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Challenges in Ubiquitous Computing (PowerPoint)

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					Challenges in Ubiquitous
       Computing
      Patrick Malatack
Today’s Readings

 Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in
  Ubiquitous Computing
   by Gregory Abowd and Elizabeth Mynatt

 The Origins of Ubiquitous Computing Research
  at PARC in the Late 1980s
   by Mark Weiser, Rich Gold, John Seely Brown


 Some Computer Science Issues in Ubiquitous
  Computing
   by Mark Weiser
Charting Past, Present, and Future
Research in Ubiquitous Computing

Natural interfaces
Context-aware applications
Automated capture and access
Continuous interaction
Privacy
Security
Visibility
Control
Computing with Natural Interfaces

 Ubicomp inspires off the desktop applications
   Needs off the desktop means of interaction
   Speech, gestures, writing
      More accessible
      Easier to use???
Problems with Natural Interfaces

 First Class Data Types
   Keyboard and mouse
      Characters and x,y coords
   Most natural interfaces try to convert to first class type
      Pen to text, speech to text
   Current Research is working with freeform input as a
    primitive.
      Need to find other ways of structuring input
      What other problems does creating new primitive types
       impose
          Development issues
Problems with Natural Interfaces

 Error Prone Interaction
    Permit new and numerous
     mistakes
    People do not have perfect
     recognition
    People don’t recognize
     increases in accuracy
        Needs to be 5-10% to be
         recognized
 Three areas
    Error Reduction
    Error Discovery
    Reusable toolkit for error
     handling
Questions about Natural Interfaces

 Can we ever capture subtleties of natural human
  communication??
 What different natural interfaces might exist??
    Nintendo Wii
       Trauma Center, Wii Sports
    iPhone
 How is accidental communication handled?
    StarTrek
       “Computer:play music”
 Why do developers want to build apps for these
  interactions?
    More errors, more edge cases
Context Aware Computing

 Current Systems
    Generally using position and
     identification of objects
    Still do not provide a complete
     context
    Definition of context is limited
 Research Areas
    Context Toolkits
        Toolkit for sensing environment
        Explicit use of sensed
         information is up to program
    What is Context?
    How is Context represented?
What is Context?
 Who
   Currently generally tailored to one user
   How important are others in determining our behavior
         How could this be captured?
 What
   Attempt to figure out what is currently happening
   Sense environment, use calendar software etc.
   What is the cost of the wrong guess?
         TiVo Problem
 Where
   Location based information
   GPS
   Most explored of context information
 When
   Easily obtained information - Computer good a remembering time
         Although determining when one event stops and another begins is not
          easy
 Why
   Even harder than the “what” question, biometric sensors might help
Other Problems with Context
 How do computers represent context
    No universal context schemes, toolkits must be developed
     with standard context representations
    Context may contain a lot of information with only a few
     pieces relevant for determining context.
 Context Sensing and Fusion
    Sensors are not as flexible as human sensors
       Right sensor for right job
       Use multiple sensors in parallel to offset noise
    Bit of a chicken-and-egg problem
       How do you know when to switch sensor? Use context
Automated Capture and Access
 Recording information and data as it occurs
    Computers are inherently good at recording, people are not
    People freed up to summarize and understand
    Most work in academic/ classroom settings
       Time stamping lectures, digital whiteboards
 Challenges in capture and access
    Sometime we don’t know we want to capture something
     until after its already happened
       How could the computer know that?
       If it captures everything then we need a system of sorting and
        filtering (access)
           Gmail Problem
    Access is a problem because capturing of raw data can be
     burdensome for sifting through…systems need to recognize
     important events facilitate access
Challenges Everyday Computing

 No clear beginning and end
     Both fundamental activities like communication and Long-term endeavors do
      not have predefined starts and ends
     Traditional HCI deals with transition users from current state to a goal state
          Not necessarily a goal state
 Interruptions
     People are constantly interrupted
     Constantly on computer systems must recognize interruption and change
      state
     Also computers must appropriately interrupt users
 Concurrency
     People multitask and rapidly switch task based on external unpredictable
      environment
     Systems need to adapt to this opportunistic behavior and change accordingly
Research in Everyday computing

 Continuously present interface
   No current model of continuously present interfaces,
    even people are not continuously present
   Create an interface that doesn’t get annoying
 Determine what information should require my
  attention and what should be display
  peripherally
 Comfort and style
   If constantly worn or carried must be stylish and
    comfortable
Other Challenges for Ubicomp

 Hard to evaluate Ubicomp Systems
   Little publish on ubicomp evaluation
   Systems often required to be fully connected leading
    to systems that are hard to build
   Lack of development toolkits make system creation
    difficult
   Systems often need to be integrated into peoples
    lives which using big clunky prototypes does not lead
    itself well too
   Task/Goal centric approaches don’t work in ubicomp
Social issues in Ubicomp

 Privacy
   Potential for misuse
   How should users be informed of computer
    monitoring (Don’t be invisible??)
   Is it ok to give up this privacy in some settings,
    healthcare
   Do we give the hackers too much power
 Security
   Constant monitoring take away personal
    responsibility
   What happens if I lose my data
Killer App in Ubicomp

 Article talked about Ubicomp as killer
  existence rather than just killer app
    That said killer apps like spreadsheets and word
     processing drove desktop proliferation
    Does Ubicomp need a killer app to spur is adoption?
    Where would such a killer app come from?
       Business setting or home users

				
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