exist. A recent                     3. “Pocket Sized Forward Entry Device           product that is often bundled with
report from the Gartner Group estimates                         (PFED).” Defense Update 2005:               other PDA-provided software, is
(with an 80 percent probability rating) the                     Issue 1 <www.defense-update.com/            available at <www.avantgo.com>.
following by 2007:                                              products/p/pfed.htm>.                    4. PalmReader software is available at
                                                            4. Lilie, Cheryl. “Personal Assistants Aid      <www.palmdigitalmedia.com/-prod
    Seventy percent of all levels of                            Security.” Signal. Feb. 2004. <www.         uct/reader/browse/free>.
    Western governments will double                             afcea.org/signal/articles/anmviewer.     5. Adobe Acrobat software for the PDA
    the turnover of new employees due                           asp?a=10>.                                  is available at <www.adobe.com>.
    to worker dissatisfaction with the                      5. “Land Warrior System.” Defense
    technology infrastructure. … The                            Update. <www.defense-update.com/
    generation that is about to enter the                       features/du-4-04/land-warrior-2.
                                                                                                                About the Author
    government workforce thinks dif-                            htm>.
                                                                                                                         Col. Kenneth L. Alford,
    ferently. They use cellular phones                      6. “Survival of the Fittest,” Jane’s
    and instant messaging as a matter of                        Defense Weekly 21 May 2003: 25-28.                       Ph.D., is a professor at
    course. Facts are available in sec-                     7. Rossett, Allison, and Erica Mohr.                         the Industrial College of
    onds from online resources.                                 “Performance Support Tools. The                          the Armed Forces at the
    Projects are done in teams. High                            U.S. Coast Guard Uses PSTs …”                            National Defense Uni-
    school and college campuses have                            Business and Management Practices,                       versity in Washington,
    wireless access in common areas.                            58.2 (Feb. 2004): 34.                    D.C. He has served 26 years in the U.S.
    Dormitory rooms have broadband                          8. “Marines to Receive Rugged PDAs.”         Army as a personnel, automation, and
    access. In the meantime, govern-                            Defense Daily International 4.9 (12      acquisition officer in a wide variety of
    ments treat IT [information tech-                           Mar. 2004):1.                            duty assignments, including his previous
    nology] as overhead, and consider                       9. Redmon, P. “Total Cost of                 position as an associate professor in the
    Internet access too easy to abuse                           Ownership Is Down for Business           Department of Electrical Engineering
    and instant messaging a time waster.                        PDAs.” Gartner Research Note
    However, the incoming workforce                             COM-22-1757 21 Apr. 2004.                and Computer Science at the United
    expects to be able to work anywhere,                    10. Troni, Federica, and Roberta Cozza.      States Military Academy, West Point,
    anytime. It is accustomed to receiv-                        “Personal Digital Assistants: Over-      N.Y. He has a doctorate in computer sci-
    ing information in seconds, not in                          view.” Gartner Technology Overview       ence from George Mason University,
    quarterly reports. It will not work in                      DPRO-90774. 29 Mar. 2004.                master’s degrees from the University of
    an environment that cannot sup-                         11. Blosch, Marcus. “Convergence:            Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the
    port these requirements. Economic                           Fusion or Fantasy?” Gartner Report       University of Southern California, and a
    situations or a sense of responsibil-                       Jan. 2002.                               bachelor’s degree from Brigham Young
    ity may draw workers to govern-                         12. Vijayan, Jaikumar. “User Interfaces.”    University.
    ment jobs, but unless the technolo-                         Computerworld 38.32 ( Aug. 2004): 28.
    gy environment changes the next                         13. Gartner Group. “3Q04 Smartphone
    generation of workers will not per-                         Shipments Overtake PDAs.” Gartner
                                                                                                              National Defense University

    form well and will be highly dissat-                        Dataquest Alert 22 Dec. 2004.
                                                                                                              408 4th AVE
    isfied. As a result, government                         14. Jones, N. “Choosing a Pocket
                                                                                                              Fort Lesley J McNair
    agencies will lose access to this pool                      Programming Language,” Gartner                Washington, DC 20319
    of talent. [17]                                             Research Note DF-16-1282 11 June              Phone: (202) 685-4325
                                                                2002.                                         Fax: (202) 685-4175
   Defense personnel should be able to                      15. Kellogg Jr., Joseph K., and Mark              DSN: 325-4325
use the best tools available to complete                        Powell. “Protecting America With              E-mail: alfordk@ndu.edu

8 CROSSTALK The Journal of   Defense Software Engineering                                                                                   June 2005