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Multiple Visceral Congenital Anomalies in Calf

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					             Veterinary Pathology Online          http://vet.sagepub.com/




                                Multiple Visceral Congenital Anomalies in a Calf
                                             D. J. Prieur and D. A. Dargatz
                                                 Vet Pathol 1984 21: 452
                                           DOI: 10.1177/030098588402100415

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452                                                       Brief Communication

                           References                                disease in sucking pigs. Acta Vet Hung 7:273-276, 1957
         G.;
 1 BAROCSAI, TANCZER, Active immunization against
                   D.:                                                              J.B.;
                                                                     MCFERRAN, Dow, C.: The distribution of the virus
      Aujeszky’s disease by attenuated virus. Magy Allatorv Lap      of Aujeszky’s disease (Pseudorabies virus) in experimen-
      17:350-351, 1962                                               tally infected swine. Am J Vet Res 26:631-635, 1965
 2     BECKER,  C.H.: Die multiplikation des Aujeszkyschen vi-       OLANDER,      H.J.; SAUNDERS,     J.R.; GUSTAEON,D.P.;
      rus in den Spinalganflien des Kaninchens. Arch Exp             JONES,  R.K.: Pathologic finding in swine affected with a
      Veterinaermed 22: 363-38 1, 1968                               virulent strain of Aujeszky’s virus. Vet Pathol 3:64-82,
 3    BERGMANN, BECKER,
                    V.;         C.H.: Ultrasuchungen zur path-        1966
      omorphologie und pathogenese der Aujeszkyschen Kran-        10 RAJ~ANI, SABO,A.; BLASKOVI~, Studies on the
                                                                                J.;                           D.:
      kheit. Pathologia Vet 4:97- 1 19, 1967                         pathogenesis of Aujeszky’s disease. 11. The distribution of
 4    CORNER,   A.H.: Pathology of experimental Aujeszky’s dis-      virus after subcutaneous infection. Acta Virol (Praha)
      ease in piglets. Res Vet Sci 6:337-343, 1965                   13~52-59,1969
 5    FUKUSHO, SHIMIZU, KUBO, NANBA, SHIM- 1 1 SABO,A.; RAJ~ANI, BLASKOVI~, Studies on the
                 A.;           M.;          M.;         K.;                                 J.;               D.:
                          S.;
      IZU,Y.;KONNO, SUZUKI, OTAKI, The first
                                        K.;         T.:              pathogenesis of Aujeszky’s disease. I. Distribution of the
      outbreak of Aujeszky’s disease in swine in Japan. 11. Virus    virulent virus in piglets after peroral infection. Acta Virol
      isolation. Bull Nat Inst Anim Health 82:s-11, 1981             (Praha) 12:214-221, 1968
 6    ITAKURA, NAKATSUKA,
                 C.;               J.; GOTO,M.: An incidence of 12 SABO,A.; RAJ~ANI, BLASKOVI~, Studies on the
                                                                                            D.;                D.:
      pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s disease) in piglets in Japan. Jpn     pathogenesis of Aujeszky’s disease. 111. The distribution
      J Vet Sci 43:923-927, 198 1                                    of the virulent virus in piglets after intranasal infection.
 7    KOJNOK,J.: Mother’s milk and the spread of Aujeszky’s          Acta Virol (Praha) 13:407-414, 1969

Request reprints from Dr. M. Narita, Third Research Division, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai, Yatabe,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 (Japan).




Vet. Pathol. 2f: 452-454 (1984)




                                  Multiple Visceral Congenital Anomalies in a Calf

                                                           and
                                                D. J. PRIEUR D. A. DARCATZ


   Numerous reports of congenital malformations of portions                  ings and an imperforate anus. The serosal surfaces of the
of the intestines of domestic animals have been published.*                  gastrointestinal tract were reddened (congestion) and had
Most malformations reported consisted of stenosis or atresia                 attached fibrin tags. A large gas-filled viscus ending in a blind
of a segment of the intestine. Segmental intestinal agenesis                 sac was present on the left side of the abdominal cavity with
has been reported only rarely.                                               the blind end located in the left ventral quadrant. This viscus,
   A two-day-old calf born of a Hereford heifer and sired by                 which was interpreted to be the cecum, was continuous with
a 3h Longhorn bull was presented in acute distress with                      the small intestine (fig. 1). Although the lumen extending
tympanic distension of the abdomen. A trocar was inserted                    from the small intestine into the cecum was continuous and
into the bowel through the left flank and a large amount of                  patent, no ileocecal valve could be detected. The colon was
foul-smelling gas escaped. The calf died immediately after                   absent. Mesenteric folds containing fat and mesenteric lymph
cannulization and the carcass was submitted for necropsy.                    nodes but no intestine were present in locations where the
The calf was from a ranch with 80 cows and three bulls. The                  colon normally would be expected. The rectum also was
calf crop was approximately 95% of the cows bred, and had                    absent and no anus was present. A slight excess of integument,
been stable for several years. No congenital malformations in                which could be inverted manually approximately 1 cm, was
calves had been observed on the ranch this year or in previous               located at the site at which the anus normally would be
years.                                                                       expected.
   Necropsy revealed a 29 kg male calf with Hereford mark-                      The spleen was sited normally but was malformed into a




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                                                       Brief Communication                                                                      453




                                                                                                           Fig. 1: Intestines with cecum ending, in
                                                                                                        a blind sac (arrow).




complex folded organ (fig. 2). The kidneys were fused at the              present and patent. The urinary bladder was elongated ab-
anterior poles of their medial surfaces and were located on               normally to 20 cm. extended well into the pelvic canal, had a
the abdominal midline. The left kidney was judged to be of                fibrous stricture across the dorsal aspect of its midsection, and
approximately normal size (12 cm in length), whereas, the                 was filled with urine. The urethra and penis were patent and
right kidney was only 7 cm long (fig. 3). The ureters were                normal in structure.




                                                                                           Fig. 2: Malformed spleen.
                                                                                           Fig.3: Dorsal view of kidneys fused at their
                                                                                         anterior poles.




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454                                                        Brief Communication

   No right testis or epididymis were present. The left testis                                             Acknowledgements
was located 4 cm caudal to the left kidney and was normal in                   We thank A.M. Gallina, G.L. Burns? and C. Dowers of
appearance. The liver and gall bladder were normal in size,                  Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for their
 however, the liver lacked the fissures that normally divide                 cooperation. This work was supported in part by grant
bovine livers into lobes. No other lesions were found.                       RR005 15 from the National Institutes of Health.
   Several forms of intestinal malformations have been ob-
                               ~ ~ ~ of these
served in c a l v e ~ . ' ~ ~ Most ~ . ~ ~ I I have consisted of
atresia of a segment of intestine and include some which
consisted of an atresia of the colon. Agenesis of the colon                                                   References
apparently is quite rare although four cases have been re-                              J.S.: Experimental intestinal atresia. Surgery
                                                                                1 ABRAMS,
ported." There have been several reports of a condition in                       64:185-191, 1968
calves (primarily Holsteins) termed duo-cecum or bovine                        2 GAAG,I. V A N DER; TIBBOEL, Intestinal atresia and
                                                                                                                    D.:
intestinal anomaly.'.'. I" In this condition the cecum is present                stenosis in animals: a report of 34 cases. Vet Pathol
but the anterior colon ends in a blind pouch after approxi-                      17:565-574, 1980
mately 95 cm. The anus and rectum are present but the                          3 KERNKAMP,      H.C.H.; LEGATES,    J.E.: Duo-cecum. An in-
terminal small colon ends in a blind pouch. The anomaly is                       testinal anomaly in calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc
therefore quite different than the case reported here. It has                    139:1207, 1961
been suggested that the bovine intestinal anomaly results from                 4 LENGHAUS, WHITE,
                                                                                               C.;          W.E.: Intestinal atresia in calves.
the failure of the small colon to connect with the large colon                   Aust Vet J 49587-588, 1973
during embryonic development.8                                                 5 Louw, J.H.: Investigations into the etiology of congenital
   Atresia ani has been observed in association with intestinal                  atresia of the colon. Dis Colon Rectum 7:471-478, 1964
atresia, and when agenesis of the colon has been observed,                     6 MCGEADY,      T.A.; MURPHY,                        T.:
                                                                                                                 E.C.; TWOMEY, Atresia
atresia ani usually has been associated with it."                                coli in a calf: a note on its pathogenesis. Ir Vet J 21 :148-
   The mechanism(s) by which the multiple congenital anom-                        150, 1967
alies observed in this calf arose, can only be speculated                      7 MACLELLAN, MARTIN, Congenital atresia of the
                                                                                                 M.;            J.:
upon. It has been demonstrated that intestinal atresia can be                    large intestine in a calf: successful surgical correction. Vet
induced by interference with the mesenteric arterial blood                       Rec 68:458-459, 1956
flow during embryonic            The diversity of malformations                              J.C.;
                                                                               8 OSBORNE, LEGATES,            J.E.: Six cases of bovine intes-
present in this calf, however, were not observed with induced                    tinal anomaly. J Am Vet Med Assoc 142: 1104, 1963
intestinal atresia. The malformation of the spleen suggested                  9 SCHLOTTHAUER, Congenital atresia of the colon in a
                                                                                                    C.F.:
that it had been folded upon itself at some point during                         calf. J Am Vet Med Assoc 127:339, 1955
development. It is possible that there was a twisting of the                 10 SKEWES,     A.R.: Bovine intestinal anomaly. Vet Med
viscera upon its mesenteric attachments during development                       571133-134, 1962
that caused malformations of some organs and led to an                                          M.;
                                                                             1 1 STEENHAUT, DE MOOR,A.; VERSCHOOTEN, DES-              F.;
interference in the arterial blood flow that prevented the                              P.:
                                                                                 MET, Intestinal malformations in calves and their sur-
development of the colon and rectum.                                             gical correction. Vet Rec 98: 13 1- 133, 1976




Request reprints from Dr. David J. Prieur, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State
University, Pullman, WA 99 164 (USA).



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