By: Kimberly Tan Chantelle Whitehead Bre Hull Background Info: • Blood cells are made in bone marrow. • Bone marrow is the spongy part in the centre of the bone. • Blood is made up of plasma. • Floating in the plasma are: Red Blood Cell – carry O2 around the body. White Blood Cell – fight diseases and infections. Platelets – help stop bleeding when it starts. 3 types of Blood diseases: • Anemia • Leukemia • Hemophilia ANEMIA Healthy red blood cells below normal level Tissues can’t get enough oxygen Symptoms Feels weak and tired Dizziness Headaches Pale or cool skin Rapid heartbeat Shortness of breath Main Causes 1. Not enough red blood cells produced 2. Loss of blood 3. Excessive destruction of red blood cells Types Deficiency anemias Aplastic anemias Sickle - cell anemia Deficiency Anemias Diet lacks sufficient nutrients Iron, Vitamin B-12, folic acid Body can’t absorb nutrients properly Aplastic Anemias Bone marrow loses its ability to produce red blood cells Can result from exposure to chemicals & radiation Sickle - cell Anemia Condition when red blood cells become sickle shaped Abnormal hemoglobin form strands causing the sickle shape Cells tend to get stuck and block blood vessels Can cause pain, serious infections & organ damage Causes Inherited condition 2 copies of sickle cell gene 1 from each parent Treatments Deficiency Anemia Adding nutrients to diet or through injections/ tablets Aplastic Anemia Bone marrow transplant Regular blood transfusions Treatments Sickle – cell anemia Regular blood transfusions Medicine to relieve pain Surgery Vaccinations a.k.a “Cancer of the blood” • Leukemia = “white blood” in Greek • making of abnormal, useless WBC get out of control. • Abnormal WBC multiply in an uncontrolled manner and crowd out normal blood cells. • not enough normal R&WBC. • The abnormal WBC do not fight infections • Weakness & tiredness. • Regular infections & high temperatures • Bleeding that takes a long time to stop • Pain in the bones and joints. • Appetite / Weight loss • Bleeding / bruising due to low platelet count • Anemia • Chemotherapy - Uses drugs to kill leukemia cells. • Radiation therapy - uses high-energy rays to kill leukemia cells. • Stem cell transplant - treated with high doses of drugs, radiation, or both which destroy both leukemia cells and normal blood cells in the bone marrow. Later, the patient receives healthy stem cells and new blood cells develop from the transplanted stem cells. (Ex. Bone Marrow Transplant) How quickly it develops: • Acute Leukemia – develops extremely quickly / suddenly. (over days/weeks) • Chronic Leukemia – develops slowly, may have it for a long time w/out any symptoms. (over months/years) (harder to cure) Type of blood cells involved: • Lymphocytic Leukemia – develops from lymphocyte in the bone marrow. (Normal) • Myeloid Leukemia – develops from granulocytes or monocytes • Develops quickly from lymphocyte • Most common leukemia in children. (ages 2-5) • Rare in adults. • Large # of immature, abnormal lymphocytes produced & released into the bloodstream. • These abnormal cells multiply rapidly and can crowd out healthy blood cells • Leaving you vulnerable to infection and easy bleeding. • The disease may take as long as 10 years to develop from lymphocyte. • Most common leukemia among adults. (age 55+) • the DNA of a B cell is damaged, & can't fight infection • grows out of control and crowds out the healthy blood cells that can fight infection. • mild at first and worsen gradually • starts in cells that would normally develop into different types of blood cells. • A quickly progressive malignant disease in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow. • do not mature and so become too numerous. • Strikes both adult and child. • starts in blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. • the blood and can spread to other parts of the body, including the spleen . • the body keeps producing large numbers of these abnormal cells. • Affects mainly adults. Hemophilia • two Greek words: haima = “blood”, philia = “infection” • rare, inherited bleeding disorder (blood doesn’t clot normally.) • may bleed for a longer (not more) time after an injury. • may bleed internally (i.e.. knees, ankles, elbows) • bleeding can damage your organs / tissues and, sometimes, be fatal. Types: • Type A: – do not have a sufficient amount of the blood clotting protein, factor VIII. – More common than type B. Type B: – do not have enough of the blood clotting protein, factor XI. Causes • Inherited/ acquired • defective gene is carried on the X chromosome. • Male w/ 1 defective X chromo = hemophilia • Female w/ 1 defective X = no hemophilia but 50% chance of passing it down. Signs and Symptoms • Prolonged bleeding • Excessive External Bleeding • Bleeding in the Joints (Internal) • Bleeding in the Brain Treatment • Sadly…. There’s no cure, but!! • replacement therapy - giving or replacing the clotting factor that’s too low or missing. • Desmopressin- man-made hormone used to treat people with mild to moderate hemophilia A. stimulates the release of stored factor VIII and increases the level of these proteins in your blood. • Gene Therapy - still in progress… Bibliography… • Morse, Edward E. “Anemia” The World Book Encyclopedia. 2007. A: page 457,458 • “Disorders and Deficiencies” The Human Body 2001. 7: • Ballard, Carol. The Heart and Circulatory System. England: Wayland Publishers Limited 1996. • “Leukemia” World Book 2005. L: • “Diseases” The New Book of Knowledge. 1994. D: • “Sickle cell anemia” May 2007. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute 13 November 2007 < http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Sca/SCA_WhatIs.html. • “Symptoms of Leukemia” February 2007. UPMC November 2007 http://www.upmc.com/HealthManagement/ManagingYourHealth/HealthRef erence/Diseases/InDepth?chunkiid=1973612 • “What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?” October 2007. American Cancer Society 12 November 2007 < http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_2_1x_what_is_adult_ac ute_leukemia_57.asp > • “Hemophilia” Wikipedia 14 November 2007 <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/hemophilia> BLOOD – O!