Mandatory Animal Care and Use (MACU)
Introduction to the Use of Animals
and the DLAM Facilities
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
Tufts University & Tufts Medical Center
Outline of Presentation
Introduction to Federal and State Regulations
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine
Regulations Governing the Use of
Animals in Research
The Animal Welfare Act, passed in 1966, is overseen by
the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Public Health Service Policy was passed in 1985 and is
overseen by the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare at
the National Institute of Health (OLAW at NIH)
Massachusetts Research Animal Regulations (MDPH)
was passed in 1985 and is overseen by the MA
Department of Public Health
The Animal Welfare Act
Rats (genus Rattus), mice (genus Mus), birds, frogs, and fish
are among those currently exempted from definition of
Horses and farm animals used in biomedical research and
teaching are included in the definition of “animal,” but
animals used for food and fiber only are exempt.
Requires the Institutional Official (IO) of the Institution to
appoint an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
Compliance is ensured by unannounced annual inspections
(at a minimum) of each registered Institution.
Non-Compliance is managed by monetary fines and legal
action against the Institution
Institutions are required to submit an Annual Report to USDA
with the species, numbers, and pain/distress categories used
within that year.
Public Health Service Policy (PHS)
Defines “animal” as any live vertebrate
Requires IO of Institution to appoint Institutional
Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
Requires Institution to provide a written Assurance to
the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) at the
National Institutes of Health (NIH) in order to receive
funding from NIH.
Each Institution has it’s own Assurance number on file
with NIH. You must provide your campus’ Assurance
number on your funding application.
Requires that Institutions follow both of these
publications to receive funding.
◦ PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
◦ Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
PHS Policy and OLAW
Ensures compliance by requiring that each
Institution’s Assurance is resubmitted and
renewed every 4 years. Additional
requirements for the Institution can be made
by OLAW prior to renewal.
Requires any “significant” issue of
non-compliance to be reported to OLAW and
to the funding component.
For a definition of what OLAW considers
significant non-compliance, go to:
Massachusetts Research Animal Regulations
Massachusetts Research Animal Regulations were
passed in 1985.
Overseen by the MA Department of Public Health
Requires each Institution to hold a license for research
The MA Commission of Public Health, or an agent
designee, may visit and inspect the animal research
institution that houses dogs or cats. These inspections
may be unannounced and a facility could be inspected
four times a year.
Association for the Assessment and Accreditation of
Laboratory Animal Care, Int’l
Accreditation is voluntary and is recognized as the highest
standard of laboratory animal care
Triennial visits to ensure that the Institution meets
regulatory compliance and ensures high standards of
laboratory animal medicine.
Tufts Boston and Grafton are both AAALAC accredited.
Each campus maintains its own accreditation number.
Regulatory oversight of animal
3 Rs of Russell and Burch
The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique
The concept of the “3Rs” are cited in the Regulations and are used in our
Institutional policies as ethical guidance for the use of animals in research.
Each is defined below:
Replacement -methods that avoid using animals, such as replacing animals with
inanimate systems or replacing animals such as vertebrates with animals lower on
the phylogenetic scale.
Refinement-modifications of husbandry or experimental procedures to enhance animal
well-being and minimize or eliminate pain and distress.
Reduction-strategies for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of
fewer animals or for maximizing the information obtained from a given number of
animals (without increasing pain/distress) so that fewer animals are needed to
acquire the same scientific information.
Investigators are discouraged from advocating animal re-use as a reduction strategy.
Reduction should not be a rationale for re-using an animal that has already
undergone experimental procedures, especially if the well-being of the animal
would be compromised.
Animal Welfare Concerns
Whistleblower Policy-animal welfare concerns are
handled with as much confidentiality as possible.
Reporters are protected by law. (See Policy for detailed
information and contact numbers.)
Reports can be made to:
◦ Any member of the IACUC staff or committee
◦ The IACUC Chair
◦ Your Principal Investigator
◦ The Tufts anonymous hotline at 617-636-2492
Institutional Animal Care and Use
Committee members are appointed by the
Institutional Official, Peggy Newell
• IACUC Staff
- Dr. Barry Goldin, Boston/Grafton IACUC Chair
- Dr. L. Michael Romero, Medford IACUC Chair
- Valerie Parkison, IACUC/IBC Manager
- Stephanie Heller, IACUC Specialist
- Ann Holm, IACUC Coordinator, Grafton campus
- Terri Naumes, Regulatory Admin. Assistant
Institutional Animal Care and Use
The role of the IACUC is to oversee and routinely evaluate the Animal Care
and Use Program (the Program), which includes:
Ensure that the Institution is in compliance with all federal and state laws.
Protect Institution’s Assurance, licenses, and accreditation so that grant
funding can be received.
Review and approve proposed animal use (via protocols) and of proposed
changes (via amendments) to animal use.
Regular inspections of centralized facilities and laboratories approved for
Regular review of program requirements, such as training, occupational
health and safety, grant verifications, etc.
Establishment of a mechanism for receipt and review of concerns involving
the care and use of animals at the institution. The IACUC is authorized to
suspend any animal activity in order to protect the animals’ welfare.
Submit reports of program evaluation to government agencies and to the
Institutional Official (IO).
Tufts Institutional Care and Use Committee membership includes:
Practicing scientists experienced in research involving
animals. Each scientist represents a different
One member from a nonscientific background from Tufts
One public member to represent general community
interests in the proper care and use of animals.
The IACUC and its Institution
The IACUC serves as the advisory Committee on all matters
concerning the humane and ethical care of research animals.
The IACUC investigates and ensures resolution to compliance
issues involving the care and use of research and teaching
The IO is the institutional representative of the IACUC and is
asked to assist when:
1) the IACUC votes an issue of non-compliance as
“significant” and therefore reportable to federal agencies
2) federal reports are submitted
3) financial resources are necessary to maintain
compliance in the program or the facilities.
Information for the IACUC Protocol
Project Objective and Justification
Required to describe proposed research in lay terminology to represent the public’s
interest in publicly-funded work.
Should include hypothesis, explicit goals, potential contributions to human and/or
animal health & the advancement of biomedical knowledge.
Justify use of animals & why non-animal alternatives cannot be utilized.
Justify choice of species & describe unique characteristics that each species, stock, or
strain has that are necessary for your objectives.
Justify how the number of animals requested was determined. Including a brief
description of statistical analysis, including tests, power and probability levels utilized, if
Experimental Plan and Design
Describe all procedures and time intervals between procedures. Include specific
information on how study duration and endpoints will be determined. Indicate how all
procedures and compounds administered will affect animal health & ultimate disposition
Requires approval of all procedures performed on animals. This includes procedures that
are not “experimental”, such as tail biopsies, post-procedural care, etc.
Category Definitions – you must place your animals into one of the following three
categories and justify the choice of category:
USDA Category C: procedures with minimal, momentary, or no distress
USDA Category D: use of appropriate anesthetics, tranquilizers, or analgesics to alleviate
pain and/or distress
USDA Category E: animals may experience unrelieved pain and/or distress without
IACUC Protocol Form
Search for Alternatives
Federal regulations mandate you describe how the lack of alternatives were
verified for each potentially painful/distressing procedure (Cat. D or E). Must be
in the form of a narrative description including the date search was conducted,
database searched, years covered by search, keywords or search strategy, and
number of references found.
Federal law requires IACUC evaluation of training and qualifications of
personnel intending to use live animals in research or teaching. Personnel must
understand the basic needs of species utilized, use proper techniques when
handling each species, select methods that minimize distress, provide proper pre-
and post-procedural care to animals, use aseptic surgical techniques, & use
anesthetics/tranquilizers appropriate for each species.
Authorization of the Principal Investigator
PI must confirm that information is accurate and conforms with institutional and
regulatory policies on using animals in research & teaching, that alternatives have
been considered, that project doesn’t unnecessarily duplicate previous
experiments, that personnel have agreed to participate & are aware of approved
procedures, & are instructed in humane care, handling, and use of animals. They
must confirm that no changes will be made to procedures, care, or housing with
prior IACUC approval, & that failure to comply w/ IACUC policies and
procedures will jeopardize Tufts Animal Welfare Assurance on file with the NIH,
and may lead to revocation of privileges to conduct animal research.
Euthanasia (or Final Disposition)
Must justify how euthanasia is performed and provide details. A secondary,
physical method of euthanasia is required if an inhalant is used (CO2, isoflurane,
All changes in protocol must be approved by the IACUC
prior to implementation, which includes:
- change in procedure
- change in species
- change in animal number
The amendment form (Supplement A) is used to make
Amendments are reviewed by designated reviewers and
generally require one week to process.
- Some amendments are considered significant changes to the original
protocol and require Full Committee review rather than Designated
Review. These include; change in species, a significant increase in
animal numbers, additional Category E animals, or addition of a
Category E procedure.
Use of Animals in Laboratories
Use of animals outside of the centralized DLAM facilities
is not permitted without IACUC approval.
◦ Laboratory Use – locations that are approved for animal use of short
duration. Rats and mice may be taken to a laboratory for no more
than 24 hours. USDA covered species may be taken to a laboratory
for no more than 12 hours.
◦ Satellite Housing – locations approved for housing of the animals
over 24 hours outside of the centralized facilities. Additional facility
and husbandry requirements must be ensured.
For any use of animals outside of the DLAM facilities,
investigators must provide justification to the IACUC in a
protocol or amendment.
Satellite housing and areas where survival surgery is
conducted must be approved by the IACUC prior to use.
Areas approved for animal use need to be inspected by the
IACUC Approval Verification for
It is non-compliant to provide an IACUC date
without obtaining a grant verification letter.
IACUC must verify that animal use in a NIH (or other)
funding proposal is the same as in the approved IACUC
protocol(s) prior to release of funding.
Submit the Funding Proposal Request Form and the
proposal to the IACUC staff for review.
If the proposal includes procedures not included in the
IACUC protocol, amendments may be needed. Please
allow enough time for this process to take place, if
Approval to work with animals is contingent upon compliance with
the training requirement. For new investigators, Mandatory Animal
Care and Use (MACU) training is required and a 90-day grace period
is provided. MACU training must be renewed every 3 years.
Hands-on training is available from DLAM (eg. handling and restraint,
injection techniques and gavage, blood collection techniques, and
DLAM maintains a library of audiovisual and text references and
gives DLAM Seminar Series talks on specific topics.
Principal Investigators must keep in mind that it is their responsibility
to guarantee that their students, associates, and staff are appropriately
trained for the in vivo work in which they are involved. If additional or
more specialized training is required, it can be provided through the
DLAM veterinary staff.
Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine
(DLAM) Services Provided
Consultation on the selection, purchase, and use of
Breeding colony organization and genotyping
Receipt, transport, and housing of animals
Daily observations of animal health
Vermin control and eradication
DLAM Centralized Animal Facilities
- Stearns/Arnold/South Cove 3rd and 4th floors
- Ziskind 3rd floor & Surgical Research Laboratory
- Transgenic Core in Tupper Building
- Bacon Hall
Surgical Research Laboratory
• Provides dedicated operating rooms and facilities for large
• Space shared with DLAM for large animal housing
Transgenic Core Facility
• Provides consultation for DNA preparation and embryonic
stem (ES) cell tissue culture
Produces transgenic and chimeric animals using DNA
constructs and ES cells
Provides rederivation services
Security Access into DLAM Facilities
IACUC authorization is required for entry into animal facilities. In
order to request access, please email Terri Naumes
◦ Personnel must be added onto a protocol prior to facility access.
◦ Occupational Health Clearance must be obtained prior to facility access.
On the Boston Campus (Stearns/Arnold/South Cove & Ziskind
buildings), the perimeter is secured at both the main entrances and at
each individual rooms by an swipe card system managed by the Tufts
Police. This is your Tufts ID card that will be authorized with your
specific room number(s).
Visitors are not permitted in DLAM facilities for the protection of
personnel, animals, and facilities.
DO NOT SHARE YOUR ID CARD and don’t let others piggyback
into the facility behind you.
Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)
Working with animals can expose research personnel to
potential hazards (such as bites, scratches or zoonotic diseases). The
PI is ultimately responsible for ensuring his/her staff obtain
the proper training about hazards associated with their
OHS is a mandatory item for compliance with the
institution’s PHS Assurance and AAALAC accreditation
New personnel must complete “Assessment Form for
Contact Employee Health at 636-5480
OHS Clearance requires annual renewals
Bite/Scratch Injury in the Animal Facility
If you are bitten or scratched by an animal or if you have been cut or
scratched by an instrument or piece of equipment that has been
exposed to an animal or its bodily fluids, then follow the basic first aid
Scrub the wound with antiseptic soap and flush the injured area
liberally with water
Contact the Occupational Health and Safety office and describe the
incident. Follow their instructions regarding treatment and/or proceed
directly to the treatment center.
PROMPTLY REPORT ALL SUSPECTED WORK
RELATED INJURIES AND ILLNESSES TO A DLAM
SUPERVISOR AND YOUR SUPERVISOR
In the event of an animal emergency, please
contact a DLAM staff member for assistance
For after-hours, contact Tufts Police and request
that the veterinarian on-call be paged
For personal injuries, contact a DLAM staff
member and/or Tufts Police for assistance
Emergency numbers are listed by phones in the
Personal Conduct in Animal Rooms
Minimum Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Other PPE as directed on room door
No eating, drinking, or loud music permitted
Courtesy, Cleanliness, Awareness
Promote a collegial atmosphere
In Boston each animal housing room has an assigned
procedure room. Please do not take your animals to any
procedure room other than your own.
Sign up sheets are provided, otherwise space is on a first-
come first-serve basis.
Procedure rooms each include a bench top anesthesia unit,
glass bead sterilizer & scale. Items removed from
procedure rooms will not be replaced.
Usage of isoflurane must be tracked. Mark the sheet next
to the machine to document use. PLEASE contact DLAM
when the isoflurane is out or is low, so that it can replaced.
Individually Ventilated Caging
Available in DLAM facilities on the Boston
Provides HEPA filtered ventilation to each
Provides a better environment for animals
Provides higher level of protection from cross-
All biohazardous agents must be approved by the
Institutional Biosafety Committee prior to use.
The IBC website can be found at:
Biohazard card must be used for all biohazardous
agents used in animals.
These agents must be also be approved as part of
the animal use protocol form prior to use.
Investigators are mandated to follow the disposal
directions given by the Environmental Health and
Safety (EHS) office for these agents.
Chemicals considered hazardous need to be included in an
approved IACUC protocol and be registered with Tufts
Please see the chemical hygiene page under the chemical safety
link on the EHS web page at http://publicsafety.tufts.edu/ehs to
determine what chemicals are considered hazardous.
A DLAM Safety Plan will be created by TU/TMC EHS for the use
of each hazardous chemical in animals after it has been
Prior to using a hazardous chemical, a meeting with a DLAM
husbandry supervisor or manager needs to take place.
USE OF THE CHEMICAL CANNOT BEGIN UNTIL THE
ABOVE HAS BEEN COMPLETED.
Chemical hazard card must be used for all chemical hazards used
All chemical waste collection supplies are available through
TU/TMC EHS. It is the investigative staff’s responsibility to
arrange for the delivery of these items and the pick up when the
chemical use has been completed.
Health Physics Approval
All studies involving radioisotopes must be approved by
Radiation Safety officer; DLAM; and the TMC radiation
committee or Tufts University Radiation Hazards Control
No animal work involving radioisotopes is allowed until
approval from the IACUC and consent of Health Physics has
Users must receive training in safe handling of radioisotopes
prior to use.
Failure to strictly comply with the requirements established by
Health Physics and/or DLAM can result in substantial fines
Disposal of Dead Animals
All rodents found dead in the cage will be held in
refrigeration for 3 days, after which they will be moved to
◦ Dead animal stickers will be placed on the cage card holder of cages
where dead animals were removed by DLAM.
◦ If a whole cage of animals is found dead by DLAM, the cage cards
will be placed in a cardboard box located on the DLAM cage card
supply rack in the facility (Boston campus).
All animal carcasses and animal parts are to be disposed of
in DLAM’s dead animal freezers.
Sentinel animals are used to monitor the
health status of rodent colonies.
Cages are placed on the bottom of each
rack and monitor the experimental
animals housed on that rack.
Please do not move these cages from their
location on the racks.
Diagnostic specimens are obtained from
sentinels on a routine basis.
Bimonthly, Semiannual, and Annual
testing of Sentinel animals is conducted
Investigators will be immediately notified
if pathogen(s) are found in the colony.
Yearly summary report is provided to
investigators in the Fall.
Infections in Research Animals
Are often subclinical (this means you cannot
tell there is a problem by visual inspection)
Can inhibit induction of animal model
Can increase difficulty interpreting results
Can increase variation in group (requiring
larger sample sizes)
Can have zoonotic potential (meaning they
can be transmitted from animals to people)
Testing of Biological Products
Transplantable tumors, hybridomas, cell lines,
blood products, and other biologic materials can
be sources of both murine and human viruses,
which can contaminate rodents or pose risks to
ALL biological products must be tested by
DLAM prior to use (MAP, PCR, etc.). Even
products (blood, serum) that have been passaged
Animals must be covered by an IACUC protocol prior to
Animals must be purchased through DLAM using only
Approved vendors. Fill out the “DLAM Animal Purchase
Request Form” and submit to DLAM.
Animal procurement from Non-approved Vendors will
require submission of request and approval from DLAM
◦ Fill out the “Tufts Rodent Importation Request Form” and
“DLAM Animal Purchase Request Form” and submit to
◦ “Rodent Health Report for Importation Form” is sent to the
non-approved vendor/institution and should be completed by
that facility veterinarian or designated facility staff and
returned to DLAM.
Importation of Rodents from
Dependent upon clean health certificate received
in advance of the shipment.
Animals will be quarantined or can be rederived
in the Transgenic Core.
◦ Quarantine is the separation of newly received
animals from those already in the facility in order to
prevent potential spread of contaminants until their
health status has been determined, typically 10-12
◦ Rederivation has benefits of decreased time,
availability of F1 progeny, and virtual elimination of
pathogens including opportunistic organisms.
Animal Arrival and Acclimation
All animals should be afforded a period of acclimation/
stabilization following shipment.
Stabilization periods vary depending on species, type of
transportation, and intended use of animal:
◦ Rodents: 2-3 days
◦ Large animals:
Chronic procedure: 5 days
Acute (< 2 weeks): 3 days
Studies involving immune response, hormone levels, or
response to stimulus should be given 72 hours to stabilize.
◦ Corticosterone levels & immune function affected by
Exportation of Animals
DLAM can assist investigators who are shipping
animals to other institutions.
The receiving institution will require a health
certificate from a DLAM veterinarian.
Complete “Request for Health Certificate for
Shipping Animals” and send to dlam-
firstname.lastname@example.org or fax to 6-8354.
Do NOT ship animals until the receiving
institution has provided approval of shipment.
Intra-Institutional Transportation of Animals
See Intra-Institutional Policy on Transport of
Animals from the Animal Facility to
• Transport animals in a new clean cage covered with an
opaque drape (please don’t use yellow gowns) or in brown
bags provided in facility for transport of rodent cages.
• Rodent caging must be complete with filter tops.
• Remove water bottles or reposition to prevent water
leakage into cages.
• Transfer rodents into another clean cage before returning to
Animal Protocol Transfers & Room Relocation
Animals may be transferred from one protocol to another.
Use the Animal Protocol Transfer Form to list the details
and submit it to DLAM for Approval. The IACUC office
will send an Approval email when all conditions of transfer
have been Approved. Transfer should occur only after the
IACUC office has emailed the Approval.
If you need to move your animals into a different room,
you will need to obtain approval from DLAM. You can do
this by submitting the Animal Relocation Request Form to
the DLAM office. Animals should not be moved until
after you receive approval from DLAM.
Both forms can be submitted to DLAM at fax #
If an animal escapes in an animal room or your
laboratory, please contact DLAM for assistance.
Lab rodents caught in traps or found loose in
animal rooms should be euthanized and may be
necropsied by DLAM.
Animal Room Maintenance and Caging
DLAM Husbandry staff performs daily
maintenance of all animals, including routine
If investigative staff only want to provide care,
then use “Do Not Disturb” cage card.
Room racks have a limited supply of cages and
equipment. Hallway racks have additional
If caging is not available, contact the Husbandry
DO NOT DISTURB Cage Card
See “DLAM Policy Regarding Investigative staff is
Animal Husbandry Procedures responsible for placing and
Provided by Investigative Staff” removing DND cage card.
Assumes responsibility for
all husbandry (cage change,
food, water) and must
maintain same frequency as
Date of last cage change
must be provided and cages
must be changed at least
once a week.
Lab staff must date and
initial when cages are
Special Husbandry Services
Special husbandry by DLAM is available upon
request or is done by the investigative staff.
“Special Husbandry” cage card is used to identify
◦ Special food (eg: breeder chow)
◦ Treated water (eg: Tylenol)
◦ Special cage environment (eg: “no nestlets”)
Special Husbandry Cage Card
Placed and removed
Card needs to be
filled out completely
If DLAM is asked to
husbandry you must
See IACUC Policy and Procedures for Animal
Identification and Procedures for Corrective Action
A cage card must be established for each animal and/or
cage of group-housed rodents. Blank cards are available in
the animal facilities.
Investigators may submit a request to DLAM for a
designated number of computer-generated cage cards with
all required information. Send Cage Card Request Form to
Maggie Collum and allow five days to process.
Animals/cages found with incorrect identification, will be
flagged with a Non Compliant cage card.
Required Information on Cage Cards
Investigator’s phone numbers, both office and
Approved and active protocol number
Current account number
Species, strain or stock (if applicable)
USDA tag # or other identification (if applicable)
Contact person (individual responsible for the
animals) and extension
Non-Compliant Cage Card
Placed by DLAM
missing from cage
Gives a 30 day
window to correct
Mouse Cage Populations
See IACUC Policy for Maintaining Mouse Cage
Small standard shoebox:
Five adult animals; or
One adult pair and one litter – pups must be weaned at 21
days of age; or
One adult female and one litter – pups must be weaned
between 22-28 days of age, no post-partum estrus breeding
Two adult females, with 1-2 litters – no more than 10 pups
in cage, must be weaned at 21 days
Overcrowded Cage Cards
Placed by DLAM
Given a specific deadline either
3 or 7 days
3 day deadline: you will receive
7 day deadline: you will not
Failure to correct the situation
results in DLAM separation of
the cage and lab will be charged
a new cage setup fee.
OC cage card can only be
removed by DLAM staff.
Inventory and Monthly Billing
DLAM takes census once per week and records numbers
on each room’s Census Sheet.
Census Sheets are located near the entrance to each
Use these sheets to recorded the number of cages added to
or removed from the housing room so that you are charged
per diem rates for the most accurate number of cages each
Weaned/separated cages (+ the number of cages you generated)
Euthanized cages (- the number of cages you removed)
Monthly billing questions contact Betty Turner at
Daily Animal Health Evaluations
Animal health is checked routinely by husbandry staff,
veterinary technicians, and veterinarians.
Investigator health check (HC) procedures are an
integral part of program. Please contact DLAM and/or
place a “Health Check” (HC) card to flag cages with
If a Health Check card has been placed on a cage, you
can contact a vet tech (x6-2674) if you haven’t already
been notified of the finding.
◦ Cards are placed to help monitor and track animal
health and/or treatments
◦ Cards are only to be removed by DLAM staff
Two sided card
Front describes health
Back is a treatment
Card is dated and
initialed by DLAM
personnel to track
sign off if they perform
Located on each animal
Gives a quick overview
of problems found in
each room (such as
health checks, dead
animals found, etc.)
during DLAM rounds
Includes a key of
abbreviations at the
bottom of the form
Technical Service Request Form
Used by investigative staff to request DLAM services
Forms can be found within the DLAM Animal Facilities, or
call the DLAM office at X6-2674 and request blank form.
Can request euthanasia, technical services (such as blood
collection, injections, gavage, surgery, etc.), or training on
Please give 5 business days notice for scheduling with
Rodent Survival Surgery
Survival surgery needs to be performed in a clean, dedicated space.
For Boston campus investigators, please perform surgery ONLY in the
procedure room associated with your animals’ housing room.
Gas anesthesia machines are available in every procedure room for
isoflurane use. Please utilize the sign-up sheets to reserve space and the
isoflurane sheets to track the time and use of the machine.
Aseptic technique is REQUIRED!
-Disinfect surfaces prior to surgery
-Equipment MUST be sterilized
-A clean lab coat/disposable gown/ surgical scrub shirt, sterile surgical
gloves, and a surgical mask all MUST be worn
-Proper preparation of surgical site
-Proper suture material and wound closure
Use of the rodent “Surgery Card” on all cages is REQUIRED!
Use of surgery card is required
by IACUC policy
It is the investigative staff’s
responsibility to properly
monitor animals in the post-op
period for 3 days, which
includes filling out the card
All relevant information on the
card must be filled out, dated,
and initialed each day.
Improper monitoring or non-
use is an issue of Non-
Post-Operative Care for Surgeries
Investigative staff is responsible for providing all animals
involved in survival surgical procedures appropriate post-
op care, as described in the IACUC policy.
Records of post-op care must be accurately maintained
Animals must be kept warm during procedure and in the
immediate post-op period while recovering from
anesthesia. Electrical heating pads must not be used as they
frequently develop “hot spots,” which can cause thermal burns.
Continuous monitoring is required until animals have
recovered consciousness and can maintain sternal
Post-Operative Care for Surgeries
Assess hydration/ fluid replacement/adequate nutrition (see Surgery
policy for details).
The incision must be examined for evidence of wound dehiscence or
infection until it is completely healed and wound clips/sutures must be
removed 10-14 days post-operatively.
Analgesics, in general:
◦ Major operative procedures will require the administration of
analgesics for 3 days post-operatively.
◦ For less invasive surgeries, frequency and duration of analgesic
administration will depend on the type of surgery, but the minimum
analgesia required is typically at least once peri-operatively or
immediate post-operatively, unless scientific justification can be
provided for not using all classes of analgesics.
Animal Health Records
Appropriate records must be kept by the investigative staff
in order to document post-operative care evaluation and
treatments. Please consult the IACUC Policy on
Maintaining Proper Animal Health Records.
◦ For rodents, this information must be recorded on the blue Surgery
◦ For USDA covered animals; all procedures, including surgery,
must be detailed in each animal’s medical record.
Records are subject to inspection by IACUC,
USDA, PHS, and AAALAC
Use of Anesthetics and Analgesics
Adequate anesthesia and analgesics must be
used to minimize pain and distress, unless
justified in the approved protocol.
NO EXPIRED or UNLABELED substances can
be used in animals
Chloroform is strictly prohibited – toxic to some
mice and suspected carcinogen
Ether is strictly prohibited –explosive!
Ordering Controlled Substances
Controlled substances can be ordered through DLAM.
Use of the specific drug must be included in an approved
All controlled drugs must be kept behind two locks.
A usage log including; drug name, amount used for each
administration and date, amount remaining, and user ID
must be maintained and is subject to inspection.
The “Authorization for the Acquisition of Controlled
Substances” form is filled out by PI granting permission for
lab personnel to request controlled substances from DLAM.
Fill out and submit a “DLAM Drug and Supply Request
Form” each time you wish to order drugs or supplies from
- Please allow 5 business days
- Some items may take longer to order, so plan accordingly.
Policy on Protocol Non-Compliance and/or
Situations of noncompliance can vary considerably and the IACUC is required to
determine the significance of each issue. Examples are listed below:
Minor issues are typically handled at the institutional level (unless there are repeat violations).
Examples may include, but are not limited to:
◦ Lack of the mandated surgical and post-operative care records
◦ Failure to adhere to proper aseptic technique for survival surgery
◦ Not informing the IACUC of the addition of personnel
◦ Unapproved transfer of animals from one protocol to another
Significant issues that are deemed serious must be reported to the Office of Laboratory Animal
Welfare (OLAW) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and/or to the United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA), as well as reported to the specific funding agency for that
project. Examples may include, but are not limited to:
◦ Acquiring animals for research or performing unapproved procedures without IACUC
◦ Performing a procedure in such a manner that animals endure distress, pain, or suffering
that is not addressed in the approved protocol.
◦ Repeated incidents of minor issues of non-compliance.
The IACUC is mandated to comply with the following regarding how to classify non-
compliance, which is explained in the OLAW notice found here:
The method of euthanasia described in your protocol must
comply with the Report of the American Veterinary
Medical Association’s Panel on Euthanasia. For example:
Approved methods include:
◦ CO2 asphyxiation, which must be followed by a
physical method to ensure death. CO2 must be given via
a gas cylinder. Use of dry ice is NOT permitted.
◦ Anesthetic overdose
◦ General anesthesia followed by perfusion, removal of
major organ, or cervical dislocation.
Conditional methods require scientific justification in the
protocol. These include methods such as decapitation or
cervical dislocation while the animal is conscious.
Animals left on the rack for euthanasia must be afforded the same
conditions as all animals housed in this facility:
Do not house more than 5 adults per cage
Do not leave pre-weaned litter w/o their mother
Do not stack cages on top of each other
Do not leave animals w/o adequate food and water
DO contact DLAM immediately if you see any of the above
Individuals who do not comply with the above requirements risk
not only their suspension from work at this institution, but the
suspension of the protocols under which they are conducting
This concludes the MACU Training power
Please continue on by reviewing the IACUC
Policy folder before taking the quiz.