Contact Lens Spectrum (DOC)

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					Contact Lens Spectrum
February 2003
Document #90


(p. 33) No-fee Continuing Education – Dry Eye Update 2003 by Kelly Kinney Nichols,
OD, MPH, PhD, and Jason J. Nichols, OD, MS, MPH

1.    Younan C, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, Panchapakesan J, Rochtchina E, Hales AM.
      Hormone replacement therapy, reproductive factors, and the incidence of cataract
      and cataract surgery: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol
2.    Zhang XH, Sun HM, Ji J et al. Sex hormones and their receptors in patients with
      age-related cataract. J Cataract Refract Surg 2003;29:71-7.
3.    Schaumberg DA, Buring JE, Sullivan DA, Dana MR. Hormone replacement
      therapy and dry eye syndrome. Jama 2001;286:2114-9.
4.    Barney NP. Can hormone replacement therapy cause dry eye? Arch Ophthalmol
5.    Smith W, Mitchell P, Wang JJ. Gender, oestrogen, hormone replacement and age-
      related macular degeneration: results from the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Aust N
      Z J Ophthalmol 1997;25 Suppl 1:S13-5.
6.    Cho P, Yap M. Age, gender, and tear break-up time. Optom Vis Sci 1993;70:828-
7.    Craig JP, Tomlinson A. Effect of age on tear osmolality. Optom Vis Sci
8.    Patel S, Boyd KE, Burns J. Age, stability of the precorneal tear film and the
      refractive index of the tears. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 2000;23:44-47.
9.    Craig JP, Tomlinson A. Age and gender effects on the normal tear film. Adv Exp
      Med Biol 1998;438:411-5.
10.   Tomlinson A, Giesbrecht C. Effect of age on human tear film evaporation in
      normals. Adv Exp Med Biol 1994;350:271-4.
11.   Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome.
      Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118:1264-8.
12.   De PK, Ranganathan V. Hormonal influences on Syrian hamster lacrimal gland.
      Marked repression of a major 20 kDa secretory protein by estrogens, androgens,
      and thyroid hormones. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;438:85-8.
13.   Sullivan DA, Wickham LA, Rocha EM, Kelleher RS, da Silveira LA, Toda I.
      Influence of gender, sex steroid hormones, and the hypothalamic- pituitary axis
      on the structure and function of the lacrimal gland. Adv Exp Med Biol
14.   Sullivan DA, Rocha EM, Ullman MD et al. Androgen regulation of the
      meibomian gland. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;438:327-31.
15.   Esmaeli B, Harvey JT, Hewlett B. Immunohistochemical evidence for estrogen
      receptors in meibomian glands. Ophthalmology 2000;107:180-4.
16.   Krenzer KL, Dana MR, Ullman MD et al. Effect of androgen deficiency on the
      human meibomian gland and ocular surface. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
17.   Sullivan DA, Sullivan BD, Ullman MD et al. Androgen influence on the
      meibomian gland. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000;41:3732-42.
18.   Akramian J, Wedrich A, Nepp J, Sator M. Estrogen therapy in
      keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;438:1005-9.
19.   Sator MO, Joura EA, Golaszewski T et al. Treatment of menopausal
      keratoconjunctivitis sicca with topical oestradiol. Br J Obstet Gynaecol
20.   Vavilis D, Maloutas S, Nasioutziki M, Boni E, Bontis J. Conjunctiva is an
      estrogen-sensitive epithelium. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1995;74:799-802.
21.   Azzarolo AM, Mircheff AK, Kaswan RL et al. Androgen support of lacrimal
      gland function. Endocrine 1997;6:39-45.
22.   Mathers WD. Why the eye becomes dry: a cornea and lacrimal gland feedback
      model. Clao J 2000;26:159-65.
23.   Sullivan DA, Sullivan BD, Evans JE et al. Androgen deficiency, Meibomian
      gland dysfunction, and evaporative dry eye. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002;966:211-22.
24.   Hay EM, Thomas E, Pal B, Hajeer A, Chambers H, Silman AJ. Weak association
      between subjective symptoms or and objective testing for dry eyes and dry mouth:
      results from a population based study. Ann Rheum Dis 1998;57:20-4.
25.   Schein OD, Tielsch JM, Munoz B, Bandeen-Roche K, West S. Relation between
      signs and symptoms of dry eye in the elderly. A population-based perspective.
      Ophthalmology 1997;104:1395-401.
26.   Eter N, Gobbels M. A new technique for tear film fluorophotometry. Br J
      Ophthalmol 2002;86:616-9.
27.   Kunert KS, Tisdale AS, Gipson IK. Goblet cell numbers and epithelial
      proliferation in the conjunctiva of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with
      cyclosporine. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120:330-7.
28.   Cross WD, Lay LF, Jr., Walt JG, Kozma CM. Clinical and economic implications
      of topical cyclosporin A for the treatment of dry eye. Manag Care Interface
29.   Fujihara T, Murakami T, Nagano T, Nakamura M, Nakata K. INS365 suppresses
      loss of corneal epithelial integrity by secretion of mucin-like glycoprotein in a
      rabbit short-term dry eye model. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2002;18:363-70.
30.   Papas AS, Fernandez MM, Castano RA, Gallagher SC, Trivedi M, Shrotriya RC.
      Oral pilocarpine for symptomatic relief of dry mouth and dry eyes in patients with
      Sjogrens syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;438:973-8.
31.   Lemp MA. Report of the National Eye Institute/Industry workshop on Clinical
      Trials in Dry Eyes. Clao J 1995;21:221-32.
32.   Nichols JJ, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK, Chalmers R, Begley C. The Performance of
      the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire as a Screening Survey for Contact Lens-
      related Dry Eye. Cornea 2002;21:469-75.
33.   du Toit R, Situ P, Simpson T, Fonn D. The effects of six months of contact lens
      wear on the tear film, ocular surfaces, and symptoms of presbyopes. Optom Vis
      Sci 2001;78:455-62.
34.   Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL et al. Characterization of ocular surface
      symptoms from optometric practices in North America. Cornea 2001;20:610-8.
35.   Brennan N, Coles C. Deposits and symptomatology with soft contact lens wear.
      ICLC 2000;27:76-100.
36.   Begley CG, Caffery B, Nichols KK, Chalmers R. Responses of contact lens
      wearers to a dry eye survey. Optom Vis Sci 2000;77:40-6.
37.   Fonn D, Situ P, Simpson T. Hydrogel lens dehydration and subjective comfort
      and dryness ratings in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers.
      Optom Vis Sci 1999;76:700-4.
38.   Brennan NA, Efron N. Symptomatology of HEMA contact lens wear. Optom Vis
      Sci 1989;66:834-8.
39.   McMonnies CW. Key questions in a dry eye history. J Am Optom Assoc
40.   McMonnies CW, Chapman-Davies A. Assessment of conjunctival hyperemia in
      contact lens wearers. Part II. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987;64:251-5.
41.   Nichols JJ, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. The performance of the refractive status and
      vision profile survey in a contact lens clinical trial. Ophthalmology
42.   Vitale S, Schein OD, Meinert CL, Steinberg EP. The refractive status and vision
      profile: a questionnaire to measure vision-related quality of life in persons with
      refractive error. Ophthalmology 2000;107:1529-39.
43.   Doughty MJ, Fonn D, Richter D, Simpson T, Caffery B, Gordon K. A patient
      questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in
      patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada. Optom Vis Sci
44.   Orsborn GN, Zantos SG. Practioner survey: management of dry eye symptoms in
      soft lens wearers. Contact Lens Spectrum 1989;4:23-.
45.   Eye-Q Study: Contact Lens Council; 1991.
46.   Schlanger JL. A study of contact lens failures. J Am Optom Assoc 1993;64:220-
47.   Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey.
      ICLC 1999;26:157-162.
48.   Mishima S, Gasset A, Klyce SD, Jr., Baum JL. Determination of tear volume and
      tear flow. Invest Ophthalmol 1966;5:264-76.
49.   Nichols JJ, King-Smith PE. Thickness of the pre- and post-contact lens tear film
      measured in vivo by interferometry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44:68-77.
50.   Korb DR, Baron DF, Herman JP et al. Tear film lipid layer thickness as a function
      of blinking. Cornea 1994;13:354-9.
51.   Collins M, Heron H, Larsen R, Lindner R. Blinking patterns in soft contact lens
      wearers can be altered with training. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987;64:100-3.
52.   Stewart CR. Blinking and corneal lens wear. J Am Optom Assoc 1976;47:356.
53.   Korb DR, Greiner JV, Glonek T. Tear film lipid layer formation: implications for
      contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci 1996;73:189-92.
54.   Efron N, Morgan PB. Hydrogel contact lens dehydration and oxygen
      transmissibility. Clao J 1999;25:148-51.
55.   McConville P, Pope JM, Huff JW. Limitations of in vitro contact lens
      dehydration/rehydration data in predicting on-eye dehydration. Clao J
56.   Efron N, Brennan NA, Bruce AS, Duldig DI, Russo NJ. Dehydration of hydrogel
      lenses under normal wearing conditions. Clao J 1987;13:152-6.
57.   Patel S. Effects of lens dehydration on back vertex power, apical height, and lens
      mass of high water content hydrogel lenses. ICLC 1983;10:38-42.
58.   Swarbrick HA, Holden BA. Rigid gas-permeable lens adherence: a patient-
      dependent phenomenon. Optom Vis Sci 1989;66:269-75.
59.   Helton DO, Watson LS. Hydrogel contact lens dehydration rates determined by
      thermogravimetric analysis. Clao J 1991;17:59-61.
60.   Gispets J, Sola R, Varon C. The influence of water content on hydrogel contact
      lenses when fitting patients with tear film defiency. Contact Lens and Anterior
      Eye 2000;23:16-21.
61.   Gispets J, Cardona G, Sola R, Varon C, Salazar F. Central thickness of hydrogel
      contact lenses as a predictor of success when fitting patients with tear deficiency.
      Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 2002;25:89-94.

(p. 42) Contact Lenses and Complications by Charlotte Joslin, OD

1.    Fatt I, Freeman RD, Lin D. Oxygen tension distributions in the cornea: a re-
      examination. Exp Eye Res. 1974;18(4):357-365.
2.    Fatt I, Bieber MT. The steady-state distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in
      the in vivo cornea. I. The open eye in air and the closed eye. Exp Eye Res.
3.    Benjamin WJ, Hill RM. Human corneal oxygen demand: the closed-eye interval.
      Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1986;224(3):291-294.
4.    Harvitt DM, Bonanno JA. pH dependence of corneal oxygen consumption. Invest
      Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Dec 1998;39(13):2778-2781.
5.    Vannas A, Holden BA, Sweeney DF, Polse KA. Surgical incision alters the
      swelling response of the human cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Jun
6.    Holden BA, Mertz GW. Critical oxygen levels to avoid corneal edema for daily
      and extended wear contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1984;25(10):1161-
7.    Fleiszig SM, Efron N, Pier GB. Extended contact lens wear enhances
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence to human corneal epithelium. Invest
      Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Sep 1992;33(10):2908-2916.
8.    Cheng KH, Leung SL, Hoekman HW, et al. Incidence of contact-lens-associated
      microbial keratitis and its related morbidity. Lancet. Jul 17 1999;354(9174):181-
9.    McLeod SD, Goei SL, Taglia DP, McMahon TT. Nonulcerating bacterial keratitis
      associated with soft and rigid contact lens wear. Ophthalmology. Mar
10.   McLeod SD, DeBacker CM, Viana MA. Differential care of corneal ulcers in the
      community based on apparent severity. Ophthalmology. Mar 1996;103(3):479-
11.   McLeod SD, Kolahdouz-Isfahani A, Rostamian K, Flowers CW, Lee PP,
      McDonnell PJ. The role of smears, cultures, and antibiotic sensitivity testing in
      the management of suspected infectious keratitis. Ophthalmology. Jan
12.   Goldstein MH, Kowalski RP, Gordon YJ. Emerging fluoroquinolone resistance in
      bacterial keratitis: a 5-year review. Ophthalmology. Jul 1999;106(7):1313-1318.
13.   Sharma S, Ramachandran L, Rao GN. Adherence of cysts and trophozoites of
      Acanthamoeba to unworn rigid gas permeable and soft contact lenses. Clao J. Oct
14.   Radford CF, Minassian DC, Dart JK. Acanthamoeba keratitis in England and
      Wales: incidence, outcome, and risk factors. Br J Ophthalmol. May
15.   Schaumberg DA, Snow KK, Dana MR. The epidemic of Acanthamoeba keratitis:
      where do we stand? Cornea. Jan 1998;17(1):3-10.
16.   Cancrini G, Iori A, Mancino R. Acanthamoeba adherence to contact lenses,
      removal by rinsing procedures, and survival to some ophthalmic products.
      Parassitologia. Sep 1998;40(3):275-278.
17.   Hiti K, Walochnik J, Haller-Schober EM, Faschinger C, Aspock H. Viability of
      Acanthamoeba after exposure to a multipurpose disinfecting contact lens solution
      and two hydrogen peroxide systems. Br J Ophthalmol. Feb 2002;86(2):144-146.
18.   Hughes R, Kilvington S. Comparison of hydrogen peroxide contact lens
      disinfection systems and solutions against Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Antimicrob
      Agents Chemother. Jul 2001;45(7):2038-2043.
19.   Kilvington S, Anger C. A comparison of cyst age and assay method of the
      efficacy of contact lens disinfectants against Acanthamoeba. Br J Ophthalmol.
      Mar 2001;85(3):336-340.
20.   Illingworth CD, Cook SD. Acanthamoeba keratitis. Surv Ophthalmol. May-Jun
21.   Moore MB, McCulley JP, Kaufman HE, Robin JB. Radial keratoneuritis as a
      presenting sign in Acanthamoeba keratitis. Ophthalmology. Oct
22.    Bacon AS, Dart JK, Ficker LA, Matheson MM, Wright P. Acanthamoeba
       keratitis. The value of early diagnosis. Ophthalmology. Aug 1993;100(8):1238-
23.    Winchester K, Mathers WD, Sutphin JE, Daley TE. Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba
       keratitis in vivo with confocal microscopy. Cornea. Jan 1995;14(1):10-17.
24.    Pfister DR, Cameron JD, Krachmer JH, Holland EJ. Confocal microscopy
       findings of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. Feb 1996;121(2):119-128.

(p. 46) Insight into Toric Contact Lenses by Ann Hoscheit, OD

1. Moody, KJ. Fitting Low Astigmats with a Soft Toric Contact Lens. Contact Lens
   Spectrum, November 2001.

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