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Anemia

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Anemia Powered By Docstoc
					 By: Kimberly Tan
Chantelle Whitehead
      Bre Hull
Background Info:
• Blood cells are made in bone marrow.
• Bone marrow is the spongy part in the centre of
    the bone.
•   Blood is made up of plasma.
•   Floating in the plasma are:
     Red Blood Cell – carry O2 around the body.
     White Blood Cell – fight diseases and
                      infections.
     Platelets – help stop bleeding when it starts.
3 types of Blood diseases:
           • Anemia

          • Leukemia

         • Hemophilia
              ANEMIA
Healthy red blood
 cells below normal
 level

Tissues can’t get
  enough oxygen
              Symptoms
 Feels weak and tired
 Dizziness
 Headaches
 Pale or cool skin
 Rapid heartbeat
 Shortness of breath
         Main Causes
1.   Not enough red blood cells
     produced
2.   Loss of blood
3.   Excessive destruction of red
     blood cells
             Types

Deficiency anemias
Aplastic anemias
Sickle - cell anemia
            Deficiency Anemias
   Diet lacks sufficient nutrients
          Iron, Vitamin B-12, folic acid




Body can’t absorb nutrients properly
         Aplastic Anemias
 Bone   marrow loses its
  ability to produce red
  blood cells
 Can result from exposure
  to chemicals & radiation
         Sickle - cell Anemia
Condition when red blood cells
become sickle shaped
Abnormal hemoglobin form
strands causing the sickle shape




                                   Cells tend to get stuck and
                                   block blood vessels
                                   Can cause pain, serious
                                   infections & organ damage
                            Causes

 Inherited condition
 2 copies of sickle cell
gene
 1 from each parent
             Treatments
Deficiency Anemia
   Adding nutrients to diet or through
    injections/ tablets
Aplastic Anemia
   Bone marrow transplant
   Regular blood transfusions
              Treatments
Sickle – cell anemia
   Regular blood transfusions
   Medicine to relieve pain
   Surgery
   Vaccinations
a.k.a “Cancer of the blood”
• Leukemia = “white blood” in Greek

• making of abnormal, useless WBC get out of control.

• Abnormal WBC multiply in an uncontrolled manner
  and crowd out normal blood cells.

• not enough normal R&WBC.

• The abnormal WBC do not fight infections
• Weakness & tiredness.

• Regular infections & high temperatures

• Bleeding that takes a long time to stop

• Pain in the bones and joints.
• Appetite / Weight loss

• Bleeding / bruising due to low platelet count
• Anemia
• Chemotherapy - Uses drugs to kill
 leukemia cells.




• Radiation therapy - uses high-energy
 rays to kill leukemia cells.
• Stem cell transplant - treated with high doses of drugs,
  radiation, or both which destroy both leukemia cells and
  normal blood cells in the bone marrow. Later, the patient
  receives healthy stem cells and new blood cells develop from
  the transplanted stem cells. (Ex. Bone Marrow Transplant)
 How quickly it develops:
• Acute Leukemia – develops extremely quickly /
  suddenly. (over days/weeks)

• Chronic Leukemia – develops slowly, may
have it for a long time w/out any symptoms.
(over months/years) (harder to cure)

 Type of blood cells involved:
• Lymphocytic Leukemia – develops from
lymphocyte in the bone marrow.                    (Normal)

• Myeloid Leukemia – develops from granulocytes or
  monocytes
• Develops quickly from lymphocyte

• Most common leukemia in children. (ages 2-5)
• Rare in adults.

• Large # of immature, abnormal lymphocytes
  produced & released into the bloodstream.

• These abnormal cells multiply rapidly and can crowd
  out healthy blood cells

• Leaving you vulnerable to infection and easy
  bleeding.
• The disease may take as long as 10 years to develop
  from lymphocyte.

• Most common leukemia among adults. (age 55+)

• the DNA of a B cell is damaged, & can't fight infection

• grows out of control and crowds out the healthy blood
  cells that can fight infection.

• mild at first and worsen gradually
• starts in cells that would normally develop into different
  types of blood cells.

• A quickly progressive malignant disease in which there
  are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood
  and bone marrow.

• do not mature and so become too numerous.

• Strikes both adult and child.
• starts in blood-forming cells of the bone marrow.
• the blood and can spread to other parts of the
  body, including the spleen .

• the body keeps producing large numbers of
  these
   abnormal cells.

• Affects mainly adults.
Hemophilia


• two Greek words: haima = “blood”, philia = “infection”

• rare, inherited bleeding disorder (blood doesn’t clot
  normally.)

• may bleed for a longer (not more) time after an injury.

• may bleed internally (i.e.. knees, ankles, elbows)

• bleeding can damage your organs / tissues and,
  sometimes, be fatal.
Types:
• Type A:
  – do not have a sufficient amount of the blood
    clotting protein, factor VIII.
  – More common than type B.




Type B:
  – do not have enough of the blood clotting
    protein, factor XI.
   Causes
• Inherited/ acquired

• defective gene is
  carried on the X
  chromosome.

• Male w/ 1 defective X
  chromo = hemophilia

• Female w/ 1 defective
  X = no hemophilia but
  50% chance of
  passing it down.
Signs and Symptoms

 • Prolonged bleeding

 • Excessive External
   Bleeding

 • Bleeding in the Joints
   (Internal)

 • Bleeding in the Brain
Treatment
• Sadly…. There’s no cure, but!!

• replacement therapy - giving or replacing the clotting
  factor that’s too low or missing.

• Desmopressin- man-made hormone used to treat
  people with mild to moderate hemophilia A. stimulates
  the release of stored factor VIII and increases the level
  of these proteins in your blood.

• Gene Therapy - still in progress…
Bibliography…
• Morse, Edward E. “Anemia” The World Book Encyclopedia. 2007. A: page
    457,458
•   “Disorders and Deficiencies” The Human Body 2001. 7:
•   Ballard, Carol. The Heart and Circulatory System. England: Wayland
    Publishers Limited 1996.
•   “Leukemia” World Book 2005. L:
•   “Diseases” The New Book of Knowledge. 1994. D:
•   “Sickle cell anemia” May 2007. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute 13
    November 2007 <
    http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Sca/SCA_WhatIs.html.
•   “Symptoms of Leukemia” February 2007. UPMC November 2007
    http://www.upmc.com/HealthManagement/ManagingYourHealth/HealthRef
    erence/Diseases/InDepth?chunkiid=1973612
•   “What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?” October 2007. American Cancer
    Society 12 November 2007 <
    http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_2_1x_what_is_adult_ac
    ute_leukemia_57.asp >
•   “Hemophilia” Wikipedia 14 November 2007
    <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/hemophilia>
BLOOD – O!

				
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