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Pulse Generator Basic Information


									         Test & Measurement • Electro-Optics • Timing • Lasers • Micromachining

                                 Basics of Pulse Generators
Pulse generators usually allow control of the pulse repetition rate, pulse width, pulse delay and
pulse amplitude. More-sophisticated pulse generators may allow control over the rise time and
fall time of the pulses. A pulse generator’s delay is measured with respect to an internal or
external trigger. The pulse generator’s rate may be determined by a frequency or period adjust
(rep rate).

Pulse generators may use digital techniques, analog techniques, or a combination of both
techniques to form the output pulses. For example, the pulse repetition rate and duration may be
digitally controlled but the pulse amplitude and rise and fall times may be determined by analog
circuitry in the output stage of the pulse generator. With correct adjustment, pulse generators can
also produce a 50% duty cycle square wave. Pulse generators are generally single-channel
providing one frequency, delay, width and output. To produce multiple pulses, these simple
pulse generators would have to be ganged in series or in parallel.

A new family of pulse generators can produce multiple-channels of independent widths and
delays and independent outputs and polarities. Often called digital delay/pulse generators, the
newest designs even offer differing repetition rates with each channel, differing delays and
differing widths. They can be produce timing signals in modes independent of the other
channels. These digital delay/pulse generators are useful in synchronizing, delaying, gating and
triggering multiple devices usually with respect to one event. One is also able to multiplex the
timing of several channels onto one channel in order to trigger or even gate the same device
multiple times.

These pulses can then be injected into a device under test and used as a stimulus or clock signal
or analyzed as they progress through the device, confirming the proper operation of the device or
pinpointing a fault in the device. Pulse generators are also used to drive devices such as switches,
lasers and optical components, modulators, intensifiers as well as resistive loads. The output of a
pulse generator may also be used as the modulation signal for a signal generator

                  Applications                                         Imaging
- Laser triggering                                 - ICCD
- Pulse Power                                      - LIBS
- High Voltage                                     - PIV
- High Speed Camera                                - High speed imaging
- Radar                                            - Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging
- Lidar                                            - Flash X-ray
- General Triggering
- High Speed Physics
- Optics
- Chemistry
- Biology
                                   Quantum Composers, Inc.
                          212 Discovery Drive Bozeman, MT 59718
               Toll Free: 800-510-6530 406-582-0227 FAX: 406-582-0237
         Test & Measurement • Electro-Optics • Timing • Lasers • Micromachining

Pulse Generator Multiplexing
A common request among Pulse Generator users is the ability to sum outputs on a single channel
to create even more diverse pulse trains. QC model 9520 Series Pulse Generator successfully
achieves this function with the Mux feature described below.

Using the Output Multiplexer

Multiplexing allows for the combination of any or all channel settings to be output to any of the
outputs. Channel multiplexing only combines timing events of the channels and not the actual
output voltages or currents.

Pulse Generator Master/Slave mode

For Using a Common External Clock or operating in Master/Slave mode One may use an
External Clock for every Quantum Composers model 9520 Series digital delay pulse generator
or one 9520 that provides a Master Clock for the remaining units. One selects the Ext Clock
source and what the Clock Out should provide.

If you want to slave several units to one master clock, you have to connect the Clock Out of the
first unit to the Clock In of the second. Then connect the Clock Out of the second to the Clock In
of the third, and so on. First, select the master to be in the SOURCE: System Osc. Select the
master's Ref Out: to be 100 MHz. Select the first slave to have Source: 100MHz Ext. Connect
the Clock Out of the Master to the Clock In of the first slave. Select the first slave's Ref Out to be
100MHz and the second slave's Source: 100MHz Ext. Connect first slave's Clock Out to second
slave's clock in and so on.

Pulse Generator for ICCD Applications

Intensified charge-coupled device ICCDs, intensified charge-coupled device, amplifies and gates
light for fast timer-resolved measurements of transient phenomenon. Typical applications often
involve lasers to ablate, illuminate, and initiate events in fields such as laser-induced
fluorescence, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, fluid dynamics and combustion research.
In some cases, even multiple lasers and multiple ICCDs are used when examining several
windows in a single event. A single Pulse Generator can trigger flash lamps, switch lasers and
delay/gate ICCDs simultaneously. The Pulse Generator provides multiple synchronized pulses
for triggering, delaying and gating devices.


                                   Quantum Composers, Inc.
                          212 Discovery Drive Bozeman, MT 59718
               Toll Free: 800-510-6530 406-582-0227 FAX: 406-582-0237

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