Docstoc

Chapter_9

Document Sample
Chapter_9 Powered By Docstoc
					       Lesson One:
The Rising Power of Rome
                 Objectives
 Identify the
  inspiration behind
  much of the Roman
  architecture and art
 Identify Roman
  improvements on
  earlier building
  processes
 Describe the exterior
  of a typical roman
  structure.
Brief History of the Roman Republic
 Until 509 BC, the Romans were under
  Etruscan rule
 It was this year the Romans drove
  Etruscans from Rome.
Map of the Roman Republic
                 Question
   After viewing the previous map, what
    does this tell you about the Roman
    Empire? In what way does it influence
    other cultures? Can you compare it to
    influence the US has on the world?
        The Greek Influence
 The Romans admired the Greek
  contributions of the art work. They copied
  paintings and sculputres similar to the
  Greeks.
 Advances in architecture was the main
  contribution to the art world.
          Portrait Sculpture
 Unlike the Greeks who portrayed their
  figures in an Idealistic manner, the
  Romans made their figures more life like.
 The Romans used funeral masks made of
  wax from deceased family members. Over
  time, more permanent materials were
  sought such as marble or bronze.
Portrait bust of a man, 1st century B.C.; Republican
                       Roman
           Marble; H. 14.37 in. (36.5 cm)
            Rogers Fund, 1912 (12.233)
Portrait bust of a woman, 200–230 A.D.; Severan
                      Roman
          Marble; H. 25.62 in. (65.07 cm)

         Rogers Fund, 1918 (18.145.39)
Portrait head of Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (called Caracalla), ca. 217–230; Late
                                        Severan
                                         Roman
                             Marble; H. 14 1/4 in. (36.2 cm)


                           Samuel D. Lee Fund, 1940 (40.11.1a)
    Differences Between Greek and
           Roman Sculptures
 Roman artists worked in the Greek tradition, but
  catered to present day demands.
 Greek sculpture was idealistic. Many of these
  sculptures were meant for public viewing
 Roman sculptures were commissioned work for
  private use and depicted life like people,
  wrinkles, warts, an all.
 Romans paid close attention to facial features
  and expression to know the character of that
  person.
              Mural Paintings
   Wealthy Romans
    adorned their homes
    with large wall
    paintings of the
    world around them.
        Roman Architecture
 Although few examples of paintings and
  sculptures come down to us, the Roman
  architecture still survives today.
 Few differences between Roman and
  Greek art. Greeks used columns as
  structure, the Romans did so more as
  decoration.
   Maison Carree; France, Nimes; approx. B.C.19
History of Roman Architecture : Maison Carree No.1
 The Temple Complex in Palestrina
 Made use of Greek features.
 Short distance from Rome
 In the modern town of Palestina
 House the goddess of Fortuna
 After the Christianization of Rome, the
  temple and the relics were left to ruin
    Design of the Temple Complex
   To span large interior
    openings, builders
    constructed arches called
    barrel vaults, a series of
    round arches from front
    to back that form a
    tunnel.
   The round arch improved
    on the post-and lintel
    system because of its
    load bearing capacity.
                  Rounded Arches
   Made of cut bricks or
    stone. To hold the arch in
    place, Roman Builders
    placed a keystone, or a
    top stone of the arch.
   1.   Keystone 2. Voussoir
    3.   Extrados 4. Impost
    5.   Intrados 6. Rise
    7.   Clear span
    8.   Abutment
                Concrete
 Light
 Durable
 Moldable
 Inexpensive
 Abundant
                 Question
   With the innovations of Rounded arches
    and concrete, what changes or
    innovations do you think happen in Roman
    Architecture?
Roman Aqueduct
           An aqueduct, a system
            that carried water from
            mountain streams into
            cities by using
            gravitational flow.
           Series of arches helped
            support each other
           These ran in lengths of
            10 miles to 60 miles
           Carried about 270 million
            gallons a day
Lesson Two: Roman Buildings and
          Monuments
   Baths were vast enclosed structures that
    contained libraries, lecture rooms,
    gymnasiums, shops, restaurant, and
    pleasant walkways.
   More information on PBS: Roman Baths
    including the Baths of Caracalla
                The Colosseum
   Built 72-80 AD in Rome
   Huge Structure that cover
    over 6 acres
   Owes its name to the
    colossal statue of Nero
   Over the centuries large
    amount of stones were
    taken by popes, rulers,
    and nobility from this
    building for other
    projects.
           Greek orders used
   The Colsseum use all three orders
 Lowest levels used the sturdiest order:
  Doric
 Second level used Ionic
 Third level Corinthian
 The top level used pilasters, flat
  rectangular columns attached to the wall.
        The Colosseum’s interior
   80 arched openings at ground level that served
    as efficient entries and egresses in and out of
    the arena.
   One door used for royalty, another used for
    victorious gladiators, other for the defeated.
   Could accommodate up to 50000 people.
   Upper class in the mid-tier seats will the
    common folks sat in the “nose-bleeds”
   Beneath the floor, compartment and passages
    held animals, gladiators, machinery, etc.
Public Buildings and Structures
The Pantheon A.D. 118-25
             Designed to be
              dedicated to all the
              Roman gods, later
              turned into a Christian
              church
             Still in use today and
              is in excellent
              condition.
             The Pantheon Interior
   Interior space has a great
    domed ceiling
   Opening at the top called the
    Oculus
   Diameter and distance to the
    top is exactly 144 feet
   The Pantheon is divided into 3
    zones
     – Lowest zone has 7 niches,
       recesses in the wall. May have
       contained the statues of the
       Roman Gods.
     – Middle zone has the signs of
       the Zodiac
     – Highest zone is the domed
       ceiling covered in coffers, or
       indented panels.

                                        Giovanni Paolo Panini, Interior of the Pantheon, Rome. C. 1734. oil on
                                        canvas. 501/2 x 39”. National Gallery of Art
Basilicas
        Romans constructed
         large spacious
         rectangular building
         to hold a large
         number of people.
         These are called
         basilicas.
       Interior Plan of a Basilica
   Rows and columns divided the space into
    was later called the Nave, a long wide
    center aisle.
 Roof was higher over the nave than the
  side aisle. This allowed windows to be
  built.
 At the end of the nave, a semicircular area
  was included called a apse.
             Triumphal Arches
   Triumphal Arch is a
    heavily decorated
    arch built as a
    monument of victory.
   Most decorated was
    the Arch of
    Constantine built 312-
    15 AD

				
DOCUMENT INFO