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									Innovations in Human Resource
         Management
        Catherine Gerard
 “No job is more vital to our society than that of the
   manager. It is the manager who determines whether
   our social institutions serve us well or whether they
   squander our talents and resources.”

Mintzberg
       Case of Social Security Benefits Clerk

 What’s your job?
   To protect against cheating

   To make sure they know we will take care of them



     Mission: Stewardship and Customer Focus
                     The Basics: Motivation

 How can I help?                     Self-actualization            Power
 How are we doing?
 Does anybody care about me?                           Belonging   Affiliation
 How am I doing?
 What is my job?                     Basic Needs              Achievement


Source: Roger D’Aprix, Communicating for Productivity
    The Basics: The ESSENTIAL Role of HRM
 How can I help?                      Structures
                                       Training and Norms

 How are we doing?                    Organizational data
                                       Strategic Plan

 Does anybody care about me?          Performance and career development
                                       Pay for Performance

 How am I doing?               Performance data, 360 degree
                                Performance appraisal

 What is my job?               Mission alignment
                                Performance measures
                                Competencies
 As expectations for good governance grow, so too do
 the demands for dynamic , integrated, and
 responsive hrm systems and practices.
UN2005 DESA            Public                 Public                    Responsive
                       administration         management                governance
Civil service system   Closed and bounded     Open and decentralized    Open and regulated
                       Career civil service   Position-based            Core civil service;
                                                                        others position-based

                       Tenure                 Fixed-term                Tenure and fixed term


Institutional          Independent central    HRM decentralized to      Lead regulator;
arrangements           personnel authority    line ministries           decentralized HRM

                       Personnel              HRM                       Strategic HRM
                       administration
                                                                        Unified and
                       Unified pay system     Individual contracts      performance-based
Career Advancement     Seniority-based        Performance-based         Range of competencies

Pay Policy             Qualifications and     Job-based criteria with   Job-based criteria with
                       experience             performance elements      performance elements


Performance            Professional ethics    Performance               360-accountability
Management                                    agreement

HR Development         Functional skills      Competencies              Competencies and
Similar reforms, almost similar rationales
 The New Public Management: Running a
               Business?
 National Partnership for Reinventing
  Government (US)
 Next Steps (UK)
 Circulaire Rocard (France)
 Etc.
    A New Kind of Government: Beyond
              Bureaucracy
 Catalytic- Steering rather than rowing
 Community-Owned- Empowering rather than serving
 Competitive- Injecting competition into service delivery
 Mission-Driven- Transforming rule-driven organizations
 Results-Oriented- Funding outcomes, not inputs
 Customer-Driven- Meeting customer needs, not the
  bureaucracy
 Anticipatory- Prevention rather than cure
 Decentralized- From hierarchy to participation



Osborne and Gabler
       Public Sector Modernisation: Open
                  Government?

“Citizens can know things, get things, create
                  things”
 Transparency and Accountability
 Fairness and Equity
 Efficiency and Effectiveness
 Respect for the rule of law
 High Standards of ethical behavior



OECD Policy Brief, “Public Sector Modernisation: Open Government,” February 2005
“Making the Civil Service
• responsive and citizen-
friendly;
• transparent;
• accountable; and
• ethical”
Hota Report, 2004
“India will have a civil service. . .
• that is valued by ministers, and is a superb source of expert,
objective policy
advice;
• that delivers world-class, customer-focussed services, day-in and
day-out, frequently in partnership;
• that attracts the best talents from every area of the society;
• in which the civil servants are honest, objective, impartial, and act
with integrity;
• in which the civil servants are accountable, result-oriented and
transparent in their dealings;
• in which the civil servants are proud of, and passionate about their
work, committed to doing what they have to do with the pace that
India needs and expects in the twenty-first century, and with the right
professional skills; and
• every part of which commands the confidence and respect of the
public it serves.”
New Delhi (M. Veerappa Moily)
November 05, 2008 Chairman
“Scaling New Heights,”pp.vi-vii
More Responsive Government (Japan)
March 24, 2010 , New York Times

Japan Leader Aims to Root Out Bureaucrats
By MARTIN FACKLER

TOKYO — Six months after his party’s historic election
victory, tumbling approval ratings and mounting troubles
threaten to make Yukio Hatoyama end up as just another
unpopular Japanese prime minister. But in at least one crucial
area, political experts say his new government has surpassed
its predecessors: challenging the nation’s powerful and
entrenched bureaucracy.
Since ending the Liberal Democrats’ nearly unbroken 54-year
grip on power in last summer’s election, Mr. Hatoyama’s
Democratic Party has proclaimed its top mission to be
changing the way the country is governed by a process that is
commonly called “escaping the bureaucracy.” The aim is to
make Japan’s political system more responsive by ending more
than a century of de facto rule by elite career bureaucrats at
Tokyo’s central ministries, and empowering democratically
elected politicians instead.
How have human resource management
        practices responded?
              Common Responses

 Performance Measurement
 Pay for Performance
 Contracting out/multi-sector partnerships
 Decentralization
 Competency-based training and development
 Knowledge management
 Use of technology
 New structures
 Integrated HRM
   Innovation 1: Competency-Based HRM

 29 of 30 OECD countries- centrally developed with
 decentralized specialized technical competencies
Definitions . . .
 “Competencies are people’s
 behavioural repertoires, i.e. their sets
 of behavioural patterns, which are
 related to work performance and
 distinguish excellent from average
 performers.” Sparrow (1997)
 “an individual job-related competency is
the underlying set of behavioural patterns of
an employee related to effective and/or
superior work performance, acting both at
individual and collective
level(effective/superior performance both in
solitary and inter-personal work), and that
provide the organisation in which they are
implemented and applied with sustainable
competitive advantage.” Vakola et al. (2007) , OECD
2009, p.9
        Difference Between a Functional
   and a Competency-Based Approach to HRM


  Functional approach         Competency approach


    Job description             Competency profile
     What is done?            What is done, why and
                                          how?
Cluster of core tasks and    Cluster of core tasks and
        functional                   competency
      requirements          requirements (knowledge,
   (knowledge, skills,            skills, personality,
      responsibility        attitude, values and norms,
                                      incentives)
Korea: The SCS Competency Model
Thinking   • Problem recognising and understanding - Recognising
           problems timely through information analysis, and identifying the
           cores of problems by studying various related issues
           • Strategic thinking- Creating long-term vision and goals, and
           action plans with clarifying priorities

Working    • Performance orientation -Considering various methods to
           maximise job performance, and pursuing effectiveness and
           efficiency in the process of goal achievement
           • Change management- Understanding the trends of
           environmental change, and taking measures for making an
           organisation and individuals respond appropriately and adapt

Relating   • Customer satisfaction- Recognising work partners as
           customers, understanding customers’ needs, and meeting the
           demands of customers
           • Coordination and integration-Understanding the interests
           and conflicts among stakeholders, making decisions based on a
           balanced perspective, and suggesting rational solutions
Korea: Junior Managers
Policy planning -Making new policy proposals to deal with major issues and
trends in the related fields, and making specific and professional reports on
policy issues enable to communicate essentials

Problem-solving-Prior to formulating and implementing policies, predicting
the possibilities of problems, preventing the occurrence of problems,
reviewing implementation procedures, and coming up with
solutions or directly tackling the problems

Information management- Gathering and analysing necessary information
promptly, and understanding and diagnosing phenomena and cases

Enthusiastic performing-Devoting oneself to role, committing to work, and
steadily making efforts to accomplish better performance

Collaboration and support-Building good human relations in everyday life,
and heading active collaboration and support, if necessary

Teamwork orientation-Coordinating supervisors and subordinates in order to
work efficiently, facilitating teamwork, and providing voluntary cooperation
    SES Executive Core Competencies (US)

 Leading Change-         Continual learning, creativity,
    external awareness, flexibility, service motivation. . .
   Leading People- Conflict management, leveraging
    diversity, integrity, team building
   Results Driven- Accountability, customer service,
    decisiveness, entrepreneurship, problem-solving,
    technical credibility
   Business Acumen- Financial management, human
    resources management, technology management
   Building Coalitions/Communicating-
    Negotiating, interpersonal oral skills, partnering,
    political saavy, written communication
Australia: Five Capability Clusters
Redefining HRM: Integrated through
competencies
                   Competencies are used in order to evaluate
                   the current and future organizational and
Workforce Planning individual competency needs.
                   A gap analysis can reveal the competencies
                   that individual employees, groups, or even the
                   organization should have and contribute to
                   the workforce development plans.


  Recruitment         In a competency-based selection process,
                      the required competencies identified for
                      the vacant position are used as the selection
                      criteria.
                      Selection instruments are based on these
                      competencies. The candidates for the
                      position are evaluated on each required
                      competency.
              Competency gap analysis becomes the
              learning needs assessment. A personal
Training &    development plan is created for each
Development   employee listing the specific competencies the
              employee needs to develop for improved
              performance. The objectives of all learning
              activities (workshops, courses…) are based on
              the development of specific competencies.

              Competencies clarify what is expected from the
              individuals. Performance is evaluated against
Performance   competency requirements as well as objectives.
Management    The appraisal system focuses on specific
              behavior, offering a roadmap for recognition,
& Appraisal   reward, and possible advancement.
                  Competency-based remuneration systems
                  reward employees for the development and
                  application of the competencies the
                  organization has identified as important for
Compensation      success.
                  Different compensation systems are possible:
                  rewarding individuals whose actual competency
                  level is higher than a set standard level;
                  increasing salary based on competency
                  development; etc.
                  Competencies are used to create the personal
                  career plans of the employees. The latter can
                  review the needed competencies of all the
                  positions and, through comparison with the
Career Planning   competencies they possess, they can identify
                  potential positions and develop their
                  career path.
             Organizations assess potential replacements for
             key positions based on competency
Succession   requirements.
  Planning   The competencies needed for each leadership
             position are identified and are then used to
             identify and rank employees with high potential
             for succeeding in each position.
             Finally, employees are trained to ensure that
             they are prepared to assume each critical
             leadership position in the event that it becomes
             vacant.


                     Source: Draganidis & Mentzas, 2006 and Marrelli,
              1998 in OECD 2009, p. 30
                       360 Questions: Canada
Please evaluate my performance or my capacity according to the following scale, based on your
   observations during our work together. Indicate to what extent you agree with each of the
   statements.

I use sound and appropriate techniques for data collection
  and analysis to evaluate different aspects of programmes,
  projects, policies, and/or organizations.

I recognize the strategic uses of evaluation methods in
   supporting policy, organizational objectives, and decision-
   making.

I analyse information rigorously, extract critical elements,
  and identify relevant links.

I take the analysis a step further by analysing the results of
   the evaluation, formulating appropriate hypotheses, and
   making links with the objectives of the organization, the
   programme or the project.
Future Competencies for Governments
              Korea


  • Change management     • Strategic thinking
  • Problem recognition   • Vision
    and understanding
Future Competencies for Governments
           United States


                          Work collaboratively
  Results orientation
                          across boundaries




                              Source:OECD 2009, de Beeck and Hondeghem, p.65
       Future Competencies for Governments
                                       Australia
                                              • Honesty
 • Act early and decisive                     • Impartiality
• Agility
• Anticipating                                • Innovation
• Considering the big picture                 • Intellectually agile
• Commercial skills                           • Multi-skilled
• Creativity
• Development of relationships                • Participatory approach
• Early problem diagnosis                     • Project management
• Effective & efficient
                                              • Public service excellence
• Embrace change
• Entrepreneurship                            • Purpose and direction
• Establish and maintain productive working   • Qualitative leadership
relationships across and beyond government
agencies                                      • Renewing
• Establishing and managing partnerships      • Risk management
• Facilitating                                • Strategic leadership
• Fairness
• Flexibility                                 • Strategic and creative thinking
• Forward-looking                             • Vision
                                              • Work across boundaries
                                              • Work swiftly
                                              • Work together
Future Competencies for Governments
            Netherlands
 • Ability to imagine and        • Make connections in a
    develop connections             broader context
     across borders              • Make the best use of the
 • Create space for initiative      talents of employees and
    and creativity, including       citizens
    space for experiments with   • Network collaboration
    new ideas                    • Professional substantive
 • Development of employees         knowledge
 • Diversity management          • Sensitivity for societal and
 • Facilitate dialogue with         political developments
    society                      • Sustainability
 • Future orientation
                   Challenges

 Integration
 Customer/Citizen Input
 Today vs Future View
in OECD 2009, de Beeck and Hondeghem, p.4
Integrated Individual Performance Measurement

 Linked to organizational goals (what)
 Linked to values and desired behaviors (how)
 Linked to mission and outcomes (why)
 Multiple sources of data
 Features both performance assessment and
 development
     Innovation 2: Pay for Performance

 http://www.number10.gov.uk/news/latest-
 news/2010/05/cuts-to-senior-civil-service-and-nhs-
 manager-bonuses-50176
     Pay for Performance: New Employment
                  Arrangements

 Civil Service + 20% Open (Korea)
 Contracted Civil Service (New Zealand)
 Hybrids (UK)
 No civil service status (Switzerland)
                        Pay for Performance

 Bonus (US, Korea)
 Merit increases (Korea, New Zealand )




   OECD 2005, Performance-Related Pay Policies
                       Challenges

 Mixed success as a motivator
 Team -based awards (gainsharing)
 Dependent on performance system
 Budget constraints
Innovation 2: Responsive HRM
                        Obama’s Dilemma (US)

 According to a 2006 survey by the U.S. Merit Systems
    Protection Board, 63 percent of recent federal hires said
    that job security and the opportunity for advancement,
    pay, and various benefits were the most important
    factors in deciding to work for the government. In
    contrast, only 10 percent said that challenging and
    interesting work was their top criterion, while just 9
    percent put the focus on making a difference with their
    work . . . 2008 Human Capital Survey. Although more
    than 90 percent of all federal employees said their jobs
    Pare important and meaningful, well over half also said
    they did not "have a sense of personal empowerment" in
    their work, less than half said they had sufficient
    information to connect the dots within their
    organization, and four-in-10 federal employees reported
    feeling that their workload is unreasonable.
   Paul Light, Washington Post, May 20, 2010
              Obama HR Reforms (US)

 accelerate the federal hiring process,
 build a more transparent tracking system for
    applicants
   increase the overall quality of recruits
    easier for veterans to find federal jobs,
   increase workforce diversity,
   streamline the security clearance process,
   increase access to training,
   improve labor-management relations
   modernize the federal pay system.
     OPM Response: Hiring Reform (US)

 “Make working in government cool”
 Apply with cover letter and resume
 No rule of 3
 Quick response
 Active involvement and accountability of hiring
 managers (decentralization)
                 Agency Support

 Hiring Reform Web Page
 a collaborative network/community of practice
  (MAX)
 mobile assistance teams (MATs)
 communication and training, including, bite-size
  “awareness” training, seminars, "do-it-yourself"
  training material
NATIONAL AUTHORITY
  OF CIVIL SERVICE




   A tool for a growing
         country
         Servir: Body of Managers (Peru)

 Need “the Best” top level management group (below
    appointee)?
   Servir hires a head hunter to recruit
   Interviews, assessment center for competency
    assessment
   Sets up 3-year performance contract
   Salary based on salary history, complexity of job,
    specialized requirements, up to 30% above Minister,
    Servir pays difference between existing and BPM
   Monitors accomplishment of performance indicators
  Innovation 3: HRM,
Technology, and Learning
Technology and the Learning Organization (KM)
Care to Write Army Doctrine? With ID, Log On
Join the Army, where you can edit all that you can edit.
In July, in a sharp break from tradition, the Army began encouraging its
   personnel — from the privates to the generals — to go online and
   collaboratively rewrite seven of the field manuals that give instructions on all
   aspects of Army life.
The program uses the same software behind the online encyclopedia Wikipedia
   and could potentially lead to hundreds of Army guides being “wikified.” The
   goal, say the officers behind the effort, is to tap more experience and advice
   from battle-tested soldiers rather than relying on the specialists within the
   Army’s array of colleges and research centers who have traditionally written
   the manuals.
“For a couple hundred years, the Army has been writing doctrine in a particular
   way, and for a couple months, we have been doing it online in this wiki,” said
   Col. Charles J. Burnett, the director of the Army’s Battle Command
   Knowledge System. “The only ones who could write doctrine were the select
   few. Now, imagine the challenge in accepting that anybody can go on the
   wiki and make a change — that is a big challenge, culturally.”

NOAM COHEN , August 14, 2009 , The New York Times
      Technology for Recruitment (US)

 Facebook recruitment in Coast Guard, now Army
 Technology and Knowledge Management (US)

 Intellipedia
 DOD Techipedia
 Diplopedia
 BetterBuyGSA
 Maybe. . .Collaborative Work OPM-OMB
                 GCPEDIA is one of the most exciting


projects going on in the public service. If you don't know
what GCPEDIA is - check out the links. It is a massive wiki
where public servants can share knowledge, publish their
current work, or collaborate on projects. I think it is one of
two revolutionary changes going on that will transform how
the public service works (more on this another time).
(eaves.com)
              Technology and Service (Korea)

Any central government employee is able to do his or her work online from planning policies to
  making decisions and assessing performance. It has reinvented how government employees
  function on a day-to-day basis for efficiency, accountability and transparency of administrative
  actions.
   A key objective of establishing an e-government infrastructure nationwide is to maximize
   convenience and accessibility of public services. MOPAS has developed G4C (Government for
   Citizen) at www.G4C.go.kr, an electronic civil petition portal site. ``Currently, there are over
   700 out of approximately 5,000 civil documents that can be issued through Internet. Citizens
   can either visit G4C, or various sites like www.korea.go.kr, www.hometax.go.kr.''
   Park also added that the government plans to develop a new conclusive web portal that
   consolidates the functions of the existing portals like the G4C and many other Web sites by next
   year, creating a one-stop platform for citizen services. ``Once completed, it will be the first of
   its kind in the world,'' Park noted.
   A visible success model of e-government is the ``Information Network Village'' (INVIL) project.
   The ambitious online enterprise was conceived to provide Internet connection to farming and
   fishing villages.
   The ministry has installed high-speed Internet network in information centers and households
   free of charge in 338 designated villages. It also runs an online shopping site at www.invil.com,
   featuring agricultural products from the villages. Almost 2,000 government officials from more
   than 80 countries have visited Korea to learn about the novel project aimed at eradicating the
   digital divide and boosting income for farmers.

Korea Times
   Innovation 4: Capacity-Building HRM

 High-intensity Work, TQM, BPR, LEAN
 Labor-Management Partnerships, Collaborative
  Work (US)
 Performance development
 Employee Satisfaction
 Management Development
Leadership: Competing Values
   Framework (Adapted from Quinn)


                     Culture


                Mentor   Innovator


      Facilitator               Broker
                    Visionary

      Monitor                     Producer


            Coordinator Director

                     Manager
    New Role of Manager in HRM Process

• Understanding self and others
• Communicating effectively
• Developing employees          Mentor




      •Building teams
      •Using participative
       decision making
      •Managing conflict
                             Facilitator
Alignment

Government Vision

Department Vision

Bureau Vision

Unit Vision

Personal Vision
                    Conclusions

 HRM needed more than ever
 From regulator to partner
 From programs to integrated system
 Strategic decentralization
 Tied to needs and culture
 Capacity building is key!
 Thank you!!
 OECD Organization For Economic Co-
    operation and Development


30 member countries:

Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the
United States
References

De Beeck and Hondeghem (2009), “Managing Competencies in Government: State
of the Art Practices and Issues at Stake for the Future,” OECD

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2005), “Unlocking the
Human Potential for Public Sector Performance,” World Public Sector Report

Waxin and Bateman (2009), “Public sector human resource management reform
across countries: from performance appraisal to performance steering?,” European
Journal of International Management, Vol. 3, No. 4

OECD , 27th Session of the Public Management Committee (2003), “The Learning
Government: Introduction and Draft Results of Knowledge Management Practices
in Ministries, Departments, Agencies of Central Government”

OECD (2005), “Peformance-related Pay Policies for Government Employees”

								
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